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Sample records for active cancer immunotherapy

  1. Active Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chodon, Thinle; Koya, Richard C; Odunsi, Kunle

    2015-01-01

    Clinical progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy has been slow for many years but within the last 5 years, breakthrough successes have brought immunotherapy to the forefront in cancer therapy. Promising results have been observed in a variety of cancers including solid tumors and hematological malignancies with adoptive cell therapy using natural host tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, host cells that have been genetically engineered with antitumor T-cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors, immune checkpoint inhibitors like anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies and oncolytic virus-based immunotherapy. However, most treatment modalities have shown limited efficacy with single therapy. The complex nature of cancer with intra- and inter-tumor antigen and genomic heterogeneity coupled with the immune suppressive microenvironment emphasizes the prospect of personalized targeted immunotherapy to manipulate the patient's own immune system against cancer. For successful, robust and long-lasting cure of cancer, a multi-modal approach is essential, combining anti-tumor cell therapy with manipulation of multiple pathways in the tumor microenvironment to ameliorate tumor-induced immunosuppression.

  2. Cancer Immunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  3. Cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Manjili, Masoud H.; Payne, Kyle K.

    2012-01-01

    Cancers utilize multiple mechanisms to overcome immune responses. Emerging evidence suggest that immunotherapy of cancer should focus on inducing and re-programming cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems rather than focusing solely on T cells. Recently, we have shown that such a multifaceted approach can improve immunotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:22720242

  4. Cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Philip J

    2009-08-01

    The immune system is generally divided into 2 primary components: the innate immune response, and the highly specific but more slowly developing adaptive or acquired immune response. Immune responses can be further separated by whether they are induced by exposure to a foreign antigen (an "active" response) or whether they are transferred through serum or lymphocytes from an immunized individual (a "passive" response). The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells (ie, specificity), be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells (ie, sensitivity), and lastly be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor (ie, durability). Tumor immunology and immunotherapy is one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields at present.

  5. Cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Philip J

    2010-05-01

    The veterinary oncology profession is uniquely able to contribute to the many advances that are imminent in immunotherapy. However, what works in a mouse will often not reflect the outcome in human patients with cancer. Therefore, comparative immunotherapy studies using veterinary patients may be better able to bridge murine and human studies. Many cancers in dogs and cats seem to be stronger models for their counterpart human tumors than presently available murine model systems. This author looks forward to the time when immunotherapy plays a significant role in the treatment and/or prevention of cancer in human and veterinary patients.

  6. What Is Cancer Immunotherapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Side Effects Treatment Types Immunotherapy What is cancer immunotherapy? Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of ... so that it will destroy them. Types of cancer immunotherapy The main types of immunotherapy now being used ...

  7. Personalized approaches to active immunotherapy in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Eran; Bobisse, Sara; Coukos, George; Harari, Alexandre; Kandalaft, Lana E

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising anti-cancer curative modality. However, in contrast to recent advances obtained employing checkpoint blockade agents and T cell therapies, clinical efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still limited. Most vaccination attempts in the clinic represent "off-the shelf" approaches since they target common "self" tumor antigens, shared among different patients. In contrast, personalized approaches of vaccination are tailor-made for each patient and in spite being laborious, hold great potential. Recent technical advancement enabled the first steps in the clinic of personalized vaccines that target patient-specific mutated neo-antigens. Such vaccines could induce enhanced tumor-specific immune response since neo-antigens are mutation-derived antigens that can be recognized by high affinity T cells, not limited by central tolerance. Alternatively, the use of personalized vaccines based on whole autologous tumor cells, overcome the need for the identification of specific tumor antigens. Whole autologous tumor cells could be administered alone, pulsed on dendritic cells as lysate, DNA, RNA or delivered to dendritic cells in-vivo through encapsulation in nanoparticle vehicles. Such vaccines may provide a source for the full repertoire of the patient-specific tumor antigens, including its private neo-antigens. Furthermore, combining next-generation personalized vaccination with other immunotherapy modalities might be the key for achieving significant therapeutic outcome.

  8. Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy Via Activation of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jacob L; Sondel, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Given recent technological advances and advances in our understanding of cancer, immunotherapy of cancer is being used with clear clinical benefit. The immunosuppression accompanying cancer itself, as well as with current cancer treatment with radiation or chemotherapy, impairs adaptive immune effectors to a greater extent than innate effector cells. In addition to being less suppressed, innate immune cells are capable of being enhanced via immune-stimulatory regimens. Most strategies being investigated to promote innate immune responses against cancer do not require complex, patient-specific, ex vivo cellular or molecular creation of therapeutic agents; thus they can, generally, be used as "off the shelf" therapeutics that could be administered by most cancer clinics. Successful applications of innate immunotherapy in the clinic have effectively targeted components of the innate immune response. Preclinical data demonstrate how initiation of innate immune responses can lead to subsequent adaptive long-term cancer immunity. We hypothesize that integration of innate immune activation strategies into combination therapies for cancer treatment will lead to more effective and long-term clinical benefit.

  9. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  10. Basics of cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yuki; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders including cancer cells. Cancer immunotherapy, which employs our own immune systems to attack cancer cells, is now emerging as a promising modality of cancer treatment based upon the clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell transfer. In hematologic malignancies, clinical application of anti-PD-1 mAb and CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T therapy is now being extensively tested in Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and CD19(+) acute lymphocytic leukemia. In sharp contrast to conventional anti-cancer reagents which directly kill cancer cells, cancer immunotherapy activates various types of immune effector cells to attack cancer cells. However, more than half of the treated patients showed no activation of anti-tumor CD8(+) killer T cells and CD4(+) helper T cells and failed to respond to immune therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade, even when administered in combination regimens. Thus, development of novel immunotherapies to achieve more effective activation of anti-cancer immunity and immuno-monitoring of biomarkers, allowing proper evaluation of immune responses in cancer patients in order to detect responders, are urgent issues. Additionally, we must pay attention to characteristic immunological side effects not observed following treatment with conventional anti-cancer reagents. Herein, we present a summary outline and discuss the future direction of cancer immunotherapy.

  11. "Active" cancer immunotherapy by anti-Met antibody gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Elisa; Pacchiana, Giovanni; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Chiriaco, Cristina; Fontani, Lara; Basilico, Cristina; Pennacchietti, Selma; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2008-11-15

    Gene therapy provides a still poorly explored opportunity to treat cancer by "active" immunotherapy as it enables the transfer of genes encoding antibodies directed against specific oncogenic proteins. By a bidirectional lentiviral vector, we transferred the cDNA encoding the heavy and light chains of a monoclonal anti-Met antibody (DN-30) to epithelial cancer cells. In vitro, the transduced cells synthesized and secreted correctly assembled antibodies with the expected high affinity, inducing down-regulation of the Met receptor and strong inhibition of the invasive growth response. The inhibitory activity resulted (a) from the interference of the antibody with the Met receptor intracellular processing ("cell autonomous activity," in cis) and (b) from the antibody-induced cleavage of Met expressed at the cell surface ("bystander effect," in trans). The monoclonal antibody gene transferred into live animals by systemic administration or by local intratumor delivery resulted in substantial inhibition of tumor growth. These data provide proof of concept both for targeting the Met receptor and for a gene transfer-based immunotherapy strategy.

  12. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Autoimmune Cardiotoxicity of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixiong; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary immunotherapies (e.g., immune checkpoint inhibitors), which enhance the immune response to cancer cells, improve clinical outcomes in several malignancies. A recent study reported the cases of two patients with metastatic melanoma who developed fatal myocarditis during ipilimumab and nivolumab combination immunotherapy; these examples highlight the risk of unbridled activation of the immune system.

  14. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Cancer.gov

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  15. Cancer immunotherapy products

    PubMed Central

    Camarero, Jorge; Ruiz, Sol

    2012-01-01

    Active immunotherapy products (widely known as “cancer vaccines”) are products intended to stimulate an immune response to mediate tumor destruction or reduce the progression of disease in patients where cancer has been diagnosed. Some quality attributes of these products are very difficult to characterize or present a high variability (especially if they are for autologous use), further complicating the interpretation of some of the clinical data. Furthermore, questions arise in the evaluation of efficacy and safety data in comparison with current chemical or biological treatments for the same indications. Some of these aspects are discussed in this paper in relationship with the regulatory requirements in the European Union and as applied to two recently assessed medicinal products, Oncophage and Provenge, both considered therapeutic “cancer vaccines” for renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer, respectively. PMID:22863755

  16. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  17. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joao Paulo Mattos; Figueroa, Elizabeth Raquel; Drezek, Rebekah Anna

    2013-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy, where the goal is to activate or modulate the body’s immune response against cancer. However, current immunotherapy approaches exhibit limitations of safety and efficacy due to systemic delivery. In this context, the use of nanotechnology for the delivery of cancer vaccines and immune adjuvants presents a number of advantages such as targeted delivery to immune cells, enhanced therapeutic effect, and reduced adverse outcomes. Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been explored as immunotherapy carriers, creating new AuNP applications that merit a critical overview. This review highlights recent advances in the development of AuNP mediated immunotherapies that harness AuNP biodistribution, optical properties and their ability to deliver macromolecules such as peptides and oligonucleotides. It has been demonstrated that the use of AuNP carriers can improve the delivery and safety of immunotherapy agents, and that AuNP immunotherapies are well suited for synergistic combination therapy with existing cancer therapies like photothermal ablation. PMID:24103304

  18. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Emily F.; Smyth, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1), anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4) trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients. PMID:27669318

  19. Immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Streilein, J W

    1978-11-01

    It seems nonetheless reasonable to take a skeptical view of immunotherapy for cancer. If the immunologic response can be brought to bear meaningfully and effectively upon the tumorhost relationship so that the host is spared, then let it be proved by appropriate clinical trials. Without unrealistic expectations, it may be easier to tolerance the gradual realization that immunotherapy may be only peripherally important in the control of malignant disease.

  20. [Lymphokine-activated killer cell adoptive immunotherapy for cancer treatment and its significance].

    PubMed

    Toge, T; Yamaguchi, Y

    1992-09-01

    New culture system, CDCS-T1, was developed for clinical conduction of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell adoptive immunotherapy (AIT). Advanced or recurrent cancer patients of digestive tract were treated with AIT with LAK cells generated by CDCS-T1 in combination with plasma exchange. Partial responses were shown in 10 to 20% of patients treated. Long survival was found in some responders, indicating the significance of LAK therapy for cancer treatment. AIT with LAK cell transfer was also conducted in patients with esophageal cancer as postoperative adjuvant therapy. Better restoration of postoperative depression of immunological parameters was found in patients with postoperative LAK cell transfer. It is suggested that postoperative LAK cell transfer is a good candidate for adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

  1. Nanoparticulate immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Chintan H; Perry, Jillian L; Tian, Shaomin; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-12-10

    Although surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have significantly improved as treatments for cancer, they can rarely control metastatic disease and cures remain scarce. Promising recent developments suggest that cancer immunotherapy may become a powerful new therapy that clinicians can offer cancer patients. The opportunity to orchestrate the body's own immune system to target, fight, and eradicate cancer cells without destroying healthy cells makes this an extremely attractive treatment modality. Our increased knowledge in anti-tumor immunity and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) has provided many therapeutic strategies to battle cancer. That combined with advancements in the field of particulate delivery systems provide a mechanism to deliver these immunotherapeutics to their specific targeted cells and the TME. In this review we will focus on the current status of immunotherapy and the potential advantages of utilizing nanocarriers within the field.

  2. Advances in personalized cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Karasaki, Takahiro; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Sugie, Tomoharu

    2017-01-01

    There are currently three major approaches to T cell-based cancer immunotherapy, namely, active vaccination, adoptive cell transfer therapy and immune checkpoint blockade. Recently, this latter approach has demonstrated remarkable clinical benefits, putting cancer immunotherapy under the spotlight. Better understanding of the dynamics of anti-tumor immune responses (the "Cancer-Immunity Cycle") is crucial for the further development of this form of treatment. Tumors employ multiple strategies to escape from anti-tumor immunity, some of which result from the selection of cancer cells with immunosuppressive activity by the process of cancer immunoediting. Apart from this selective process, anti-tumor immune responses can also be inhibited in multiple different ways which vary from patient to patient. This implies that cancer immunotherapy must be personalized to (1) identify the rate-limiting steps in any given patient, (2) identify and combine strategies to overcome these hurdles, and (3) proceed with the next round of the "Cancer-Immunity Cycle". Cancer cells have genetic alterations which can provide the immune system with targets by which to recognize and eradicate the tumor. Mutated proteins expressed exclusively in cancer cells and recognizable by the immune system are known as neoantigens. The development of next-generation sequencing technology has made it possible to determine the genetic landscape of human cancer and facilitated the utilization of genomic information to identify such candidate neoantigens in individual cancers. Future immunotherapies will need to be personalized in terms of the identification of both patient-specific immunosuppressive mechanisms and target neoantigens.

  3. Engineering opportunities in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jeanbart, Laura; Swartz, Melody A

    2015-11-24

    Immunotherapy has great potential to treat cancer and prevent future relapse by activating the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. A variety of strategies are continuing to evolve in the laboratory and in the clinic, including therapeutic noncellular (vector-based or subunit) cancer vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint blockade. Despite their promise, much more research is needed to understand how and why certain cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy and to predict which therapeutic strategies, or combinations thereof, are most appropriate for each patient. Underlying these challenges are technological needs, including methods to rapidly and thoroughly characterize the immune microenvironment of tumors, predictive tools to screen potential therapies in patient-specific ways, and sensitive, information-rich assays that allow patient monitoring of immune responses, tumor regression, and tumor dissemination during and after therapy. The newly emerging field of immunoengineering is addressing some of these challenges, and there is ample opportunity for engineers to contribute their approaches and tools to further facilitate the clinical translation of immunotherapy. Here we highlight recent technological advances in the diagnosis, therapy, and monitoring of cancer in the context of immunotherapy, as well as ongoing challenges.

  4. Engineering opportunities in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jeanbart, Laura; Swartz, Melody A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has great potential to treat cancer and prevent future relapse by activating the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. A variety of strategies are continuing to evolve in the laboratory and in the clinic, including therapeutic noncellular (vector-based or subunit) cancer vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint blockade. Despite their promise, much more research is needed to understand how and why certain cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy and to predict which therapeutic strategies, or combinations thereof, are most appropriate for each patient. Underlying these challenges are technological needs, including methods to rapidly and thoroughly characterize the immune microenvironment of tumors, predictive tools to screen potential therapies in patient-specific ways, and sensitive, information-rich assays that allow patient monitoring of immune responses, tumor regression, and tumor dissemination during and after therapy. The newly emerging field of immunoengineering is addressing some of these challenges, and there is ample opportunity for engineers to contribute their approaches and tools to further facilitate the clinical translation of immunotherapy. Here we highlight recent technological advances in the diagnosis, therapy, and monitoring of cancer in the context of immunotherapy, as well as ongoing challenges. PMID:26598681

  5. Multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Tayebeh; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the last decades significant progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy. However, cancer vaccines have not been successful in clinical trials due to poor immunogenicity of antigen, limitations of safety associated with traditional systemic delivery as well as the complex regulation of the immune system in tumor microenvironment. In recent years, nanotechnology-based delivery systems have attracted great interest in the field of immunotherapy since they provide new opportunities to fight the cancer. In particular, for delivery of cancer vaccines, multifunctional nanoparticles present many advantages such as targeted delivery to immune cells, co-delivery of therapeutic agents, reduced adverse outcomes, blocked immune checkpoint molecules, and amplify immune activation via the use of stimuli-responsive or immunostimulatory materials. In this review article, we highlight recent progress and future promise of multifunctional nanoparticles that have been applied to enhance the efficiency of cancer vaccines. PMID:26901287

  6. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge): active cellular immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McKarney, I

    2007-09-01

    (1) Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is an active cellular immunotherapy (therapeutic vaccine) that is designed to stimulate the patient's T-cells to recognize and attack prostate cancer cells that express prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antigen. (2) Sipuleucel-T demonstrated a survival benefit in men with advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), although this preliminary finding requires confirmation in larger trials. (3) Mild to moderate myalgia, chills, fever, and tremor are the most commonly reported adverse events for patients receiving sipuleucel-T. These events generally resolve quickly. (4) More studies are needed to evaluate sipuleucel-T in the earlier stages of prostate cancer and in combination with conventional therapies.

  7. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  8. Immunization of stromal cell targeting fibroblast activation protein providing immunotherapy to breast cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mingyao; Wang, Wenju; Yan, Jun; Tan, Jing; Liao, Liwei; Shi, Jianlin; Wei, Chuanyu; Xie, Yanhua; Jin, Xingfang; Yang, Li; Jin, Qing; Zhu, Huirong; Tan, Weiwei; Yang, Fang; Hou, Zongliu

    2016-08-01

    Unlike heterogeneous tumor cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are genetically more stable which serve as a reliable target for tumor immunotherapy. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) which is restrictively expressed in tumor cells and CAF in vivo and plays a prominent role in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis can function as a tumor rejection antigen. In the current study, we have constructed artificial FAP(+) stromal cells which mimicked the FAP(+) CAF in vivo. We immunized a breast cancer mouse model with FAP(+) stromal cells to perform immunotherapy against FAP(+) cells in the tumor microenvironment. By forced expression of FAP, we have obtained FAP(+) stromal cells whose phenotype was CD11b(+)/CD34(+)/Sca-1(+)/FSP-1(+)/MHC class I(+). Interestingly, proliferation capacity of the fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by FAP. In the breast cancer-bearing mouse model, vaccination with FAP(+) stromal cells has significantly inhibited the growth of allograft tumor and reduced lung metastasis indeed. Depletion of T cell assays has suggested that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were involved in the tumor cytotoxic immune response. Furthermore, tumor tissue from FAP-immunized mice revealed that targeting FAP(+) CAF has induced apoptosis and decreased collagen type I and CD31 expression in the tumor microenvironment. These results implicated that immunization with FAP(+) stromal cells led to the disruption of the tumor microenvironment. Our study may provide a novel strategy for immunotherapy of a broad range of cancer.

  9. Immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Leong, S P

    1993-10-01

    The study of the immune system on the cellular and molecular level has made significant strides over the past several decades. The role of immune system against infection is self-evident. Although the role of the immune system in the immune surveillance of cancer has not been proven, the immune system is believed to play an interactive role in the regulation of tumor growth. Immunotherapy is the application of the immune system to fight against the tumor. Although immunotherapeutic approaches have been tried in many types of cancer, both malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma seem to show occasional, but definitive response to immunotherapy. The fact that immune eradication of tumor is most efficient when the tumor burden is minimal speaks for the fact that immunotherapy may be most effective for control of microscopic disease. Therefore, to maximize the effect of immunotherapy, the tumor burden needs to be reduced, hopefully to microscopic level either by surgery or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Also, new strategies are needed to develop more potent vaccines and stimulate effector cells to eradicate tumor cells under the most optimal conditions.

  10. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    2 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0366 TITLE: Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...31Aug2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM... immunotherapy , tumor microenvironment, dendritic cells, metastasis, cancer stroma. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  11. From "magic bullets" to specific cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Riether, Carsten; Schürch, Christian; Ochsenbein, Adrian F

    2013-01-23

    The immune system is able to specifically target antigen-expressing cancer cells. The promise of immunotherapy was to eliminate cancer cells without harming normal tissue and, therefore, with no or very few side effects. Immunotherapy approaches have, for several decades, been tested against several tumours, most often against malignant melanoma. However, although detectable immune responses have regularly been induced, the clinical outcome has often been disappointing. The development of molecular methods and an improved understanding of tumour immunosurveillance led to novel immunotherapy approaches in the last few years. First randomised phase III trials proved that immunotherapy can prolong survival of patients with metastatic melanoma or prostate cancer. The development in the field is very rapid and various molecules (mainly monoclonal antibodies) that activate the immune system are currently being tested in clinical trials and will possibly change our treatment of cancer. The ultimate goal of any cancer therapy and also immunotherapy is to cure cancer. However, this depends on the elimination of the disease originating cancer stem cells. Unfortunately, cancer stem cells seem resistant to most available treatment options. Recent developments in immunotherapy may allow targeting these cancer stem cells specifically in the future. In this review, we summarise the current state of immunotherapy in clinical routine and the expected developments in the near future.

  12. Immunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... boost your immune system to work better against cancer. Immunotherapy Can Cause Side Effects Immunotherapy can cause side ... work. Related Resources Targeted Therapy Biological Therapies for Cancer Immunotherapy: Using the Immune System to Treat Cancer Posted: ...

  13. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  14. Immunotherapy of cancer in 2012.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, John M; Butterfield, Lisa H; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Zarour, Hassane; Kalinski, Pawel; Ferrone, Soldano

    2012-01-01

    The immunotherapy of cancer has made significant strides in the past few years due to improved understanding of the underlying principles of tumor biology and immunology. These principles have been critical in the development of immunotherapy in the laboratory and in the implementation of immunotherapy in the clinic. This improved understanding of immunotherapy, enhanced by increased insights into the mechanism of tumor immune response and its evasion by tumors, now permits manipulation of this interaction and elucidates the therapeutic role of immunity in cancer. Also important, this improved understanding of immunotherapy and the mechanisms underlying immunity in cancer has fueled an expanding array of new therapeutic agents for a variety of cancers. Pegylated interferon-α2b as an adjuvant therapy and ipilimumab as therapy for advanced disease, both of which were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for melanoma in March 2011, are 2 prime examples of how an increased understanding of the principles of tumor biology and immunology have been translated successfully from the laboratory to the clinical setting. Principles that guide the development and application of immunotherapy include antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and cellular therapies. The identification and further elucidation of the role of immunotherapy in different tumor types, and the development of strategies for combining immunotherapy with cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents for future multimodal therapy for cancer will enable even greater progress and ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Immunotherapy of Cancer in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, John M.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Zarour, Hassane; Kalinski, Pawel; Ferrone, Soldano

    2012-01-01

    The immunotherapy of cancer has made significant strides in the past few years due to improved understanding of the underlying principles of tumor biology and immunology. These principles have been critical in the development of immunotherapy in the laboratory and in the implementation of immunotherapy in the clinic. This improved understanding of immunotherapy, enhanced by increased insights into the mechanism of tumor immune response and its evasion by tumors, now permits manipulation of this interaction and elucidates the therapeutic role of immunity in cancer. Also important, this improved understanding of immunotherapy and the mechanisms underlying immunity in cancer has fueled an expanding array of new therapeutic agents for a variety of cancers. Pegylated interferon-α2b as an adjuvant therapy and ipilimumab as therapy for advanced disease, both of which were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for melanoma in March 2011, are 2 prime examples of how an increased understanding of the principles of tumor biology and immunology have been translated successfully from the laboratory to the clinical setting. Principles that guide the development and application of immunotherapy include antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and cellular therapies. The identification and further elucidation of the role of immunotherapy in different tumor types, and the development of strategies for combining immunotherapy with cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents for future multimodal therapy for cancer will enable even greater progress and ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22576456

  16. New checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ling; Dong, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Immune responses must be fine-tuned to allow effective clearance of invading pathogens, while maintain tolerance to self-antigens. T cells are the major effector cells for fighting and killing tumor cells. Immune checkpoints play a pivotal role in T cell activation, and determine the functional outcome of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The blockade of immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1 has already been one of the most successful cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we will focus on three novel inhibitory B7 family checkpoint molecules, B7-H3, B7S1 and VISTA. The aim of this article is to summarize their expressions in tumors as well as their roles in controlling and suppressing T cell immune responses and anti-tumor immunity. These pathways may be explored in future cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Neoantigen-based cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bobisse, Sara; Coukos, George; Harari, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Emerging clinical evidence on the role of the antitumor activity of the immune system has generated great interest in immunotherapy in all cancer types. Recent clinical data clearly demonstrated that human tumor cells express antigenic peptides (epitopes) that can be recognized by autologous tumor-specific T cells and that enhancement of such immune reactivity can potentially lead to cancer control and cancer regression in patients with advanced disease. However, in most cases, it is unclear which tumor antigens (Ags) mediated cancer regression. Mounting evidence indicates that numerous endogenous mutated cancer proteins, a hallmark of tumor cells, can be processed into peptides and presented on the surface of tumor cells, leading to their immune recognition in vivo as “non-self” or foreign. Massively parallel sequencing has now overcome the challenge of rapidly identifying the comprehensive mutational spectrum of individual tumors (i.e., the “mutanome”) and current technologies, as well as computational tools, have emerged that allow the identification of private epitopes derived from their mutanome and called neoantigens (neoAgs). On this basis, both CD4+ and CD8+ neoantigen-specific T cells have been identified in multiple human cancers and shown to be associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Notably, emerging data also indicate that neoantigen recognition represents a major factor in the activity of clinical immunotherapies. In the post-genome era, the mutanome holds promise as a long-awaited ‘gold mine’ for the discovery of unique cancer cell targets, which are exclusively tumor-specific and unlikely to drive immune tolerance, hence offering the chance for highly promising clinical programs of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27563649

  18. Genetic immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Elmslie, R E; Dow, S W

    1997-08-01

    The application of gene therapy to the treatment of human and veterinary diseases offers an innovative addition to the clinician's treatment options. Gene therapy can potentially be used to (1) replace defective or missing genes, (2) treat cancer, and (3) deliver drugs. The focus of this paper is the use of gene therapy in the treatment of cancer. To be effective, genes must be delivered to target cells which can then serve as the factory to produce the gene product. Delivery systems include retroviral vectors, adenoviral vectors, and direct introduction of plasmid DNA into cells. In the case of cancer immunotherapy, introduced genes produce products that enhance tumor immunosurveillance and tumor cell killing by immune mechanisms.

  19. [Active immunotherapy of prostate cancer with a focus on dendritic cells].

    PubMed

    Thomas-Kaskel, A K; Veelken, H

    2007-06-01

    Recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer is generally considered an incurable disease. Given the transient benefit from hormone deprivation therapy and limited successes of systemic chemotherapy, alternative treatment modalities are needed both in the situation of PSA recurrence and in hormone-refractory disease. Prostate cancer cells express several tumor associated antigens which are currently being evaluated as targets for active and specific immunotherapy approaches. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most powerful antigen-presenting cells (APC), able to prime naive T cells and to break peripheral tolerance and thus induce tumor immune responses. Close to 1000 prostate cancer patients have been treated with DC-based or other forms of active immunotherapy to date. Vaccination-induced immune responses have been reported in two thirds of DC trials, and favorable changes in the clinical course of the disease in almost half of the patients treated. Most responses, however, were modest and transient. Therefore, mechanisms of treatment failure and possibilities to improve vaccination efficacy are being discussed.

  20. MAGE-A Antigens and Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Paul; Schultz-Thater, Elke; Tornillo, Luigi; Sadowski, Charlotte; Trella, Emanuele; Mengus, Chantal; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Spagnoli, Giulio C.

    2017-01-01

    MAGE-A antigens are expressed in a variety of cancers of diverse histological origin and germinal cells. Due to their relatively high tumor specificity, they represent attractive targets for active specific and adoptive cancer immunotherapies. Here, we (i) review past and ongoing clinical studies targeting these antigens, (ii) analyze advantages and disadvantages of different therapeutic approaches, and (iii) discuss possible improvements in MAGE-A-specific immunotherapies. PMID:28337438

  1. Mutanome directed cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vormehr, Mathias; Diken, Mustafa; Boegel, Sebastian; Kreiter, Sebastian; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-04-01

    Somatic mutations are important drivers of cancer development. Accumulating evidence suggests that a significant subset of mutations result in neo-epitopes recognized by autologous T cells and thus may constitute the Achilles' heel of tumor cells. T cells directed against mutations have been shown to have a key role in clinical efficacy of potent cancer immunotherapy modalities, such as adoptive transfer of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Whereas these findings strengthen the idea of a prominent role of neo-epitopes in tumor rejection, the systematic therapeutic exploitation of mutations was hampered until recently by the uniqueness of the repertoire of mutations ('the mutanome') in every patient's tumor. This review highlights insights into immune recognition of neo-epitopes and novel concepts for comprehensive identification and immunotherapeutic exploitation of individual mutations.

  2. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Lingling; Herbst, Roy S; Morgensztern, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of patients with good performance status and advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer has been based on the use of first-line platinum-based doublet and second-line docetaxel. Immunotherapy represents a new therapeutic approach with the potential for prolonged benefit. Although the vaccines studied have not shown benefit in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors against the PD-1/PD-L1 axis showed increased overall survival compared with docetaxel in randomized clinical trials, which led to the approval of nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Because only a minority of patients benefit from this class of drugs, there has been an intense search for biomarkers.

  3. [Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities.

  4. Active immunotherapy for cancer patients using tumor lysate pulsed dendritic cell vaccine: a safety study.

    PubMed

    Ovali, E; Dikmen, T; Sonmez, M; Yilmaz, M; Unal, A; Dalbasti, T; Kuzeyli, K; Erturk, M; Omay, S B

    2007-06-01

    Cancer vaccine therapy represents a promising therapeutical option. Consistently, with these new treatment strategies, the use of dendritic cell vaccines is becoming increasingly widespread and currently in the forefront for cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in patients with advanced cancers. For this purpose, eighteen patients with relapsed or refractory cancer were vaccinated with peripheral monocyte-derived DCs generated with GM-CSF and IL-4, and pulsed consequently with 100 microg/ml of tumor lysate before maturation in culture in the presence of IL-1beta, PGE2 and TNF alpha for two days. The first two vaccinations were given intradermally every two weeks while further injections were given monthly. Tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell injections were well-tolerated in all patients with no more than grade 1 injection-related toxicity. Local inflammatory response was mainly erythematous which subsided in 48 hrs time. No end organ toxicity or autoimmune toxicity was identified. Clinical responses observed in our study were satisfactory for a phase I clinical study. We observed 4 (22%) objective clinical responses. These responses are significantly correlated with delayed type hypersensitivity testing (DTH) (p < 0.01). The results showed that this active immunotherapy is feasible, safe, and may be capable of eliciting immune responses against cancer.

  5. Awareness and understanding of cancer immunotherapy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mellstedt, Håkan; Gaudernack, Gustav; Gerritsen, Winald R; Huber, Christoph; Melero, Ignacio; Parmiani, Giorgio; Scholl, Suzy; Thatcher, Nicholas; Wagstaff, John; Zielinski, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The use of immunotherapy in the management of cancer is growing, and a range of new immunotherapeutic strategies is becoming available. It is important that people involved in the care of cancer understand how cancer immunotherapies differ from conventional chemotherapy and apply this knowledge to their clinical practice. Therefore, from August-September 2011 we undertook a survey of awareness, attitudes, and perceptions of cancer immunotherapy among 426 healthcare professionals (HCPs) in Europe with the aim of identifying and prioritizing educational needs. Nearly all (98%) HCPs were aware of cancer immunotherapy. While 68% of HCPs indicated a high level of interest in cancer immunotherapies, only 24% of the HCPs had direct experience with them. Overall perceptions of cancer immunotherapy among HCPs were largely positive (60%) and rarely negative (3%). The key advantages of cancer immunotherapy were perceived to be good safety and tolerability (75%), a targeted mechanism of action (61%) and good efficacy (48%). The leading barriers to use of immunotherapies were costs of treatment (58%), past clinical trial failures (45%), and access/formulary restrictions (44%). The results indicate that, among the respondents, awareness of cancer immunotherapy was high but that knowledge levels varied and direct experience with their use was limited. There appears to be a need for educational activities on cancer immunotherapy, as well as generation and communication of clinical data on long-term efficacy and safety.

  6. Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Immunotherapy Treatment Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World Jun 16, 2014 This story is part of ... Research We Conduct Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make it a reality. ...

  7. Cancer immunotherapy using tumor cryoablation.

    PubMed

    Sidana, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    Cryoablation is increasingly being used as a primary treatment for localized cancers and as a salvage therapy for metastatic cancers. Anecdotal clinical reports and animal experiments have confirmed an induction of systemic antitumor immune response by tumor cryoablation. To capitalize on the stimulatory effects of cryoablation for cancer immunotherapy, this response must be intensified using other immunomodulatory agents. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical evidence and discusses the mechanism of the antitumor immune response generated by cryoablation. The rationale and evidence behind several immunotherapy approaches that can be combined with cryoablation to devise a cryoimmunotherapeutic strategy with a potential to impact the progression of metastatic disease are described.

  8. Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0223 TITLE: Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy ...studies (2). A promising approach in cancer treatment is adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells to redirect...multiple tissues. DISCUSSION Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer , and observations from preclinical and

  9. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-01-01

    Founded on the growing insight into the complex cancer-immune system interactions, adjuvant immunotherapies are rapidly emerging and being adapted for the treatment of various human malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, for example, have already shown clinical success. Nevertheless, many approaches are not optimized, require frequent administration, are associated with systemic toxicities and only show modest efficacy as monotherapies. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the efficacy of such immunotherapies by improving the delivery, retention and release of immunostimulatory agents and biologicals in targeted cell populations and tissues. This review presents the current status and emerging trends in such nanotechnology-based cancer immunotherapies including the role of nanoparticles as carriers of immunomodulators, nanoparticles-based cancer vaccines, and depots for sustained immunostimulation. Also highlighted are key translational challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing field. PMID:27190253

  10. Improving cancer immunotherapy with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammad H; Wang, Lei; Goldberg, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Immunotherapy confers durable clinical benefit to melanoma, lung, and kidney cancer patients. Challengingly, most other solid tumors, including ovarian carcinoma, are not particularly responsive to immunotherapy, so combination with a complementary therapy may be beneficial. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic modifying drugs can prime antitumor immunity by increasing expression of tumor-associated antigens, chemokines, and activating ligands by cancer cells as well as cytokines by immune cells. This review, drawing from both preclinical and clinical data, describes some of the mechanisms of action that enable DNA methyltransferase inhibitors to facilitate the establishment of antitumor immunity.

  11. Future perspectives in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mountzios, Giannis; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The advent of immunotherapy has transformed the treatment paradigm of several solid tumors and is expected to influence the therapeutic algorithm even more in the future following the results of numerous ongoing clinical trials in a wide range of malignancies. Exploiting the anti-cancer effect of the immune system with the use of vaccines, viral vectors, and more lately with immune check-point inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor modification, has been proven a successful therapeutic strategy in a broad spectrum of tumors. In particular, immune check-point inhibition in melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer and renal cancer, peptide vaccination in prostate cancer and glioblastoma, and oncolytic immunotherapy in melanoma are well-established therapeutic modalities that have obtained approval by regulatory authorities and are already in clinical use. A large number of ongoing clinical trials involving thousands of patients are currently seeking to define the appropriate tumor type, therapeutic setting, treatment combination and patient populations in order to maximize clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic agents. In this context, identification of the patients whose tumors are most likely to respond to immunotherapy by the use of appropriate biomarkers will be crucial for the optimal implementation of immunotherapy into the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:27563660

  12. The New Era of Cancer Immunotherapy: Manipulating T-Cell Activity to Overcome Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Danny N; Budhu, Sadna; Gasmi, Billel; Zappasodi, Roberta; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Plitt, Tamar; De Henau, Olivier; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Holmgaard, Rikke B; Murphy, Judith T; Wolchok, Jedd D; Merghoub, Taha

    2015-01-01

    Using the immune system to control cancer has been investigated for over a century. Yet it is only over the last several years that therapeutic agents acting directly on the immune system have demonstrated improved overall survival for cancer patients in phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, it appears that some patients treated with such agents have been cured of metastatic cancer. This has led to increased interest and acceleration in the rate of progress in cancer immunotherapy. Most of the current immunotherapeutic success in cancer treatment is based on the use of immune-modulating antibodies targeting critical checkpoints (CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1). Several other immune-modulating molecules targeting inhibitory or stimulatory pathways are being developed. The combined use of these medicines is the subject of intense investigation and holds important promise. Combination regimens include those that incorporate targeted therapies that act on growth signaling pathways, as well as standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In fact, these standard therapies have intrinsic immune-modulating properties that can support antitumor immunity. In the years ahead, adoptive T-cell therapy will also be an important part of treatment for some cancer patients. Other areas which are regaining interest are the use of oncolytic viruses that immunize patients against their own tumors and the use of vaccines against tumor antigens. Immunotherapy has demonstrated unprecedented durability in controlling multiple types of cancer and we expect its use to continue expanding rapidly.

  13. Combining Cancer Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Antoni; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to pharmacologically modulate key signaling pathways that drive tumor growth and progression, but do not negatively impact the function of lymphocytes, provides avenues for rational combinatorial approaches to improve the antitumor activity of tumor immunotherapies. Novel targeted agents can very specifically block oncogenic events in cancer cells, leading to a pro-apoptotic milieu and a potential increase in sensitivity to recognition and attack by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Furthermore, targeted pathway modulation in lymphocytes may change their function and have activating effects in some instances. When tested together with recently developed powerful tumor immunotherapies, such combinations may exploit the highly specific targeting of oncogenes with small molecule inhibitors to lead to high frequency of tumor regressions, and merge this benefit with the durable responses achievable with effective tumor immunotherapies. PMID:23561594

  14. Immunotherapy for lung cancer: advances and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. To date, surgery is the first choice treatment, but most clinically diagnosed cases are inoperable. While chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are the next considered options for such cases, these treatment modalities have adverse effects and are sometimes lethal to patients. Thus, new effective strategies with minimal side effects are urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy provides either active or passive immunity to target tumors. Multiple immunotherapy agents have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against lung cancer, and some pose fewer side effects as compared to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article, we discuss studies focusing on interactions between lung cancer and the immune system, and we place an emphasis on outcome evidence in order to create a knowledge base well-grounded in clinical reality. Overall, this review highlights the need for new lung cancer treatment options, with much ground to be paved for future advances in the field. We believe that immunotherapy agents alone or with other forms of treatment can be recognized as next modality of lung cancer treatment. PMID:27168951

  15. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  16. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  17. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  18. Genetic immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ribas, A; Butterfield, L H; Economou, J S

    2000-01-01

    Genetic immunization refers to treatment strategies where gene transfer methods are used to generate immune responses against cancer. Our growing knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the initiation and maintenance of cytotoxic immune responses has provided the rationale for the design of several genetic immunization strategies. Tumor cells have been gene-modified to express immune stimulatory genes and are then administered as tumor vaccines, in an attempt to overcome tumor cell ignorance by the immune system. With the description of well-characterized tumor antigens, multiple strategies have been proposed mainly aimed at optimal tumor antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Among APC, the dendritic cells have been recognized as the most powerful cells in this class, and have become the target for introducing tumor antigen genes to initiate antitumor immune responses. The detailed knowledge of how the immune system can be activated to specifically recognize tumor antigens, and the mechanisms involved in the control of this immune response, provide the basis for modern genetic immunization strategies for cancer treatment.

  19. [Development of specific immunotherapy for cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, S; Araki, K; Hamasato, S; Maeda, N; Noguchi, Y

    1992-09-01

    We developed CTL therapy against cancer as an cancer specific immunotherapy. The primary CTL therapy showed certain efficacy on advanced cancer patients. However, when ratio of monocyte population in peripheral blood lymphoid cells (PBL) of advanced cancer patients increases more than that of CD8+ T cell population, so that CD8+ T cell/M3 ratio is less than 1, CTL directed to cancer cannot be induced in PBL and the primary CTL therapy is not materialized for these patients. Monocyte-macrophages in these patients release a suppressive factor(s) capable of inhibiting CTL induction and proliferation at induction phase but not inhibiting cytotoxic activity in target cell lysis at effector phase. Furthermore, these monocytes expressed strong message of TGF beta. If most of increased monocytes of PBL from advanced cancer patients are removed by a nylon wool column method from the PBL, CTL directed to cancer cells can be induced even in PBL of advanced cancer patients with high frequency, this improved CTL therapy against cancer showed remarkable efficacy as the cancer specific immunotherapy in various advanced cancer patients without any side effects.

  20. Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sukari, Ammar; Nagasaka, Misako; Al-Hadidi, Ameer; Lum, Lawrence G

    2016-11-01

    Hanahan and Weinberg described six distinct biological properties of cancer cells that enable tumor growth and metastasis. These properties were referred to as the traditional hallmarks of cancer. Recent discoveries further elucidated hallmarks including evasion of immune destruction by tumor cells that disrupt anticancer response pathways. This review discusses cancer immunology and new treatment strategies aimed at restoration of antitumor immune responses.

  1. Innovation in Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Grossman, H Barton; Lamm, Donald L; Kamat, Ashish M; Keefe, Stephen; Taylor, John A; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder cancer is understudied despite its high prevalence and its remarkable response to immunotherapy. Indeed, funding for studies to explore mechanisms of tumor immunity and novel new therapeutics is disproportionately lower for bladder cancer in comparison with malignancies of the breast, prostate, or lung. However, the recent successes of checkpoint blockade therapy suggest that new therapeutic strategies are on the horizon for bladder cancer. Here, we give a perspective into the evolution of bladder cancer therapy, focusing on strategies to treat high-risk nonmuscle invasive disease, followed by a discussion of recent advances in the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer and their potential applicability to lower stage disease. Finally, we explore immunotherapeutic strategies, which have been demonstrated to be successful in the treatment of other malignancies, for their potential to treat and cure patients with nonmuscle and muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  2. New Immunotherapy Strategies in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin-Yu; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Cong-Min; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Yan, Han; Li, Mu-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Therapeutic treatments for breast cancer generally include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrinotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. With the development of molecular biology, immunology and pharmacogenomics, immunotherapy becomes a promising new field in breast cancer therapies. In this review, we discussed recent progress in breast cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, bispecific antibodies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Several additional immunotherapy modalities in early stages of development are also highlighted. It is believed that these new immunotherapeutic strategies will ultimately change the current status of breast cancer therapies. PMID:28085094

  3. New Immunotherapy Strategies in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Yu; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Cong-Min; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Yan, Han; Li, Mu-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-12

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Therapeutic treatments for breast cancer generally include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrinotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. With the development of molecular biology, immunology and pharmacogenomics, immunotherapy becomes a promising new field in breast cancer therapies. In this review, we discussed recent progress in breast cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, bispecific antibodies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Several additional immunotherapy modalities in early stages of development are also highlighted. It is believed that these new immunotherapeutic strategies will ultimately change the current status of breast cancer therapies.

  4. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  5. Specific immunotherapy in ovarian cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Soroush; Zoghi, Samaneh; Khalili, Nastaran; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Emens, Leisha A; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Several approaches of active and passive immunotherapy for EOC have been studied. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy in patients with EOC. We found 4524 references in seven databases and we included ten controlled clinical trials with 2285 patients with EOC reporting five active immunotherapeutic agents and three passive immunotherapies. Meta-analysis of six studies showed that overall there was not any significant difference in overall survival and recurrence-free survival between patients undergoing specific immunotherapy and those in control group. Most of the studies we evaluated reported a positive outcome from treatment with specific immunotherapy, although this was not significant.

  6. Immunotherapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune-system . Accessed August 5, 2016. Pardoll D. Cancer Immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 6. Review Date 9/13/2015 Updated by: Todd Gersten, ...

  7. Novel approaches in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Deepa S; Liu, Stephen V; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of tumor immunology has exploded in the past 3 decades. The complex relationships between tumor cells, the tumor microenvironment and the immune system cells, especially the cytotoxic and helper T cells and the regulatory T cells are beginning to be elucidated. In this review, we will attempt to provide a brief primer of tumor immunology. Cytokine therapy has historically been the mainstay of immunotherapy in cancers such as melanoma and kidney cancer. We will review some of the advances made with cancer vaccines, with a focus on peptide vaccines, tumor cell vaccines and immune cell vaccines. The pros and cons of nucleic acid-based vaccines including DNA and RNA vaccines will be discussed. Adoptive cell therapy has made significant progress utilizing chimeric antigen-receptor transduced T cells, especially in hematologic malignancies. We will also consider the key targets in checkpoint inhibition, and summarize some of the preclinical and clinical data with respect to checkpoint inhibition. Progress made in the novel immunotherapeutic approach of oncolytic viral therapy will be analyzed. PDL-1 expression by tumor cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes has been looked at as a biomarker in clinical trials. Limitations to such an approach and potential candidates for future predictive biomarkers of response to immunotherapy and biomarkers of autoimmunity and adverse reactions will be considered.

  8. A Breakthrough: Macrophage-Directed Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charles D; Lenz, Laurel L; Harris, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Successful immunotherapy of cancer is becoming a reality aided by the realization that macrophages play an important role in the growth or regression of tumors. Specifically, M2/repair-type macrophages predominate in human cancers and produce growth-promoting molecules that actively stimulate tumor growth in much the same way they help wounds heal. However, modulating M2/repair-type macrophages to M1/kill-type can slow or stop cancer growth. The effects involve direct activity of M1 kill-type as well as the ability of M1-type macrophages to stimulate Th1-type cytotoxic T cells and other effector cells. Macrophage responses can also predict cancer susceptibility; individuals with a high M1/kill to M2/repair ratio are less prone. That macrophages/innate immunity can be modulated to play a central role in directly or indirectly combating cancer is a breakthrough that seems likely to finally make successful immunotherapy of cancer a reality.

  9. Recent advances in the field of anti-cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Henrique; Kwok, Hang Fai

    2015-01-01

    Background The main goal of anti-cancer therapy is to specifically inhibit the malignant activity of cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unaffected. As such, for every proposed therapy, it is important to keep in mind the therapeutic index — the ratio of the toxic dose over the therapeutic dose. The use of immunotherapy has allowed a means to both specifically block protein–protein interaction and deliver cytotoxic events to a tumor-specific antigen. Review scope It is the objective of this review to give an overview on current immunotherapy treatment for cancers using monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate three exciting targets for immunotherapy, TNF-α Converting Enzyme (TACE), Cathepsin S and Urokinase Plasmogen Activator and go over the advances made with one of the most used monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy, Rituximab; as well as Herceptin, which is used for breast cancer therapy. Furthermore, we touch on other venues of immunotherapy, such as adaptive cell transfer, the use of nucleic acids and the use of dendritic cells. Finally, we summarize some ongoing studies that spell tentative advancements for anti-cancer immunotherapy. General significance Immunotherapy is at the forefront of anti-cancer therapies, allying both a high degree of specificity to general high effectiveness and fewer side-effects. PMID:26673349

  10. Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer?

    PubMed

    Farkona, Sofia; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Blasutig, Ivan M

    2016-05-05

    These are exciting times for cancer immunotherapy. After many years of disappointing results, the tide has finally changed and immunotherapy has become a clinically validated treatment for many cancers. Immunotherapeutic strategies include cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T and natural killer cells, and administration of antibodies or recombinant proteins that either costimulate cells or block the so-called immune checkpoint pathways. The recent success of several immunotherapeutic regimes, such as monoclonal antibody blocking of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), has boosted the development of this treatment modality, with the consequence that new therapeutic targets and schemes which combine various immunological agents are now being described at a breathtaking pace. In this review, we outline some of the main strategies in cancer immunotherapy (cancer vaccines, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, immune checkpoint blockade, and oncolytic viruses) and discuss the progress in the synergistic design of immune-targeting combination therapies.

  11. Targetless T cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thor Straten, Per; Garrido, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Attention has recently focused on new cancer immunotherapy protocols aiming to activate T cell mediated anti-tumor responses. To this end, administration of antibodies that target inhibitory molecules regulating T-cell cytotoxicity has achieved impressive clinical responses, as has adoptive cell transfer (ACT) using expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or genetically modified cytotoxic T cells. However, despite clear clinical responses, only a fraction of patients respond to treatment and there is an urgent call for characterization of predictive biomarkers. CD8 positive T cells can infiltrate tumor tissues and destroy HLA class I positive tumor cells expressing the specific antigen. In fact, current progress in the field of cancer immune therapy is based on the capacity of T cells to kill cancer cells that present tumor antigen in the context on an HLA class I molecule. However, it is also well established that cancer cells are often characterized by loss or down regulation of HLA class I molecules, documented in a variety of human tumors. Consequently, immune therapy building on CD8 T cells will be futile in patients harboring HLA class-I negative or deficient cancer cells. It is therefore mandatory to explore if these important molecules for T cell cytotoxicity are expressed by cancer target cells. We have indications that different types of immunotherapy can modify the tumor microenvironment and up-regulate reduced HLA class I expression in cancer cells but only if the associated molecular mechanisms is reversible (soft). However, in case of structural (hard) aberrations causing HLA class I loss, tumor cells will not be able to recover HLA class I expression and as a consequence will escape T-cell lysis and continue to growth. Characterization of the molecular mechanism underlying the lack or downregulation of HLA class I expression, seems to be a crucial step predicting clinical responses to T cell mediated immunotherapy, and possibly aid the

  12. Immunotherapy and mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Santos, M A; Pedro, E; Santos, S; Lopes-Pregal, A

    1998-10-01

    Tryptase is the more specific markers for mast cell activation and mediators release and can be used as an index of mast cell activation after challenge. Nasal provocation tests have been done in patients allergic to the pollen of Parietaria (pellitory wall) before and after specific systemic immunotherapy and tryptase release evaluated in nasal lavage fluid. After specific immunotherapy the concentration of tryptase in nasal lavage was significantly decreased to all the concentrations used in challenge and the peack of tryptase release was delayed. These results confirm that assays of tryptase in nasal fluid after nasal provocation are a reliable markers of mast cell activation. Immunotherapy with specific allergen decreases mast cell reactivity to the same allergen.

  13. Immunotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer-a review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Chia, Whay Kuang; Toh, Han Chong

    2016-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and characterized by peritumoral immune infiltrate. Advanced NPC has high lethality. Immunotherapy directed against EBV antigen targets has been previously explored in clinical trials, and is likely to be validated as an important target in NPC as randomized data emerges in the future. Cancer vaccines and adoptive T cell therapy have been explored in the clinic, with the latter showing the greatest success. Recent advances in gene sequencing technology now allow personalized tumor epitope mapping, whilst the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis offers the opportunity to activate adaptive T cell response in vivo. Anti-PD1 antibodies have shown promising activity in early phase clinical trials, and randomized studies against chemotherapy are underway. As immunotherapy is incorporated into standard treatment paradigms, issues of optimal combinations with targeting agents, immune adjuvants, and sequence with chemotherapy and radiation therapy will need to be addressed. Effective strategies to increase tumor antigenicity, improve immunological memory and reduce immune escape, will need to be developed to improve treatment outcomes. Here we present a brief history of the evolution of immunotherapy in NPC, and highlight key concepts relevant to its further development in the clinic.

  14. Optimizing Dendritic Cell-Based Approaches for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Jashodeep; Terhune, Julia H.; Lowenfeld, Lea; Cintolo, Jessica A.; Xu, Shuwen; Roses, Robert E.; Czerniecki, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells uniquely suited for cancer immunotherapy. They induce primary immune responses, potentiate the effector functions of previously primed T-lymphocytes, and orchestrate communication between innate and adaptive immunity. The remarkable diversity of cytokine activation regimens, DC maturation states, and antigen-loading strategies employed in current DC-based vaccine design reflect an evolving, but incomplete, understanding of optimal DC immunobiology. In the clinical realm, existing DC-based cancer immunotherapy efforts have yielded encouraging but inconsistent results. Despite recent U.S. Federal and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of DC-based sipuleucel-T for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, clinically effective DC immunotherapy as monotherapy for a majority of tumors remains a distant goal. Recent work has identified strategies that may allow for more potent “next-generation” DC vaccines. Additionally, multimodality approaches incorporating DC-based immunotherapy may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25506283

  15. Cancer Immunotherapy: A Treatment for the Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattman, Joseph N.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    2004-07-01

    Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the exquisite power and specificity of the immune system for the treatment of malignancy. Although cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the immune system is clearly capable of recognizing and eliminating tumor cells. However, tumors frequently interfere with the development and function of immune responses. Thus, the challenge for immunotherapy is to use advances in cellular and molecular immunology to develop strategies that effectively and safely augment antitumor responses.

  16. Research on Immunotherapy: Using the Immune System to Treat Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells that suppress immune responses. These advances in cancer immunotherapy are the result of long-term investments in ... Engineering Patients’ Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers Cancer immunotherapy in children: How does it differ from approaches ...

  17. Molecular Imaging of Immunotherapy Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ehlerding, Emily B.; England, Christopher G.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising alternative in the arsenal against cancer by harnessing the power of the immune system to specifically target malignant tissues. As the field of immunotherapy continues to expand, researchers will require newer methods for studying the interactions between the immune system, tumor cells, and immunotherapy agents. Recently, several noninvasive imaging strategies have been used to map the biodistribution of immune checkpoint molecules, monitor the efficacy and potential toxicities of the treatments, and identify patients who are likely to benefit from immunotherapies. In this review, we outline the current applications of noninvasive techniques for the preclinical imaging of immunotherapy targets and suggest future pathways for molecular imaging to contribute to this developing field. PMID:27469363

  18. Molecular checkpoints controlling natural killer cell activation and their modulation for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Hun Sik

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have gained considerable attention as promising therapeutic tools for cancer therapy due to their innate selectivity against cancer cells over normal healthy cells. With an array of receptors evolved to sense cellular alterations, NK cells provide early protection against cancer cells by producing cytokines and chemokines and exerting direct cytolytic activity. These effector functions are governed by signals transmitted through multiple receptor–ligand interactions but are not achieved by engaging a single activating receptor on resting NK cells. Rather, they require the co-engagement of different activating receptors that use distinct signaling modules, due to a cell-intrinsic inhibition mechanism. The redundancy of synergizing receptors and the inhibition of NK cell function by a single class of inhibitory receptor suggest the presence of common checkpoints to control NK cell activation through different receptors. These molecular checkpoints would be therapeutically targeted to harness the power of NK cells against diverse cancer cells that express heterogeneous ligands for NK cell receptors. Recent advances in understanding the activation of NK cells have revealed promising candidates in this category. Targeting such molecular checkpoints will facilitate NK cell activation by lowering activation thresholds, thereby providing therapeutic strategies that optimize NK cell reactivity against cancer. PMID:28360428

  19. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer. PMID:22168571

  20. Nanomedicine approaches to improve cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hui; Min, Yuanzeng; Rodgers, Zach; Zhang, Longzhen; Wang, Andrew Z

    2017-03-10

    Significant advances have been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy by orchestrating the body's immune system to eradicate cancer cells. However, safety and efficacy concerns stemming from the systemic delivery of immunomodulatory compounds limits cancer immunotherapies expansion and application. In this context, nanotechnology presents a number of advantages, such as targeted delivery to immune cells, enhanced clinical outcomes, and reduced adverse events, which may aid in the delivery of cancer vaccines and immunomodulatory agents. With this in mind, a diverse range of nanomaterials with different physicochemical characteristics have been developed to stimulate the immune system and battle cancer. In this review, we will focus on some recent developments and the potential advantages of utilizing nanotechnology within the field of cancer immunotherapy. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. Efficient Nanovaccine Delivery in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guizhi; Zhang, Fuwu; Ni, Qianqian; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-03-09

    Vaccines hold tremendous potential for cancer immunotherapy by treating the immune system. Subunit vaccines, including molecular adjuvants and cancer-associated antigens or cancer-specific neoantigens, can elicit potent antitumor immunity. However, subunit vaccines have shown limited clinical benefit in cancer patients, which is in part attributed to inefficient vaccine delivery. In this Perspective, we discuss vaccine delivery by synthetic nanoparticles or naturally derived nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy. Nanovaccines can efficiently codeliver adjuvants and multiepitope antigens into lymphoid organs and into antigen-presenting cells, and the intracellular release of vaccine and cross-presentation of antigens can be fine-tuned via nanovaccine engineering. Aside from peptide antigens, antigen-encoding mRNA for cancer immunotherapy delivered by nanovaccine will also be discussed.

  2. Past, present and future targets for immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Carlton L; English, Diana P; Roque, Dana M; Pasternak, Monica; Santin, Alessandro D

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the US. Treatments have improved with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy and advanced surgical techniques but disease recurrence is common and fatal in nearly all cases. Current evidence suggests that the immune system and its ability to recognize and eliminate microscopic disease is paramount in preventing recurrence. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy is targeting tumors through active, passive and adoptive approaches. The goal of immunotherapy is to balance the activation of the immune system against cancer while preventing the potential for tremendous toxicity elicited by immune modulation. In this paper we will review the different immunotherapies available for ovarian cancer as well as current ongoing studies and potential future directions.

  3. Cancer immunotherapy: potential involvement of mediators

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Efraim, S.

    1997-01-01

    The description of a cell-free soluble anti-tumour factor by Carswell et al. in 1975 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 72: 3666–3670) was followed by a long series of experimental and clinical investigations into the role of cell-free mediators in cancer immunotherapy. These investigations included research on the effects of macrophage–derived eicosanoids (cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase derivates of arachidonic acid) and of monokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 and granulocyte–monocyte–macrophage–colony stimulating factor) and of lymphocyte products: interleukins and interferons. The investigations yielded information on the effects of various factors on macrophage and T-cell activation in vitro, determination of direct anti-tumour properties on animal and human tumour cells in vitro and on therapeutic effectiveness in tumour-bearing individuals either alone or in combination with other therapeutic factors and their production by tumour cells. During recent years much effort has been dedicated towards the use of the tumour cells transfected with cytokine genes in the preparation of cancer vaccines. Cycloxygenase products (prostaglandins) were usually assumed to inhibit expression of anti-tumour activity by macrophages and an increase in their production in cancer patients was considered as a poor prognostic index. Lipoxygenase (leukotrienes) products were assumed to exhibit antitumour activity and to induce production of IL-1 by macrophages. Interleukins 2, 4, 6, 7, 12 and the interferons were extensively tested for their therapeutic effectiveness in experimental tumour models and in cancer clinical trials. The general conclusion on the use of cell-free mediators for cancer immunotherapy is that much still has to be done in order to assure effective and reproducible therapeutic effectiveness for routine use in the treatment of human neoplasia. PMID:18472817

  4. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-07-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D(3)-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years.

  5. Cancer immunotherapy: sipuleucel-T and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hammerstrom, Aimee E; Cauley, Diana H; Atkinson, Bradley J; Sharma, Padmanee

    2011-08-01

    In April 2010, sipuleucel-T became the first anticancer vaccine approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Different from the traditional chemotherapy agents that produce widespread cytotoxicity to kill tumor cells, anticancer vaccines and immunotherapies focus on empowering the immune system to overcome the tumor. The immune system consists of innate and adaptive components. The CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are the most crucial components of the adaptive arm of the immune system that act to mediate antitumor responses. However, T-cell responses are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms, which may interfere with effective antitumor responses. Many anticancer immunotherapies use tumor-associated antigens as vaccines in order to stimulate an immune response against tumor cells. Sipuleucel-T is composed of autologous mononuclear cells incubated with a fusion protein consisting of a common prostate cancer antigen (prostatic acid phosphatase) linked to an adjuvant (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). It is postulated that when the vaccine is infused into the patient, the activated antigen-presenting cells displaying the fusion protein will induce an immune response against the tumor antigen. In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trial, sipuleucel-T significantly improved median overall survival by 4.1 months in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer compared with placebo. Although overall survival was improved, none of the three phase III clinical trials found a significant difference in time to disease progression. This, along with cost and logistic issues, has led to an active discussion. Although sipuleucel-T was studied in the metastatic setting, its ideal place in therapy is unknown, and clinical trials are being conducted in patients at different stages of disease and in combination with radiation therapy, antiandrogen therapy, and chemotherapy. Various other anticancer

  6. Oncolytic Immunotherapy for Treatment of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsun, A; Miao, X N; Wang, C M; Yu, D C

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy entails the treatment of disease by modulation of the immune system. As detailed in the previous chapters, the different modes of achieving immune modulation are many, including the use of small/large molecules, cellular therapy, and radiation. Oncolytic viruses that can specifically attack, replicate within, and destroy tumors represent one of the most promising classes of agents for cancer immunotherapy (recently termed as oncolytic immunotherapy). The notion of oncolytic immunotherapy is considered as the way in which virus-induced tumor cell death (known as immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD)) allows the immune system to recognize tumor cells and provide long-lasting antitumor immunity. Both immune responses toward the virus and ICD together contribute toward successful antitumor efficacy. What is now becoming increasingly clear is that monotherapies, through any of the modalities detailed in this book, are neither sufficient in eradicating tumors nor in providing long-lasting antitumor immune responses and that combination therapies may deliver enhanced efficacy. After the rise of the genetic engineering era, it has been possible to engineer viruses to harbor combination-like characteristics to enhance their potency in cancer immunotherapy. This chapter provides a historical background on oncolytic virotherapy and its future application in cancer immunotherapy, especially as a combination therapy with other treatment modalities.

  7. Developments in immunotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Diaz, J L; Wanta, S M; Fishbein, T M; Kroemer, A

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the most commonly occurring cancer worldwide. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second and third most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and men, respectively. Despite the advent of screening and the declining incidence of CRC overall, most patients are not diagnosed at an early, localized stage. Due to resistance to chemotherapy, recurrence, and metastatic disease, those diagnosed with advanced disease have only a 12% 5-year survival rate. Given the overwhelming global impact of CRC, the need for advanced therapy is crucial. Targeted immunotherapy in addition to surgical resection, traditional chemotherapy, and radiation therapy is on the rise. For the purpose of this review, we focused on the advances of immunotherapy, particularly in CRC, with mention of research pertaining to particular advances in immunotherapy for other aspects of the GI system. We review basic immunology and the microenvironment surrounding colorectal tumors that lead to immune system evasion and poor responses to chemotherapy. We also examined the way these obstacles are proving to be the targets of tumor specific immunotherapy. We will present current FDA approved immunotherapies such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting tumor specific antigens, as well as vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, cytokines, and check-point inhibitors. A summation of prior research, current clinical trials, and prospective therapies in murine models help delineate our current status and future strategies on CRC immunotherapy.

  8. PROSTVAC® targeted immunotherapy candidate for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shore, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade. PROSTVAC is well tolerated and has been safely combined with other cancer therapies, including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, another immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Even greater benefits of PROSTVAC may be recognized in earlier-stage disease and low-disease burden settings where immunotherapy can trigger a long-lasting immune response.

  9. Cancer immunotherapy out of the gate: the 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute International Immunotherapy Symposium.

    PubMed

    Tontonoz, Matthew; Gee, Connie E

    2015-05-01

    The 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute (CRI) International Immunotherapy Symposium was held from October 5-8, 2014, in New York City. Titled "Cancer Immunotherapy: Out of the Gate," the symposium began with a Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium satellite meeting focused on issues in immunotherapy drug development, followed by five speaker sessions and a poster session devoted to basic and clinical cancer immunology research. The second annual William B. Coley lecture was delivered by Lieping Chen, one of the four recipients of the 2014 William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Tumor Immunology; the other three recipients were Gordon Freeman, Tasuku Honjo, and Arlene Sharpe. Prominent themes of the conference were the use of genomic technologies to identify neoantigens and the emergence of new immune modulatory molecules, beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, as new therapeutic targets for immunotherapy.

  10. [Development of Nucleic Acid-Based Adjuvant for Cancer Immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Ishii, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of the human T cell-defined tumor antigen, the cancer immunotherapy field has rapidly progressed, with the research and development of cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, being conducted actively. However, the disadvantages of most cancer vaccines include relatively weak immunogenicity and immune escape or exhaustion. Adjuvants with innate immunostimulatory activities have been used to overcome these issues, and these agents have been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines and to act as mono-therapeutic anti-tumor agents. CpG ODN, an agonist for TLR9, is one of the promising nucleic acid-based adjuvants, and it is a potent inducer of innate immune effector functions. CpG ODN suppresses tumor growth in the absence of tumor antigens and peptide administration. Therefore, CpG ODN is expected to be useful as a cancer vaccine adjuvant as well as a cancer immunotherapy agent. In this review, we discuss the potential therapeutic applications and mechanisms of CpG ODN for cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Immunotherapy and immunoescape in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazzolini, Guillermo; Murillo, Oihana; Atorrasagasti, Catalina; Dubrot, Juan; Tirapu, Iñigo; Rizzo, Miguel; Arina, Ainhoa; Alfaro, Carlos; Azpilicueta, Arantza; Berasain, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, José L; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Immunotherapy encompasses a variety of interventions and techniques with the common goal of eliciting tumor cell destructive immune responses. Colorectal carcinoma often presents as metastatic disease that impedes curative surgery. Novel strategies such as active immunization with dendritic cells (DCs), gene transfer of cytokines into tumor cells or administration of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (such as anti-CD137 or anti-CTLA-4) have been assessed in preclinical studies and are at an early clinical development stage. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that chemotherapy and immunotherapy can be combined in the treatment of some cases with colorectal cancer, with synergistic potentiation as a result of antigens cross-presented by dendritic cells and/or elimination of competitor or suppressive T lymphocyte populations (regulatory T-cells). However, genetic and epigenetic unstable carcinoma cells frequently evolve mechanisms of immunoevasion that are the result of either loss of antigen presentation, or an active expression of immunosuppressive substances. Some of these actively immunosuppressive mechanisms are inducible by cytokines that signify the arrival of an effector immune response. For example, induction of 2, 3 indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO) by IFNγ in colorectal carcinoma cells. Combinational and balanced strategies fostering antigen presentation, T-cell costimulation and interference with immune regulatory mechanisms will probably take the stage in translational research in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:17990348

  12. siRNA and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Ghafouri-Fard, Somayyeh

    2012-09-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches have been gaining attention in the field of cancer treatment because of their possible ability to eradicate cancer cells as well as metastases by recruiting the host immune system. On the other hand, RNA-based therapeutics with the ability to silence expression of specific targets are currently under clinical investigation for various disorders including cancer. As the mechanisms of tumor evasion from the host immune system are versatile, different molecules have the capacity to be targeted by RNAi technology in order to enhance the immune response against tumors. This technology has been used to silence specific targets in tumor cells, as well as immune cells in cancer cell lines, animal models and clinical trials. siRNAs can also stimulate innate immune responses through activation of Toll-like receptors. Although currently clinical trials of the application of siRNA in cancer immunotherapy are few, it is predicted that in future this technology will be used broadly in cancer treatment.

  13. Inhibitory RNA molecules in immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chih-Ping; Wu, T-C

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, our expanding knowledge of the mammalian immune system - how it is developed, activated, and regulated - has fostered hope that it may be harnessed in the future to successfully treat human cancer. The immune system activated by cancer vaccines may have the unique ability to selectively eradicate tumor cells at multiple sites in the body without inflicting damage on normal tissue. However, progress in the development of cancer vaccines that effectively capitalize on this ability has been limited and slow. The immune system is restrained by complex, negative feedback mechanisms that evolved to protect the host against autoimmunity and may also prevent antitumor immunity. In addition, tumor cells exploit a plethora of strategies to evade detection and elimination by the immune system. For these reasons, the field of cancer immunotherapy has suffered considerable setbacks in the past and faces great challenges at the present time. Some of these challenges may be overcome through the use of RNA interference, a process by which gene expression can be efficiently and specifically "knocked down" in cells. This chapter focuses on the current status and future prospects in the application of small interfering RNA and microRNA, two main forms of RNA interference, to treat cancer by curtailing mechanisms that attenuate the host immune response.

  14. Aptamers: A Feasible Technology in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, H.; Pastor, F.

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single-chained RNA or DNA oligonucleotides (ODNs) with three-dimensional folding structures which allow them to bind to their targets with high specificity. Aptamers normally show affinities comparable to or higher than that of antibodies. They are chemically synthesized and therefore less expensive to manufacture and produce. A variety of aptamers described to date have been shown to be reliable in modulating immune responses against cancer by either blocking or activating immune receptors. Some of them have been conjugated to other molecules to target the immune system and reduce off-target side effects. Despite the success of first-line treatments against cancer, the elevated number of relapsing cases and the tremendous side effects shown by the commonly used agents hinder conventional treatments against cancer. The advantages provided by aptamers could enhance the therapeutic index of a given strategy and therefore enhance the antitumor effect. Here we recapitulate the provided benefits of aptamers with immunomodulatory activity described to date in cancer therapy and the benefits that aptamer-based immunotherapy could provide either alone or combined with first-line treatments in cancer therapy. PMID:27413756

  15. Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    After decades of setbacks, cancer immunology is living its Golden Age. Recent advances in cancer immunology have provided new therapeutic approaches to treat cancer. The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T technology has provided strong evidence of efficacy in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and different T cell based treatments are currently under investigation for different types of tumors. In this review we will discuss the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy as well as new treatments now under development in the clinic and potential strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical models.

  16. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Smitha; Shin, Sarah; Dy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is heralded as one of the most important advances in oncology. Until recently, only limited immunotherapeutic options were available in selected immunogenic cancers like melanoma and renal cell carcinomas. Nowadays, there is an improved understanding that anti-tumor immunity is controlled by a delicate balance in the tumor microenvironment between immune stimulatory and immune inhibitory pathways. Either by blocking the inhibitory pathways or stimulating the activating pathways that regulate cytotoxic lymphocytes, anti-tumor immunity can be enhanced leading to durable anti-tumor responses. Drugs which block the immune regulatory checkpoints namely the PD-1/PDL1 and CTLA 4 pathway have shown tremendous promise in a wide spectrum of solid and hematological malignancies, significantly improving overall survival in newly diagnosed and heavily pretreated patients alike. Hence there is renewed enthusiasm in the field of immune oncology with current research focused on augmenting responses to checkpoint inhibitors by combination therapy as well as studies looking at other immune modulators and adoptive T cell therapy. In this article, we highlight the key clinical advances and concepts in immunotherapy with particular emphasis on checkpoint inhibition as well as the future direction in this field. PMID:27886124

  17. Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Theresa L; Demaria, Sandra; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Zarour, Hassane M; Melero, Ignacio

    2016-04-15

    Immunotherapy strategies against cancer are emerging as powerful weapons for treatment of this disease. The success of checkpoint inhibitors against metastatic melanoma and adoptive T-cell therapy with chimeric antigen receptor T cells against B-cell-derived leukemias and lymphomas are only two examples of developments that are changing the paradigms of clinical cancer management. These changes are a result of many years of intense research into complex and interrelated cellular and molecular mechanisms controling immune responses. Promising advances come from the discovery of cancer mutation-encoded neoantigens, improvements in vaccine development, progress in delivery of cellular therapies, and impressive achievements in biotechnology. As a result, radical transformation of cancer treatment is taking place in which conventional cancer treatments are being integrated with immunotherapeutic agents. Many clinical trials are in progress testing potential synergistic effects of treatments combining immunotherapy with other therapies. Much remains to be learned about the selection, delivery, and off-target effects of immunotherapy used alone or in combination. The existence of numerous escape mechanisms from the host immune system that human tumors have evolved still is a barrier to success. Efforts to understand the rules of immune cell dysfunction and of cancer-associated local and systemic immune suppression are providing new insights and fuel the enthusiasm for new therapeutic strategies. In the future, it might be possible to tailor immune therapy for each cancer patient. The use of new immune biomarkers and the ability to assess responses to therapy by noninvasive monitoring promise to improve early cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Personalized immunotherapy based on individual genetic, molecular, and immune profiling is a potentially achievable future goal. The current excitement for immunotherapy is justified in view of many existing opportunities for harnessing

  18. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  19. Advances in the understanding of cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shore, Neal D

    2015-09-01

    The principal role of the immune system is to prevent and eradicate pathogens and infections. The key characteristics or features of an effective immune response include specificity, trafficking, antigen spread and durability (memory). The immune system is recognised to have a critical role in controlling cancer through a dynamic relationship with tumour cells. Normally, at the early stages of tumour development, the immune system is capable of eliminating tumour cells or keeping tumour growth abated; however, tumour cells may evolve multiple pathways over time to evade immune control. Immunotherapy may be viewed as a treatment designed to boost or restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer, infections and other diseases. Immunotherapy manifests differently from traditional cancer treatments, eliciting delayed response kinetics and thus may be more effective in patients with lower tumour burden, in whom disease progression may be less rapid, thereby allowing ample time for the immunotherapy to evolve. Because immunotherapies may have a different mechanism of action from traditional cytotoxic or targeted biological agents, immunotherapy techniques have the potential to combine synergistically with traditional therapies.

  20. Prostate cancer immunotherapy: beyond immunity to curability.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jonathan W

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. It is the first prevalent cancer in which overall survival in advanced disease is modestly, but objectively, improved with outpatient delivered dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. More prostate cancer patients have enrolled through Facebook and trusted-site Internet searches in clinical trials for prostate cancer vaccine-based immunotherapy than in immunotherapy trials for lung, breast, colon, pancreas, ovarian, and bladder cancer combined in the past 7 years. Exceptional responses to anti-CTLA-4 treatment have been documented in clinics, and prostate cancer neoantigen characterization and T-cell clonotyping are in their research ascendancy. The prostate is an accessory organ; it is not required for fertility, erectile function, or urinary continence. The true evolutionary advantage of having a prostate for male mammalian physiology is a topic of speculation in seminar rooms and on bar stools, but it remains unknown. Hundreds of prostate lineage-unique proteins (PLUP) exist among the >37,000 normal human prostate lineage-unique open reading frames that can be targeted for immunologic ablation of PLUP(+) prostate cancer cells by prostate-specific autoimmunity. This bioengineered graft-versus-prostate disease is a powerful strategy that can eliminate deaths from prostate cancer. Immunologic tolerance to prostate cancer can be overcome at every clinical stage of presentation. This Cancer Immunology at the Crossroads article aims to present advances in the past two decades of basic, translational, and clinical research in prostate cancer, including bioengineering B-cell and T-cell responses, and ongoing prostate cancer immunotherapy trials.

  1. Sequential cancer immunotherapy: targeted activity of dimeric TNF and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Nicole; Siebenborn, Uta; Fadle, Natalie; Plesko, Margarita; Fischer, Eliane; Wüest, Thomas; Stenner, Frank; Mertens, Joachim C.; Knuth, Alexander; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd J.; Renner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are potent effectors of inflammation and their attempts to respond to cancer are suggested by their systemic, regional and intratumoral activation. We previously reported on the recruitment of CD11b+ leukocytes due to tumor site-specific enrichment of TNF activity after intravenous administration of a dimeric TNF immunokine with specificity for fibroblast activation protein (FAP). However, TNF-induced chemo-attraction and extravasation of PMNs from blood into the tumor is a multistep process essentially mediated by interleukin 8. With the aim to amplify the TNF-induced and IL-8-mediated chemotactic response, we generated immunocytokines by N-terminal fusion of a human anti-FAP scFv fragment with human IL-8 (IL-872) and its N-terminally truncated form IL-83-72. Due to the dramatic difference in chemotaxis induction in vitro, we favored the mature chemokine fused to the anti-FAP scFv for further investigation in vivo. BALB/c nu/nu mice were simultaneously xenografted with FAP-positive or -negative tumors and extended chemo-attraction of PMNs was only detectable in FAP-expressing tissue after intravenous administration of the anti-FAP scFv-IL-872 construct. As TNF-activated PMNs are likewise producers and primary targets for IL-8, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of co-administration of both effectors: Sequential application of scFv-IL-872 and dimeric IgG1-TNF fusion proteins significantly enhanced anti-tumor activity when compared either to a single effector treatment regimen or sequential application of non-targeted cytokines, indicating that the tumor-restricted sequential application of IL-872 and TNF is a promising approach for cancer therapy. PMID:19267427

  2. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Masanori; Koga, Noriko; Moriya, Fukuko; Itoh, Kyogo

    2016-01-01

    Although treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have increased over the last decade, there remains a need for strategies that can provide durable disease control and long-term benefit. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of CRPC. To date, there are multiple strategies to target the immune system, and several approaches including therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in clinical trials. With regard to this, we report the results of the most recent clinical trials investigating immunotherapy in CRPC and discuss the future development of immunotherapy for CRPC, as well as the potential importance of biomarkers in the future progress of this field.

  3. Phase I study of the adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer with lectin activated autologous mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, A; Eberlein, T J; Grimm, E A; Wilson, D J; Keenan, A M; Aamodt, R; Rosenberg, S A

    1984-02-15

    In previous in vitro studies, the authors showed that phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from cancer patients to generate cells that were lytic for fresh autologous tumor but not for lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Thus, after IRB approval, a phase I clinical protocol was instituted in cancer patients who had failed all other therapy to determine the toxicity and effects, in vivo, of the infusion of large numbers of such PHA activated autologous PBL. Ten patients were treated on the protocol, six with sarcoma, one with melanoma, and three with colorectal cancer. Up to a total of 1.7 X 10(11) PBL were obtained from 7 to 15 successive leukaphereses, the cells from each leukapheresis being incubated in vitro in medium containing PHA and human AB serum for 2 days and then reinfused following the next leukapheresis 2 days later. Toxicity encountered included fever and chills in 10/10 patients, headaches in 5/10, nausea and vomiting in 3/10, and requirement for erythrocyte transfusion in 8/10. No evidence for autoimmune disease, abnormal serum chemical or coagulation studies, or pulmonary emboli was found. 111Indium trafficing studies showed distribution of infused cells mainly to the spleen and liver, with some accumulation in the lungs and tumor especially after repeated infusions. In 9/10 patients, activated PBL were detected in the peripheral circulation by the sixth leukapheresis. Evidence for this was found by assaying the incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3H-Tdr) into, and lysis of fresh tumor cells by, unstimulated PBL from successive leukaphereses. No tumor regression was seen in these patients with bulk disease. These studies demonstrated that large numbers of PHA-activated PBL can be safely obtained and infused into humans, achieving an increase in the number of circulating activated cells with evidence of migration of cells to tumor, lungs, liver and spleen. Further studies of the use of activated lymphocyte infusion in

  4. Interleukin-2 and interleukin-15: immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Fehniger, Todd A; Cooper, Megan A; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15 are two cytokine growth factors that regulate lymphocyte function and homeostasis. Early clinical interest in the use of IL-2 in the immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma demonstrated the first efficacy for cytokine monotherapy in the treatment of neoplastic disease. Advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of IL-2 and its receptor complex have provided rationale to better utilize IL-2 to expand and activate immune effectors in patients with cancer. Exciting new developments in monoclonal antibodies recognizing tumor targets and tumor vaccines have provided new avenues to combine with IL-2 therapy in cancer patients. IL-15, initially thought to mediate similar biological effects as IL-2, has been shown to have unique properties in basic and pre-clinical studies that may be of benefit in the immunotherapy of cancer. This review first summarizes the differences between IL-2 and IL-15 and highlights that better understanding of normal physiology creates new ideas for the immunotherapy of cancer. The application of high, intermediate, and low/ultra low dose IL-2 therapy in clinical trials of cancer patients is discussed, along with new avenues for its use in neoplastic diseases. The growing basic and pre-clinical evidence demonstrating that IL-15 may be useful in immunotherapy approaches to cancer is also presented.

  5. Particle platforms for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Serda, Rita Elena

    2013-01-01

    Elevated understanding and respect for the relevance of the immune system in cancer development and therapy has led to increased development of immunotherapeutic regimens that target existing cancer cells and provide long-term immune surveillance and protection from cancer recurrence. This review discusses using particles as immune adjuvants to create vaccines and to augment the anticancer effects of conventional chemotherapeutics. Several particle prototypes are presented, including liposomes, polymer nanoparticles, and porous silicon microparticles, the latter existing as either single- or multiparticle platforms. The benefits of using particles include immune-cell targeting, codelivery of antigens and immunomodulatory agents, and sustained release of the therapeutic payload. Nanotherapeutic-based activation of the immune system is dependent on both intrinsic particle characteristics and on the immunomodulatory cargo, which may include danger signals known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and cytokines for effector-cell activation. PMID:23761969

  6. Bioinformatics for cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Charoentong, Pornpimol; Angelova, Mihaela; Efremova, Mirjana; Gallasch, Ralf; Hackl, Hubert; Galon, Jerome; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2012-11-01

    Recent mechanistic insights obtained from preclinical studies and the approval of the first immunotherapies has motivated increasing number of academic investigators and pharmaceutical/biotech companies to further elucidate the role of immunity in tumor pathogenesis and to reconsider the role of immunotherapy. Additionally, technological advances (e.g., next-generation sequencing) are providing unprecedented opportunities to draw a comprehensive picture of the tumor genomics landscape and ultimately enable individualized treatment. However, the increasing complexity of the generated data and the plethora of bioinformatics methods and tools pose considerable challenges to both tumor immunologists and clinical oncologists. In this review, we describe current concepts and future challenges for the management and analysis of data for cancer immunology and immunotherapy. We first highlight publicly available databases with specific focus on cancer immunology including databases for somatic mutations and epitope databases. We then give an overview of the bioinformatics methods for the analysis of next-generation sequencing data (whole-genome and exome sequencing), epitope prediction tools as well as methods for integrative data analysis and network modeling. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can predict and explain important patterns in the genetic and clinical progression of cancer. Therefore, a survey of mathematical models for tumor evolution and tumor-immune cell interaction is included. Finally, we discuss future challenges for individualized immunotherapy and suggest how a combined computational/experimental approaches can lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cancer, improved diagnosis, and prognosis of the disease and pinpoint novel therapeutic targets.

  7. Dendritic-tumor fusion cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Kazuki; Kajihara, Mikio; Ito, Zensho; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Gong, Jianlin; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    A promising area of clinical investigation is the use of cancer immunotherapy to treat cancer patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) operate as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and play a critical role in the induction of antitumor immune responses. Thus, DC-based cancer immunotherapy represents a powerful strategy. One DC-based cancer immunotherapy strategy that has been investigated is the administration of fusion cells generated with DCs and whole tumor cells (DC-tumor fusion cells). The DC-tumor fusion cells can process a broad array of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including unidentified molecules, and present them through major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II pathways in the context of co-stimulatory signals. Improving the therapeutic efficacy of DC-tumor fusion cell-based cancer immunotherapy requires increased immunogenicity of DCs and whole tumor cells. We discuss the potential ability of DC-tumor fusion cells to activate antigen-specific T cells and strategies to improve the immunogenicity of DC-tumor fusion cells as anticancer vaccines.

  8. Current Status and Perspective of Immunotherapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Jung Han

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is at dawn of the Renaissance after the Medieval Dark Ages. Recent advances of understanding tumor immunology and molecular drug development are leading us to the epoch of cancer immunotherapy. Some types of immunotherapy have shown to provide survival benefit for patients with solid tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, or non-small cell lung cancer. Several studies have suggested that immune checkpoint inhibition might be effective in some patients with gastrointestinal cancers. However, the era of cancer immunotherapy in gastrointestinal cancers is still in an inchoate stage. Here we briefly review the current status and perspective of immunotherapeutic approaches in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27698896

  9. IL-13 receptor-directed cancer vaccines and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hideyuki; Husain, Syed R; Puri, Raj K

    2012-04-01

    Many immunotherapy approaches including therapeutic cancer vaccines targeting specific tumor-associated antigens are at various stages of development. Although the significance of overexpression of (IL-13Rα2) in cancer is being actively investigated, we have reported that IL-13Rα2 is a novel tumor-associated antigen. The IL-13Rα2-directed cancer vaccine is one of the most promising approaches to tumor immunotherapy, because of the selective expression of IL-13Rα2 in various solid tumor types but not in normal tissues. In this article, we will summarize its present status and potential strategies to improve IL-13Rα2-directed cancer vaccines for an optimal therapy of cancer.

  10. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer or viruses.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; Fraietta, Joseph A; Levine, Bruce L; Kalos, Michael; Zhao, Yangbing; June, Carl H

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer and certain chronic viral infections. The application of the principles of synthetic biology to enhance T cell function has resulted in substantial increases in clinical efficacy. The primary challenge to the field is to identify tumor-specific targets to avoid off-tumor, on-target toxicity. Given recent advances in efficacy in numerous pilot trials, the next steps in clinical development will require multicenter trials to establish adoptive immunotherapy as a mainstream technology.

  11. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer or Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Marcela V.; Fraietta, Joseph A.; Levine, Bruce L.; Kalos, Michael; Zhao, Yangbing; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer and certain chronic viral infections. The application of the principles of synthetic biology to enhance T cell function has resulted in substantial increases in clinical efficacy. The primary challenge to the field is to identify tumor-specific targets to avoid off-tissue, on-target toxicity. Given recent advances in efficacy in numerous pilot trials, the next steps in clinical development will require multicenter trials in order to establish adoptive immunotherapy as a mainstream technology. PMID:24423116

  12. Th1 cytokine-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Cytokine-based immunotherapy is executed by harnessing cytokines to activate the immune system to suppress tumors. Th1-type cytokines including IL-1, IL-2, IL-12 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are potent stimulators of Th1 differentiation and Th1-based antitumor response. Many preclinical studies demonstrated the antitumor effects of Th1 cytokines but their clinical efficacy is limited. Multiple factors influence the efficacy of immunotherapy for tumors. For instance immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment can produce inhibitory cytokines which suppress antitumor immune response. Most studies on cytokine immunotherapy focused on how to boost Th1 response; many studies combined cytokine-based therapy with other treatments to reverse immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment. In addition, cytokines have pleiotropic functions and some cytokines show paradoxical activities under different settings. Better understanding the physiological and pathological functions of cytokines helps clinicians to design Th1-based cancer therapy in clinical practice.

  13. Tumour immunogenicity, antigen presentation and immunological barriers in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Escors, David

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, scientists have tried to stimulate the anti-tumour activities of the immune system to fight against cancer. However, the scientific effort devoted on the development of cancer immunotherapy has not been translated into the expected clinical success. On the contrary, classical anti-neoplastic treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the first line of treatment. Nevertheless, there is compelling evidence on the immunogenicity of cancer cells, and the capacity of the immune system to expand cancer-specific effector cytotoxic T cells. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses strongly depends on efficient tumour antigen presentation from professional antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). Several strategies have been used to boost DC antigen presenting functions, but at the end cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as would be expected according to preclinical models. In this review we comment on these discrepancies, focusing our attention on the contribution of regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells to the lack of therapeutic success of DC-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24634791

  14. Targeting lentiviral vectors for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Frederick; Breckpot, Karine; Collins, Mary; Escors, David

    2012-01-01

    Delivery of tumour-associated antigens (TAA) in a way that induces effective, specific immunity is a challenge in anti-cancer vaccine design. Circumventing tumour-induced tolerogenic mechanisms in vivo is also critical for effective immunotherapy. Effective immune responses are induced by professional antigen presenting cells, in particular dendritic cells (DC). This requires presentation of the antigen to both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the context of strong co-stimulatory signals. Lentiviral vectors have been tested as vehicles, for both ex vivo and in vivo delivery of TAA and/or activation signals to DC, and have been demonstrated to induce potent T cell mediated immune responses that can control tumour growth. This review will focus on the use of lentiviral vectors for in vivo gene delivery to DC, introducing strategies to target DC, either targeting cell entry or gene expression to improve safety of the lentiviral vaccine or targeting dendritic cell activation pathways to enhance performance of the lentiviral vaccine. In conclusion, this review highlights the potential of lentiviral vectors as a generally applicable ‘off-the-shelf’ anti-cancer immunotherapeutic. PMID:22983382

  15. Hematopoietic stem cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gschweng, Eric; De Oliveira, Satiro; Kohn, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) provide an attractive target for immunotherapy of cancer and leukemia by the introduction of genes encoding T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) directed against tumor-associated antigens. HSCs engraft for long-term blood cell production and could provide a continuous source of targeted anti-cancer effector cells to sustain remissions. T cells produced de novo from HSCs may continuously replenish anti-tumor T cells that have become anergic or exhausted from ex vivo expansion or exposure to the intratumoral microenvironment. In addition, transgenic T cells produced in vivo undergo allelic exclusion, preventing co-expression of an endogenous TCR that could mis-pair with the introduced TCR chains and blunt activity or even cause off-target reactivity. CAR-engineered HSCs may produce myeloid and natural killer cells in addition to T cells expressing the CAR, providing broader anti-tumor activity that arises quickly after transplant and does not solely require de novo thymopoiesis. Use of TCR- or CAR-engineered HSCs would likely require cytoreductive conditioning to achieve long-term engraftment, and this approach may be used in clinical settings where autologous HSC transplant is being performed to add a graft-versus-tumor effect. Results of experimental and preclinical studies performed to date are reviewed.

  16. [Immunotherapy: a therapeutic revolution against prostate cancer?].

    PubMed

    Pracht, Marc; Herrera, Fernanda; Tawadros, Thomas; Berthold, Dominik

    2013-05-22

    The interaction between the immune system and cancer was an area of research interest for several decades. The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab stimulated broader interest in manipulating immunity to fight cancer. In the context of prostate cancer, the immunotherapy strategies under development are therapeutic vaccination strategies, such as sipuleucel-T and PROSTVAC-VF, or immune checkpoint blockade of CTLA-4. Improved understanding of the immune responses generated by the development of predictive biomarkers for patient selection will guide rational combinations of these treatments and provide new treatment options in prostate cancer.

  17. Adoptive T cell immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Perica, Karlo; Varela, Juan Carlos; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells has been the central goal of anti-cancer immunotherapy. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in optimizing this technology in order to make it a clinically feasible treatment. One of the main treatment modalities within cancer immunotherapy has been adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). Using this approach, tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells are infused into cancer patients with the goal of recognizing, targeting, and destroying tumor cells. In the current review, we revisit some of the major successes of ACT, the major hurdles that have been overcome to optimize ACT, the remaining challenges, and future approaches to make ACT widely available.

  18. Dendritic cell-activated cytokine-induced killer cell-mediated immunotherapy is safe and effective for cancer patients >65 years old

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Haibo; Liu, Hausheng; He, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Xin; Chen, Limei; Wang, Mengchang; Xi, Jiejing; Wang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Wei; Ning, Jing; Guo, Caili; Sun, Chunhong; Zhang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Individuals >65 years old account for a large proportion of cancer patients, and usually have poor prognoses due to relative weaker physiological function and lower drug tolerance. To characterize the efficacy and safety of dendritic cell (DC)-activated cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK)-mediated treatment, and develop an adoptive immunotherapy for cancer patients >65 years old, a retrospective study was performed in 58 cancer sufferers who received 1–4 cycles of DC-activated CIK (DC-CIK) treatment and evaluated the response (tumor remission rate) and toxicity (side effects to the treatment). The present results showed that DCs and CIKs could be expanded rapidly in vitro, and following co-culture with DCs, the population of cluster of differentiation (CD) 3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD56+ CIKs was significantly increased compared to CIKs without DC activation (P=0.044). In addition, DC-CIK infusion produced marked clinical outcomes, resulting in an objective remission rate, overall clinical benefit rate and Karnofsky performance status of 44.83, 75.86 and 87.28±5.46%, respectively, which was significantly improved compared with prior to treatment (P<0.05). Additionally, subsequent to two cycles of this immunotherapy, several tumor marker expression levels declined, returning to the normal range. The proportion of CD3+CD4+ (P=0.017) and CD3+CD8+ (P=0.023) lymphocytes, and the population of CD4/CD8 cells (P=0.024) were also increased. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the immunotherapy mediated by DC-CIK is safe and effective for cancer patients aged >65 years. PMID:28105230

  19. Adoptive immunotherapy of human pancreatic cancer with lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 in a nude mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Marincola, F.M.; Da Pozzo, L.F.; Drucker, B.J.; Holder, W.D. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    A pancreatic cancer cell line was grown in orthotopic and heterotopic positions in young Swiss/NIH nude mice, which were tested with adoptive immunotherapy. Mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) human cancer cells in the subcutaneous tissue and duodenal lobe of the pancreas. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: group IA (LAK + IL-2) (N = 25) received 2 X 10(7) human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from normal donors by tail vein injection followed by 10,000 units of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) given intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 28 days; group IB (IL-2) (N = 27) was given the same dose of IL-2 alone; group IC (RPMI-1640) (N = 18) received a placebo consisting of 1 ml of RPMI-1640 intraperitoneally every 12 hours; and group ID (LAK) (N = 14) received 2 X 10(7) LAK cells but no IL-2. Toxicity was significantly higher in group IB, with a mortality rate of 45.5% (10/22 animals) versus a 0% mortality (0/25) in group IA. None of the group IA or IB animals died of pancreatic cancer during the experiment. The animals that did not receive IL-2 died before 28 days in 14.2% of group IC and in 16.7% of group ID. The area under the growth curve of subcutaneous tumors during the course of treatment and the pancreatic tumor weight at the end of treatment were compared in each group. Subcutaneous tumors had a reduced rate of growth in group IA animals compared to all the other treatments. Pancreatic tumor growth was slowed in group IA. The animals treated with IL-2 alone (group IB) showed some slowing of tumor growth that was intermediate between group IA, group IC, and group ID. A similar experiment was done with irradiated (375 rad) mice. Nine nude mice with tumors were treated with LAK + IL-2 (group IIA), eight received IL-2 alone (group IIB), and seven received placebo (group IIC).

  20. An Expanding Role for Immunotherapy in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bever, Katherine M; Le, Dung T

    2017-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Response rates to second- and third-line therapy for metastatic CRC (mCRC) remain low, and immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for treatment in these patients given generally better tolerability than conventional chemotherapy and the potential for long-lasting durable responses. In particular, the novel checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have demonstrated unprecedented clinical activity in a wide range of cancers. The observation of clinical activity in microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) mCRC was the first indication of a potential for CRC to respond to these agents, and has led to a breakthrough designation by the FDA for CPI use in this subset. Despite this, a proportion of MSI-H and nearly all microsatellite stable disease will not respond to single-agent checkpoint inhibition, and clinical trials are ongoing to increase responses to immunotherapy in mCRC through both better patient selection and novel combinations of immunotherapeutic agents. This review will provide a focused update on the most compelling clinical results of immunotherapy in CRC to date, as well as a summary of current strategies being tested in clinical trials in increase responses to immunotherapy in CRC.

  1. The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McNeel, Douglas G; Bander, Neil H; Beer, Tomasz M; Drake, Charles G; Fong, Lawrence; Harrelson, Stacey; Kantoff, Philip W; Madan, Ravi A; Oh, William K; Peace, David J; Petrylak, Daniel P; Porterfield, Hank; Sartor, Oliver; Shore, Neal D; Slovin, Susan F; Stein, Mark N; Vieweg, Johannes; Gulley, James L

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. In recent years, several new agents, including cancer immunotherapies, have been approved or are currently being investigated in late-stage clinical trials for the management of advanced prostate cancer. Therefore, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a multidisciplinary panel, including physicians, nurses, and patient advocates, to develop consensus recommendations for the clinical application of immunotherapy for prostate cancer patients. To do so, a systematic literature search was performed to identify high-impact papers from 2006 until 2014 and was further supplemented with literature provided by the panel. Results from the consensus panel voting and discussion as well as the literature review were used to rate supporting evidence and generate recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Sipuleucel-T, an autologous dendritic cell vaccine, is the first and currently only immunotherapeutic agent approved for the clinical management of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The consensus panel utilized this model to discuss immunotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer, issues related to patient selection, monitoring of patients during and post treatment, and sequence/combination with other anti-cancer treatments. Potential immunotherapies emerging from late-stage clinical trials are also discussed. As immunotherapy evolves as a therapeutic option for the treatment of prostate cancer, these recommendations will be updated accordingly.

  2. Prostate cancer immunotherapy, particularly in combination with androgen deprivation or radiation treatment. Customized pharmacogenomic approaches to overcome immunotherapy cancer resistance

    PubMed Central

    ALBERTI, C.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional therapeutic approaches for advanced prostate cancer - such as androgen deprivation, chemotherapy, radiation - come up often against lack of effectiveness because of possible arising of correlative cancer cell resistance and/or inadequate anti-tumor immune conditions. Whence the timeliness of resorting to immune-based treatment strategies including either therapeutic vaccination-based active immunotherapy or anti-tumor monoclonal antibody-mediated passive immunotherapy. Particularly attractive, as for research studies and clinical applications, results to be the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte check point blockade by the use of anti-CTLA-4 and PD-1 monoclonal antibodies, particularly when combined with androgen deprivation therapy or radiation. Unlike afore said immune check point inhibitors, both cell-based (by the use of prostate specific antigen carriers autologous dendritic cells or even whole cancer cells) and recombinant viral vector vaccines are able to induce immune-mediated focused killing of specific antigen-presenting prostate cancer cells. Such vaccines, either used alone or concurrently/sequentially combined with above-mentioned conventional therapies, led to generally reach, in the field of various clinical trials, reasonable results particularly as regards the patient’s overall survival. Adoptive trasferred T-cells, as adoptive T-cell passive immunotherapy, and monoclonal antibodies against specific antigen-endowed prostate cancer cells can improve immune micro-environmental conditions. On the basis of a preliminary survey about various immunotherapy strategies, are here also outlined their effects when combined with androgen deprivation therapy or radiation. What’s more, as regard the immune-based treatment effectiveness, it has to be pointed out that suitable personalized epigenetic/gene profile-achieved pharmacogenomic approaches to target identified gene aberrations, may lead to overcome – as well as for conventional therapies

  3. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  4. Coinhibitory Pathways in Immunotherapy for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Susanne H; Freeman, Gordon J; Dranoff, Glenn; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2016-05-20

    The immune system is capable of recognizing tumors and eliminates many early malignant cells. However, tumors evolve to evade immune attack, and the tumor microenvironment is immunosuppressive. Immune responses are regulated by a number of immunological checkpoints that promote protective immunity and maintain tolerance. T cell coinhibitory pathways restrict the strength and duration of immune responses, thereby limiting immune-mediated tissue damage, controlling resolution of inflammation, and maintaining tolerance to prevent autoimmunity. Tumors exploit these coinhibitory pathways to evade immune eradication. Blockade of the PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoints is proving to be an effective and durable cancer immunotherapy in a subset of patients with a variety of tumor types, and additional combinations are further improving response rates. In this review we discuss the immunoregulatory functions of coinhibitory pathways and their translation to effective immunotherapies for cancer.

  5. Biological Response Modifier in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ronghua; Luo, Feifei; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Luman; Yang, Jiao; Deng, Yuting; Huang, Enyu; Qian, Jiawen; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Xuechao; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Biological response modifiers (BRMs) emerge as a lay of new compounds or approaches used in improving cancer immunotherapy. Evidences highlight that cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, and noncoding RNAs are of crucial roles in modulating antitumor immune response and cancer-related chronic inflammation, and BRMs based on them have been explored. In particular, besides some cytokines like IFN-α and IL-2, several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists like BCG, MPL, and imiquimod are also licensed to be used in patients with several malignancies nowadays, and the first artificial small noncoding RNA (microRNA) mimic, MXR34, has entered phase I clinical study against liver cancer, implying their potential application in cancer therapy. According to amounts of original data, this chapter will review the regulatory roles of TLR signaling, some noncoding RNAs, and several key cytokines in cancer and cancer-related immune response, as well as the clinical cases in cancer therapy based on them.

  6. Immunotherapy in breast cancer: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Disis, Mary L; Stanton, Sasha E

    2017-02-03

    The field of breast cancer immunology has progressed tremendously over the last decade. Twenty years ago immunotherapy was not considered for the treatment of breast cancers because breast cancer was not considered immunogenic. Today we know that most patients with breast cancer have some evidence of an adaptive immune response against their tumors, detectable either in the peripheral blood or in the tumor. Moreover, immunity to breast cancer begins at the earliest stages of the disease, in some patients prior to diagnosis. Recent evidence suggests that lymphocytes infiltrating breast cancers and found in the tumor stroma are strong prognostic indicators of a beneficial disease outcome. These observations now pave the way for the integration of immunomodulation into standard of care therapy for the treatment of breast cancer.

  7. Smart CARs Engineered for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Priceman, Saul J.; Forman, Stephen J.; Brown, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic immunoreceptors that can redirect T cells to selectively kill tumor cells, and as “living-drugs” have the potential to generate long-term anti-tumor immunity. Given their recent clinical successes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, there is a strong push toward advancing this immunotherapy to other hematological diseases and solid cancers. Here, we summarize the current state of the field, highlighting key variables for the optimal application of CAR T cells for cancer immunotherapy. Recent Findings Advances in CAR T cell therapy have highlighted intrinsic CAR design and T cell manufacturing methods as critical components for maximal therapeutic success. Similarly, addressing the unique extrinsic challenges of each tumor type, including overcoming the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and tumor heterogeneity, as well as mitigating potential toxicity, will dominate the next wave of CAR T cell development. Summary CAR T cell therapeutic optimization, including intrinsic and extrinsic factors, is critical to developing effective CAR T cell therapies for cancer. The excitement of CAR T cell immunotherapy has just begun, and will continue with new insights revealed in laboratory research and in ongoing clinical investigations. PMID:26352543

  8. Metronomic chemotherapy and immunotherapy in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Li; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Cheng, Wen-Fang

    2017-02-09

    Systemic chemotherapy given at maximum tolerated doses (MTD) has been the mainstay of cancer treatment for more than half a century. In some chemosensitive diseases such as hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, MTD has led to complete remission and even cure. The combination of maintenance therapy and standard MTD also can generate good disease control; however, resistance to chemotherapy and disease metastasis still remain major obstacles to successful cancer treatment in the majority of advanced tumors. Metronomic chemotherapy, defined as frequent administration of chemotherapeutic agents at a non-toxic dose without extended rest periods, was originally designed to overcome drug resistance by shifting the therapeutic target from tumor cells to tumor endothelial cells. Metronomic chemotherapy also exerts anti-tumor effects on the immune system (immunomodulation) and tumor cells. The goal of immunotherapy is to enhance host anti-tumor immunities. Adding immunomodulators such as metronomic chemotherapy to immunotherapy can improve the clinical outcomes in a synergistic manner. Here, we review the anti-tumor mechanisms of metronomic chemotherapy and the preliminary research addressing the combination of immunotherapy and metronomic chemotherapy for cancer treatment in animal models and in clinical setting.

  9. DNA vaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Benjamin; Jeang, Jessica; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccination has emerged as an attractive immunotherapeutic approach against cancer due to its simplicity, stability, and safety. Results from numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that DNA vaccines are well tolerated by patients and do not trigger major adverse effects. DNA vaccines are also very cost effective and can be administered repeatedly for long-term protection. Despite all the practical advantages, DNA vaccines face challenges in inducing potent antigen specific cellular immune responses as a result of immune tolerance against endogenous self-antigens in tumors. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity of DNA vaccines against self-antigens have been investigated including encoding of xenogeneic versions of antigens, fusion of antigens to molecules that activate T cells or trigger associative recognition, priming with DNA vectors followed by boosting with viral vector, and utilization of immunomodulatory molecules. This review will focus on discussing strategies that circumvent immune tolerance and provide updates on findings from recent clinical trials. PMID:25625927

  10. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shilpa; Gill, David; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-27

    Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  11. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpa; Gill, David; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC. PMID:28134806

  12. Portrait of Dr Michael G. Hanna, Jr. A pioneer in active specific immunotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Michael

    2014-01-01

    While a PhD candidate, doing my thesis at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Biology Division under Dr. Charles Congdon, my introduction to the immune response was studying graft vs. host (GVH) disease as a consequence of bone marrow transplantation in mice. The sequalae of GVH was impressive, and demonstrated the potential of negative clinical consequences of the immune system. The idea of harnessing this immunological phenomena in cancer therapy was appealing even in the late 1960s. The problem was that at the time T-cells as a component of the immune system were identified but not defined. We moved to soluble antigen stimulation in mice and recognized and described the post antigen stimulation changes in lymphatic tissue germinal centers during the first 48 h after the induction of the humoral immune response. We described the extracellular localization of soluble antigens on the surface of dendritic reticular cells of the stroma, directing a response of B-cells to produce antibody against non-self. The ensuing reaction was the rapid proliferation of B-cells toward antibody secreting plasma cells.

  13. DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guizhi; Liu, Yijing; Yang, Xiangyu; Kim, Young-Hwa; Zhang, Huimin; Jia, Rui; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Jin, Albert; Lin, Jing; Aronova, Maria; Leapman, Richard; Nie, Zhihong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit cancer development. Unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing oligonucleotides (CpG), a class of potent adjuvants that activate the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) located in the endolysosome of many antigen-presenting cells (APCs), are promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, clinical application of synthetic CpG confronts many challenges such as suboptimal delivery into APCs, unfavorable pharmacokinetics caused by limited biostability and short in vivo half-life, and side effects associated with leaking of CpG into the systemic circulation. Here we present DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccines (hNVs) for efficient uptake into APCs, prolonged tumor retention, and potent immunostimulation and cancer immunotherapy. hNVs were self-assembled from concatemer CpG analogs and magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg2PPi). Mg2PPi renders hNVs resistant to nuclease degradation and thermal denaturation, both of which are demanding characteristics for effective vaccination and the storage and transportation of vaccines. Fluorophore-labeled hNVs were tracked to be efficiently internalized into the endolysosomes of APCs, where Mg2PPi was dissolved in an acidic environment and thus CpG analogs were exposed to hNVs. Internalized hNVs in APCs led to (1) elevated secretion of proinflammatory factors, and (2) elevated expression of co-stimulatory factors. Compared with molecular CpG, hNVs dramatically prolonged the tissue retention of CpG analogs and reduced splenomegaly, a common side effect of CpG. In a melanoma mouse model, two injections of hNVs significantly inhibited the tumor growth and outperformed the molecular CpG. These results suggest hNVs are promising for cancer immunotherapy.Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit

  14. Recent advances in immunotherapy for hepatocellular cancer.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H

    2007-02-10

    There is a continuing need for innovative, alternative therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunotherapy of cancer is attractive because of the exquisite specificity of the immune response. Activation of an HCC-specific response can be accomplished by strategies targeting tumour-associated antigens (for example: alpha fetoprotein (AFP)) or viral antigens in those patients infected with hepatitis B or C. Uncharacterised and mutated antigens can also be targeted with whole tumour cell or tumour lysate-based immunisation strategies. Viral vectors coding for genes which make the patient's tumour immunogenic can allow the immune system to naturally evolve specificity against immunogenic target antigens. Strategies which have been tested in human clinical trials include adoptive transfer of lymphocytes, cytokine injections, autologous tumour-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) as well as AFP-derived peptides in adjuvant and pulsed onto autologous DC. These trials, testing novel immune-based interventions in HCC subjects, have resulted in immunological responses and some have impacted recurrence and survival of HCC subjects.

  15. Molecular Pathways: At the Crossroads of Cancer Epigenetics and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maio, Michele; Covre, Alessia; Fratta, Elisabetta; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Taverna, Pietro; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Coral, Sandra; Sigalotti, Luca

    2015-09-15

    Epigenetic regulation allows heritably modulating gene expression profiles without modifying the primary sequence of gDNA. Under physiologic conditions, epigenetic patterns determine tissue-specific gene expression landscapes, gene imprinting, inactivation of chromosome X, and preservation of genomic stability. The most characterized mediators of epigenetic inheritance are gDNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications that cooperate to alter chromatin state and genome transcription. According to these notions, it is not surprising that cancer cells invariantly deploy epigenetic alterations to achieve gene expression patterns required for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. In this context, the recently uncovered use of epigenetic alterations by cancer cells to become stealth from the host's immune recognition has significant immunobiologic relevance in tumor progression, and it appears to have potential clinical usefulness. Indeed, immune evasion is among the major obstacles to further improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies and to increase long-lasting disease control. Luckily, different "epigenetic drugs" able to revert these "epimutations" are available, some of which have already been approved for clinical use. Here, we summarize the immunomodulatory activities of epigenetic drugs that lead to improved immune recognition of cancer cells and focus on the potential of this class of agents in improving the anticancer activity of novel immunotherapies through combinatorial epigenetic immunotherapy approaches.

  16. Evolution of end points for cancer immunotherapy trials.

    PubMed

    Hoos, A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of cancer immunotherapies is on the immune system and not directly on the tumour. The kinetics of immunotherapy are characterised by a cellular immune response followed by potential changes in tumour burden or patient survival. To adequately investigate immunotherapies in clinical trials, a new development paradigm including reconsideration of established end points addressing this biology is needed. Over the last 7 years, several initiatives across the cancer immunotherapy community were facilitated by the Cancer Research Institute Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium. They systematically evolved an immunotherapy-focused clinical development paradigm and proposed to redefine trial end points. On that basis, analysis of several large datasets generated throughout the immunotherapy community supports three novel end point proposals. First, results from T-cell immune response assays are highly variable and often nonreproducible. Harmonisation of assays can minimise this variability and support the investigation of the cellular immune response as a biomarker and testing it for clinical surrogacy. Secondly, immunotherapy induces novel patterns of the antitumour response not captured by World Health Organisation criteria or Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours. New immune-related response criteria were defined which more comprehensively capture all response patterns. Thirdly, survival curves in randomised immunotherapy trials can show a delayed separation, which can impact study results. Altered statistical models are needed to describe the hazard ratios as a function of time, and differentiate them before and after separation of curves to improve planning of phase III trials. Taken together, these recommendations may improve our tools for cancer immunotherapy investigations.

  17. DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guizhi; Liu, Yijing; Yang, Xiangyu; Kim, Young-Hwa; Zhang, Huimin; Jia, Rui; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Jin, Albert; Lin, Jing; Aronova, Maria; Leapman, Richard; Nie, Zhihong; Niu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit cancer development. Unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing oligonucleotides (CpG), a class of potent adjuvants that activate the Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) located in the endolysosome of many antigen-presenting cells (APCs), are promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, clinical application of synthetic CpG confront many challenges such as suboptimal delivery into APCs, unfavorable pharmacokinetics caused by limited biostability and short in vivo half-life, and side effects associated with leaking of CpG into the systemic circulation. Here we present DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccines (hNVs) for efficient uptake into APCs, prolonged tumor retention, and potent immunostimulation and cancer immunotherapy. hNVs were self-assembled from concatemer CpG analogs and magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg2PPi). Mg2PPi renders hNVs resistance to nuclease degradation and thermal denaturation, both of which are demanding characteristics for effective vaccination and the storage and transportation of vaccines. Fluorophore-labeled hNVs were tracked to be efficiently internalized into the endolysosomes of APCs, where Mg2PPi was dissolved in acidic environment and thus CpG analogs were exposed from hNVs. Internalized hNVs in APCs led to 1) elevated secretion of proinflammatory factors, and 2) elevated expression of co-stimulatory factors. Compared with molecular CpG, hNVs dramatically prolonged the tissue retention of CpG analogs and reduced splenomegaly, a common side effect of CpG. In a melanoma mouse model, two injections of hNVs significantly inhibited the tumor growth and outperformed the molecular CpG. These results suggest hNVs are promising for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26947116

  18. Recent advances and future challenges in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Namiko; Tamada, Koji; Tamura, Hideto

    Remarkable advances have been made in cancer immunotherapy. Recent treatment strategies, especially chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, reportedly achieve higher objective responses and better survival rates than previous immunotherapies for patients with treatment-resistant malignancies, creating a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. Several clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy for patients with various malignancies are ongoing. However, those with certain malignancies, such as low-immunogenic cancers, cannot be successfully treated with T-cell immunotherapy, and subsets of immunotherapy-treated patients relapse, meaning that more effective immunotherapeutic strategies are needed for such patients. Furthermore, the safety, convenience, and cost of cancer immunotherapy need to be improved in the near future. Herein, we discuss recent advances and future challenges in cancer immunotherapy, i.e., the identification of neoantigens for the development of individualized immunotherapies, the development of new CAR-T cell therapies, including so-called armored CAR-T cells that can induce greater clinical effects and thereby achieve longer survival, the development of off-the-shelf treatment regimens using non-self cells or cell lines, and effective cancer immunotherapy combinations.

  19. Can calcium signaling be harnessed for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Rooke, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows the importance of the immune system in controlling tumor appearance and growth. Immunotherapy is defined as the treatment of a disease by inducing, enhancing or suppressing an immune response. In the context of cancer treatment, it involves breaking tolerance to a cancer-specific self-antigen and/or enhancing the existing anti-tumor immune response, be it specific or not. Part of the complexity in developing such treatment is that cancers are selected to escape adaptive or innate immune responses. These escape mechanisms are numerous and they may cumulate in one cancer. Moreover, different cancers of a same type may present different combinations of escape mechanisms. The limited success of immunotherapeutics in the clinic as stand-alone products may in part be explained by the fact that most of them only activate one facet of the immune response. It is important to identify novel methods to broaden the efficacy of immunotherapeutics. Calcium signaling is central to numerous cellular processes, leading to immune responses, cancer growth and apoptosis induced by cancer treatments. Calcium signaling in cancer therapy and control will be integrated to current cancer immunotherapy approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau.

  20. How can nanotechnology help membrane vesicle-based cancer immunotherapy development?

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Zhu, Motao; Nie, Guangjun

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are nanosized vesicles originating from endosomal compartments and secreted by most living cells. In the past decade, exosomes have emerged as potent tools for cancer immunotherapy due to their important roles in modulation of immune responses, and promising results have been achieved in exosome-based immunotherapy. The recent rapid progress of nanotechnology, especially on tailored design of nanocarriers for drug delivery based on both passive and active targeting strategies, sheds light on re-engineering native membrane vesicles for enhanced immune regulation and therapy. Applications of nanotechnology toolkits might provide new opportunity not only for value-added therapeutic or diagnostic strategies based on exosomes in cancer immunotherapy, but also new insights for biogenesis and biological relevance of membrane vesicles. This commentary focuses on the recent development and limitations of using exosomes in cancer immunotherapy and our perspectives on how nanomaterials with potential immune regulatory effects could be introduced into exosome-based immunotherapy.

  1. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Slovin, Susan F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit. PMID:27843208

  2. Tecemotide: An antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  3. The IL-2 cytokine family in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sim, Geok Choo; Radvanyi, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    The use of cytokines from the IL-2 family (also called the common γ chain cytokine family) such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 to activate the immune system of cancer patients is one of the most important areas of current cancer immunotherapy research. The infusion of IL-2 at low or high doses for multiple cycles in patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma was the first successful immunotherapy for cancer proving that the immune system could completely eradicate tumor cells under certain conditions. The initial clinical success observed in some IL-2-treated patients encouraged further efforts focused on developing and improving the application of other IL-2 family cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21) that have unique biological effects playing important roles in the development, proliferation, and function of specific subsets of lymphocytes at different stages of differentiation with some overlapping effects with IL-2. IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21, as well as mutant forms or variants of IL-2, are now also being actively pursued in the clinic with some measured early successes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of the IL-2 cytokine family focusing on IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. We discuss the similarities and differences between the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and their immunomodulatory effects on different subsets of immune cells. Current clinical application of IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 either as single agents or in combination with other biological agents and the limitation and potential drawbacks of these cytokines for cancer immunotherapy are also described. Lastly, we discuss the future direction of research on these cytokines, such as the development of new cytokine mutants and variants for improving cytokine-based immunotherapy through differential binding to specific receptor subunits.

  4. Mimotope vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sharav, Tumenjargal; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Walden, Peter

    2007-04-20

    Cancer vaccines need to be designed to effectively induce tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells, the key effector cells in immune responses against tumors. These T cells recognize peptides generated from cellular proteins by limited proteolysis, and bound and presented at cell surfaces by MHC class I molecules. Mimotopes, mimetics of T cell epitopes, have been derived from known epitopes by sequence modification, or developed de novo using combinatorial peptide libraries to scan the entire sequence space for peptides that induce the desired T cell responses. Mimotopes of both types have been tested in clinical vaccination trials for treatment of cancer.

  5. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    CSF. J Clin Invest 117, 1902 (Jul, 2007). 32. H. Yamaguchi et al., Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 in the serum of human patients of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Leukoc Biol 83, 1300 (May, 2008). ...Over the first 12 months of this award, we have focused on developing an in-depth understanding of the immune system in the setting of the tumor...INTRODUCTION: Both the immune system and cancer are complex biological systems , so restoring immune dysfunction that accompanies cancer is no

  6. Development of new immunotherapy treatments in different cancer types.

    PubMed

    Stanculeanu, D L; Daniela, Zob; Lazescu, A; Bunghez, R; Anghel, R

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy involves the use of therapeutic modalities that determine a manipulation of the immune system by using immune agents such as cytokines, vaccines, cell therapies and humoral, transfection agents. Immunotherapy of cancer has to stimulate the host's anti-tumor response by increasing the effector cell number and the production of soluble mediators and decrease the host's suppressor mechanisms by inducing tumor killing environment and by modulating immune checkpoints. Immunotherapy seems to work better in more immunogenic tumors. Making a review of literature, the article presents the new immunologic treatments in cancers less presented in the latest conferences, cancers in which, immunotherapy is still under investigation. Bladder cancer was the first indication for which immunotherapy was used in 1970. A promising clinical research in bladder cancer is the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although breast cancer is considered immunologically silent, several preclinical and clinical studies suggested that immunotherapy has the potential to improve the clinical outcomes for patients with breast cancer. Cervical cancer, brain cancer, head and neck cancer and colorectal and esophageal cancers are cancer types for which new immune-based cancer treatments are currently under development. Recent agents used in clinical trials will be described in before mentioned cancers.

  7. Development of new immunotherapy treatments in different cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Stanculeanu, DL; Daniela, Zob; Lazescu, A; Bunghez, R; Anghel, R

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy involves the use of therapeutic modalities that determine a manipulation of the immune system by using immune agents such as cytokines, vaccines, cell therapies and humoral, transfection agents. Immunotherapy of cancer has to stimulate the host’s anti-tumor response by increasing the effector cell number and the production of soluble mediators and decrease the host’s suppressor mechanisms by inducing tumor killing environment and by modulating immune checkpoints. Immunotherapy seems to work better in more immunogenic tumors. Making a review of literature, the article presents the new immunologic treatments in cancers less presented in the latest conferences, cancers in which, immunotherapy is still under investigation. Bladder cancer was the first indication for which immunotherapy was used in 1970. A promising clinical research in bladder cancer is the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although breast cancer is considered immunologically silent, several preclinical and clinical studies suggested that immunotherapy has the potential to improve the clinical outcomes for patients with breast cancer. Cervical cancer, brain cancer, head and neck cancer and colorectal and esophageal cancers are cancer types for which new immune-based cancer treatments are currently under development. Recent agents used in clinical trials will be described in before mentioned cancers. PMID:27974927

  8. Cytotoxic immunotherapy strategies for cancer: mechanisms and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Laura K; Guzik, Brian W; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo

    2011-08-01

    Traditional therapies for cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Chemotherapy has widespread systemic cytotoxic effects against tumor cells but also affects normal cells. Radiation has more targeted local cytotoxicity but is limited to killing cells in the radiation field. Immunotherapy has the potential for systemic, specific killing of tumor cells. However, if the immune response is specific to a single antigen, tumor evasion can occur by down-regulation of that antigen. An immunotherapy approach that induces polyvalent immunity to autologous tumor antigens can provide a personalized vaccine with less potential for immunologic escape. A cytotoxic immunotherapy strategy creates such a tumor vaccine in situ. Immunogenic tumor cell death provides tumor antigen targets for the adaptive immune response and stimulates innate immunity. Attraction and activation of antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells is important to process and present tumor antigens to T cells. These include cytotoxic T cells that kill tumor cells and T cells which positively and negatively regulate immunity. Tipping the balance in favor of anti-tumor immunity is an important aspect of an effective strategy. Clinically, immunotherapies may be most effective when combined with standard therapies in a complimentary way. An example is gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy (GMCI) which uses an adenoviral vector, AdV-tk, to deliver a cytotoxic and immunostimulatory gene to tumor cells in vivo in combination with standard therapies creating an immunostimulatory milieu. This approach, studied extensively in animal models and early stage clinical trials, is now entering a definitive Phase 3 trial for prostate cancer.

  9. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Center IRB, and the I owa City VA Medical Center Research and Development Committee. During the second and t hird years we have been recruiting pa...American Urologic Association (AUA). (3) Talks to prostate cancer survivor support groups in at the University of I owa , Mercy Medical Center in Cedar

  10. Combined Cancer Immunotherapy Against Aurora Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Kaštánková, Iva; Poláková, Ingrid; Dušková, Martina; Šmahel, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is a centrosomal protein that is overexpressed in a number of human malignancies and can contribute to tumor progression. As we used this protein as a target of DNA immunization, we increased its immunogenicity by the addition of the PADRE helper epitope and decreased its potential oncogenicity by mutagenesis of the kinase domain. For in vitro analysis of induced immune responses in mice, we identified the Aurka(220-228) nonapeptide representing an H-2Kb epitope. As DNA vaccination against the Aurka self-antigen by a gene gun did not show any antitumor effect, we combined DNA immunization with anti-CD25 treatment that depletes mainly regulatory T cells. Whereas 1 anti-CD25 dose injected before DNA vaccination did not enhance the activation of Aurka-specific splenocytes, 3 doses administered on days of immunizations augmented about 10-fold immunity against Aurka. However, an opposite effect was found for antitumor immunity-only 1 anti-CD25 dose combined with DNA vaccination reduced tumor growth. Moreover, the administration of 3 doses of anti-CD25 antibody alone accelerated tumor growth. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating cells showed that 3 anti-CD25 doses not only efficiently depleted regulatory T cells but also activated helper T cells and CD3(-)CD25(+) cells. Next, we found that blockade of the PD-1 receptor initiated 1 week after the first immunization was necessary for significant inhibition of tumor growth with therapeutic DNA vaccination against Aurka combined with depletion of CD25 cells. Our results suggest that combined cancer immunotherapy should be carefully evaluated to achieve the optimal antitumor effect.

  11. Primary, Adaptive, and Acquired Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Padmanee; Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Wargo, Jennifer A; Ribas, Antoni

    2017-02-09

    Cancer immunotherapy can induce long lasting responses in patients with metastatic cancers of a wide range of histologies. Broadening the clinical applicability of these treatments requires an improved understanding of the mechanisms limiting cancer immunotherapy. The interactions between the immune system and cancer cells are continuous, dynamic, and evolving from the initial establishment of a cancer cell to the development of metastatic disease, which is dependent on immune evasion. As the molecular mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy are elucidated, actionable strategies to prevent or treat them may be derived to improve clinical outcomes for patients.

  12. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luca; Powell, Daniel J; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-05-01

    Adoptive cell transfer after host preconditioning by lymphodepletion represents an important advance in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we describe how a lymphopaenic environment enables tumour-reactive T cells to destroy large burdens of metastatic tumour and how the state of differentiation of the adoptively transferred T cells can affect the outcome of treatment. We also discuss how the translation of these new findings might further improve the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer through the use of vaccines, haematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation, modified preconditioning regimens, and alternative methods for the generation and selection of the T cells to be transferred.

  13. Harnessing the Microbiome to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Diven, Marshall A.; Huff, Logan W.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota plays a key role in regulating the innate and adaptive immune system. Herein, we review the immunological aspects of the microbiota in tumor immunity in mice and man, with a focus on toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, vaccines, checkpoint modulators, chemotherapy, and adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) therapies. We propose innovative treatments that may safely harness the microbiota to enhance T cell-based therapies in cancer patients. Finally, we highlight recent developments in tumor immunotherapy, particularly novel ways to modulate the microbiome and memory T cell responses to human malignancies. PMID:26101781

  14. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...growth of androgen-dependent cancer cells, and result in clinical tumor control . After a median time of 2 years, patients progress into a clinical...calculogenesis. Finally, Bischoff and Goerttler (38) used Gelfoam in human prostate therapeutic embolization with success. Our laboratory, in collaboration

  15. Immunotherapy for Brain Cancer: Recent Progress and Future Promise

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christopher M.; Lim, Michael; Drake, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is emerging as the newest pillar of cancer treatment, with the potential to assume a place alongside surgical debulking, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Early experiences with antitumor vaccines demonstrated the feasibility and potential efficacy of this approach, and newer agents, such as immune checkpoint blocking antibodies and modern vaccine platforms, have ushered in a new era. These efforts are headlined by work in melanoma, prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma; however, substantial progress has been achieved in a variety of other cancers, including high-grade gliomas. A recurrent theme of this work is that immunotherapy is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Rather, dynamic, tumor-specific interactions within the tumor microenvironment continually shape the immunologic balance between tumor elimination and escape. High-grade gliomas are a particularly fascinating example. These aggressive, universally fatal tumors are highly resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and inevitably recur after surgical resection. Located in the immune-privileged central nervous system, high-grade gliomas also use an array of defenses that serve as direct impediments to immune attack. Despite these challenges, vaccines have shown activity against high-grade gliomas, and anecdotal, preclinical, and early clinical data bolster the notion that durable remission is possible with immunotherapy. Realizing this potential, however, will require an approach tailored to the unique aspects of glioma biology. PMID:24771646

  16. Specific immunotherapy in renal cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gordan, Hesam Addin; Zahiri, Zahra; Mirshahvalad, Mohammad; Hosseinverdi, Sima; Rini, Brian I.; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the tenth most common malignancy in adults. In recent years, several approaches of active and passive immunotherapy have been studied extensively in clinical trials of patients with RCC. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the clinical efficacy of various approaches of specific immunotherapy in patients with RCC. Methods: We searched Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, TRIP, DART, OpenGrey and ProQuest without any language filter through to 9 October 2015. One author reviewed search results for irrelevant and duplicate studies and two other authors independently extracted data from the studies. We collated study findings and calculated a weighted treatment effect across studies using Review Manager (version 5.3. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, the Cochrane Collaboration). Results: We identified 14 controlled studies with 4013 RCC patients after excluding irrelevant and duplicate studies from 11,319 references retrieved from a literature search. Overall, five autologous tumor cell vaccines, one peptide-based vaccine, one virus-based vaccine and one dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine were studied in nine controlled studies of active specific immunotherapies. A total of three passive immunotherapies including autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, auto lymphocyte therapy (ALT) and autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were studied in four controlled studies. The clinical efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DCs, with CIK cells was studied in one controlled trial concurrently. The overall quality of studies was fair. Meta-analysis of seven studies showed that patients undergoing specific immunotherapy had significantly higher overall survival (OS) than those in the control group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58–0.89, p = 0.003]. In addition, a meta-analysis of four studies showed that there was a significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between patients

  17. Cancer Immunotherapy for Gliomas: Overview and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    HASHIMOTO, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been highlighted because we have obtained much evidence, which includes theoretical backborn as well as favorable results from clinical trials. As immunotherapy gives an apparently different cytotoxic mechanism and a little adverse event, the promising results are getting a lot of attention. In this article, cancer immunotherapy for gliomas is reviewed thoroughly from the literature, focusing on the clinical trial results. PMID:27087194

  18. Immunotherapy prospects in the treatment of lung cancer and mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Lievense, Lysanne A.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Hegmans, Joost P.

    2014-01-01

    A very recent finding is the role of immune activation in cancer. The assumption that stimulating the patient’s immune system to attack tumors is a valuable treatment option in malignant diseases has gained more acceptance. However the high immunosuppressive effects caused by the tumor limits this beneficial effect. There is a delicate balance between immunoactivation and immunosuppression in a patient. Especially in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the role of immunosuppressive cells hampering immune activation is high. But also in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and mesothelioma immunosuppressive activity is high. This is suggested to be related to the type of tumor, advanced stage of the disease, and the tumor load. In this review, we provide an overview of the progress and challenges in the immunotherapeutic approaches in lung cancer. We conclude with the concept that immunotherapy in thoracic malignancies must be tailored made to the balance of the immune system. PMID:25806279

  19. Immunotherapy against cancer-related viruses.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Haruko; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 12% of all cancers worldwide are associated with viral infections. To date, eight viruses have been shown to contribute to the development of human cancers, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C viruses, and Human papilloma virus, among others. These DNA and RNA viruses produce oncogenic effects through distinct mechanisms. First, viruses may induce sustained disorders of host cell growth and survival through the genes they express, or may induce DNA damage response in host cells, which in turn increases host genome instability. Second, they may induce chronic inflammation and secondary tissue damage favoring the development of oncogenic processes in host cells. Viruses like HIV can create a more permissive environment for cancer development through immune inhibition, but we will focus on the previous two mechanisms in this review. Unlike traditional cancer therapies that cannot distinguish infected cells from non-infected cells, immunotherapies are uniquely equipped to target virus-associated malignancies. The targeting and functioning mechanisms associated with the immune response can be exploited to prevent viral infections by vaccination, and can also be used to treat infection before cancer establishment. Successes in using the immune system to eradicate established malignancy by selective recognition of virus-associated tumor cells are currently being reported. For example, numerous clinical trials of adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated virus-specific T cells have shown benefit even for established tumors in patients with EBV-associated malignancies. Additional studies in other virus-associated tumors have also been initiated and in this review we describe the current status of immunotherapy for virus-associated malignancies and discuss future prospects.

  20. A stochastic model for immunotherapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baar, Martina; Coquille, Loren; Mayer, Hannah; Hölzel, Michael; Rogava, Meri; Tüting, Thomas; Bovier, Anton

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of a standard stochastic individual-based model in population dynamics which broadens the range of biological applications. Our primary motivation is modelling of immunotherapy of malignant tumours. In this context the different actors, T-cells, cytokines or cancer cells, are modelled as single particles (individuals) in the stochastic system. The main expansions of the model are distinguishing cancer cells by phenotype and genotype, including environment-dependent phenotypic plasticity that does not affect the genotype, taking into account the effects of therapy and introducing a competition term which lowers the reproduction rate of an individual in addition to the usual term that increases its death rate. We illustrate the new setup by using it to model various phenomena arising in immunotherapy. Our aim is twofold: on the one hand, we show that the interplay of genetic mutations and phenotypic switches on different timescales as well as the occurrence of metastability phenomena raise new mathematical challenges. On the other hand, we argue why understanding purely stochastic events (which cannot be obtained with deterministic models) may help to understand the resistance of tumours to therapeutic approaches and may have non-trivial consequences on tumour treatment protocols. This is supported through numerical simulations. PMID:27063839

  1. Clinical applications of adoptive natural killer cell immunotherapy for cancer: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongfeng; Qian, Xifeng

    2010-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic and cytokine-producing lymphocytes involved in the immune defense against viral infections and tumors. NK cells activated with cytokines, such as interleukin-2, have been used since the 1980s as adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. NK cell alloreactivity has been demonstrated to enhance control of acute myeloid leukemia relapse and greatly reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease in HLA haplotype-mismatched hematopoietic transplantation, and has been explored as a tool for adoptive immunotherapy for cancer patients. Future manipulation to improve NK cell adoptive immunotherapy by means of increasing target recognition and reducing inhibitory signaling is being explored.

  2. Application of nanostructured drug delivery systems in immunotherapy of cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Nahideh; Davaran, Soodabeh; Panahi, Yunes; Hasanzadeh, Arash; Malakootikhah, Javad; Fallah Moafi, Hadi; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2017-02-01

    The cancer immunotherapy method uses the specificity of the immune system to provide a more effective than more conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Immunotherapy has two main strategies (passive or active) to organize the immune system. Passive strategies use advantage of tumor-hyperpermeable cells, which have enhanced permeability and retention effects. Nanoparticles due to their better accumulation within tissues and cells of the immune system are well suitable for delivery of immune therapies such as vaccines or adjuvants. In this review, we explained application of nanotechnology in immunotherapy of cancer.

  3. [Development of immunotherapy for cancer: lessons from melanoma research].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2004-04-01

    Identification of human melanoma antigens by various molecular biological and immunological techniques and evaluation of tumor reactive T cells in patients with the identified tumor antigen and HLA tetramer technology, not only provided us more profound understanding of anti-tumor immune responses in human, but also led to reveal basic problems in each step towards immunological tumor rejection, including systemic suppressive mechanisms such as regulatory T cell induction and local inhibitory environment in tumors. Based on these results obtained from the basic and clinical researches, various improvements have been applied for immunotherapy, including active immunization with modified antigenic peptides and recombinant virus, T cell adoptive transfer with lymphodepletive pretreatment, and administration of anti-CTLA-4 Ab, although further improvement is necessary. The translational research performed on melanoma, would facilitate development of immunotherapy for other cancers.

  4. Immune targets and neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy and precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y

    2017-01-01

    Harnessing the immune system to eradicate malignant cells is becoming a most powerful new approach to cancer therapy. FDA approval of the immunotherapy-based drugs, sipuleucel-T (Provenge), ipilimumab (Yervoy, anti-CTLA-4), and more recently, the programmed cell death (PD)-1 antibody (pembrolizumab, Keytruda), for the treatment of multiple types of cancer has greatly advanced research and clinical studies in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Furthermore, recent clinical trials, using NY-ESO-1-specific T cell receptor (TCR) or CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), have shown promising clinical results for patients with metastatic cancer. Current success of cancer immunotherapy is built upon the work of cancer antigens and co-inhibitory signaling molecules identified 20 years ago. Among the large numbers of target antigens, CD19 is the best target for CAR T cell therapy for blood cancer, but CAR-engineered T cell immunotherapy does not yet work in solid cancer. NY-ESO-1 is one of the best targets for TCR-based immunotherapy in solid cancer. Despite the great success of checkpoint blockade therapy, more than 50% of cancer patients fail to respond to blockade therapy. The advent of new technologies such as next-generation sequencing has enhanced our ability to search for new immune targets in onco-immunology and accelerated the development of immunotherapy with potentially broader coverage of cancer patients. In this review, we will discuss the recent progresses of cancer immunotherapy and novel strategies in the identification of new immune targets and mutation-derived antigens (neoantigens) for cancer immunotherapy and immunoprecision medicine.

  5. Future directions in bladder cancer immunotherapy: towards adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean G; Zaharoff, David A

    2016-01-01

    The clinical management of bladder cancer has not changed significantly in several decades. In particular, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy has been a mainstay for high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer since the late 1970s/early 1980s. This is despite the fact that bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rates of any cancer and BCG immunotherapy has not been shown to induce a tumor-specific immune response. We and others have hypothesized that immunotherapies capable of inducing tumor-specific adaptive immunity are needed to impact bladder cancer morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the preclinical and clinical development of bladder cancer immunotherapies with an emphasis on the last 5 years. Expected progress in the near future is also discussed.

  6. Cancer immunotherapy: are we there yet?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The immune system is the built-in host defense mechanism against infectious agents as well as cancer. Protective immunity against cancer was convincingly demonstrated in the 1940s with syngeneic animal models (JNCI 18:769-778, 1976; Cancer Immun 1:6, 2001). Since then, the last century’s dream has been to effectively prevent and cure cancers by immunological means. This dream has slowly but surely become a reality (Nature 480:480-489, 2011). The successful examples of immunoprophylaxis and therapy against cancers include: (i) targeted therapy using monoclonal antibodies (Nat Rev Cancer 12:278-287, 2012); (ii) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantion to elicit graft-versus-cancer effect against a variety of hematopoietic malignancies (Blood 112:4371-4383, 2008); (iii) vaccination for preventing cancers with clear viral etiology such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cervical cancer (Cancer J Clin 57:7-28, 2007; NEJM 336:1855-1859, 1997); (iv) T cell checkpoint blockade against inhibitory pathways including targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitory molecules for the treatment of melanoma and other solid tumors (NEJM 363:711-723, 2010; NEJM 366:2443-2454, 2012; NEJM 369:122-133, 2013; NEJM 366:2455-2465, 2012); (v) antigen-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccination against prostate cancer (NEJM 363:411-422, 2010); and (vi) the transfer of T cells including those genetically engineered with chimeric antigen receptors allowing targeting of B cell neoplasms (NEJM 365:725-733, 2011; NEJM 368:1509-1518, 2013; Blood 118:4817-4828, 2013; Sci Transl Med 5:177ra138, 2013). This article provides an overview on the exciting and expanding immunological arsenals against cancer, and discusses critical remaining unanswered questions of cancer immunology. The inherent specificity and memory of the adaptive immune response towards cancer will undoubtedly propel cancer immunotherapy to the forefront of cancer treatment in the immediate near future. Study of the fundamental

  7. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    effects due to the loss of testosterone (including fatigue, decreased sexual desire, weight gain, loss of muscle mass and osteoporosis ) and the well...beyond the prostate, immunotherapy may be the only way to treat it [6, 7]. A majority of clinical trials for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer...Localized Prostate Cancer. J Sex Med, 2012. 5. Fitzpatrick, J.M., Management of localized prostate cancer in senior adults : the crucial role of comorbidity

  8. Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rini, Brian I; McDermott, David F; Hammers, Hans; Bro, William; Bukowski, Ronald M; Faba, Bernard; Faba, Jo; Figlin, Robert A; Hutson, Thomas; Jonasch, Eric; Joseph, Richard W; Leibovich, Bradley C; Olencki, Thomas; Pantuck, Allan J; Quinn, David I; Seery, Virginia; Voss, Martin H; Wood, Christopher G; Wood, Laura S; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has produced durable clinical benefit in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). In the past, patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have achieved complete responses, many of which have lasted for multiple decades. More recently, a large number of new agents have been approved for RCC, several of which attack tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR), as well as tumor metabolism, inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Additionally, a new class of immunotherapy agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, is emerging and will play a significant role in the treatment of patients with RCC. Therefore, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a Task Force, which met to consider the current role of approved immunotherapy agents in RCC, to provide guidance to practicing clinicians by developing consensus recommendations and to set the stage for future immunotherapeutic developments in RCC.

  9. [Combination of Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy for Cancer].

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Norimitsu

    2015-09-01

    Targeted therapies and immunotherapies attack tumor cells through different mechanisms. In addition, these therapies exhibit quick and delayed effects, respectively, and therefore, these therapies are complementary. Furthermore, targeted therapies may enhance the function of immune cells, and therefore, both the therapies are expected to have a synergistic effect. Antitumor immune responses comprise several steps including dendritic cell activation, T cell activation, and dampening tumor-induced immunosuppression; targeted drugs that work at each step have been reported. Clinical trials of rational combinations of both therapies, while avoiding severe adverse events, will greatly advance cancer treatments in the near future.

  10. Immunotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Nakazato, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2008-07-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of colorectal cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) ever discovered, but it produces no side effect in humans. Macrophages treated with GcMAF (100 microg/ml) develop an enormous variation of receptors and are highly tumoricidal to a variety of cancers indiscriminately. Administration of 100 nanogram (ng)/ human maximally activates systemic macrophages that can kill cancerous cells. Since the half-life of the activated macrophages is approximately 6 days, 100 ng GcMAF was administered weekly to eight nonanemic colorectal cancer patients who had previously received tumor-resection but still carried significant amounts of metastatic tumor cells. As GcMAF therapy progressed, the MAF precursor activities of all patients increased and conversely their serum Nagalase activities decreased. Since serum Nagalase is proportional to tumor burden, serum Nagalase activity was used as a prognostic index for time course analysis of GcMAF therapy. After 32-50 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF, all colorectal cancer patients exhibited healthy control levels of the serum Nagalase activity, indicating eradication of metastatic tumor cells. During 7 years after the completion of GcMAF therapy, their serum Nagalase activity did not increase, indicating no recurrence of cancer, which was also supported by the annual CT scans of these patients.

  11. Checkpoint immunotherapy for cancer: superior survival, unaccustomed toxicities.

    PubMed

    Gedye, C; van der Westhuizen, A; John, T

    2015-07-01

    Novel cancer immunotherapy antibodies are moving from clinical trials into routine practice, delivering sustained benefits and prolonged survival to patients with melanoma, lung, kidney and other cancers. These immunostimulatory antibodies non-specifically activate the patient's own immune system by inhibiting immune system checkpoint proteins. This mechanism of action is entirely different to traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy. While there are virtually no immediate toxicities, serious life-threatening autoimmune side-effects such as colitis, dermatitis, hypophysitis, pneumonitis and hepatitis can occur, sometimes starting long after the treatment has been given. Recognition, referral and prompt treatment with immunosuppressive drugs like corticosteroids can control these immune-related side-effects without compromising efficacy. This exciting new class of drugs is defining a new paradigm in cancer therapy.

  12. Molecular imaging of cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lucignani, Giovanni; Ottobrini, Luisa; Martelli, Cristina; Rescigno, Maria; Clerici, Mario

    2006-09-01

    New strategies based on the activation of a patient's immune response are being sought to complement present conventional exogenous cancer therapies. Elucidating the trafficking pathways of immune cells in vivo, together with their migratory properties in relation to their differentiation and activation status, is useful for understanding how the immune system interacts with cancer. Methods based on tissue sampling to monitor immune responses are inadequate for repeatedly characterizing the responses of the immune system in different organs. A solution to this problem might come from molecular and cellular imaging - a branch of biomedical sciences that combines biotechnology and imaging methods to characterize, in vivo, the molecular and cellular processes involved in normal and pathologic states. The general concepts of noninvasive imaging of targeted cells as well as the technology and probes applied to cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy imaging are outlined in this review.

  13. Breast cancer immunotherapy: monoclonal antibodies and peptide-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mohit, Elham; Hashemi, Atieh; Allahyari, Mojgan

    2014-07-01

    Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a treatment strategy in the adjuvant setting of breast cancer. In this review, monoclonal antibodies in passive and peptide-based vaccines, as one of the most commonly studied in active immunotherapy approaches, are discussed. Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu, has demonstrated considerable efficacy. However, resistance to trastuzumab has led to development of many targeted therapies which have been examined in clinical trials. Monoclonal antibodies against immune-checkpoint molecules that are dysregulated by tumors as an immune resistance mechanism are also explained in this review. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies with the ability to target breast cancer stem cells that play a role in cancer recurrence are mentioned. Here, clinical trials of HER-2/neu B and T cells, MUC1 and hTERT cancer peptide vaccines are also presented. In addition, various strategies for enhancing vaccine efficacy including combination with monoclonal antibodies and using different delivery systems for peptide/protein-based vaccine are described.

  14. Plasma Onco-Immunotherapy: Novel Approach to Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Presentation is reviewing the newest results obtained by researchers of A.J. Drexel Plasma Institute on direct application of non-thermal plasma for direct treatment of different types of cancer by means of specific stimulation of immune system in the frameworks of the so-called onco-immunotherapy. Especial attention is paid to analysis of depth of penetration of different plasma-medical effects, from ROS, RNS, and ions to special biological signaling and immune system related processes. General aspects of the plasma-stimulation of immune system are discussed, pointing out specific medical applications. Most of experiments have been carried out using nanosecond pulsed DBD at low power and relatively low level of treatment doses, guaranteeing non-damage no-toxicity treatment regime. The nanosecond pulsed DBD physics is discussed mostly regarding its space uniformity and control of plasma parameters relevant to plasma medical treatment, and especially relevant to depth of penetration of different plasma medical effects. Detailed mechanism of the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy has been suggested based upon preliminary in-vitro experiments with DBD treatment of different cancer cells. Sub-elements of this mechanism related to activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, specific stressing of cancer cells and the immunogenic cell death (ICD) are to be discussed based on results of corresponding in-vitro experiments. In-vivo experiments focused on the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy were carried out in collaboration with medical doctors from Jefferson University hospital of Philadelphia. Todays achievements and nearest future prospective of clinical test focused on plasma-controlled cancer treatment are discussed in conclusion.

  15. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized β-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years. PMID:18633461

  16. Improving cancer immunotherapy by targeting the STATe of MDSCs

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Nienke; de Koning, Coco; Spilgies, Lisanne; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.; Hato, Stanleyson V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic avenue; however, in practice its efficacy is hampered by an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that consists of suppressive cell types like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Eradication or reprogramming of MDSCs could therefore enhance clinical responses to immunotherapy. Here, we review clinically available drugs that target MDSCs, often through inhibition of STAT signaling, which is essential for MDSC accumulation and suppressive functions. Interestingly, several drugs used for non-cancerous indications and natural compounds similarly inhibit MDSCs by STAT inhibition, but have fewer side effects than anticancer drugs. Therefore, they show great potential for combination strategies with immunotherapy. PMID:27622051

  17. Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0423 TITLE: Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Smita...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0423 Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...immune modulation of CTLA4 and have generated a lead cellular therapy that will safely enhance vaccine -mediated immunity. This lead cellular

  18. Optimal vaccine scheduling in cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, B.; Castiglione, F.

    2006-10-01

    Cancer immunotherapy aims at stimulating the immune system to react against cancer stealth capabilities. It consists of repeatedly injecting small doses of a tumor-associated molecule one wants the immune system to recognize, until a consistent immune response directed against the tumor cells is observed. We have applied the theory of optimal control to the problem of finding the optimal schedule of injections of an immunotherapeutic agent against cancer. The method employed works for a general ODE system and can be applied to find the optimal protocol in a variety of clinical problems where the kinetics of the drug or treatment and its influence on the normal physiologic functions have been described by a mathematical model. We show that the choice of the cost function has dramatic effects on the kind of solution the optimization algorithm is able to find. This provides evidence that a careful ODE model and optimization schema must be designed by mathematicians and clinicians using their proper different perspectives.

  19. Cancer immunotherapy: Strategies for personalization and combinatorial approaches.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayanan, Vishwanath; Neelapu, Sattva S

    2015-12-01

    The results of recent clinical trials using novel immunotherapy strategies such as immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell therapy approaches including CAR T-cell therapy have clearly established immunotherapy as an important modality for the treatment of cancer besides the traditional approaches of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy or targeted therapy. However, to date immunotherapy has been shown to induce durable clinical benefit in only a fraction of the patients. The use of combination strategies is likely to increase the number of patients that might benefit from immunotherapy. Indeed, over the last decade, the characterization of multiple immune resistance mechanisms used by the tumor to evade the immune system and the development of agents that target those mechanisms has generated a lot of enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy. But a critical issue is to determine how best to combine such agents. This review will focus on novel immunotherapy agents currently in development and discuss strategies to develop and personalize combination cancer immunotherapy strategies.

  20. ErbB-targeted CAR T-cell immunotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Maher, John

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based immunotherapy has been under development for the last 25 years and is now a promising new treatment modality in the field of cancer immunotherapy. The approach involves genetically engineering T cells to target malignant cells through expression of a bespoke fusion receptor that couples an HLA-independent antigen recognition domain to one or more intracellular T-cell activating modules. Multiple clinical trials are now underway in several centers to investigate CAR T-cell immunotherapy of diverse hematologic and solid tumor types. The most successful results have been achieved in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies, in whom several complete and durable responses have been achieved. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of CAR T-cell immunotherapy of solid cancers, targeted against members of the ErbB family.

  1. Tumor and Host Factors Controlling Antitumor Immunity and Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Spranger, Stefani; Sivan, Ayelet; Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent clinical advances in immunotherapy, a fraction of cancer patients fails to respond to these interventions. Evidence from preclinical mouse models as well as clinical samples has provided evidence that the extent of activated T cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment is associated with clinical response to immunotherapies including checkpoint blockade. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating the lack of T cell infiltration into the tumor microenvironment will be instrumental for the development of new therapeutic strategies to render those patients immunotherapy responsive. Recent data have suggested that major sources of intersubject heterogeneity include differences in somatic mutations in specific oncogene pathways between cancers of individual subjects and also environmental factors including commensal microbial composition. Successful identification of such causal factors should lead to new therapeutic approaches that may facilitate T cell entry into noninflamed tumors and expand the fraction of patients capable of responding to novel immunotherapies.

  2. Tumor and Host Factors Controlling Antitumor Immunity and Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spranger, Stefani; Sivan, Ayelet; Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent clinical advances in immunotherapy, a fraction of cancer patients fails to respond to these interventions. Evidence from preclinical mouse models as well as clinical samples has provided evidence that the extent of activated T cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment is associated with clinical response to immunotherapies including checkpoint blockade. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating the lack of T cell infiltration into the tumor microenvironment will be instrumental for the development of new therapeutic strategies to render those patients immunotherapy responsive. Recent data have suggested that major sources of intersubject heterogeneity include differences in somatic mutations in specific oncogene pathways between cancers of individual subjects and also environmental factors including commensal microbial composition. Successful identification of such causal factors should lead to new therapeutic approaches that may facilitate T cell entry into noninflamed tumors and expand the fraction of patients capable of responding to novel immunotherapies. PMID:26923000

  3. Immunotherapy for cancer: promoting innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ramin; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Lotze, Michael Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Development of tumor over many years leads to reciprocal alterations in the host immune response and the tumor, enabling tumor growth seemingly paradoxically in the setting of necrosis and inflammation. Innate immune cells, granulocytes - neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils - and mast cells belong to the first line of defense sensing pathogen and damage associated molecular pattern (PAMPs, DAMPs) signals, initiating and modulating the subsequent inflammatory response. Nontheless, the prevailing contemporary strategies of immunotherapy for cancer have focused on the second line of the immune response, the adaptive immune response. We have determined that most highly evolved tumors in adults undergo necrosis, releasing DAMPs, promoting reactive angiogenesis, stromagenesis and reparative epithelial proliferation of the tumor cell. Means to aerobically eliminate such DAMPs by peroxidases released by innate immune effectors allows us to consider novel strategies for limiting tumor progression. Summarized here is our current understanding of acute and chronic inflammation and its impact on tumor development, the pathophysiology of immunity in cancer, and the influence of granulocytes and mast cells in this setting.

  4. Immunotherapy of metastatic breast cancer patients with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ushijima, Naofumi

    2008-01-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of breast cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Patient serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden. The deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, resulting in no macrophage activation and immunosuppression. Stepwise incubation of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated probably the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages treated in vitro with GcMAF (100 pg/ml) are highly tumoricidal to mammary adenocarcinomas. Efficacy of GcMAF for treatment of metastatic breast cancer was investigated with 16 nonanemic patients who received weekly administration of GcMAF (100 ng). As GcMAF therapy progresses, the MAF precursor activity of patient Gc protein increased with a concomitant decrease in serum Nagalase. Because of proportionality of serum Nagalase activity to tumor burden, the time course progress of GcMAF therapy was assessed by serum Nagalase activity as a prognostic index. These patients had the initial Nagalase activities ranging from 2.32 to 6.28 nmole/min/mg protein. After about 16-22 administrations (approximately 3.5-5 months) of GcMAF, these patients had insignificantly low serum enzyme levels equivalent to healthy control enzyme levels, ranging from 0.38 to 0.63 nmole/min/mg protein, indicating eradication of the tumors. This therapeutic procedure resulted in no recurrence for more than 4 years.

  5. Workshop on immunotherapy combinations. Society for immunotherapy of cancer annual meeting Bethesda, November 3, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although recent FDA approvals on ipilimumab and sipuleucel-T represent major milestones, the ultimate success of immunotherapy approaches will likely benefit from appropriate combinations with other immunotherapeutic and/or non-immunotherapeutic approaches. However, implementation of ideal combinations in the clinic may still face formidable challenges in regulatory, drug-availability and intellectual property aspects. The 2011 SITC annual meeting hosted a workshop on combination immunotherapy to discuss: 1) the most promising combinations found in the laboratory; 2) early success of combination immunotherapy in clinical trials; 3) industry perspectives on combination approaches, and 4) relevant regulatory issues. The integrated theme was how to accelerate the implementation of efficacious combined immunotherapies for cancer patients. Rodent animal models are providing many examples of synergistic combinations that typically include more than two agents. However, mouse and human immunology differ in a significant number of mechanisms and hence we might be missing opportunities peculiar to humans. Nonetheless, incisive animal experimentation with deep mechanistic insight remains the best compass that we can use to guide our paths in combinatorial immunotherapy. Combination immunotherapy clinical trials are already in progress and preliminary results are extremely promising. As a key to translate promising combinations into clinic, real and “perceived” business and regulatory hurdles were debated. A formidable step forward would be to be able to test combinations of investigational agents prior to individual approval. Taking together the FDA and the industrial perspective on combinatorial immunotherapy, the audience was left with the clear message that this is by no means an impossible task. The general perception is that the road ahead of us is full of combination clinical trials which hopefully will bring clinical benefit to our cancer patients at a fast pace

  6. Targeting the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Lapointe, Réjean

    2012-09-01

    The success of immunotherapy relies on the participation of all arms of the immune system and the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in preventing tumor growth is now well established. Understanding how tumors evade immune responses holds the key to the development of cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss how MHC Class II expression varies in cancer cells and how this influences antitumor immune responses. We also discuss the means that are currently available for harnessing the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway for the development of efficient vaccines to activate the immune system against cancer.

  7. Immunotherapy for small-cell lung cancer: emerging evidence.

    PubMed

    Reck, Martin; Heigener, David; Reinmuth, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Treatment for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has changed little over the past few decades; available therapies have failed to extend survival in advanced disease. In recent years, immunotherapy with treatments such as interferons, TNFs, vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has advanced and shown promise in the treatment of several tumor types. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, durvalumab, tremelimumab and ulocuplumab are at the forefront of immunotherapy and have achieved approvals for certain cancer types, including melanoma (ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab), non-SCLC (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and renal cell carcinoma (nivolumab). Clinical trials are investigating different immunotherapies in patients with other solid and hematologic malignancies, including SCLC. We review emerging evidence supporting the use of immunotherapy in SCLC patients.

  8. [Current events in immunotherapy for upper aerodigestive tract cancer].

    PubMed

    Outh-Gauer, Sophie; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Broudin, Chloé; Scotte, Florian; Roussel, Hélène; Hans, Stéphane; Mandavit, Marion; Tartour, Eric; Badoual, Cécile

    2017-02-01

    Head and neck (HN) carcinomas (mostly represented by squamous cell carcinomas [SCC]) still have a poor prognosis, which could be dramatically improved with immunotherapy. Tumor's microenvironment changes, caused by many endogenous or exogenous events, can correlate with prognosis and therapeutic response. Here, we review recent data regarding HNSCC, nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) and salivary gland malignant tumors, all three being potential target of immunotherapies. About half of HNSCC exhibit PD-L1 expression, this expression being upregulated in HPV-positive tumors. In recent clinical trials, a better therapeutic response to anti-PD-1 has been obtained in patients with higher PD-L1 expression. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of these therapeutics without the screening of patients regarding PD-L1 status. Activation status, density and localisation of TIL as well as PD-L2, γ-interferon, inflammatory cytokines, epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and mutational burden may all be potential therapeutic response markers. In Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-induced nasopharyngeal non-keratinizing cancer, PD-L1 is over-expressed compared to EBV negative-tumors. A 22 % response rate has been observed under anti-PD-1 treatment, among PD-L1-positive HNSCC patients. There is little data regarding microenvironment of salivary gland cancer. PD-L1 shows great heterogeneity in localisation, when expressed. A 11 % response rate has been obtained under anti-PD-1 treatment among PD-L1-positive NPC patients. A better understanding of immune checkpoint regulation processes needs to be achieved to allow patients with HN carcinomas to benefit from these promising immunotherapies.

  9. Clinical Trials Integrating Immunotherapy and Radiation for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Daly, Megan E; Monjazeb, Arta M; Kelly, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Methods of harnessing the immune system to treat cancer have been investigated for decades, but yielded little clinical progress. However, in recent years, novel drugs that allow immune recognition and destruction of tumor cells are emerging as potent cancer therapies. Building upon previous immunotherapy strategies that included therapeutic vaccines, recombinant cytokines, and other immunostimulatory agents, newer immunotherapy agents targeting immune checkpoints including programmed cell death 1, programmed cell death ligand-1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, among others, have garnered substantial enthusiasm after demonstrating clinical activity in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Trials evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrate robust and durable responses in a subset of patients. However, with overall response rates less than 20%, combinatorial strategies that extend the benefit of these agents to more patients are desirable. The integration of radiotherapy with immunotherapy is a conceptually promising strategy, as radiotherapy has potent immunomodulatory effects and may contribute not only to local control but may also augment systemic antitumor immune response. Preclinical data and case reports suggest the potential for robust clinical responses in metastatic NSCLC patients using this strategy, but prospective clinical trials evaluating the integration of radiation and immunotherapy are limited. The use of immunotherapy in nonmetastatic settings is also intriguing but understudied. We review the potential clinical settings of interest for the partnering of immunotherapy and radiation in NSCLC, including early stage, locally advanced, and metastatic disease, and review completed, accruing, and developing clinical trials.

  10. Immunotherapy in colorectal cancer: What have we learned so far?

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Castañón, María; Er, Tze-Kiong; Bujanda, Luis; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta

    2016-09-01

    After decades of progress based on chemotherapy and targeted agents, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer still have low long-term survival, with more than 500,000 deaths occurring worldwide every year. Recent results showing clinical evidence of efficacy using immunotherapy in other types of tumors, such as melanoma and lung cancer, have also made this a viable therapy for evaluation in colorectal cancer in clinical trials. The development of cancer immunotherapies is progressing quickly, with a variety of technological approaches. This review summarizes the current status of clinical trials testing immunotherapy in colorectal cancer and discusses what has been learned based on previous results. Immunotherapy strategies, such as various models of vaccines, effector-cell therapy and checkpoint inhibitor antibodies, provide protection against progression for a limited subset of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. A better understanding of particular immune cell types and pathways in each patient is still needed. These findings will enable the development of novel biomarkers to select the appropriate subset of patients to be treated with a particular immunotherapy, and the tendencies determined from recent results can guide clinical practice for oncologists in this new therapeutic area and in the design of the next round of clinical trials.

  11. Invariant natural killer T cell-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    Human Valpha24 invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a distinct lymphocyte population, characterized by an invariant T-cell receptor Valpha24 chain paired mainly with Valpha11. Valpha24 iNKT cells are activated by a glycolipid ligand - alpha-galactosylceramide - and produce a large amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, thereby modulating the function of other cells. iNKT cells have the capability to control a wide variety of immune responses, including antitumor immunity. Abnormalities in the number and function of Valpha24 iNKT cells have been observed in patients with malignant diseases accompanied with a poor clinical outcome. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that focused on the restoration of Valpha24 iNKT cell population and function would be a reasonable rationale for the treatment of cancer. In this article, the progress to date in the clinical studies of iNKT cell-based immunotherapy is briefly reviewed and the role of Valpha24 iNKT cells in cancer immunotherapy is highlighted.

  12. Potentiating Cancer Immunotherapy Using Papaya Mosaic Virus-Derived Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Tarrab, Esther; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-03-09

    The recent development of novel immunotherapies is revolutionizing cancer treatment. These include, for example, immune checkpoint blockade, immunomodulation, or therapeutic vaccination. Although effective on their own, combining multiple approaches will most likely be required in order to achieve the maximal therapeutic benefit. In this regard, the papaya mosaic virus nanoparticle (PapMV) has shown tremendous potential as (i) an immunostimulatory molecule, (ii) an adjuvant, and (iii) a vaccine platform through its intrinsic capacity to activate the innate immune response in an IFN-α-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that intratumor administration of PapMV significantly slows down melanoma progression and prolongs survival. This correlates with enhanced chemokine and pro-inflammatory-cytokine production in the tumor and increased immune-cell infiltration. Proportions of total and tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells dramatically increase following PapMV treatment whereas those of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) concomitantly decrease. Moreover, systemic PapMV administration prevents metastatic tumor-implantation in the lungs. Importantly, PapMV also synergistically improves the therapeutic benefit of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination and PD-1 blockade by potentiating antitumor immune responses. This study illustrates the immunostimulatory potential of a plant virus-derived nanoparticle for cancer therapy either alone or in conjunction with other promising immunotherapies in clinical development.

  13. Sipuleucel-T: immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Olson, Brian M; McNeel, Douglas G

    2011-05-03

    Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most serious afflictions of men of advanced age, remaining the most commonly diagnosed and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men. The treatment options for patients with incurable metastatic, castrate-resistant disease have long focused on various chemotherapeutic approaches, which provide a slight survival benefit while being associated with potentially significant side effects. However, the recent approval of sipuleucel-T has given patients with advanced disease an additional treatment option that has demonstrated benefit without the side effects associated with chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T is an antigen-presenting cell-based active immunotherapy that utilizes a patient's own immune cells, presumably to activate an antigen-specific immune response against tumor cells. This review focuses on the development and implementation of sipuleucel-T as a therapy for prostate cancer. Specifically, we present some of the issues associated with the management of advanced prostate cancer, the research and development that led to the approval of sipuleucel-T, how the approval of sipuleucel-T could change the clinical management of prostate cancer, and current and future areas of investigation that are being pursued with regard to sipuleucel-T and other treatments for advanced prostate cancer.

  14. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  15. Programmed death-1 & its ligands: promising targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shrimali, Rajeev K; Janik, John E; Abu-Eid, Rasha; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2015-01-01

    Novel strategies for cancer treatment involving blockade of immune inhibitors have shown significant progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. The preclinical findings and clinical responses associated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand pathway blockade seem promising, making these targets highly sought for cancer immunotherapy. In fact, the anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, were recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of unresectable and metastatic melanoma resistant to anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and BRAF inhibitor. Here, we discuss strategies of combining PD-1/PD-ligand interaction inhibitors with other immune checkpoint modulators and standard-of-care therapy to break immune tolerance and induce a potent antitumor activity, which is currently a research area of key scientific pursuit.

  16. Cancer Immunotherapy: Selected Targets and Small-Molecule Modulators.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Hilmar

    2016-03-04

    There is a significant amount of excitement in the scientific community around cancer immunotherapy, as this approach has renewed hope for many cancer patients owing to some recent successes in the clinic. Currently available immuno-oncology therapeutics under clinical development and on the market are mostly biologics (antibodies, proteins, engineered cells, and oncolytic viruses). However, modulation of the immune system with small molecules offers several advantages that may be complementary and potentially synergistic to the use of large biologicals. Therefore, the discovery and development of novel small-molecule modulators is a rapidly growing research area for medicinal chemists working in cancer immunotherapy. This review provides a brief introduction into recent trends related to selected targets and pathways for cancer immunotherapy and their small-molecule pharmacological modulators.

  17. Prostate cancer as a model for tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in basic immunology have led to an improved understanding of the interactions between the immune system and tumours, generating renewed interest in approaches that aim to treat cancer immunologically. As clinical and preclinical studies of tumour immunotherapy illustrate several immunological principles, a review of these data is broadly instructive and is particularly timely now that several agents are beginning to show evidence of efficacy. This is especially relevant in the case of prostate cancer, as recent approval of sipuleucel-T by the US Food and Drug Administration marks the first antigen-specific immunotherapy approved for cancer treatment. Although this Review focuses on immunotherapy for prostate cancer, the principles discussed are applicable to many tumour types, and the approaches discussed are highlighted in that context. PMID:20651745

  18. Combining Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapies in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vanneman, Matthew; Dranoff, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Preface During the past two decades, the paradigm for cancer treatment has evolved from relatively non-specific cytotoxic agents to selective, mechanism-based therapeutics. Cancer chemotherapies were initially identified through screens for compounds that killed rapidly dividing cells. These drugs remain a backbone of current treatment, but are limited by a narrow therapeutic index, significant toxicities, and frequently acquired resistance. More recently, an improved understanding of cancer pathogenesis has given rise to new treatment options, including targeted agents and cancer immunotherapy. Targeted approaches aim to inhibit molecular pathways that are critical to tumor growth and maintenance, whereas immunotherapy endeavors to stimulate a host response that effectuates long-lived tumor destruction. Targeted therapies and cytotoxic agents also modulate immune responses, which raises the possibility that these treatment strategies might be effectively combined with immunotherapy to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:22437869

  19. Who Will Benefit from Cancer Immunotherapy?

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a “genetic signature” in the tumors of patients with advanced melanoma who responded to a form of immunotherapy called checkpoint blockade. The results could be the basis for a test that identifies likely responders.

  20. T Cell Coinhibition and Immunotherapy in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Janakiram, Murali; Abadi, Yael M.; Sparano, Joseph A.; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    Costimulation and coinhibition generated by the B7 family and their receptor CD28 family have key roles in regulating T lymphocyte activation and tolerance. These pathways are very attractive therapeutic targets for human cancers including breast cancer. Gene polymorphisms of B7x (B7-H4/B7S1), PD-1 (CD279), and CTLA-4 (CD152) are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In human breast cancer microenvironment, up-regulation of coinhibitory B7/CD28 members B7x, B7-H3 (CD276), and PD-L1 (B7-H1/CD274) on tumor cells as well as PD-1 and PD-L1 on tumor-infiltrating immune cells are emerging as immune evasion pathways. Chemotherapy can affect the expression of these molecules, and therefore may dampen the immune response against breast cancer. Immunotherapy targeting T cell coinhibition as monotherapy or combined with standard therapies are in early stages of clinical development, but hold great promise for treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:23114578

  1. [Satisfaction with immunotherapy in patients with advanced cancer].

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Fumika; Kotani, Junko; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Toru

    2015-04-01

    Patient satisfaction with cancer immunotherapy, which is not covered by health insurance in Japan, was evaluated among 65 patients with advanced cancer who had received immunotherapy in our hospital for 2 years. Satisfaction measures were based on patients' expectations for medical care, cost, and staff services, and involved a questionnaire consisting of 25 items. Results of the questionnaire analysis showed that most patients, who expected much of antigen-specific vaccination such as dendritic cells (DC) pulsed tumor-associated antigens, were dissatisfied with the high cost of private immunotherapy(i. e., not covered by medical insurance), and were unable to perceive the effectiveness of the treatment because there was no quantitative analysis of killer T cells induced by immunotherapy. Therefore, it is critically important for us to confirm the safety and efficiency of cancer immunotherapy, before introducing medical insurance for cancer patients in Japan. In addition, the quantitative measurement of killer T cells induced by DC peptide vaccines should be considered, to meet patients' expectations.

  2. Targeting NK-cell checkpoints for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Muntasell, Aura; Ochoa, Maria C; Cordeiro, Luna; Berraondo, Pedro; López-Díaz de Cerio, Ascension; Cabo, Mariona; López-Botet, Miguel; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-02-22

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes specialized in early defense against virus-infected and transformed cells. NK-cell function is regulated by activating and inhibitory surface receptors recognizing their ligands on transformed cells. Modulation of NK numbers and/or function by a variety of agents such as cytokines and monoclonal antibodies may result in enhanced anti-tumor activity. Recombinant cytokines (i.e., IL-15 and IL-2), antibodies blocking inhibitory receptors (i.e., KIR, NKG2A and TIGIT) and agonists delivering signals via CD137, NKG2D and CD16 stand out as the most suitable opportunities. These agents can be used to potentiate NKcell- mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against antibody-coated tumor cells, offering potential for multiple combinatorial immunotherapy strategies against cancer.

  3. Cellular immunotherapy in ovarian cancer: Targeting the stem of recurrence.

    PubMed

    Wefers, Christina; Lambert, Laurens J; Torensma, Ruurd; Hato, Stanleyson V

    2015-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is a devastating disease with a high relapse rate. Due to a mostly asymptomatic early stage and lack of early diagnostic tools, the disease is usually diagnosed in a late stage. Surgery and chemotherapy with taxanes and platinum compounds are very effective in reducing tumor burden. However, relapses occur frequently and there is a lack of credible second-line options. Therefore, new treatment modalities are eagerly awaited. The presence and influx of immune cells in the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment are correlated with survival. High numbers of infiltrating T cells correlate with improved progression free and overall survival, while the presence of regulatory T cells and expression of T cell inhibitory molecules is correlated with a poor prognosis. These data indicate that immunotherapy, especially cell-based immunotherapy could be a promising novel addition to the treatment of ovarian cancer. Here, we review the available data on the immune contexture surrounding ovarian cancer and discuss novel strategies and targets for immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. In the end the addition of immunotherapy to existing therapeutic options could lead to a great improvement in the outcome of ovarian cancer, especially when targeting cancer stem cells.

  4. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer Enters Its Golden Age

    PubMed Central

    Boikos, Sosipatros A.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men and ranks second in terms of mortality. Although recurrent or metastatic disease can be managed initially with androgen ablation, most patients eventually develop castration-resistant disease within a number of years, for which conventional treatments (eg, chemotherapy) provide only modest benefits. In the last few years, immunotherapy has emerged as an exciting therapeutic modality for advanced prostate cancer, and this field is evolving rapidly. Encouragingly, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved two novel immunotherapy agents for patients with advanced cancer: the antigen presenting cell-based product sipuleucel-T and the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) antibody ipilimumab, based on improvements in overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic melanoma, respectively. Currently, a number of trials are investigating the role of various immunological approaches for the treatment of prostate cancer, many of them with early indications of success. As immunotherapy for prostate cancer enters its golden age, the challenge of the future will be to design rational combinations of immunotherapy agents with each other or with other standard prostate cancer treatments in an effort to improve patient outcomes further. PMID:22844202

  5. Towards Curative Cancer Immunotherapy: Overcoming Posttherapy Tumor Escape

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gang; Levitsky, Hyam

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the evolvement of cancer immunotherapy as an increasingly effective therapeutic modality, evidenced by the approval of two immune-based products by the FDA, that is, the cancer vaccine Provenge (sipuleucel-T) for prostate cancer and the antagonist antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) ipilimumab for advanced melanoma. In addition, the clinical evaluations of a variety of promising immunotherapy drugs are well under way. Benefiting from more efficacious immunotherapeutic agents and treatment strategies, a number of recent clinical studies have achieved unprecedented therapeutic outcomes in some patients with certain types of cancers. Despite these advances, however, the efficacy of most cancer immunotherapies currently under clinical development has been modest. A recurring scenario is that therapeutic maneuvers initially led to measurable antitumor immune responses in cancer patients but ultimately failed to improve patient outcomes. It is increasingly recognized that tumor cells can antagonize therapy-induced immune attacks through a variety of counterregulation mechanisms, which represent a fundamental barrier to the success of cancer immunotherapy. Herein we summarize the findings from some recent preclinical and clinical studies, focusing on how tumor cells advance their survival and expansion by hijacking therapy-induced immune effector mechanisms that would otherwise mediate their destruction. PMID:22778760

  6. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Regulation of cancer germline antigen gene expression: implications for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akers, Stacey N; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2010-05-01

    Cancer germline (CG; also known as cancer-testis) antigen genes are normally expressed in germ cells and trophoblast tissues and are aberrantly expressed in a variety of human malignancies. CG antigen genes have high clinical relevance as they encode a class of immunogenic and highly selective tumor antigens. CG antigen-directed immunotherapy is undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of a number of solid tumor malignancies and has been demonstrated to be safe, provoke immune responses and be of therapeutic benefit. Achieving an improved understanding of the mechanisms of CG antigen gene regulation will facilitate the continued development of targeted therapeutic approaches against tumors expressing these antigens. Substantial evidence suggests epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, as a primary regulator of CG antigen gene expression in normal and cancer cells as well as in stem cells. The roles of sequence-specific transcription factors and signal transduction pathways in controlling CG antigen gene expression are less clear but are emerging. A combinatorial therapeutic approach involving epigenetic modulatory drugs and CG antigen immunotherapy is suggested based on these data and is being actively pursued. In this article, we review the mechanisms of CG antigen gene regulation and discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the development of cancer immunotherapy approaches targeting CG antigens.

  8. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens: prime candidates for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-06-30

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer/testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival.

  9. Natural killer cells: can they be useful as adoptive immunotherapy for cancer?

    PubMed

    Arai, Sally; Klingemann, Hans-G

    2005-02-01

    As part of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells form the first line of defence against pathogens or transformed/cancerous host cells. Recent experimental and clinical data show the possibility of exploiting NK activity as a cell-based immunotherapy to treat cancer. This review discusses the recent knowledge on NK cell biology that has impacted on its development as a treatment for cancer.

  10. Conference overview: Cancer Immunotherapy and Immunomonitoring (CITIM): moving forward.

    PubMed

    Malyguine, Anatoli; Umansky, Victor; Kotlan, Beatrix; Aptsiauri, Natalia; Shurin, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is a critical element involved in the control of tumor development and progression. While professionals have learned how to manipulate the immune system to generate tumor-specific immune responses, cancer immunotherapy has not yet delivered substantial clinical benefits. It has become increasingly clear that tumor-induced abnormalities in the immune system not only hamper tumor immunosurveillance, but also limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Meanwhile, the results of recent studies allow the belief that one is on the edge of a real breakthrough in this promising direction in cancer therapy. The 2(nd) International Conference 'Cancer Immunotherapy and Immunomonitoring (CITIM)' was the second meeting in Eastern Europe to specifically focus on the issue of immune regulation in the tumor environment, cancer immunotherapy, and immunomonitoring of immunotherapeutic clinical trials. This CITIM Conference held in Budapest, Hungary, was comprised from 12 plenary sessions, Best Abstract Award session, Poster session, and four Keynote lectures. Outstanding presentations and numerous productive discussions summarized the current place of the field and opened new directions for improving monitoring and therapy for patients with cancer.

  11. Cancer-associated CD43 glycoforms as target of immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tuccillo, Franca Maria; Palmieri, Camillo; Fiume, Giuseppe; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Schiavone, Marco; Falcone, Cristina; Iaccino, Enrico; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Capuano, Cristina; Santoni, Angela; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Venzon, David; Bonelli, Patrizia; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Scala, Iris; Mallardo, Massimo; Quinto, Ileana; Scala, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    CD43 is a sialoglycosylated membrane protein that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. CD43 glycoforms that are recognized by the UN1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were expressed in lymphoblastoid T-cell lines and solid tumors, such as breast, colon, gastric, and squamous cell lung carcinomas, while unexpressed in the normal counterparts. The cancer association of UN1/CD43 epitope suggested the possibility to use the UN1 mAb for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we show that the UN1 mAb was endowed with antitumor activity in vivo because its passive transfer inhibited the growth of UN1-positive HPB-ALL lymphoblastoid T cells in mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that tumor inhibition was due to UN1 mAb-dependent natural killer-mediated cytotoxicity. By screening a phage-displayed random peptide library, we identified the phagotope 2/165 as a mimotope of the UN1 antigen, as it harbored a peptide sequence that was specifically recognized by the UN1 mAb and inhibited the binding of the UN1 mAb to UN1-positive tumor cells. On the basis of sequence homology with the extracellular region of CD43 (amino acids 64 to 83), the 2/165 peptide sequence was likely mimicking the protein core of the UN1/CD43 epitope. When used as vaccine in mice, the 2/165 phagotope raised antibodies against the UN1/CD43 antigen, indicating that the 2/165 phagotope mimicked the UN1 antigen structure, and could represent a novel immunogen for cancer immunotherapy. These findings support the feasibility of using monoclonal antibodies to identify cancer-associated mimotopes for immunotherapy.

  12. IgE Immunotherapy Against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leoh, Lai Sum

    2015-01-01

    The success of antibody therapy in cancer is consistent with the ability of these molecules to activate immune responses against tumors. Experience in clinical applications, antibody design, and advancement in technology have enabled antibodies to be engineered with enhanced efficacy against cancer cells. This allows re-evaluation of current antibody approaches dominated by antibodies of the IgG class with a new light. Antibodies of the IgE class play a central role in allergic reactions and have many properties that may be advantageous for cancer therapy. IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, suggesting the potential use of these approaches in humans. Further studies on the anticancer efficacy and safety profile of these IgE-based approaches are warranted in preparation for translation toward clinical application. PMID:25553797

  13. Immunotherapy in human colorectal cancer: Challenges and prospective

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease is extremely poor. Although new chemotherapeutic regimen improves survival rates, therapy with better efficacy and less adverse effects is drastically needed. Immunotherapy has been investigated in human CRC for decades with limited success. However, recent developments of immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, have achieved promising clinical benefits in many types of cancer and revived the hope for utilizing such therapy in human CRC. In this review, we will discuss important immunological landscape within the CRC microenvironment and introduce immunoscore system to better describe immunophenotyping in CRC. We will also discuss different immunotherapeutic approaches currently utilized in different phases of clinical trials. Some of those completed or ongoing trials are summarized. Finally, we provide a brief prospective on the future human CRC immunotherapy. PMID:27605872

  14. From Bench to Bedside: Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Brian Wan-Chi; Jovanovic, Lidija; Nelson, Colleen Coyne; de Souza, Paul; Power, Carl Andrew; Russell, Pamela Joan

    2014-01-01

    The mainstay therapeutic strategy for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to be androgen deprivation therapy usually in combination with chemotherapy or androgen receptor targeting therapy in either sequence, or recently approved novel agents such as Radium 223. However, immunotherapy has also emerged as an option for the treatment of this disease following the approval of sipuleucel-T by the FDA in 2010. Immunotherapy is a rational approach for prostate cancer based on a body of evidence suggesting these cancers are inherently immunogenic and, most importantly, that immunological interventions can induce protective antitumour responses. Various forms of immunotherapy are currently being explored clinically, with the most common being cancer vaccines (dendritic-cell, viral, and whole tumour cell-based) and immune checkpoint inhibition. This review will discuss recent clinical developments of immune-based therapies for prostate cancer that have reached the phase III clinical trial stage. A perspective of how immunotherapy could be best employed within current treatment regimes to achieve most clinical benefits is also provided. PMID:25276838

  15. Targeting cancer-related inflammation in the era of immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kyohei; Smyth, Mark J

    2017-01-10

    Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint blockade therapy have dramatically changed the therapeutic strategy against advanced malignancies. Still, only a subset of patients shows a good response to any single therapy. Moreover, it remains largely unsolved how we can maintain durable clinical responses, or how we can successfully treat a broader range of cancers by immunotherapy. Growing evidence suggests that the major barrier to more successful cancer immunotherapy is the tumour microenvironment (TME), where chronic inflammation has a predominant role in tumour survival and proliferation, angiogenesis and immunosuppression. Over the past decades, our understanding of cancer-related inflammation has significantly evolved, and now we have various therapeutic options tailored to the TME. These therapeutic strategies include inhibiting inflammatory mediators or their downstream signalling molecules, blocking the recruitment of myeloid cells, modulating immunosuppressive functions in myeloid cells and re-educating the TME. In this review, we discuss the role of cancer-related inflammation as a potential target in the era of immunotherapy.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2016.126.

  16. Harnessing the exosome-induced immune response for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, Ulf; Näslund, Tanja I; Hiltbrunner, Stefanie; Larssen, Pia; Gabrielsson, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    In recent years exosomes have emerged as potent stimulators of immune responses and as agents for cancer therapy. Exosomes can carry a broad variety of immunostimulatory molecules depending on the cell of origin and in vitro culture conditions. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (dexosomes) have been shown to carry NK cell activating ligands and can be loaded with antigen to activate invariant NKT cells and to induce antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Dexosomes have been investigated as therapeutic agents against cancer in two phase I clinical trials, with a phase II clinical trial currently ongoing. Dexosomes were well tolerated but therapeutic success and immune activation were limited. Several reports suggest that multiple factors need to be considered in order to improve exosomal immunogenicity for cancer immunotherapy. These include antigen-loading strategies, exosome composition and exosomal trafficking in vivo. Hence, a better understanding of how to engineer and deliver exosomes to specific cells is crucial to generate strong immune responses and to improve the immunotherapeutic potential of exosomes.

  17. Cancer immunotherapy and breaking immune tolerance: new approaches to an old challenge.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Amani; Weiner, George J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has proven to be challenging as it depends on overcoming multiple mechanisms that mediate immune tolerance to self-antigens. A growing understanding of immune tolerance has been the foundation for new approaches to cancer immunotherapy. Adoptive transfer of immune effectors such as antitumor mAb and chimeric antigen receptor T cells bypasses many of the mechanisms involved in immune tolerance by allowing for expansion of tumor-specific effectors ex vivo. Vaccination with whole tumor cells, protein, peptide, or dendritic cells has proven challenging, yet may be more useful when combined with other cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Immunomodulatory approaches to cancer immunotherapy include treatment with agents that enhance and maintain T-cell activation. Recent advances in the use of checkpoint blockade to block negative signals and to maintain the antitumor response are particularly exciting. With our growing knowledge of immune tolerance and ways to overcome it, combination treatments are being developed, tested, and have particular promise. One example is in situ immunization that is designed to break tolerance within the tumor microenvironment. Progress in all these areas is continuing based on clear evidence that cancer immunotherapy designed to overcome immune tolerance can be useful for a growing number of patients with cancer.

  18. Immunosenescence: limitations of natural killer cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Raquel; Sanchez-Correa, Beatriz; Casas-Avilés, Ignacio; Campos, Carmen; Pera, Alejandra; Morgado, Sara; López-Sejas, Nelson; Hassouneh, Fakhri; Bergua, Juan M; Arcos, Maria Jose; Bañas, Helena; Casado, Javier G; Durán, Esther; Labella, Fernando; Solana, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Cancer is primarily considered a disease of old age. Immunosenescence refers to the age-associated changes in the immune system, and its contribution to the increased risk of cancer in old individuals has been discussed for many years. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate immune cells specialized in defence against tumour and virus-infected cells. NK cell cytotoxicity is the result of a fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors. Several activating receptors have been identified that recognize different ligands frequently found over-expressed on tumour cells or virus-infected cells. The most important NK cell inhibitory receptors interact with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules expressed on almost all nucleated cells preventing NK cell-mediated lysis of healthy cells. NK cell immunosenescence is characterized by a redistribution of NK cell subsets, a diminished expression of several activating receptors and lower per-cell cytotoxicity. Altered expression of activating receptors has also been described in young and elderly cancer patients probably due to chronic exposure to ligands on tumour cells. Thus, the effect of both age and cancer may act synergistically to diminish NK cell-mediated tumour immunosurveillance. Different strategies harnessing the power of NK cells to target tumour cells have been designed including adoptive therapy with autologous or allogeneic expanded NK cells. In addition, checkpoint blockade of inhibitory receptors and the use of agonist antibodies to stimulate activating receptors are emerging areas of research. In this context, the effect of immunosenescence should be considered to improve the efficiency of cancer immunotherapy.

  19. An Approach to Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: The Apoptotic Activity of Recombinant Anti-Interleukin-6 Monoclonal Antibodies in Intact Tumour Microenvironment of Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shousha, S; Moaaz, M; Sheta, M; Motawea, M A

    2016-06-01

    Current work is one of our comprehensive preclinical studies, a new approach to breast cancer (BC) immunotherapy through induction of tumour cell apoptosis. Tumour growth is not just a result of uncontrolled cell proliferation but also of reduced apoptosis. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with metastatic BC and correlated with poor survival as it promotes growth of tumour-initiating cells during early tumorigenesis protecting these cells from apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the potential of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies to suppress IL-6 proliferative/anti-apoptotic activities in intact tumour microenvironment of BC. Fresh sterile tumour and normal breast tissue specimens were taken from 50 female Egyptian patients with BC undergoing radical mastectomy. A unique tissue culture system designed to provide cells of each intact tumour/normal tissue sample with its proper microenvironment either supplemented or not with anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies. To evaluate the apoptotic activity of anti-IL-6 as a novel candidate for BC treatment strategy, we compared its effects with those obtained using tumour necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL as an established apoptotic agent. Our results revealed that levels of either anti-IL-6- or TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the tumour or normal tissue cultures were significantly higher than those in their corresponding untreated ones (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences have been found between apoptosis levels induced by anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies and those induced by TRAIL. Recombinant anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies could represent a novel effective element of immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for BC. The selectivity and anti-apoptotic potential of anti-IL-6 is highly hopeful in IL-6- abundant BC tumour microenvironment.

  20. Targeted immunotherapy of cancer with CAR T cells: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lipowska-Bhalla, Grazyna; Gilham, David E; Hawkins, Robert E; Rothwell, Dominic G

    2012-07-01

    The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells is a relatively new but promising approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy. This therapeutic strategy is based on the genetic reprogramming of T cells with an artificial immune receptor that redirects them against targets on malignant cells and enables their destruction by exerting T cell effector functions. There has been an explosion of interest in the use of CAR T cells as an immunotherapy for cancer. In the pre-clinical setting, there has been a considerable focus upon optimizing the structural and signaling potency of the CAR while advances in bio-processing technology now mean that the clinical testing of these gene-modified T cells has become a reality. This review will summarize the concept of CAR-based immunotherapy and recent clinical trial activity and will further discuss some of the likely future challenges facing CAR-modified T cell therapies.

  1. Novel recombinant alphaviral and adenoviral vectors for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-06-01

    Although cellular immunotherapy based on autolgous dendritic cells (DCs) targeting antigens expressed by metastatic cancer has demonstrated clinical efficacy, the logistical challenges in generating an individualized cell product create an imperative to develop alternatives to DC-based cancer vaccines. Particularly attractive alternatives include in situ delivery of antigen and activation signals to resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which can be achieved by novel fusion molecules targeting the mannose receptor and by recombinant viral vectors expressing the antigen of interest and capable of infecting DCs. A particular challenge in the use of viral vectors is the well-appreciated clinical obstacles to their efficacy, specifically vector-specific neutralizing immune responses. Because heterologous prime and boost strategies have been demonstrated to be particularly potent, we developed two novel recombinant vectors based on alphaviral replicon particles and a next-generation adenovirus encoding an antigen commonly overexpressed in many human cancers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The rationale for developing these vectors, their unique characteristics, the preclinical studies and early clinical experience with each, and opportunities to enhance their effectiveness will be reviewed. The potential of each of these potent recombinant vectors to efficiently generate clinically active anti-tumor immune response alone, or in combination, will be discussed.

  2. CTLA-4 Blockade-Based Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor in...Kwon ED, Truong T, Choi EM, Greenberg NM, et al. Combination immunotherapy of primary prostate cancer in a transgenic mouse model using CTLA-4 blockade

  3. CTLA-4 Blockade-Based Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Sci U S A 1997;94(15):8099-103. 8 4. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of...Cancer Res 1999;5(7):1738-44. 6. Hurwitz AA, Foster BA, Kwon ED, Truong T, Choi EM, Greenberg NM, et al. Combination immunotherapy of primary

  4. Cancer-associated CD43 glycoforms as target of immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tuccillo, Franca Maria; Palmieri, Camillo; Fiume, Giuseppe; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Schiavone, Marco; Falcone, Cristina; Iaccino, Enrico; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Capuano, Cristina; Santoni, Angela; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Venzon, David; Bonelli, Patrizia; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Scala, Iris; Mallardo, Massimo; Quinto, Ileana; Scala, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    CD43 is a sialoglycosylated membrane protein that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. CD43 glycoforms that are recognized by the UN1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were expressed in lymphoblastoid T-cell lines and solid tumors, such as breast, colon, gastric, and squamous cell lung carcinomas, while unexpressed in the normal counterparts. The cancer–association of UN1/CD43 epitope suggested the possibility to use the UN1 mAb for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we show that the UN1 mAb was endowed with anti-tumor activity in vivo since its passive transfer inhibited the growth of UN1-positive HPB-ALL lymphoblastoid T-cells in mice. Further, we demonstrate that tumor inhibition was due to UN1 mAb-dependent NK-mediated cytotoxicity. By screening a phage displayed random peptide library we identified the phagotope 2/165 as a mimotope of the UN1 antigen, as it harboured a peptide sequence that was specifically recognized by the UN1 mAb and inhibited the binding of the UN1 mAb to UN1-positive tumour cells. Based on sequence homology with the extracellular region of CD43 (amino acids 64 to 83), the 2/165 peptide sequence was likely mimicking the protein core of the UN1/CD43 epitope. When used as vaccine in mice, the 2/165 phagotope raised antibodies against the UN1/CD43 antigen, indicating that the 2/165 phagotope mimicked the UN1 antigen structure, and could represent a novel immunogen for cancer immunotherapy. These findings support the feasibility to use monoclonal antibodies to identify cancer-associated mimotopes for immunotherapy. PMID:24356816

  5. Oncolytic Viruses and Their Application to Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiocca, EA; Rabkin, SD

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells, and spread within the tumor, while not harming normal tissue. In addition to this direct oncolytic activity, OVs are also very effective at inducing immune responses to themselves and to the infected tumor cells. OVs encompass a broad diversity of DNA and RNA viruses that are naturally cancer-selective or can be genetically-engineered. OVs provide a diverse platform for immunotherapy; they act as in situ vaccines, and can be armed with immune modulatory transgenes or combined with other immunotherapies. However, the interactions of OVs with the immune system may affect therapeutic outcomes in opposing fashions: negatively by limiting virus replication and/or spread, or positively by inducing antitumor immune responses. Many aspects of the OV-tumor/host interaction are important in delineating the effectiveness of therapy; they include: (i) innate immune responses and the degree of inflammation induced, (ii) types of virus-induced cell death, (iii) inherent tumor physiology, such as infiltrating and resident immune cells, vascularity/hypoxia, lymphatics, and stromal architecture, and (iv) tumor cell phenotype, including alterations in IFN signaling, oncogenic pathways, cell surface immune markers (MHC, co-stimulatory, NK receptors), and the expression of immunosuppressive factors. Recent clinical trials with a variety of OVs, especially those expressing GM-CSF, have demonstrated efficacy and induction of antitumor immune responses in the absence of significant toxicity. Manipulating the balance between anti-virus and antitumor responses, often involving overlapping immune pathways, will be critical to the clinical success of OVs. PMID:24764576

  6. HSP70-based anti-cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Guzhova, Irina V.; Margulis, Boris A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heat shock protein 70, (Hsp70) constitutes a powerful system of cytoprotection in all organisms studied to date. Exerting such activity, Hsp70 rescues cancer cells from antitumor therapy, posing a great challenge for oncologists. In contrast to its protective action, Hsp70 was found to be released from cancer cells, prompting cytotoxic lymphocytes to target and kill the tumor. A great number of vaccines have been developed on the basis of the ability of Hsp70 to present tumor antigen or to elevate the sensitivity of cancer cells to cytotoxic lymphocytes. In this commentary, we consider novel data on the employment of pure Hsp70 in the therapy of glioma and melanoma malignancies. We show that intratumorally delivered Hsp70 penetrates cancer cells and pulls its intracellular analog outside of the cell. This displacement may activate cells, constituting both innate and adaptive immunity. In vivo delivery of Hsp70 was found to inhibit tumor growth and to extend survival. The technology of intratumoral injection of pure Hsp70 passed through preclinical trials and was investigated in clinics for children with brain cancer; the results show the safety and feasibility of a new approach. PMID:27294301

  7. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy for cervical cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Menderes, Gulden; Black, Jonathan; Schwab, Carlton L; Santin, Alessandro D

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor with a median survival of 8-13 months. Despite the potency of chemotherapeutic drugs, this treatment is rarely curative and should be considered palliative only. In the last few years, a better understanding of Human papillomavirus tumor-host immune system interactions and the development of new therapeutics targeting immune check points have renewed interest in the use of immunotherapy in cervical cancer patients. Moreover, next generation sequencing has emerged as an attractive option for the identification of actionable driver mutations and other markers. In this review, we provide background information on the molecular biology of cervical cancer and summarize immunotherapy studies, targeted therapies, including those with angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors recently completed or currently on-going in cervical cancer patients.

  8. Strategies to genetically engineer T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Spear, Timothy T; Nagato, Kaoru; Nishimura, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most promising and innovative approaches to treat cancer, viral infections, and other immune-modulated diseases. Adoptive immunotherapy using gene-modified T cells is an exciting and rapidly evolving field. Exploiting knowledge of basic T cell biology and immune cell receptor function has fostered innovative approaches to modify immune cell function. Highly translatable clinical technologies have been developed to redirect T cell specificity by introducing designed receptors. The ability to engineer T cells to manifest desired phenotypes and functions is now a thrilling reality. In this review, we focus on outlining different varieties of genetically engineered T cells, their respective advantages and disadvantages as tools for immunotherapy, and their promise and drawbacks in the clinic.

  9. Immunotherapy and lung cancer: current developments and novel targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Duarte; Turner, Alice; Silva, Maria Dília; Marques, Dânia Sofia; Mellidez, Juan Carlos; Wannesson, Luciano; Mountzios, Giannis; de Mello, Ramon Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a highly prevalent and aggressive disease. In the metastatic setting, major advances include the incorporation of immunotherapy and targeted therapies into the clinician's therapeutic armamentarium. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens have long been reported to interfere with the immune response to the tumor; conversely, antitumor immunity may add to the effects of those therapies. The aim of immunotherapy is to specifically enhance the immune response directed to the tumor. Recently, many trials addressed the role of such therapies for metastatic NSCLC treatment: ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab and lambrolizumab are immunotherapeutic agents of main interest in this field. In addition, anti-tumor vaccines, such as MAGE-A3, Tecetomide, TG4010, CIMAvax, ganglioside vaccines, tumor cell vaccines and dendritic cell vaccines, emerged as potent inducers of immune response against the tumor. The current work aims to address the most recent developments regarding these innovative immunotherapies and their implementation in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC.

  10. Cancer-testis genes as candidates for immunotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Shamsi, Roshanak; Seifi-Alan, Mahnaz; Javaheri, Mona; Tabarestani, Sanaz

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are tumor-associated antigens attracting immunologists for their possible application in the immunotherapy of cancer. Several clinical trials have assessed their therapeutic potentials in cancer patients. Breast cancers, especially triple-negative cancers are among those with significant expression of CT genes. Identification of CT genes with high expression in cancer patients is the prerequisite for any immunotherapeutic approach. CT genes have gained attention not only for immunotherapy of cancer patients, but also for immunoprevention in high-risk individuals. Many CT genes have proved to be immunogenic in breast cancer patients suggesting the basis for the development of polyvalent vaccines.

  11. Animal models for IgE-meditated cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Tracy R.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel

    2013-01-01

    Although most monoclonal antibodies developed for cancer therapy are of the IgG class, antibodies of the IgE class have certain properties that make them attractive as cancer therapeutics. These properties include the superior affinity for the Fc epsilon receptors (FcεRs), the low serum level of IgE that minimizes competition of endogenous IgE for FcεR occupancy, and the ability to induce a broad and vigorous immune response through the interaction with multiple cells including mast cells, basophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and eosinophils. Tumor-targeted IgE antibodies are expected to harness the allergic response against tumors and activate a secondary, T-cell-mediated immune response. Importantly, the IgE antibody can be used for passive immunotherapy and as an adjuvant of cancer vaccines. However, there are important limitations in the use of animal models including the fact that human IgE does not interact with rodent FcεRs and that there is a different cellular distribution of FcεRs in humans and rodents. Despite these limitations, different murine models have been used with success to evaluate the in vivo anti-cancer activity of several IgE antibodies. These models include wild-type immunocompetent animals bearing syngeneic tumors, xenograft models using immunocompromised mice bearing human tumors and reconstituted with human effector cells, and human FcεRIα transgenic mice bearing syngeneic tumors. In addition, non-human primates such as cynomolgus monkeys can be potentially used for toxicological and pharmacokinetic studies. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of these models and their use in evaluating the in vivo properties of IgE antibodies for cancer therapy. PMID:22193986

  12. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer – Recent Developments and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Michael T.; Drake, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    Since the approval of sipuleucel-T for men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer in 2010, great strides in the development of anti-cancer immunotherapies have been made. Current drug development in this area has focused primarily on antigen specific [i.e. cancer vaccines and antibody based therapies)] or checkpoint inhibitor therapies, with the checkpoint inhibitors perhaps gaining the most attention as of late. Indeed, drugs blocking the inhibitory signal generated by the engagement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) found on T-cells has emerged as potent means to combat the immunosuppressive milieu. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has already been approved in advanced melanoma and two phase III trials evaluating ipilimumab in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer are underway. A phase III trial evaluating ProstVac-VF, a poxvirus-based therapeutic prostate cancer vaccine, is also underway. While there has been reason for encouragement over the past few years, many questions regarding the use of immunotherapies remain. Namely it is unclear what stage of disease is most likely to benefit from these approaches, how best to incorporate said treatments with each other and into our current treatment regimens and which therapy is most appropriate for which disease. Herein we review some of the recent advances in immunotherapy as related to the treatment of prostate cancer and outline some of the challenges that lie ahead. PMID:24477411

  13. Cancer immunotherapy in veterinary medicine: Current options and new developments.

    PubMed

    Regan, Daniel; Guth, Amanda; Coy, Jonathan; Dow, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Excitement in the field of tumor immunotherapy is being driven by several remarkable breakthroughs in recent years. This review will cover recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, including the use of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, engineered T cells, cancer vaccines, and anti-B cell and T cell antibodies. Inhibition of T cell checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 using monoclonal antibodies has achieved notable success against advanced tumors in humans, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Therapy with engineered T cells has also demonstrated remarkable tumor control and regression in human trials. Autologous cancer vaccines have recently demonstrated impressive prolongation of disease-free intervals and survival times in dogs with lymphoma. In addition, caninized monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20 and CD52 just recently received either full (CD20) or conditional (CD52) licensing by the United States Department of Agriculture for clinical use in the treatment of canine B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Thus, immunotherapy for cancer is rapidly moving to the forefront of cancer treatment options in veterinary medicine as well as human medicine.

  14. Cancer immunotherapy: from the lab to clinical applications—Potential impact on cancer centres’ organisation

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea; Kyte, Jon Amund; Blank, Christian; Ascierto, Paolo; Rekers, Nicolle; Straten, Per Thor; Awada, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th–17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual’s immune system to fight the tumour. In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present. PMID:27994647

  15. A Perspective of Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer: Lessons Learned and Forward Directions for All Cancers.

    PubMed

    Nahas, George R; Walker, Nykia D; Bryan, Margarette; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy for cancer has been a focus 50 years ago. At the time, this treatment was developed prior to cloning of the cytokines, no knowledge of regulatory T-cells, and very little information that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (originally colony forming unit-fibroblasts [CFU-F]) could be licensed by the inflammatory microenvironment to suppress an immune response. Given the information available at that time, mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood were activated ex vivo and then replaced in the patients with tumor. The intent was to harness these activated immune cells to target the cancer cells. These studies did not lead to long-term responses because the activated cells when reinfused into the patients were an advantage to the resident MSCs, which can home the tumor and then become suppressive in the presence of the immune cells. The immune suppression caused by MSCs would also expand regulatory T-cells, resulting instead in tumor protection. As time progressed, these different fields converged into a new approach to use immunotherapy for cancer. This article discusses these approaches and also reviews chimeric antigen receptor in the context of future treatments for solid tumors, including breast cancer.

  16. A Perspective of Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer: Lessons Learned and Forward Directions for All Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, George R.; Walker, Nykia D.; Bryan, Margarette; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy for cancer has been a focus 50 years ago. At the time, this treatment was developed prior to cloning of the cytokines, no knowledge of regulatory T-cells, and very little information that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (originally colony forming unit-fibroblasts [CFU-F]) could be licensed by the inflammatory microenvironment to suppress an immune response. Given the information available at that time, mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood were activated ex vivo and then replaced in the patients with tumor. The intent was to harness these activated immune cells to target the cancer cells. These studies did not lead to long-term responses because the activated cells when reinfused into the patients were an advantage to the resident MSCs, which can home the tumor and then become suppressive in the presence of the immune cells. The immune suppression caused by MSCs would also expand regulatory T-cells, resulting instead in tumor protection. As time progressed, these different fields converged into a new approach to use immunotherapy for cancer. This article discusses these approaches and also reviews chimeric antigen receptor in the context of future treatments for solid tumors, including breast cancer. PMID:26568682

  17. Dual Roles of IL-27 in Cancer Biology and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fabbi, Marina; Carbotti, Grazia

    2017-01-01

    IL-27 is a pleiotropic two-chain cytokine, composed of EBI3 and IL-27p28 subunits, which is structurally related to both IL-12 and IL-6 cytokine families. IL-27 acts through a heterodimer receptor consisting of IL-27Rα (WSX1) and gp130 chains, which mediate signaling predominantly through STAT1 and STAT3. IL-27 was initially reported as an immune-enhancing cytokine that supports CD4+ T cell proliferation, T helper (Th)1 cell differentiation, and IFN-γ production, acting in concert with IL-12. However, subsequent studies demonstrated that IL-27 displays complex immune-regulatory functions, which may result in either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects in relationship to the biological context and experimental models considered. Several pieces of evidence, obtained in preclinical tumor models, indicated that IL-27 has a potent antitumor activity, related not only to the induction of tumor-specific Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses but also to direct inhibitory effects on tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasiveness, and angiogenic potential. Nonetheless, given its immune-regulatory functions, the effects of IL-27 on cancer may be dual and protumor effects may also occur. Here, we will summarize IL-27 biological activities and its functional overlaps with the IFNs and discuss its dual role in tumors in the light of potential applications to cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28255204

  18. LAG3 (CD223) as a cancer immunotherapy target.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Lawrence P; Marciscano, Ariel E; Drake, Charles G; Vignali, Dario A A

    2017-03-01

    Despite the impressive impact of CTLA4 and PD1-PDL1-targeted cancer immunotherapy, a large proportion of patients with many tumor types fail to respond. Consequently, the focus has shifted to targeting alternative inhibitory receptors (IRs) and suppressive mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment. Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) (CD223) is the third IR to be targeted in the clinic, consequently garnering considerable interest and scrutiny. LAG3 upregulation is required to control overt activation and prevent the onset of autoimmunity. However, persistent antigen exposure in the tumor microenvironment results in sustained LAG3 expression, contributing to a state of exhaustion manifest in impaired proliferation and cytokine production. The exact signaling mechanisms downstream of LAG3 and interplay with other IRs remain largely unknown. However, the striking synergy between LAG3 and PD1 observed in multiple settings, coupled with the contrasting intracellular cytoplasmic domain of LAG3 as compared with other IRs, highlights the potential uniqueness of LAG3. There are now four LAG3-targeted therapies in the clinic with many more in preclinical development, emphasizing the broad interest in this IR. Given the translational relevance of LAG3 and the heightened interest in the impact of dual LAG3/PD1 targeting in the clinic, the outcome of these trials could serve as a nexus; significantly increasing or dampening enthusiasm for subsequent targets in the cancer immunotherapeutic pipeline.

  19. Dual Roles of IL-27 in Cancer Biology and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fabbi, Marina; Carbotti, Grazia; Ferrini, Silvano

    2017-01-01

    IL-27 is a pleiotropic two-chain cytokine, composed of EBI3 and IL-27p28 subunits, which is structurally related to both IL-12 and IL-6 cytokine families. IL-27 acts through a heterodimer receptor consisting of IL-27Rα (WSX1) and gp130 chains, which mediate signaling predominantly through STAT1 and STAT3. IL-27 was initially reported as an immune-enhancing cytokine that supports CD4(+) T cell proliferation, T helper (Th)1 cell differentiation, and IFN-γ production, acting in concert with IL-12. However, subsequent studies demonstrated that IL-27 displays complex immune-regulatory functions, which may result in either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects in relationship to the biological context and experimental models considered. Several pieces of evidence, obtained in preclinical tumor models, indicated that IL-27 has a potent antitumor activity, related not only to the induction of tumor-specific Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses but also to direct inhibitory effects on tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasiveness, and angiogenic potential. Nonetheless, given its immune-regulatory functions, the effects of IL-27 on cancer may be dual and protumor effects may also occur. Here, we will summarize IL-27 biological activities and its functional overlaps with the IFNs and discuss its dual role in tumors in the light of potential applications to cancer immunotherapy.

  20. [Progress in monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy for cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yajun

    2015-06-01

    More than 100 years ago, Paul Ehrlich first proposed the "magic bullets" concept in which antibody targeting disease related antigen can fight against human disease. Since then, with the development of hybridoma technology for monoclonal antibody production and cancer serum therapy, immunotherapy based monoclonal antibody bas been used in chinical practice to treat hematological and solid tumor. Up to now, more than 20 recombinant antibody drugs were approved for cancer treatment worldwide. In recent years, the next-generation antibody drug, including immune checkpoint antagonists, bi-specific antibody, and antibody drug conjugates have successfully cured various malignant tumor. This review recalled the history of monoclonal antibody as potent immunotherapy of cancer firstly, and focused on the next-generation antibody drug's mechanism of action, construction strategies, and the side effects in clinic. Lastly, the future trend of anti-tumor antibody drug was also discussed.

  1. Cancer-associated fibroblasts as targets for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Sunitha; Song, Xiao-Tong; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Immunotherapy for solid tumors has shown promise in preclinical as well as early clinical studies. However, its efficacy remains limited. The hindrance to achieving objective, long-lasting therapeutic responses in solid tumors is, in part, mediated by the dynamic nature of the tumor and its complex microenvironment. Tumor-directed therapies fail to eliminate components of the microenvironment, which can reinstate a tumorigenic milieu and contribute to recurrence. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the most preponderant cell type in the solid tumor microenvironment. Given their pervasive role in facilitating tumor growth and metastatic dissemination, CAFs have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets in the tumor microenvironment. In this article, we highlight the cross-talk between CAFs and cancer cells, and discuss how targeting CAFs has the potential to improve current immunotherapy approaches for cancer.

  2. Immunotherapy of colorectal cancer: new perspectives after a long path.

    PubMed

    Correale, Pierpaolo; Botta, Cirino; Ciliberto, Domenico; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Ingargiola, Rossana; Zappavigna, Silvia; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Pirtoli, Luigi; Caraglia, Michele; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro

    2016-11-01

    Although significant therapeutic improvement has been achieved in the last 10 years, the survival of metastatic colorectal cancer patients remains in a range of 28 to 30 months. Presently, systemic treatment includes combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan together with a backbone of 5-fluorouracil/levofolinate, alone or in combination with monoclonal antibodies to VEGFA (bevacizumab) or EGF receptor (cetuximab and panitumumab). The recent rise of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the therapeutic scenario has renewed scientific interest in the investigation of immunotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. According to our experience and view, here, we review the immunological strategies investigated for the treatment of this disease, including the use of tumor target-specific cancer vaccines, chemo-immunotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  3. CD40 ligand immunotherapy in cancer: an efficient approach.

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, N; Kageyama, S; Eto, Y; Urashima, M

    2001-01-01

    Cancer cells do not elicit a clinically sufficient anti-tumor immune response that results in tumor rejection. Recently, many investigators have been trying to enhance anti-tumor immunity and encouraging results have been reported. This review will discuss current anti-cancer immunotherapy; interleukin-2 therapy, tumor vaccine secreting Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, dendritic cells fused with tumor cells, and CD40 ligand immunotherapy. Moreover, we introduce our two kinds of CD40 ligand immuno-genetherapy; (1) oral CD40 ligand gene therapy against lymphoma using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (published in BLOOD 2000), (2) cancer vaccine transfected with CD40 ligand ex vivo for neuroblastoma (unpublished). Both approaches resulted in a high degree of protection against the tumor progression and they are simple and safe in the murine system.

  4. Targeting O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Julien; Fougeray, Sophie; Bahri, Meriem; Cochonneau, Denis; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Paris, François; Heczey, Andras; Birklé, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Target selection is a key feature in cancer immunotherapy, a promising field in cancer research. In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. Although the therapeutic efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies is well documented, neuropathic pain may limit its application. O-Acetyl-GD2, the O-acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. The present paper examines the role of O-acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti-O-acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. A discussion on the relevance of O-acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included.

  5. Targeting O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Julien; Fougeray, Sophie; Bahri, Meriem; Cochonneau, Denis; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Paris, François; Heczey, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Target selection is a key feature in cancer immunotherapy, a promising field in cancer research. In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. Although the therapeutic efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies is well documented, neuropathic pain may limit its application. O-Acetyl-GD2, the O-acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. The present paper examines the role of O-acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti-O-acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. A discussion on the relevance of O-acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included. PMID:28154831

  6. γδ T cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang; Zhao, Pan; Xiao, Zhangang; Han, Xianghua; Fu, Fan; Fu, Li

    2017-01-31

    γδ T cells are one of the three immune cell types that express antigen receptors. They contribute to lymphoid antitumor surveillance and bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. γδ T cells have the capacity of secreting abundant cytokines and exerting potent cytotoxicity against a wide range of cancer cells. γδ T cells exhibit important roles in immune-surveillance and immune defense against tumors and have become attractive effector cells for cancer immunotherapy. γδ T cells mediate anti-tumor therapy mainly by secreting pro-apoptotic molecules and inflammatory cytokines, or through a TCR-dependent pathway. Recently, γδ T cells are making their way into clinical trials. Some clinical trials demonstrated that γδ T cell-based immunotherapy is well tolerated and efficient. Despite the advantages that could be exploited, there are obstacles have to be addressed for the development of γδ T cell immunotherapies. Future direction for immunotherapy using γδ T cells should focus on overcoming the side effects of γδ T cells and exploring better antigens that help stimulating γδ T cell expansion in vitro.

  7. Fighting cancer with magnetic nanoparticles and immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, L.; Mejías, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lázaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2012-03-01

    IFN-γ-adsorbed DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles can be used as an efficient in vivo drug delivery system for tumor immunotherapy. Magnetic nanoparticles, with adsorbed interferon-γ, were targeted to the tumor site by application of an external magnetic field. A relevant therapeutic dosage of interferon in the tumor was detected and led to a notable reduction in tumor size. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues by AC susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution is affected by the application of an external magnetic field.

  8. Optimizing cancer immunotherapy trials: back to basics.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Freda K; Rice, Jason

    2006-05-01

    Attempts to raise effective immunity against cancer are benefiting from information on the nature of the immunity involved and its regulation and, perhaps, now it is time to step back and define our approach in molecular terms prior to clinical testing. Although there are immunological differences between mice and patients, results from murine studies are encouraging early 'translation' of concepts to the clinic and it is vital to take immunological principles emerging from mice into clinical vaccine design. One is the requirement to break tolerance against over-expressed self-antigens, a potentially risky procedure but necessary for several cancer targets. A study in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology attempts to do this by using xenogeneic antigens, albeit with variable outcome. The unstated goal is to activate T-cell help but this can be achieved more effectively by harnessing a predictable anti-microbial repertoire. The second issue lies in the delivery of antigen. One strategy is "prime/boost" using DNA priming and boosting with a viral vector; however, this induces blocking immunity against viral proteins, and must be used judiciously. There are other physical methods to increase immunity such as electroporation, which can itself be used in 'prime/boost' sequence. These twin problems of engagement of T-cell help and delivery of adequate antigen can now be addressed by applying immunological logic to cancer vaccines.

  9. Rationale for anti-OX40 cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Soria, Jean-Charles; Zitvogel, Laurence; Marabelle, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade with antagonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting B7 immunoglobulin superfamily molecules (CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1) generate long lasting anti-tumour immune responses translating into clinical benefit across many cancer types. However, many patients are primarily resistant to immune checkpoint blockade -based monotherapy and many others will eventually relapse. Therefore, new immunostimulatory targets are needed to overcome primary and secondary resistance to immunotherapy. Besides the B7 co-inhibitory receptors, the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily contains many other immune checkpoints, which could become the next generation immunomodulators. Among them stands OX40 (CD134), a co-stimulatory molecule that can be expressed by activated immune cells. Several anti-OX40 agonistic monoclonal antibodies are currently tested in early phase cancer clinical trials. Accumulating preclinical evidence supports their clinical development. However, conflicting results and controversies between in vitro and in vivo data point to the need for comprehensive ancillary studies to be performed in upcoming clinical trials to better understand the mechanism of action of anti-OX40 mAbs-based therapy.

  10. An overview of sipuleucel-T: autologous cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Johnna D; Whitmore, James; Trager, James; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2012-04-01

    Sipuleucel-T, the first autologous active cellular immunotherapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, is designed to stimulate an immune response to prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T is manufactured by culturing a patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (including antigen presenting cells) with a recombinant protein comprising a tumor-associated antigen (prostatic acid phosphatase) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Treatment consists of 3 infusions at approximately 2-week intervals, resulting in a prime-boost pattern of immune activation, a robust antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune response, and, consequently, a survival benefit in subjects with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer. Adverse events are generally mild to moderate and resolve within 2 d. Serious adverse events occur at a low rate. As the first autologous cellular immunotherapy to demonstrate a survival benefit, sipuleucel-T is a novel oncologic therapeutic that warrants the reassessment of the current prostate cancer treatment paradigm.

  11. Targeting CD8+ T-cell tolerance for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Stephanie R; Yuan, Jinyun; Teague, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    In the final issue of Science in 2013, the American Association of Science recognized progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy as the ‘Breakthrough of the Year.’ The achievements were actually twofold, owing to the early success of genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) and to the mounting clinical triumphs achieved with checkpoint blockade antibodies. While fundamentally very different, the common thread of these independent strategies is the ability to prevent or overcome mechanisms of CD8+ T-cell tolerance for improved tumor immunity. Here we discuss how circumventing T-cell tolerance has provided experimental insights that have guided the field of clinical cancer immunotherapy to a place where real breakthroughs can finally be claimed. PMID:25290416

  12. Targeting CD8+ T-cell tolerance for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stephanie R; Yuan, Jinyun; Teague, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    In the final issue of Science in 2013, the American Association of Science recognized progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy as the 'Breakthrough of the Year.' The achievements were actually twofold, owing to the early success of genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) and to the mounting clinical triumphs achieved with checkpoint blockade antibodies. While fundamentally very different, the common thread of these independent strategies is the ability to prevent or overcome mechanisms of CD8(+) T-cell tolerance for improved tumor immunity. Here we discuss how circumventing T-cell tolerance has provided experimental insights that have guided the field of clinical cancer immunotherapy to a place where real breakthroughs can finally be claimed.

  13. Clinically feasible approaches to potentiating cancer cell-based immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Seledtsov, V I; Goncharov, A G; Seledtsova, G V

    2015-01-01

    The immune system exerts both tumor-destructive and tumor-protective functions. Mature dendritic cells (DCs), classically activated macrophages (M1), granulocytes, B lymphocytes, aβ and ɣδ T lymphocytes, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and natural killer (NK) cells may be implicated in antitumor immunoprotection. Conversely, tolerogenic DCs, alternatively activated macrophages (M2), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulatory T (Tregs) and B cells (Bregs) are capable of suppressing antitumor immune responses. Anti-cancer vaccination is a useful strategy to elicit antitumor immune responses, while overcoming immunosuppressive mechanisms. Whole tumor cells or lysates derived thereof hold more promise as cancer vaccines than individual tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), because vaccinal cells can elicit immune responses to multiple TAAs. Cancer cell-based vaccines can be autologous, allogeneic or xenogeneic. Clinical use of xenogeneic vaccines is advantageous in that they can be most effective in breaking the preexisting immune tolerance to TAAs. To potentiate immunotherapy, vaccinations can be combined with other modalities that target different immune pathways. These modalities include 1) genetic or chemical modification of cell-based vaccines; 2) cross-priming TAAs to T cells by engaging dendritic cells; 3) T-cell adoptive therapy; 4) stimulation of cytotoxic inflammation by non-specific immunomodulators, toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, cytokines, chemokines or hormones; 5) reduction of immunosuppression and/or stimulation of antitumor effector cells using antibodies, small molecules; and 6) various cytoreductive modalities. The authors envisage that combined immunotherapeutic strategies will allow for substantial improvements in clinical outcomes in the near future.

  14. Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems Designed to Improve Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuchen; Moon, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated great therapeutic potential of educating and unleashing our own immune system for cancer treatment. However, there are still major challenges in cancer immunotherapy, including poor immunogenicity of cancer vaccines, off-target side effects of immunotherapeutics, as well as suboptimal outcomes of adoptive T cell transfer-based therapies. Nanomaterials with defined physico-biochemical properties are versatile drug delivery platforms that may address these key technical challenges facing cancer vaccines and immunotherapy. Nanoparticle systems have been shown to improve targeted delivery of tumor antigens and therapeutics against immune checkpoint molecules, amplify immune activation via the use of new stimuli-responsive or immunostimulatory materials, and augment the efficacy of adoptive cell therapies. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in nanoparticle-based strategies designed to potentiate cancer immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines with subunit antigens (e.g., oncoproteins, mutated neo-antigens, DNA and mRNA antigens) and whole-cell tumor antigens, dendritic cell-based vaccines, artificial antigen-presenting cells, and immunotherapeutics based on immunogenic cell death, immune checkpoint blockade, and adoptive T-cell therapy. PMID:26350600

  15. Improving the clinical impact of biomaterials in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Joshua M.; Dold, Neil M.; Jewell, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapies for cancer have progressed enormously over the past few decades, and hold great promise for the future. The successes of these therapies, with some patients showing durable and complete remission, demonstrate the power of harnessing the immune system to eradicate tumors. However, the effectiveness of current immunotherapies is limited by hurdles ranging from immunosuppressive strategies employed by tumors, to inadequate specificity of existing therapies, to heterogeneity of disease. Further, the vast majority of approved immunotherapies employ systemic delivery of immunomodulators or cells that make addressing some of these challenges more difficult. Natural and synthetic biomaterials–such as biocompatible polymers, self-assembled lipid particles, and implantable biodegradable devices–offer unique potential to address these hurdles by harnessing the benefits of therapeutic targeting, tissue engineering, co-delivery, controlled release, and sensing. However, despite the enormous investment in new materials and nanotechnology, translation of these ideas to the clinic is still an uncommon outcome. Here we review the major challenges facing immunotherapies and discuss how the newest biomaterials and nanotechnologies could help overcome these challenges to create new clinical options for patients. PMID:26871948

  16. Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel

    2006-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern people largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with minimal toxicity towards normal tissue. This is best accomplished by priming the body's immune system to recognize the tumor antigens so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species leading to vascular shutdown and tumor cell death. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, generation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins. Combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments are likely to even further enhance post-PDT immunity. These immunostimulants are likely to include products derived from pathogenic microorganisms that are effectively recognized by Toll-like receptors and lead to upregulation of transcription factors for cytokines and inflammatory mediators. The following cascade of events causes activation of macrophages, dendritic and natural killer cells. Exogenous cytokine administration can be another way to increase PDT-induced immunity as well as treatment with a low dose of cyclophosphamide that selectively reduces T-regulatory cells. Although so far these combination therapies have only been used in animal models, their use in clinical trials should receive careful consideration.

  17. Cancer immunotherapy: a future paradigm shift in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Valsamo K; Brahmer, Julie R

    2015-03-01

    Emerging evidence on the role of the antitumor activity of the immune system has generated great interest in immunotherapy even for tumors that were historically considered as nonimmunogenic. Immunotherapy is emerging as a major modality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment focusing on vaccine approaches to elicit specific immune responses and development of inhibitors of the molecular mediators of cancer-induced immunosuppression (immune checkpoints) to boost antitumor immune responses. Amplification of the host response against evolving tumors through vaccination is being investigated in ongoing clinical trials with tumor cell vaccines; however, the clinical efficacy of these agents has been limited. Blocking inhibitory pathways such as the CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint pathways with mAbs has generated antitumor immune responses that are transforming cancer therapeutics. PD-1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies have shown durable responses in NSCLC, with a favorable safety profile and manageable side effects. The activity of immune checkpoint inhibitors is currently been assessed in treatment-naïve patients with PD-L1-positive advanced NSCLC. Combinatorial approaches with other immune checkpoint inhibitors, chemotherapy, or targeted agents are being explored in ongoing clinical trials, and may improve outcome in NSCLC.

  18. Emerging insight into MAPK inhibitors and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Pancione, Massimo; Giordano, Guido; Parcesepe, Pietro; Cerulo, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Curatolo, Anais Del; Conciatori, Fabiana; Milella, Michele; Porras, Almudena

    2017-02-27

    Our understanding of the genetic and non-genetic molecular alterations associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and therapy resistance has markedly expanded in recent years. In addition to their effects on tumor biology, targeted therapies can have effects on host immune responses. However, the mechanisms by which immune cells organize tumor microenvironments to regulate T-cell activity need to be comprehensively defined. There is good evidence in the literature that alterations in different members of the MAPK superfamily (mainly ERKs and p38 MAPKs) modify the inflammatory response and antitumor immunity, enhancing metastatic features of the tumors. In addition, a plethora of alterations that emerge at relapse often converge on the activation of MAPKs, particularly, ERKs, which act in concert with other oncogenic signals to modulate cellular homeostasis and clonal evolution during targeted therapies. Herein, we discuss how this knowledge can be translated into drug development strategies aimed at increasing tumor antigenicity and antitumor immune responses. Insights from these studies could provide a framework for considering additional combinations of targeted therapies and immunotherapies for the treatment of CRC.

  19. Cancer treatment by photodynamic therapy combined with NK-cell-line-based adoptive immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Sun, Jinghai

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of solid cancers by photodynamic therapy (PDT) triggers a strong acute inflammatory reaction localized to the illuminated malignant tissue. This event is regulated by a massive release of various potent mediators which have a profound effect not only on local host cell populations, but also attract different types of immune cells to the treated tumor. Phagocytosis of PDT-damaged cancerous cells by antigen presenting cells, such as activated tumor associated macrophages, enables the recognition of even poorly immunogenic tumors by specific immune effector cells and the generation of immune memory populations. Because of its inflammatory/immune character, PDT is exceptionally responsive to adjuvant treatments with various types of immunotherapy. Combining PDT with immuneactivators, such as cytokines or other specific or non-specific immune agents, rendered marked improvements in tumor cures with various cancer models. Another clinically attractive strategy is adoptive immunotherapy, and the prospects of its use in conjunction with PDT are outlined.

  20. Cancer Immunotherapy Takes a Multi-Faceted Approach to Kick the Immune System into Gear

    PubMed Central

    Dimberu, Peniel M.; Leonhardt, Ralf M.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer accounts for about every fourth death in the United States, with approximately 1,500 people dying each day as a result of this disease. Despite some progress in the last decades, these numbers alone undoubtedly demonstrate the urgent need for new and more efficient treatments. Immunotherapy aims to activate an efficient immune response against tumors or even prevent cancers from occurring in the first place. It is a growing field currently flourishing with several successful trials, some of which have led to the recent approval of new anti-cancer drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This review addresses the manifold strategies that immunotherapy has taken in the past and discusses the most recent achievements in the field. PMID:22180675

  1. Dendritic cells and immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, David H; Dhodapkar, Madhav V

    2003-06-01

    Dendritic cells, nature's adjuvant, are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and regulate immunity. Their potent antigen-presenting function has encouraged targeting of dendritic cells (DCs) for harnessing the immune system against cancer. DCs are efficient at activating not only CD4+ helper T-cells and CD8+ killer T-cells but also B-cells and innate effectors such as natural killer and natural killer T-cells. Early studies of adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-loaded DCs have shown promise. However, DC vaccination is at an early stage, and several parameters still need to be established. The complexity of the DC system brings about the necessity for its rational manipulation for achieving protective and therapeutic immunity in patients.

  2. Rationale for stimulator of interferon genes-targeted cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rivera Vargas, Thaiz; Benoit-Lizon, Isis; Apetoh, Lionel

    2017-02-17

    The efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor therapy illustrates that cancer immunotherapy, which aims to foster the host immune response against cancer to achieve durable anticancer responses, can be successfully implemented in a routine clinical practice. However, a substantial proportion of patients does not benefit from this treatment, underscoring the need to identify alternative strategies to defeat cancer. Despite the demonstration in the 1990's that the detection of danger signals, including the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, by dendritic cells (DCs) in a cancer setting is essential for eliciting host defence, the molecular sensors responsible for recognising these danger signals and eliciting anticancer immune responses remain incompletely characterised, possibly explaining the disappointing results obtained so far upon the clinical implementation of DC-based cancer vaccines. In 2008, STING (stimulator of interferon genes), was identified as a protein that is indispensable for the recognition of cytosolic DNA. The central role of STING in controlling anticancer immune responses was exemplified by observations that spontaneous and radiation-induced adaptive anticancer immunity was reduced in the absence of STING, illustrating the potential of STING-targeting for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we will discuss the relevance of manipulating the STING signalling pathway for cancer treatment and integrating STING-targeting based strategies into combinatorial therapies to obtain long-lasting anticancer immune responses.

  3. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  4. A mathematical prognosis model for pancreatic cancer patients receiving immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefang; Xu, Jian-Xin

    2016-10-07

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer since it typically spreads rapidly and can seldom be detected in its early stage. Pancreatic cancer therapy is thus a challenging task, and appropriate prognosis or assessment for pancreatic cancer therapy is of critical importance. In this work, based on available clinical data in Niu et al. (2013) we develop a mathematical prognosis model that can predict the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients who receive immunotherapy. The mathematical model incorporates pancreatic cancer cells, pancreatic stellate cells, three major classes of immune effector cells CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, helper T cells, and two major classes of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The proposed model describes the dynamic interaction between tumor and immune cells. In order for the model to be able to generate appropriate prognostic results for disease progression, the distribution and stability properties of equilibria in the mathematical model are computed and analysed in absence of treatments. In addition, numerical simulations for disease progression with or without treatments are performed. It turns out that the median overall survival associated with CIK immunotherapy is prolonged from 7 to 13months compared with the survival without treatment, this is consistent with the clinical data observed in Niu et al. (2013). The validity of the proposed mathematical prognosis model is thus verified. Our study confirms that immunotherapy offers a better prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients. As a direct extension of this work, various new therapy methods that are under exploration and clinical trials could be assessed or evaluated using the newly developed mathematical prognosis model.

  5. SITC/iSBTc Cancer Immunotherapy Biomarkers Resource Document: Online resources and useful tools - a compass in the land of biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent positive clinical results in cancer immunotherapy point to the potential of immune-based strategies to provide effective treatment of a variety of cancers. In some patients, the responses to cancer immunotherapy are durable, dramatically extending survival. Extensive research efforts are being made to identify and validate biomarkers that can help identify subsets of cancer patients that will benefit most from these novel immunotherapies. In addition to the clear advantage of such predictive biomarkers, immune biomarkers are playing an important role in the development, clinical evaluation and monitoring of cancer immunotherapies. This Cancer Immunotherapy Resource Document, prepared by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc), provides key references and online resources relevant to the discovery, evaluation and clinical application of immune biomarkers. These key resources were identified by experts in the field who are actively pursuing research in biomarker identification and validation. This organized collection of the most useful references, online resources and tools serves as a compass to guide discovery of biomarkers essential to advancing novel cancer immunotherapies. PMID:21929757

  6. Redirecting the focus of cancer immunotherapy to premalignant conditions.

    PubMed

    Young, M Rita I

    2017-04-10

    Much progress has been made in introducing immunological treatment approaches for cancer, with lessons learned from both the successes and failures of immunotherapy. Among the challenges of immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer are the multitudes of mechanisms by which cancers are known to subvert the immune defenses. This has led to the incorporation into the immunotherapeutic arsenal strategies by which to overcome the cancer's immunological blockades. What has been only superficially explored is the immunological milieu of premalignant lesions and the possibility of immunological approaches for the treatment of premalignant lesions so as to prevent secondary premalignant lesions and their progression to cancer. This review discusses the immunological environment associated with premalignant lesions, and the possible missed opportunity of utilizing immunological treatment strategies in the less hostile environment of premalignant lesions as compared to the immune subversive cancer environment.

  7. Immunotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer: checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and future directions in combination immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Heather L; Page, David B

    2016-11-01

    Immunotherapy encompasses both vaccines that direct immune responses to tumor-associated antigens, and checkpoint blocking antibodies that inhibit immune system suppression by targeting key pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Both of these approaches currently are being explored as potential strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy is poised to change the therapeutic landscape for some breast cancers. Specifically, overall response rates of 19% with PD-1/PD-L1-directed antibodies have been reported in 2 small studies of women with PD-L1-positive, heavily pretreated advanced triple-negative breast cancer. In combination with nab-paclitaxel, confirmed response rates were 46% in a PD-L1-unselected population in the first-line metastatic triple-negative breast cancer setting. Checkpoint-blocking antibodies also have been evaluated in small studies of women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, and in women whose breast cancers lack PD-L1 expression, with more modest response rates. It has been hypothesized that some breast cancers are not inherently recognized by the immune system; however, preclinical and preliminary clinical data suggest that inherently modest immunogenicity may be overcome with novel vaccination strategies, as well as strategies that combine immune checkpoint blockade with methods of optimizing antigen presentation, such as tumor ablation, radiation, chemotherapy, or other approaches. If ongoing registrational trials support the use of immunotherapy, it could revolutionize the care of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer, and ideally improve cure rates.

  8. New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Kassianos, Andrew; Frazer, Ian H; Mittal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of women worldwide and is the first cancer shown to be entirely induced by a virus, the human papillomavirus (HPV, major oncogenic genotypes HPV-16 and -18). Two recently developed prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines, using virus-like particles (VLP) technology, have the potential to prevent a large proportion of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection and to ensure long-term protection. However, prophylactic HPV vaccines do not have therapeutic effects against pre-existing HPV infections and do not prevent their progression to HPV-associated malignancy. In animal models, therapeutic vaccines for persisting HPV infection can eliminate transplantable tumors expressing HPV antigens, but are of limited efficacy in inducing rejection of skin grafts expressing the same antigens. In humans, clinical trials have reported successful immunotherapy of HPV lesions, providing hope and further interest. This review discusses possible new approaches to immunotherapy for HPV associated cancer, based on recent advances in our knowledge of the immunobiology of HPV infection, of epithelial immunology and of immunoregulation, with a brief overview on previous and current HPV vaccine clinical trials. PMID:24212964

  9. High immunosuppressive burden in cancer patients: a major hurdle for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Suresh Gopi; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2016-07-01

    A bottleneck for immunotherapy of cancer is the immunosuppressive microenvironment in which the tumor cells are located. Regardless of the fact that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells can be generated in patients by active immunization or adoptive transfer, these T cells do not readily translate to tumor cell killing in vivo. The immune regulatory mechanism that prevents autoimmunity may be harnessed by tumor cells for the evasion of immune destruction. Regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint receptors are the major components of the immune system acting in concert with causing the subversion of anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment. This redundant immunosuppressive network may pose an impediment to efficacious immunotherapy, thus facilitating tumor progression. Cancer progression clearly documents the failure of immune control over relentless growth of tumor cells. Detailed knowledge of each of these factors responsible for creating an immunosuppressive shield to protect tumor cells from immune destruction is essential for the development of novel immune-based therapeutic interventions of cancer. Multipronged targeted depletion of these suppressor cells may restore production of granzyme B by CD8(+) T cells and increase the number of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells.

  10. Cancer immunotherapy: nanodelivery approaches for immune cell targeting and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conniot, João; Silva, Joana; Fernandes, Joana; Silva, Liana; Gaspar, Rogério; Brocchini, Steve; Florindo, Helena; Barata, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Cancer is one of the most common diseases afflicting people globally. New therapeutic approaches are needed due to the complexity of cancer as a disease. Many current treatments are very toxic and have modest efficacy at best. Increased understanding of tumor biology and immunology has allowed the development of specific immunotherapies with minimal toxicity. It is important to highlight the performance of monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants, vaccines and cell-based treatments. Although these approaches have shown varying degrees of clinical efficacy, they illustrate the potential to develop new strategies. Targeted immunotherapy is being explored to overcome the heterogeneity of malignant cells and the immune suppression induced by both the tumor and its microenvironment. Nanodelivery strategies seek to minimize systemic exposure to target therapy to malignant tissue and cells. Intracellular penetration has been examined through the use of functionalized particulates. These nano-particulate associated medicines are being developed for use in imaging, diagnostics and cancer targeting. Although nano-particulates are inherently complex medicines, the ability to confer, at least in principle, different types of functionality allows for the plausible consideration these nanodelivery strategies can be exploited for use as combination medicines. The development of targeted nanodelivery systems in which therapeutic and imaging agents are merged into a single platform is an attractive strategy. Currently, several nanoplatform-based formulations, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, liposomes and dendrimers are in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Herein, nanodelivery strategies presently investigated for cancer immunotherapy, cancer targeting mechanisms and nanocarrier functionalization methods will be described. We also intend to discuss the emerging nano-based approaches suitable to be used as imaging techniques and as cancer treatment options.

  11. Cancer immunotherapy: nanodelivery approaches for immune cell targeting and tracking

    PubMed Central

    Conniot, João; Silva, Joana M.; Fernandes, Joana G.; Silva, Liana C.; Gaspar, Rogério; Brocchini, Steve; Florindo, Helena F.; Barata, Teresa S.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common diseases afflicting people globally. New therapeutic approaches are needed due to the complexity of cancer as a disease. Many current treatments are very toxic and have modest efficacy at best. Increased understanding of tumor biology and immunology has allowed the development of specific immunotherapies with minimal toxicity. It is important to highlight the performance of monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants, vaccines and cell-based treatments. Although these approaches have shown varying degrees of clinical efficacy, they illustrate the potential to develop new strategies. Targeted immunotherapy is being explored to overcome the heterogeneity of malignant cells and the immune suppression induced by both the tumor and its microenvironment. Nanodelivery strategies seek to minimize systemic exposure to target therapy to malignant tissue and cells. Intracellular penetration has been examined through the use of functionalized particulates. These nano-particulate associated medicines are being developed for use in imaging, diagnostics and cancer targeting. Although nano-particulates are inherently complex medicines, the ability to confer, at least in principle, different types of functionality allows for the plausible consideration these nanodelivery strategies can be exploited for use as combination medicines. The development of targeted nanodelivery systems in which therapeutic and imaging agents are merged into a single platform is an attractive strategy. Currently, several nanoplatform-based formulations, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, liposomes and dendrimers are in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Herein, nanodelivery strategies presently investigated for cancer immunotherapy, cancer targeting mechanisms and nanocarrier functionalization methods will be described. We also intend to discuss the emerging nano-based approaches suitable to be used as imaging techniques and as cancer treatment options

  12. Aptamers: A New Technological Platform in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The renaissance of cancer immunotherapy is, nowadays, a reality. In the near future, it will be very likely among the first-line treatments for cancer patients. There are several different approaches to modulate the immune system to fight against tumor maladies but, so far, monoclonal antibodies may currently be the most successful immuno-tools used to that end. The number of ongoing clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies has been increasing exponentially over the last few years upon the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first immune-checkpoint blockade antibodies. In spite of the proved antitumor effect of these reagents, the unleashing of the immune system to fight cancer cells has a cost, namely auto-inflammatory toxicity. Additionally, only a small fraction of all patients treated with immune-checkpoint antibodies have a clinical benefit. Taking into account all this, it is urgent new therapeutic reagents are developed with a contained toxicity that could facilitate the combination of different immune-modulating pathways to broaden the antitumor effect in most cancer patients. Based on preclinical data, oligonucleotide aptamers could fulfill this need. Aptamers have not only been successfully used as antagonists of immune-checkpoint receptors, but also as agonists of immunostimulatory receptors in cancer immunotherapy. The simplicity of aptamers to be engineered for the specific delivery of different types of cargos to tumor cells and immune cells so as to harvest an efficient antitumor immune response gives aptamers a significant advantage over antibodies. In this review all of the recent applications of aptamers in cancer immunotherapy will be described. PMID:27783034

  13. De-Risking Immunotherapy: Report of a Consensus Workshop of the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Mellman, Ira; Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J; Kalos, Michael D; Chen, Daniel S; Allison, James P; Drake, Charles G; Levitsky, Hy; Lonberg, Nils; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Fearon, Douglas T; Wherry, E John; Lowy, Israel; Vonderheide, Robert H; Hwu, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    With the recent FDA approvals of pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and a host of additional immunomodulatory agents entering clinical development each year, the field of cancer immunotherapy is changing rapidly. Strategies that can assist researchers in choosing the most promising drugs and drug combinations to move forward through clinical development are badly needed in order to reduce the likelihood of late-stage clinical trial failures. On October 5, 2014, the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute, a collaborative think tank composed of stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, and patient interest groups, met to discuss strategies for de-risking immunotherapy development, with a focus on integrating preclinical and clinical studies, and conducting smarter early-phase trials, particularly for combination therapies. Several recommendations were made, including making better use of clinical data to inform preclinical research, obtaining adequate tissues for biomarker studies, and choosing appropriate clinical trial endpoints to identify promising drug candidates and combinations in nonrandomized early-phase trials.

  14. Combining MPDL3280A with adoptive cell immunotherapy exerts better antitumor effects against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yicheng; Wu, Shu; Zhu, Yongqiang; Tang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-10-18

    As the second most common gynecologic malignant tumors with a high mortality rate, cervical cancer jeopardizes women's life worldwide. The low cure rate in cervical cancer patients is mainly attributed to the lack of effective therapies. One feasible novel strategy is to develop immune-based approaches such as adoptive cell immunotherapy of DCCIKs which represents a promising nontoxic antineoplastic immunotherapy preferred in clinic practice. However, the therapeutic effect is not as efficient as anticipated. Possible explanations are tumors exploit immunoregulatory check-points such as programmed death 1(PD1)/PDL1 which provides tumor cells an escape strategy of circumventing immunologic rejection from immune surveillance by hampering activated tumor-specific T cell activities and rendering them functionally exhausted. With reduced transformation activity and enhanced antigenicity, a modified HPV16 E7 (HPV16mE7) was used to load DCs with silenced SOCS1 mediated by a recombinant adenovirus to improve the targetability and efficiency against cervical cancer. Combined with anti-PDL1 antibody MPDL3280A therapy, the co-cultured DCCIKs were transfused into murine models bearing tumor of HPV16 E6/E7 expressing CaSki cells for in vitro/in vivo antitumor activity assay. Although all of the animals succumbed to CaSki tumors even after adoptive DCCIKs transfer or MPDL3280A immunotherapy, the infusion of PDL1 blocking monoclonal antibody with activated T cells cured 40% of animals. These data support PDL1 blockade improves the efficacy of adoptive DCCIKs therapy, providing a new approach of immunotherapy against cervical cancer.

  15. The journey from discoveries in fundamental immunology to cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacques F A P; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-04-13

    Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy have directly built on 50 years of fundamental and technological advances that made checkpoint blockade and T cell engineering possible. In this review, we intend to show that research, not specifically designed to bring relief or cure to any particular disease, can, when creatively exploited, lead to spectacular results in the management of cancer. The discovery of thymus immune function, T cells, and immune surveillance bore the seeds for today's targeted immune interventions and chimeric antigen receptors.

  16. IgE-based immunotherapy of cancer: challenges and chances

    PubMed Central

    Singer, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2014-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies is an indispensable cornerstone of clinical oncology. Notably, all FDA-approved antibodies comprise the IgG class, although numerous research articles proposed monoclonal antibodies of the IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE classes directed specifically against tumor-associated antigens. In particular, for the IgE isotype class, several recent studies could demonstrate high tumoricidic efficacy. Therefore, this review specifically highlights the latest developments toward IgE-based immunotherapy of cancer. Possible mechanisms and safety aspects of IgE-mediated tumor cell death are discussed with special focus on the attracted immune cells. An outlook is given on how especially comparative oncology could contribute to further developments. Humans and dogs have a highly comparable IgE biology, suggesting that translational AllergoOncology studies in patients with canine cancer could have predictive value for the potential of IgE-based anticancer immunotherapy in human clinical oncology. PMID:24117861

  17. Opportunistic autoimmunity secondary to cancer immunotherapy (OASI): An emerging challenge.

    PubMed

    Kostine, M; Chiche, L; Lazaro, E; Halfon, P; Charpin, C; Arniaud, D; Retornaz, F; Blanco, P; Jourde-Chiche, N; Richez, C; Stavris, C

    2017-02-14

    With "checkpoint inhibitors" targeting PD1/PD-1-ligands or CTLA-4/CD28 pathways, immunotherapy has profoundly modified therapeutic strategies in oncology. First approved in refractory metastatic neoplasms (melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma), it is now being tested broadly in other cancers and/or as adjuvant treatment. For a significant proportion of patients, immunotherapy is responsible for "immunological" events, identified as Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs). Owing to the increasing number of prescriptions, identification and management of specific immunological side effects is crucial and requires close collaboration between oncologists and internists and/or other organ specialists. Within irAEs, we propose to individualize the induced autoimmunity by the term "Opportunistic Autoimmunity Secondary to Cancer Immunotherapy" (OASI). The aims of this article are (1) to present the different available checkpoint inhibitors and the OASIs reported with these treatments and (2) to propose practical recommendations for diagnosis, pre-therapeutic assessment and management of OASIs. The need for predictive biomarkers of OASIs occurrence will also be discussed.

  18. Recognizing and managing on toxicities in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Yu, Huifang; Dong, Shuang; Zhong, Yi; Hu, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Over the past 4 years, cancer immunotherapy has significantly prolonged survival time of patients with prostate cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, and liver cancer, but its side effects are also impressive. Different types of the immune therapeutic agents have different on-target or off-target toxicity due to high affinity or weak specificity, respectively. Treatment toxicity spectrums vary greatly even in patients with the same type of cancer. Common toxicities are fevers, chills, diarrhea colitis, maculopapular rash, hepatitis, and hormone gland disorder; therefore, routine monitoring of thyroid function, liver function, renal function, and complete blood count are absolutely necessary once treatment begins. Some side effects are reversible, and can be processed through the standard medicines. However, serious toxicities are lethal, which should be frequently followed-up, identified at an early stage and immediately symptomatic treated by high-dose immunosuppressors. In this case, thereafter, the same agent should not be challenged again.

  19. Bispecific T cell engagers for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Huehls, Amelia M.; Coupet, Tiffany A.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific T cell engagers are a new class of immunotherapeutic molecules intended for the treatment of cancer. These molecules, termed BiTEs, enhance the patient’s immune response to tumors by retargeting T cells to tumor cells. BiTEs are constructed of two single chain variable fragments (scFv) connected in tandem by a flexible linker. One scFv binds to a T cell-specific molecule, usually CD3, while the second scFv binds to a tumor-associated antigen. This structure and specificity allows a BiTE to physically link a T cell to a tumor cell, ultimately stimulating T cell activation, tumor killing and cytokine production. BiTEs have been developed that target several tumor-associated antigens for a variety of both hematological and solid tumors. Several BiTEs are currently in clinical trials for their therapeutic efficacy and safety. This review examines the salient structural and functional features of BiTEs as well as the current state of their clinical and preclinical development. PMID:25367186

  20. [Immunotherapy for cancer--modern immunologic strategies in oncology].

    PubMed

    Halama, N; Zoernig, I; Jäger, D

    2008-10-01

    Immunotherapies have become an integral part of modern treatment concepts in oncology. The complexity of the regulation of the immune system gives rise to a multitude of different treatment approaches. Antibody based strategies are already used routinely in clinical day to day practice. Identification of new target antigens and the analysis of broader immunologic implications of antibody therapy are recent developments in this field. Antigen selection is also of high importance in the field of vaccination strategies. Vaccination strategies are now being investigated in adjuvant treatment settings but also the combination of vaccination and other treatment modalities show promising results in clinical trials. Another promising emerging field are T cell based therapies, with the clinically successful adoptive T cell transfer now being complemented by T cell receptor transfer strategies. This review summarizes the current concepts and future perspectives in immunotherapies for cancer.

  1. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  2. Immunotherapy of brain cancers: the past, the present, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Bota, Daniela A; Natividad, Josephine; Howat, Andrew; Jadus, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of brain cancers, especially high grade gliomas (WHO stage III and IV) is slowly making progress, but not as fast as medical researchers and the patients would like. Immunotherapy offers the opportunity to allow the patient's own immune system a chance to help eliminate the cancer. Immunotherapy's strength is that it efficiently treats relatively small tumors in experimental animal models. For some patients, immunotherapy has worked for them while not showing long-term toxicity. In this paper, we will trace the history of immunotherapy for brain cancers. We will also highlight some of the possible directions that this field may be taking in the immediate future for improving this therapeutic option.

  3. Gastric cancer and the epoch of immunotherapy approaches.

    PubMed

    Niccolai, Elena; Taddei, Antonio; Prisco, Domenico; Amedei, Amedeo

    2015-05-21

    The incidence of gastric cancer (GC) fell dramatically over the last 50 years, but according to IARC-Globocan 2008, it is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths with a case fatality GC ratio higher than other common malignancies. Surgical resection is the primary curative treatment for GC though the overall 5-year survival rate remains poor (approximately 20%-25%). To improve the outcome of resectable gastric cancer, different treatment strategies have been evaluated such as adjuvant or perioperative chemotherapy. In resected gastric cancer, the addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy does not appear to provide any additional benefit. Moreover, in metastatic patients, chemotherapy is the mainstay of palliative therapy with a median overall survival of 8-10 mo and objective response rates of merely 20%-40%. Therefore, the potential for making key beneficial progress is to investigate the GC molecular biology to realize innovative therapeutic strategies, such as specific immunotherapy. In this review, we provide a panoramic view of the different immune-based strategies used for gastric cancer treatment and the results obtained in the most significant clinical trials. In detail, firstly we describe the therapeutic approaches that utilize the monoclonal antibodies while in the second part we analyze the cell-based immunotherapies.

  4. Improvement of QOL and Immunological Function With Lentinula Edodes Mycelia in Patients Undergoing Cancer Immunotherapy: An Open Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Keishi; Itoh, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Yasunobu

    2016-07-01

    Context • Combined treatment with an extract of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) and chemotherapy has been reported to improve quality of life (QOL) and immunological function in cancer patients. However, those effects have not been elucidated for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy. Objective • The present study intended to investigate the effects of oral LEM on QOL and immunological function in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. Design • The research team designed an open-label, single-armed pilot study. Setting • The study took place at Bio-Thera Clinic, a facility associated with Tokyo Women's Medical University in Tokyo, Japan. Participants • The participants were 10 cancer patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy at Bio-Thera Clinic. Intervention • The participants received either dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine therapy or CD3-activated T-lymphocyte (CAT) therapy as immunotherapy. They received the immunotherapy only for the first 4 wk of the study, and then oral LEM (1800 mg/d) was added for the next 4 wk. Outcome Measures • Preintervention and at 4 and 8 wk after the start of the study, participants completed a QOL survey, and immunological parameters were measured. Results • Participants' QOL symptom scores increased (ie, worsened) by 5.1 ± 1.7 during the first 4 wk of treatment when they were receiving immunotherapy only, but it decreased (ie, improved) by -2.5 ± 1.6 during the next 4 wk when the immunotherapy was combined with the LEM, P < .05. The measurement of the immunological parameters during the 4 wk of immunotherapy combined with LEM showed that the amount of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced in the peripheral blood tended to increase as compared with that during the first 4 wk of immunotherapy only. The rise in IFN-γ was correlated with changes in several regulatory T cells (Tregs) (ie, forkhead box P3 [FOXP3]+/cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4]+ and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Conclusions • The

  5. Exploiting the Immunomodulatory Properties of Chemotherapeutic Drugs to Improve the Success of Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Kelly; Salvagno, Camilla; de Visser, Karin E.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is gaining momentum in the clinic. The current challenge is to understand why a proportion of cancer patients do not respond to cancer immunotherapy, and how this can be translated into the rational design of combinatorial cancer immunotherapy strategies aimed at maximizing success of immunotherapy. Here, we discuss how tumors orchestrate an immunosuppressive microenvironment, which contributes to their escape from immune attack. Relieving the immunosuppressive networks in cancer patients is an attractive strategy to extend the clinical success of cancer immunotherapy. Since the clinical availability of drugs specifically targeting immunosuppressive cells or mediators is still limited, an alternative strategy is to use conventional chemotherapy drugs with immunomodulatory properties to improve cancer immunotherapy. We summarize the preclinical and clinical studies that illustrate how the anti-tumor T cell response can be enhanced by chemotherapy-induced relief of immunosuppressive networks. Treatment strategies aimed at combining chemotherapy-induced relief of immunosuppression and T cell-boosting checkpoint inhibitors provide an attractive and clinically feasible approach to overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance to cancer immunotherapy, and to extend the clinical success of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26500653

  6. A Perspective of Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Ida; Cattarino, Susanna; Giantulli, Sabrina; Nazzari, Cristina; Collalti, Giulia; Sciarra, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In cancer patients, the immune system is often altered with an excess of inhibitory factors, such as immunosuppressive cytokines, produced by regulatory T cells (Treg) or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The manipulation of the immune system has emerged as one of new promising therapies for cancer treatment, and also represents an attractive strategy to control prostate cancer (PCa). Therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been the most investigated in clinical trials. Many trials are ongoing to define the effects of immune therapy with established treatments: androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy (RT). This article discusses some of these approaches in the context of future treatments for PCa. PMID:27399780

  7. Complement and Immunotherapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    retreat
for
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of
the
 Cancer 
 Immunology 
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that
I
 participated
in.

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  8. Phenotypic screening reveals TNFR2 as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey S.; Mistry, Bina; Guillard, Sandrine; Ulrichsen, Jane Coates; Sandercock, Alan M.; Wang, Jun; González-Muñoz, Andrea; Parmentier, Julie; Black, Chelsea; Soden, Jo; Freeth, Jim; Jovanović, Jelena; Leyland, Rebecca; Al-Lamki, Rafia S.; Leishman, Andrew J.; Rust, Steven J.; Stewart, Ross; Jermutus, Lutz; Bradley, John R.; Bedian, Vahe; Valge-Archer, Viia; Minter, Ralph; Wilkinson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies that target cell-surface molecules on T cells can enhance anti-tumor immune responses, resulting in sustained immune-mediated control of cancer. We set out to find new cancer immunotherapy targets by phenotypic screening on human regulatory T (Treg) cells and report the discovery of novel activators of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) and a potential role for this target in immunotherapy. A diverse phage display library was screened to find antibody mimetics with preferential binding to Treg cells, the most Treg-selective of which were all, without exception, found to bind specifically to TNFR2. A subset of these TNFR2 binders were found to agonise the receptor, inducing iκ-B degradation and NF-κB pathway signalling in vitro. TNFR2 was found to be expressed by tumor-infiltrating Treg cells, and to a lesser extent Teff cells, from three lung cancer patients, and a similar pattern was also observed in mice implanted with CT26 syngeneic tumors. In such animals, TNFR2-specific agonists inhibited tumor growth, enhanced tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells and increased CD8+ T cell IFN-γ synthesis. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism for TNF-α-independent TNFR2 agonism in cancer immunotherapy, and demonstrate the utility of target-agnostic screening in highlighting important targets during drug discovery. PMID:27626702

  9. Aberrant expression and potency as a cancer immunotherapy target of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Honma, Ichiya; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Eiji; Masumori, Naoya; Tamura, Yasuaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Sato, Noriyuki

    2009-12-09

    Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is an enzyme playing an important role in the beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives. High expression levels of AMACR have been described in various cancers, including prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and kidney cancer. Because of its cancer-specific and frequent expression, AMACR could be an attractive target for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-based immunotherapy for cancer. In the present study, we examined the induction of AMACR-specific CTLs from prostate cancer patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and determined HLA-A24-restricted CTL epitopes.RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AMACR was strongly expressed in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues as compared with benign or normal prostate tissues. Four AMACR-derived peptides carrying the HLA-A24-binding motif were synthesized from the amino acid sequence of this protein and analyzed to determine their binding affinities to HLA-A24. By stimulating patient's PBMCs with the peptides, specific CTLs were successfully induced in 6 of 11 patients. The peptide-specific CTLs exerted significant cytotoxic activity against AMACR-expressing prostate cancer cells in the context of HLA-A24. Our study demonstrates that AMACR could become a target antigen for prostate cancer immunotherapy, and that the AMACR-derived peptides might be good peptide vaccine candidates for HLA-A24-positive AMACR-expressing cancer patients.

  10. Mesothelin Immunotherapy for Cancer: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed

    Hassan, Raffit; Thomas, Anish; Alewine, Christine; Le, Dung T; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Pastan, Ira

    2016-12-01

    Mesothelin is a tumor antigen that is highly expressed in many human cancers, including malignant mesothelioma and pancreatic, ovarian, and lung adenocarcinomas. It is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy because its normal expression is limited to mesothelial cells, which are dispensable. Several antibody-based therapeutic agents as well as vaccine and T-cell therapies directed at mesothelin are undergoing clinical evaluation. These include antimesothelin immunotoxins (SS1P, RG7787/LMB-100), chimeric antimesothelin antibody (amatuximab), mesothelin-directed antibody drug conjugates (anetumab ravtansine, DMOT4039A, BMS-986148), live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin (CRS-207, JNJ-64041757), and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies. Two antimesothelin agents are currently in multicenter clinical registration trials for malignant mesothelioma: amatuximab in the first-line setting and anetumab ravtansine as second-line therapy. Phase II randomized clinical trials of CRS-207 as a boosting agent and in combination with immune checkpoint inhibition for pancreatic cancer are nearing completion. These ongoing studies will define the utility of mesothelin immunotherapy for treating cancer.

  11. The promising alliance of anti-cancer electrochemotherapy with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Christophe Y; Mir, Lluis M

    2016-06-01

    Anti-tumor electrochemotherapy, which consists in increasing anti-cancer drug uptake by means of electroporation, is now implanted in about 140 cancer treatment centers in Europe. Its use is supported by the English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the palliative treatment of skin metastases, and about 13,000 cancer patients were treated by this technology by the end of 2015. Efforts are now focused on turning this local anti-tumor treatment into a systemic one. Electrogenetherapy, that is the electroporation-mediated transfer of therapeutic genes, is currently under clinical evaluation and has brought excitement to enlarge the anti-cancer armamentarium. Among the promising electrogenetherapy strategies, DNA vaccination and cytokine-based immunotherapy aim at stimulating anti-tumor immunity. We review here the interests and state of development of both electrochemotherapy and electrogenetherapy. We then emphasize the potent beneficial outcome of the combination of electrochemotherapy with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors or strategies based on electrogenetherapy, to simultaneously achieve excellent local debulking anti-tumor responses and systemic anti-metastatic effects.

  12. The emerging role of immunotherapy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, David

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of the interaction between the immune system and the tumor microenvironment has long been a target of cancer research, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Approaches explored to date include vaccines (autologous, peptide, dendritic cell, viral and bacterial), cytokine therapy, toll-like receptors (TLRs), autologous cell therapy and checkpoint inhibition. Until recently these approaches have been shown to have only modest efficacy in reducing tumor burden. However, significant breakthroughs have been made, with the use of checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Immunotherapy now represents a possible avenue of curative treatment for those with chemo-otherwise refractory tumors. Success with this approach to immunotherapy has largely been confined to tumors with high mutational burdens such as melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and non-small cell lung cancer. This observation led to the exploration and successful use of checkpoint inhibitors in those with mismatch repair colorectal cancer which have a relatively high mutational burden. Ongoing trials are focused on further exploring the use of checkpoint inhibitors in addition to investigating the various combinations of immunotherapeutic drugs. PMID:27668225

  13. Multiple-purpose immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Seledtsov, V I; Goncharov, A G; Seledtsova, G V

    2015-12-01

    Anti-cancer vaccination is a useful strategy to elicit antitumor immune responses, while overcoming immunosuppressive mechanisms. Whole tumor cells or lysates derived thereof hold more promise as cancer vaccines than individual tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), because vaccinal cells can elicit immune responses to multiple TAAs. Cancer cell-based vaccines can be autologous, allogeneic or xenogeneic. Clinical use of xenogeneic vaccines is advantageous in that they can be most effective in breaking the preexisting immune tolerance to TAAs. An attractive protocol would be to combine vaccinations with immunostimulating and/or immunosuppression-blocking modalities. It is reasonable to anticipate that combined immunotherapeutic strategies will allow for substantial improvements in clinical outcomes in the near future.

  14. Radiation-inducible immunotherapy for cancer: senescent tumor cells as a cancer vaccine.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuru; Efimova, Elena V; Hamzeh, Khaled W; Darga, Thomas E; Mauceri, Helena J; Fu, Yang-Xin; Kron, Stephen J; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2012-05-01

    Radiotherapy offers an effective treatment for advanced cancer but local and distant failures remain a significant challenge. Here, we treated melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma in syngeneic mice with ionizing radiation (IR) combined with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) veliparib to inhibit DNA repair and promote accelerated senescence. Based on prior work implicating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) as key mediators of radiation effects, we discovered that senescent tumor cells induced by radiation and veliparib express immunostimulatory cytokines to activate CTLs that mediate an effective antitumor response. When these senescent tumor cells were injected into tumor-bearing mice, an antitumor CTL response was induced which potentiated the effects of radiation, resulting in elimination of established tumors. Applied to human cancers, radiation-inducible immunotherapy may enhance radiotherapy responses to prevent local recurrence and distant metastasis.

  15. Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy: Exploiting the HLA Class II Pathway in Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Doonan, Bently P; Haque, Azizul

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and current treatment of advanced prostate cancer is ineffective. Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment option for metastatic prostate cancer but its clinical application is still in the early stages of development. In order to treat metastatic prostate tumors, new directions must be taken to improve current immunotherapeutic strategies. These include the identification of effective tumor antigens (Ags), the induction of the HLA class II pathway for Ag processing and CD4(+) T cell activation, and the ability of tumor cells to act like Ag presenting cells. In this review, we suggest a model for tumor Ag selection, epitope modification and self-processing for presentation by class II proteins as a means of restoring immune activation and tumor clearance. We also outline the importance of a Gamma-IFN-inducible Lysosomal Thiol reductase (GILT) in Ag and modified peptide processing by tumor cells, generation of functional epitopes for T cell recognition, and inclusion of immune checkpoint blockers in cancer immunotherapy. Taken together, this review provides a framework for the future development of novel cancer vaccines and the improvement of existing immunotherapeutics in prostate cancer.

  16. Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy: Exploiting the HLA Class II Pathway in Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Doonan, Bently P; Haque, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and current treatment of advanced prostate cancer is ineffective. Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment option for metastatic prostate cancer but its clinical application is still in the early stages of development. In order to treat metastatic prostate tumors, new directions must be taken to improve current immunotherapeutic strategies. These include the identification of effective tumor antigens (Ags), the induction of the HLA class II pathway for Ag processing and CD4+ T cell activation, and the ability of tumor cells to act like Ag presenting cells. In this review, we suggest a model for tumor Ag selection, epitope modification and self-processing for presentation by class II proteins as a means of restoring immune activation and tumor clearance. We also outline the importance of a Gamma-IFN-inducible Lysosomal Thiol reductase (GILT) in Ag and modified peptide processing by tumor cells, generation of functional epitopes for T cell recognition, and inclusion of immune checkpoint blockers in cancer immunotherapy. Taken together, this review provides a framework for the future development of novel cancer vaccines and the improvement of existing immunotherapeutics in prostate cancer. PMID:26807308

  17. Non-Specific Immunotherapies and Adjuvants

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Side Effects Treatment Types Immunotherapy Non-specific cancer immunotherapies and adjuvants Non-specific immunotherapies don’t target ... This makes BCG useful as a form of cancer immunotherapy. BCG was one of the earliest immunotherapies used ...

  18. Translating Science into Survival: Report on the Inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference.

    PubMed

    Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference, cohosted by the Cancer Research Institute (CRI), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy (CIMT), and the European Academy of Tumor Immunology (EATI), was held in New York City on September 16–19, 2015. The conference brought together nearly 1,400 scientists, clinicians, regulators, patient advocates, and other stakeholders to discuss the latest scientific developments in cancer immunology and immunotherapy, as well as the regulatory hurdles facing new drug development. This conference report summarizes the main themes that emerged during the 4-day meeting.

  19. Immunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... CSF) Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Interferon Donor lymphocyte infusion Some blood cancer patients, especially those with chronic ... from an immune cell treatment called donor lymphocyte infusion. During this procedure, doctors transfer lymphocytes (a type ...

  20. The inherent premise of immunotherapy for cancer dormancy.

    PubMed

    Manjili, Masoud H

    2014-12-01

    Clinical cancer dormancy is evident from the detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood and tissue-residing disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow of cancer survivors who have been clinically disease free. Emerging evidence from clinical and preclinical studies suggests that tumor dormancy is a critical step in the development of both primary cancer and advanced-stage disease. In this review, it is shown that (i) naturally occurring tumor dormancy precedes occurrence of primary cancer, and (ii) conventional cancer therapies result in treatment-induced tumor dormancy, which in turn could lead to distant recurrence of cancer or permanent tumor dormancy, depending on immunogenic status of dormancy. Given that cellular dormancy is an evolutionary conserved survival mechanism in biologic systems, any stress or cytotoxic therapy could trigger cellular dormancy. Therefore, a successful cancer therapy is likely to be achieved by establishing permanent tumor dormancy and preventing distant recurrence of cancer or by eliminating dormant tumor cells. This could be accomplished by cancer immunotherapy because of the establishment of long-term memory responses.

  1. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: harnessing the T cell response.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2012-03-22

    Immunotherapy based on the adoptive transfer of naturally occurring or gene-engineered T cells can mediate tumour regression in patients with metastatic cancer. Here, we discuss progress in the use of adoptively transferred T cells, focusing on how they can mediate tumour cell eradication. Recent advances include more accurate targeting of antigens expressed by tumours and the associated vasculature, and the successful use of gene engineering to re-target T cells before their transfer into the patient. We also describe how new research has helped to identify the particular T cell subsets that can most effectively promote tumour eradication.

  2. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies in Plants for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moussavou, Ghislain; Ko, Kisung; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Choo, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    Plants are considered as an alternative platform for recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) production due to the improvement and diversification of transgenic techniques. The diversity of plant species offers a multitude of possibilities for the valorization of genetic resources. Moreover, plants can be propagated indefinitely, providing cheap biomass production on a large scale in controlled conditions. Thus, recent studies have shown the successful development of plant systems for the production of mAbs for cancer immunotherapy. However, their several limitations have to be resolved for efficient antibody production in plants. PMID:26550566

  3. Use of allogeneic NK cells for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Melissa A; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists as to the role that the immune system plays in cancer therapy. While the immune system has been proposed to scavenge the body to prevent microscopic transformation from forming cancer, it has been difficult to mount its potential of shrinking established tumors. NK cells are components of the innate immune system. They can recognize targets without prior sensitization, making them ideal candidates to manipulate for therapeutic use against cancer. Initially, autologous NK cells were directed against tumors but it was realized that NK cells that recognize self cells are inhibited. More encouraging advances have been made with allogeneic NK cell therapy in clinical trials to overcome this limitation. In this article, we present developments in NK cell adoptive immunotherapy for hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. PMID:22091681

  4. Challenges and future perspectives of T cell immunotherapy in cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Aquino, Maria Teresa P; Malhotra, Anshu; Mishra, Manoj K; Shanker, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Since the formulation of the tumour immunosurveillance theory, considerable focus has been on enhancing the effectiveness of host antitumour immunity, particularly with respect to T cells. A cancer evades or alters the host immune response by various ways to ensure its development and survival. These include modifications of the immune cell metabolism and T cell signaling. An inhibitory cytokine milieu in the tumour microenvironment also leads to immune suppression and tumour progression within a host. This review traces the development in the field and attempts to summarize the hurdles that the approach of adoptive T cell immunotherapy against cancer faces, and discusses the conditions that must be improved to allow effective eradication of cancer. PMID:26096822

  5. The future of cancer treatment: immunomodulation, CARs and combination immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Danny N; Smith, Eric L; Brentjens, Renier J; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2016-05-01

    In the past decade, advances in the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and adoptive cellular therapy to treat cancer by modulating the immune response have led to unprecedented responses in patients with advanced-stage tumours that would otherwise have been fatal. To date, three immune-checkpoint-blocking mAbs have been approved in the USA for the treatment of patients with several types of cancer, and more patients will benefit from immunomodulatory mAb therapy in the months and years ahead. Concurrently, the adoptive transfer of genetically modified lymphocytes to treat patients with haematological malignancies has yielded dramatic results, and we anticipate that this approach will rapidly become the standard of care for an increasing number of patients. In this Review, we highlight the latest advances in immunotherapy and discuss the role that it will have in the future of cancer treatment, including settings for which testing combination strategies and 'armoured' CAR T cells are recommended.

  6. Immunotherapy for cancer: synthetic carbohydrate-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Buskas, Therese; Thompson, Pamela; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2009-09-28

    Aberrant glycosylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids of cancer cells, which correlates with poor survival rates, is being exploited for the development of immunotherapies for cancer. In particular, advances in the knowledge of cooperation between the innate and adaptive system combined with the implementation of efficient synthetic methods for assembly of oligosaccharides and glycopeptides is providing avenues for the rationale design of vaccine candidates. In this respect, fully synthetic vaccine candidates show great promise because they incorporate only those elements requires for relevant immune responses, and hence do not suffer from immune suppression observed with classical carbohydrate-protein conjugate vaccines. Such vaccines are chemically well-defined and it is to be expected that they can be produced in a reproducible fashion. In this feature article, recent advances in the development of fully synthetic sub-unit carbohydrate-based cancer vaccines will be discussed.

  7. A microfluidic approach towards hybridoma generation for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Huan; Chang, Chia-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells/tumor fusions have shown to elicit anti-cancer immunity in different cancer types. However, the application of these vaccines for human cancer immunotherapy are limited by the instable quality and insufficient quanity of fusion cells. We present a cell electrofusion chip fabricated using soft lithography technique, which combines the rapid and precise cell pairing microstructures and the high yield electrofusion micro-electrodes to improve the cell fusion. The design uses hydrodynamic trapping in combination with positive dielectrophoretic force (pDEP) to achieve cell fusion. The chip consists of total 960 pairs of trapping channels, which are capable of pairing and fusing both homogeneous and heterogeneous types of cells. The fused cells can be easily taken out of the chip that makes this device a distinguishable from other designs. We observe pairing efficiency of 68% with fusion efficiency of 64%. PMID:26462149

  8. Koch Institute Symposium on Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Drake, Adam; Joshi, Nikhil S; Szeto, Gregory L; Zhu, Eric; Eisen, Herman N; Irvine, Darrell J

    2013-10-01

    The 12(th) annual summer symposium of The Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT was held in Cambridge, MA, on June 14(th), 1023. The symposium entitled "Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy" focused on recent advances in preclinical research in basic immunology and biomedical engineering, and their clinical application in cancer therapies. The day-long gathering also provided a forum for discussion and potential collaborations between engineers and clinical investigators. The major topics presented include: (i) enhancement of adoptive cell therapy by engineering to improve the ability and functionality of T-cells against tumor cells; (ii) current therapies using protein and antibody therapeutics to modulate endogenous anti-tumor immunity; and (iii) new technologies to identify molecular targets and assess therapeutic efficacy, and devices to control and target drug delivery more effectively and efficiently.

  9. Immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer treatment: a new frontier

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Komal; Padrnos, Leslie J.; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.; Borad, Mitesh J.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive and lethal cancer characterized by high invasiveness, local and extensive dissemination at time of diagnosis and resistance to treatment. Few therapies have shown efficacy in the past and even standard of care therapies yield only modest improvements in the mortality of patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Efforts have been undertaken to study the pancreatic tumor microenvironment and have established its complex and immunosuppressive nature which could explain the high resistance to chemotherapy. Novel therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment with an aim to decrease this resistance, improve immune tolerance and increase the efficacy of the current treatment have shown some promising preliminary results in preclinical and clinical trials. We review the current advances in the field of immunotherapy and their effectiveness as a potential treatment strategy in the pancreatic cancer. PMID:28286568

  10. Bio-immunotherapy for cancer in experimental studies and clinical application: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Shen, R N; Lu, L; Kaiser, H E; Broxmeyer, H E

    1994-01-01

    Although successful treatment of patients with primary tumor by conventional surgery and radiotherapy is often possible, death frequently results from tumor metastases. Since metastasis has already occurred in many cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, a major emphasis of cancer treatment is and will continue to be the prevention or successful management of tumor metastases. Systemic chemotherapy has been widely used in the past in the hope of preventing or controlling micrometastases. The results of this treatment have been disappointing with little impact on survival in the vast majority of solid tumors. Bio-immunotherapy has emerged as another modality and is finding acceptance and use in treating patients with cancer. The role of bio-immunotherapy in traditional surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hyperthermia will be discussed. In order to evaluate new and innovative treatments, we and others have used murine models of erythroleukemia and solid tumors with metastatic potential to assess the effects in vivo of bio-immunotherapy. Tumor metastases can be dampened and immunosuppression restored by bio-immunotherapy, especially when used in combination with other forms of treatment. Most of the combination treatments used in animal models are encouraging but are by no means totally adequate or curative yet. The molecular basis of cancer is now understood to involve activation of dominant oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. These genetic events may represent novel targets for cancer treatment. The potential use and ethical implications of gene transfer to alter the behavior of somatic cells in patients with cancer has been noted. Also reported is genetic immunomodulation by introducting genes for cytokines into tumor cells or lymphocytes to stimulate a cytotoxic immune response against the tumor. As with bone marrow, human cord blood can be used for transplantation in the autologous, related allogeneic and unrelated allogeneic settings, and

  11. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis after immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, M G; Atkins, M B; Ucci, A A; Levey, A S

    1995-04-01

    Cytokines have been used in experimental and standard protocols for immune enhancement for cancer. The combination of interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha 2 beta has been used in experimental protocols for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A man who developed rapidly progressive renal failure after receiving this combination therapy is reported. A renal biopsy revealed a pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were absent. The spectrum of renal disease and potentially related extrarenal manifestations associated with interleukin-2 and inteferon-alpha are reviewed. A pathogenesis of altered cell-mediated immunity, consistent with abnormalities in extrarenal organs after immune enhancement, is proposed.

  12. Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy: BCG and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Eric J; Newton, Mark R; O'Donnell, Michael A; Luo, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has become the predominant conservative treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Its mechanism of action continues to be defined but has been shown to involve a T helper type 1 (Th1) immunomodulatory response. While BCG treatment is the current standard of care, a significant proportion of patients fails or do not tolerate treatment. Therefore, many efforts have been made to identify other intravesical and immunomodulating therapeutics to use alone or in conjunction with BCG. This paper reviews the progress of basic science and clinical experience with several immunotherapeutic agents including IFN-α, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-10.

  13. Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy: BCG and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, Eric J.; Newton, Mark R.; O'Donnell, Michael A.; Luo, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has become the predominant conservative treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Its mechanism of action continues to be defined but has been shown to involve a T helper type 1 (Th1) immunomodulatory response. While BCG treatment is the current standard of care, a significant proportion of patients fails or do not tolerate treatment. Therefore, many efforts have been made to identify other intravesical and immunomodulating therapeutics to use alone or in conjunction with BCG. This paper reviews the progress of basic science and clinical experience with several immunotherapeutic agents including IFN-α, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-10. PMID:22778725

  14. Effect of Obesity and Chronic Inflammation on TRAIL-Based Immunotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation on TRAIL-Based Immunotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas S. Griffith, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER Immunotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0271 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas...increased risk of developing cancers , including breast cancer . The reasons for this are likely complex and multi- factorial, but a state of generalized

  15. Carbohydrate vaccines as immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Slovin, Susan F; Keding, Stacy J; Ragupathi, Govind

    2005-08-01

    Carbohydrates have established themselves as the most clinically relevant antigens of those tested and subsequently developed for vaccines against infectious diseases. However, in cancer patients, many of the defined carbohydrate antigens are really altered 'self' antigens and for unclear reasons, the body does not react to them immunologically. Although these self antigens have been found to be potentially suitable targets for immune recognition and killing, the development of vaccines for cancer treatment is actually more challenging compared with those for infectious diseases mainly because of the difficulty associated with breaking the body's immunological tolerance to the antigen. These antigens lack the inherent immunogenicity associated with bacterial antigens and, therefore, methods to enhance immunological recognition and induction of immunity in vivo are under investigation. These include defining the appropriate tumour-associated antigen, successfully synthesizing the antigen to mimic the original molecule, inducing an immune response, and subsequently enhancing the immunological reactivity so that all components can work together. This has been successfully accomplished with several glycolipid and glycoprotein antigens using carriers such as keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) together with a saponin adjuvant, QS-21. Not only can high titre IgM and IgG antibodies be induced, which are specific for the antigen used for immunization, but the antibodies can mediate complement lysis. The approaches for synthesis, conjugation, clinical administration and immunological potential are discussed.

  16. A primer on cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Michael T; Papamichail, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The role of immunity in cancer has been abundantly demonstrated in murine tumor models as well as in man. Induction of clinically effective antitumor immune responses, based on this information, in patients with cancer however, remains elusive. This is not because tumors lack recognizable antigens [in fact there is evidence that there are thousands of potential novel targets in each tumor cell] but rather due to the fact that the induction of responses is not adequate nor particularly well understood. Tumors seem to be rather effective at limiting immune responses. Many of the molecularly defined antigens that have been detected on tumor cells are derived from self-proteins and as such are subject to tolerizing mechanisms. Such tumors have also developed escape mechanisms capable of evading or suppressing immune responses. Understanding the role of dendritic cells during the effector phase of the immune response and the complex interactions of stromal, immune, and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment represent the next challenges to be understood for tumor immunology.

  17. Designer exosomes as next-generation cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bell, Brandon M; Kirk, Isabel D; Hiltbrunner, Stefanie; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Bultema, Jarred J

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small 40-120 nm vesicles secreted by nearly all cells and are an important form of intercellular communication. Exosomes are abundant, stable, and highly bioavailable to tissues in vivo. Increasingly, exosomes are being recognized as potential therapeutics as they have the ability to elicit potent cellular responses in vitro and in vivo. Patient-derived exosomes have been employed as a novel cancer immunotherapy in several clinical trials, but at this point lack sufficient efficacy. Still other researchers have focused on modifying the content and function of exosomes in various ways, toward the end-goal of specialized therapeutic exosomes. Here we highlight major advances in the use of exosomes for cancer immunotherapy and exosome bioengineering followed by a discussion of focus areas for future research to generate potent therapeutic exosomes. From the Clinical Editor: Exosomes are small vesicles used by cells for intercellular communication. In this short article, the authors described the current status and the potential use of exosomes in the clinical setting.

  18. Nanoparticle-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kun; Singha, Santiswarup; Clemente-Casares, Xavier; Tsai, Sue; Yang, Yang; Santamaria, Pere

    2015-01-27

    The design of nanovaccines capable of triggering effective antitumor immunity requires an understanding of how the immune system senses and responds to threats, including pathogens and tumors. Equally important is an understanding of the mechanisms employed by tumor cells to evade immunity and an appreciation of the deleterious effects that antitumor immune responses can have on tumor growth, such as by skewing tumor cell composition toward immunologically silent tumor cell variants. The immune system and tumors engage in a tug-of-war driven by competition where promoting antitumor immunity or tumor cell death alone may be therapeutically insufficient. Nanotechnology affords a unique opportunity to develop therapeutic compounds than can simultaneously tackle both aspects, favoring tumor eradication. Here, we review the current status of nanoparticle-based immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer, ranging from antigen/adjuvant delivery vehicles (to professional antigen-presenting cell types of the immune system) to direct tumor antigen-specific T-lymphocyte-targeting compounds and their combinations thereof.

  19. Combination cancer immunotherapy and new immunomodulatory targets.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Kathleen M; Rennert, Paul D; Freeman, Gordon J

    2015-08-01

    Targeting immune checkpoints such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) has achieved noteworthy benefit in multiple cancers by blocking immunoinhibitory signals and enabling patients to produce an effective antitumour response. Inhibitors of CTLA4, PD1 or PDL1 administered as single agents have resulted in durable tumour regression in some patients, and combinations of PD1 and CTLA4 inhibitors may enhance antitumour benefit. Numerous additional immunomodulatory pathways as well as inhibitory factors expressed or secreted by myeloid and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment are potential targets for synergizing with immune checkpoint blockade. Given the breadth of potential targets in the immune system, critical questions to address include which combinations should move forward in development and which patients will benefit from these treatments. This Review discusses the leading drug targets that are expressed on tumour cells and in the tumour microenvironment that allow enhancement of the antitumour immune response.

  20. Promising Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy: TLRs, RLRs, and STING-Mediated Innate Immune Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Qu, Shuai; Chen, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Malignant cancers employ diverse and intricate immune evasion strategies, which lead to inadequately effective responses of many clinical cancer therapies. However, emerging data suggest that activation of the tolerant innate immune system in cancer patients is able, at least partially, to counteract tumor-induced immunosuppression, which indicates triggering of the innate immune response as a novel immunotherapeutic strategy may result in improved therapeutic outcomes for cancer patients. The promising innate immune targets include Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like Receptors (RLRs), and Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). This review discusses the antitumor properties of TLRs, RLRs, and STING-mediated innate immune pathways, as well as the promising innate immune targets for potential application in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28216575

  1. Promising Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy: TLRs, RLRs, and STING-Mediated Innate Immune Pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Qu, Shuai; Chen, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Ming

    2017-02-14

    Malignant cancers employ diverse and intricate immune evasion strategies, which lead to inadequately effective responses of many clinical cancer therapies. However, emerging data suggest that activation of the tolerant innate immune system in cancer patients is able, at least partially, to counteract tumor-induced immunosuppression, which indicates triggering of the innate immune response as a novel immunotherapeutic strategy may result in improved therapeutic outcomes for cancer patients. The promising innate immune targets include Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like Receptors (RLRs), and Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). This review discusses the antitumor properties of TLRs, RLRs, and STING-mediated innate immune pathways, as well as the promising innate immune targets for potential application in cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Composite peptide-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy (Review).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ke; Yin, Hong; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2015-01-01

    The use of peptide-based vaccines as therapeutics aims to elicit immune responses through antigenic epitopes derived from tumor antigens. Peptide-based vaccines are easily synthesized and chemically stable entities, and of note, they are absent of oncogenic potential. However, their application is more complicated as the success of an effective peptide-based vaccine is determined by numerous parameters. The success thus far has been limited by the choice of tumor antigenic peptides, poor immunogenicity and incorporation of strategies to reverse cancer-mediated immune suppression. In the present review, an overview of the mechanisms of peptide-based vaccines is provided and antigenic peptides are categorized with respect to their tissue distribution in order to determine their usefulness as targets. Furthermore, certain approaches are proposed that induce and maintain T cells for immunotherapy. The recent progress indicates that peptide-based vaccines are preferential for targeted therapy in cancer patients.

  3. Autophagy-associated immune responses and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongming; Chen, Liuxi; Xu, Yinghua; Han, Weidong; Lou, Fang; Fei, Weiqiang; Liu, Shuiping; Jing, Zhao; Sui, Xinbing

    2016-04-19

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process by which cellular components are sequestered into a double-membrane vesicle and delivered to the lysosome for terminal degradation and recycling. Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy plays a critical role in cell survival, senescence and homeostasis, and its dysregulation is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration. Recent studies show that autophagy is also an important regulator of cell immune response. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates tumor immune responses remains elusive. In this review, we will describe the role of autophagy in immune regulation and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms that are currently well documented in the ability of autophagy to control cell immune response. In addition, the scientific and clinical hurdles regarding the potential role of autophagy in cancer immunotherapy will be discussed.

  4. Economic evaluation of therapeutic cancer vaccines and immunotherapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Geynisman, Daniel M; Chien, Chun-Ru; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Shen, Chan; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field in oncology. One attractive feature of cancer immunotherapy is the purported combination of minimal toxicity and durable responses. However such treatments are often very expensive. Given the wide-spread concern over rising health care costs, it is important for all stakeholders to be well-informed on the cost and cost-effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. We performed a comprehensive literature review of cost and cost-effectiveness research on therapeutic cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, to better understand the economic impacts of these treatments. We summarized our literature searches into three tables by types of papers: systematic review of economic studies of a specific agent, cost and cost-effectiveness analysis. Our review showed that out of the sixteen immunotherapy agents approved, nine had relevant published economic studies. Five out of the nine studied immunotherapy agents had been covered in systematic reviews. Among those, only one (rituximab for non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was found to be cost-effective. Of the four immunotherapy drugs not covered in systematic reviews (alemtuzumab, ipilimumab, sipuleucel-T, ofatumumab), high incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was reported for each. Many immunotherapies have not had economic evaluations, and those that have been studied show high ICERs or frank lack of cost-effectiveness. One major hurdle in improving the cost-effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies is to identify predictive biomarkers for selecting appropriate patients as recipients of these expensive therapies. We discuss the implications surrounding the economic factors involved in cancer immunotherapies and suggest that further research on cost and cost-effectiveness of newer cancer vaccines and immunotherapies are warranted as this is a rapidly growing field with many new drugs on the horizon.

  5. Immunotherapy regimens for combination with photodynamic therapy aimed at eradication of solid cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen

    2000-06-01

    Due to inflammatory/immune responses elicited by photodynamic therapy (PDT), this modality is particularly suitable in combination with various forms of immunotherapy for an improved therapeutic gain. A wide variety of approaches that may be applicable in this context include those focusing on amplifying the activity of particular immune cell types (neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, helper or cytotoxic T lymphocytes). Another type of approach is to focus on a specific phase of immune response development, which comprises the activation of non-specific inflammatory immune effectors, immune recognition, immune memory, immune rejection, or blocking of immune suppression. These different strategies call for a variety of immunotherapeutic protocols to be employed in combination with PDT. These include treatments such as: (1) non-specific immunoactivators (e.g. bacterial vaccines), (2) specific immune agents (cytokines, or other activating factors), (3) adoptive immunotherapy treatments (transfer of dendritic cells, tumor-sensitized T lymphocytes or natural killer cells), or (4) their combinations. Techniques of gene therapy employed in some of these protocols offer novel opportunities for securing a potent and persistent immune activity. Using PDT and immunotherapy represents an attractive combination for cancer therapy that is capable of eradicating both localized and disseminated malignant lesions.

  6. 2015 Guidance on cancer immunotherapy development in early-phase clinical studies.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapies is progressing rapidly with a variety of technological approaches. They consist of "cancer vaccines", which are based on the idea of vaccination, "effector cell therapy", classified as passive immunotherapy, and "inhibition of immunosuppression", which intends to break immunological tolerance to autoantigens or immunosuppressive environments characterizing antitumor immune responses. Recent reports showing clinical evidence of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive immunotherapies with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-specific receptor gene-modified T cells indicate the beginning of a new era for cancer immunotherapy. This guidance summarizes ideas that will be helpful to those who plan to develop cancer immunotherapy. The aims of this guidance are to discuss and offer important points in early phase clinical studies of innovative cancer immunotherapy, with future progress in this field, and to contribute to the effective development of cancer immunotherapy aligned with the scope of regulatory science. This guidance covers cancer vaccines, effector cell therapy, and inhibition of immunosuppression, including immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  7. Clinical applications of natural killer T cell-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2008-04-01

    Human invariant V alpha 24 natural killer T (NKT) cells are a novel, distinct lymphocyte population, characterized by an invariant T-cell receptor V alpha 24 chain paired with V beta 11. V alpha 24 NKT cells are activated by a specific glicolipid ligand, alpha-GalCer, and rapidly produce a large amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, thereby modulating other immune cells such as antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells. Recent studies have shown that NKT cells play pivotal regulatory roles in many immune responses, including antitumor immunity. We herein review the quantitative alteration and functional deterioration of circulating V alpha 24 NKT cells in various cancer-bearing patients. We also summarize the recent progress in the clinical studies of NKT cell-based tumor immunotherapy. Novel immunological results including the increased peripheral blood V alpha 24 NKT cells and IFN-producing cells after the immunotherapy were revealed. The details of the safety profile and the antitumor responses were also disclosed. Although the objective clinical responses still remain unclear, some encouraging results have emerged. Therefore, NKT cell-based immunotherapy may potentially be an effective strategy for the treatment of cancer patients.

  8. Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    in to 48) py (TEM V-K vira es would d, and we two IBC c onstrated rated in R ctivity in ients with s 1 to 5) units wer asma , com mor tissu noma...es obtain ssues com nt applic eparing a mRNA t plasma w RV-K en asma (Fig beled. Ou viruses: n plasma ob compared in tivity was si actions 1...ed (right pan in each fract l female don B R FU 5 10 1.5 onors. Si d uninvo this incre rt all of t activity -PCR us ody (6H asma from t fractions

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Cancer Immunotherapy and Its Synergy with Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Serre, Raphael; Benzekry, Sebastien; Padovani, Laetitia; Meille, Christophe; André, Nicolas; Ciccolini, Joseph; Barlesi, Fabrice; Muracciole, Xavier; Barbolosi, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    Combining radiotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade may offer considerable therapeutic impact if the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME) can be relieved. In this study, we used mathematical models, which can illustrate the potential synergism between immune checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy. A discrete-time pharmacodynamic model of the combination of radiotherapy with inhibitors of the PD1-PDL1 axis and/or the CTLA4 pathway is described. This mathematical framework describes how a growing tumor first elicits and then inhibits an antitumor immune response. This antitumor immune response is described by a primary and a secondary (or memory) response. The primary immune response appears first and is inhibited by the PD1-PDL1 axis, whereas the secondary immune response happens next and is inhibited by the CTLA4 pathway. The effects of irradiation are described by a modified version of the linear-quadratic model. This modeling offers an explanation for the reported biphasic relationship between the size of a tumor and its immunogenicity, as measured by the abscopal effect (an off-target immune response). Furthermore, it explains why discontinuing immunotherapy may result in either tumor recurrence or a durably sustained response. Finally, it describes how synchronizing immunotherapy and radiotherapy can produce synergies. The ability of the model to forecast pharmacodynamic endpoints was validated retrospectively by checking that it could describe data from experimental studies, which investigated the combination of radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In summary, a model such as this could be further used as a simulation tool to facilitate decision making about optimal scheduling of immunotherapy with radiotherapy and perhaps other types of anticancer therapies. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4931-40. ©2016 AACR.

  10. Clinical Outcomes of Specific Immunotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; Xiao-Zhong, Guo; Qi, Xing-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Specific immunotherapies, including vaccines with autologous tumor cells and tumor antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, are important treatments for PC patients. To evaluate the clinical outcomes of PC-specific immunotherapy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant published clinical trials. The effects of specific immunotherapy were compared with those of nonspecific immunotherapy and the meta-analysis was executed with results regarding the overall survival (OS), immune responses data, and serum cancer markers data. The pooled analysis was performed by using the random-effects model. We found that significantly improved OS was noted for PC patients utilizing specific immunotherapy and an improved immune response was also observed. In conclusion, specific immunotherapy was superior in prolonging the survival time and enhancing immunological responses in PC patients.

  11. Clinical Outcomes of Specific Immunotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xing-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Specific immunotherapies, including vaccines with autologous tumor cells and tumor antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, are important treatments for PC patients. To evaluate the clinical outcomes of PC-specific immunotherapy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant published clinical trials. The effects of specific immunotherapy were compared with those of nonspecific immunotherapy and the meta-analysis was executed with results regarding the overall survival (OS), immune responses data, and serum cancer markers data. The pooled analysis was performed by using the random-effects model. We found that significantly improved OS was noted for PC patients utilizing specific immunotherapy and an improved immune response was also observed. In conclusion, specific immunotherapy was superior in prolonging the survival time and enhancing immunological responses in PC patients. PMID:28265583

  12. Conference Scene: Immunotherapy reaches new milestones in cancer eradication.

    PubMed

    Kotlan, Beatrix; Umansky, Viktor; Malyguine, Anatoli M; Marincola, Francesco M; Shurin, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Biotherapy is widely considered as the fourth treatment modality for patients with cancer, and uses the constantly increasing knowledge in molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. Biotherapy uses naturally occurring biological molecules (e.g., cytokines and antibodies) or works by the manipulation of normal biological mechanisms (controlling or inhibiting tumor growth). Important achievements in anticancer drug development are immunotherapeutic strategies recently approved by the US FDA as well as clinical data of the cancer patients treated in clinical trials. There is a need to expand these novel cancer immunotherapeutic modalities for cancer patients all over the world. To meet that goal, it is essential to spread the information, to summarize the new clinical data and to draw the conclusions from the clinical and preclinical investigations. These frontline tasks can be well advanced by organizing international conferences in this domain in less scientifically developed countries, with a significant tumor burden statistics. Therefore, special efforts were done to organize the 2nd International Cancer Immunotherapy and Immunomonitoring Conference (CITIM-2011) in Hungary.

  13. Immunotherapy of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Prevailing Challenges and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zumwalt, Timothy J; Goel, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Patients with recurring or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have strikingly low long-term survival, while conventional treatments such as chemotherapeutic intervention and radiation therapy marginally improve longevity. Although, many factors involving immunosurveillance and immunosuppression were recently validated as important for patient prognosis and care, a multitude of experimental immunotherapies designed to combat unresectable mCRC have, in few cases, successfully mobilized antitumor immune cells against malignancies, nor conclusively or consistently granted protection, complete remission, and/or stable disease from immunotherapy – of which benefit less than 10% of those receiving therapy. After decades of progress, however, new insights into the mechanisms of immunosuppression, tolerance, and mutation profiling established novel therapies that circumvent these immunological barriers. This review underlines the most exciting methods to date that manipulate immune cells to curb mCRC, including adoptive cell therapy, dendritic cell vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitor antibodies – of which hint at effective and enduring protection against disease progression and undetected micrometastases. PMID:26441489

  14. Long term protection in bladder cancer following intralesional immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reichert, D F; Lamm, D L

    1984-09-01

    Despite effective treatment of existing tumors, patients with bladder cancer remain at risk of developing new tumors. Effective immunotherapy may lower that risk. To test this hypothesis, mice that had survived transitional cell carcinoma (MBT2) transplantation with the aid of bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy were randomized and tested for long term protective immunity against bladder carcinoma. Fifty-one tumor-free mice that had survived tumor challenge 10 to 15 months previously were randomized into 3 groups to receive intradermal tumor .noculation and intraperitoneal levamisole, intralesional Tice strain bacillus Calmette-Guerin, or intralesional saline. Fifteen previously unchallenged animals also received tumor and intralesional saline. All 3 groups of survivors had less tumor growth (p less than 0.01) than nonsurviving controls. Even among survivors, additional bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunization, but not levamisole treatment, significantly inhibited tumor growth (p less than 0.01). A 2nd experiment compared 22 nonimmune mice, 21 mice preimmunized intravenously with 300 micrograms of bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell walls, and 18 mice that had survived MBT2 by 8 months after live bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment. Nonimmune and survivor groups were randomly subdivided into saline or treatment groups. Cell wall-preimmunized mice were divided into matching groups according to footpad response to purified protein derivative. The cell-wall preimmunized and nonimmune mice received the immunostimulant P3+Re-glycolipid or the carrier solution alone. The group of survivors received either intralesional saline or live bacillus Calmette-Guerin. Both bacillus Calmette-Guerin and saline-treated groups had significantly less tumor growth (p less than 0.001) than nonsurviving controls. Animals treated with P3-Re-glycolipid (with or without preimmunization with cell wall) did not differ from nonsurviving control. Footpad response to purified protein derivative did not

  15. Natural killer cell immunotherapy for cancer: a new hope.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Lundqvist, A; Childs, R W

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been a substantial gain in our understanding of the role NK-cells play in mediating innate host immune responses. Although NK cells have long been known to mediate antigen independent tumor cytotoxicity, the therapeutic potential of NK cell-based immunotherapy has yet to be realized. Manipulating the balance between inhibitory and activating NK receptor signals, sensitization of tumor target cells to NK cell-mediated apoptosis, and recent discoveries in NK-cell receptor biology have fueled translational research that has led to clinical trials investigating a number of novel methods to potentiate NK cytotoxicity against human malignancies.

  16. The effects of laser immunotherapy on cancer cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Layton, Elivia; Lam, Anh; Chen, Wei R.; Vaughan, Melville B.

    2016-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to target all types of metastases and creates a long-term tumor resistance. Glycated chitosan (GC) is the immunological stimulant used in LIT. Interestingly, GC can act as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. One essential aspect of understanding this immune response is knowing how laser irradiation affects cancer cells' ability to metastasize. In this experiment, a cell migration assay was performed. A 2mm circular elastomer plugs were placed at the bottom of multi-well dishes. Pre-cancerous keratinocytes, different tumor cells, and fibroblasts were then plated separately in treated wells. Once the cells reached 100% confluence, they were irradiated by either a 980nm or 805nm wavelength laser. The goal was to determine the effects of laser irradiation and immunological stimulation on cancer cell migration in vitro, paying the way to understand the mechanism of LIT in treating metastatic tumors in cancer patients.

  17. Anti-CD73 in cancer immunotherapy: awakening new opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Luca; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Pacher, Pál; Blandizzi, Corrado; Haskó, György

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, cancer immunotherapy made significant advances due to a better understanding of the principles underlying tumor biology and immunology. In this context, CD73 is a key molecule, since via degradation of adenosine monophosphate into adenosine, endorses the generation of an immunosuppressed and pro-angiogenic niche within the tumor microenvironment that promotes the onset and progression of cancer. Targeting CD73 results in favorable antitumor effects in pre-clinical models and combined treatments of CD73 blockade with other immune-modulating agents (i.e. anti-CTLA-4 mAb or anti-PD1 mAb) is particularly attractive. Although there is still a long way to go, anti-CD73 therapy, through the development of CD73 monoclonal antibodies, can potentially constitute a new biologic therapy for cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the link between CD73 and the onset, development and spread of tumors, highlighting the potential value of this molecule as a target and as a novel biomarker in the context of personalized cancer therapy PMID:27014745

  18. Live bacteria as the basis for immunotherapies against cancer.

    PubMed

    Chabalgoity, José A; Dougan, Gordon; Mastroeni, Pietro; Aspinall, Richard J

    2002-12-01

    For more than a century, bacteria and bacterial products have been used for the treatment of cancer. Starting from the practical observation of tumor regression in individuals with concomitant bacterial infection, the field has evolved into some standard clinical practices, such as the use of BCG for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. However, in the last few years, new applications have started to emerge that may profoundly change the perspective of the field. BCG can be engineered to express cytokines to improve its efficacy. Bacteria such as Salmonella and Listeria can be attenuated by genetically-defined mutations and provide effective vehicles for DNA vaccines encoding tumor-associated antigens. Salmonella and nonpathogenic strains of Clostridium can selectively accumulate in tumors in vivo, providing attractive delivery systems to target immunomodulatory molecules and therapeutic agents to the tumor site. Many of these new developments have been attempted for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination in several different experimental models of cancer and in many cases, results from clinical trials are now emerging. There is still some way to go before achieving products that could be in routine use, but the field has great promise for the development of more effective immunotherapies for several different cancers. In this paper, we will review the current state of such applications and highlight some of the directions that the field may take.

  19. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Białek, Waldemar; Rudzki, Sławomir; Iberszer, Paweł; Wronecki, Lech

    2016-12-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  20. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rudzki, Sławomir; Iberszer, Paweł; Wronecki, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin. PMID:28138411

  1. IFN-λ cancer immunotherapy: new kid on the block.

    PubMed

    Lasfar, Ahmed; Gogas, Helen; Zloza, Andrew; Kaufman, Howard L; Kirkwood, John M

    2016-07-01

    Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a new IFN type, related to IFN-α, that is commonly used in the clinic. However, significant side effects accompanying IFN-α treatment limit enthusiasm for IFN-α. In this review, we discuss the current landscape of IFN-α use in oncology and describe the biologic characteristics of IFN-λ. IFN-λ offers unique advantages, including a more tumor cell selective targeting, lower off-target binding and an ability to generate both innate and adaptive immune responses. IFN-λ has also demonstrated therapeutic benefit in murine cancer models. IFN-λ may be used in clinic as a single agent or in combination with other immunotherapy agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors. Further clinical trials will be needed to fully elucidate the potential of this novel agent in oncology.

  2. Neutrophils and Granulocytic MDSC: The Janus God of Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zilio, Serena; Serafini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating blood cell type in humans, and are the first white blood cells recruited at the inflammation site where they orchestrate the initial immune response. Although their presence at the tumor site was recognized in the 1970s, until recently these cells have been neglected and considered to play just a neutral role in tumor progression. Indeed, in recent years neutrophils have been recognized to play a dual role in tumor development by either assisting the growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis or by exerting tumoricidal action directly via the secretion of antitumoral compounds, or indirectly via the orchestration of antitumor immunity. Understanding the biology of these cells and influencing their polarization in the tumor micro- and macro-environment may be the key for the development of new therapeutic strategies, which may finally hold the promise of an effective immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:27618112

  3. Immunotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer: integrating sipuleucel-T into our current treatment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jorge A; Dreicer, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The availability of several novel antibodies, coupled with viral, DNA, and dendritic-cell vaccines, has renewed interest in immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Although promising, none of these approaches have led to major clinical activity, and in the case of cell-based immunotherapy with GVAX, new concerns about safety arose when this therapy was used in the castration-resistant setting. A more attractive yet toxic approach has also utilized a check-point blockade with CTLA-4 antibodies. Although initial clinical efficacy has been observed, toxicity appears to be the major limitation of its use in prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is an autologous active cellular immunotherapy product that includes autologous dendritic cells pulsed ex vivo with PAP2024, a recombinant fusion protein made of prostatic acid phosphataase (PAP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Despite the lack of objective anti-tumor activity seen with sipuleucel-T, a recently reported phase III trial demonstrated a significant improvement in the overall survival of men with asymptomatic, minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This agent is the first FDA-approved novel immunotherapeutic compound for the treatment of a solid malignancy. A better understanding of how clinicians should incorporate this novel agent into the current management of CRPC is needed.

  4. 'Final common pathway' of human cancer immunotherapy: targeting random somatic mutations.

    PubMed

    Tran, Eric; Robbins, Paul F; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2017-02-15

    Effective clinical cancer immunotherapies, such as administration of the cytokine IL-2, adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and the recent success of blockade of the checkpoint modulators CTLA-4 and PD-1, have been developed without clear identification of the immunogenic targets expressed by human cancers in vivo. Immunotherapy of patients with cancer through the use of ACT with autologous lymphocytes has provided an opportunity to directly investigate the antigen recognition of lymphocytes that mediate cancer regression in humans. High-throughput immunological testing of such lymphocytes in combination with improvements in deep sequencing of the autologous cancer have provided new insight into the molecular characterization and incidence of anti-tumor lymphocytes present in patients with cancer. Here we highlight evidence suggesting that T cells that target tumor neoantigens arising from cancer mutations are the main mediators of many effective cancer immunotherapies in humans.

  5. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with chitosan and interleukin-12 to control breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Jimmy LN; Yang, Lirong; Kurtz, Samantha L; Smith, Sean G; Koppolu, Bhanu prasanth; Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Zaharoff, David A

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis accounts for approximately 90% of breast cancer-related deaths. Therefore, novel approaches which prevent or control breast cancer metastases are of significant clinical interest. Interleukin-12 (IL-12)-based immunotherapies have shown promise in controlling metastatic disease, yet modest responses and severe toxicities due to systemic administration of IL-12 in early trials have hindered clinical application. We hypothesized that localized delivery of IL-12 co-formulated with chitosan (chitosan/IL-12) could elicit tumor-specific immunity and provide systemic protection against metastatic breast cancer while minimizing systemic toxicity. Chitosan is a biocompatible polysaccharide derived primarily from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. In a clinically relevant resection model, mice bearing spontaneously metastatic 4T1 mammary adenocarcinomas received intratumoral injections of chitosan/IL-12, or appropriate controls, prior to tumor resection. Neoadjuvant chitosan/IL-12 immunotherapy resulted in long-term tumor-free survival in 67% of mice compared to only 24% or 0% of mice treated with IL-12 alone or chitosan alone, respectively. Antitumor responses following chitosan/IL-12 treatment were durable and provided complete protection against rechallenge with 4T1, but not RENCA renal adenocarcinoma, cells. Lymphocytes from chitosan/IL-12-treated mice demonstrated robust tumor-specific lytic activity and interferon-γ production. Cell-mediated immune memory was confirmed in vivo via clinically relevant delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays. Comprehensive hematology and toxicology analyses revealed that chitosan/IL-12 induced transient, reversible leukopenia with no changes in critical organ function. Results of this study suggest that neoadjuvant chitosan/IL-12 immunotherapy prior to breast tumor resection is a promising translatable strategy capable of safely inducing to tumor-specific immunity and, in the long term, reducing breast cancer mortality due to

  6. Higher survival of refractory metastatizing breast cancer after thermotherapy and autologous specific antitumoral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pontiggia, P; Rizzo, S; Cuppone-Curto, F; Sabato, A; Rotella, G; Silvotti, M G; Martano, F

    1996-01-01

    46 women (average 54.3 yrs) with refractory metastatizing breast cancer were treated with thermotherapy and autologous specific immunotherapy (rhIL-2 ex vivo activated cells). Metastases involved one organ in 69%; in particular, bone, lung, liver. The PS after treatment was satisfactory in 41%; the outcome was better in those cases with metastases to one site. The women remaining alive were 31/46; 67% of thermoimmunotherapy treated patients were alive after a maximum survival time of 85 months (median 24 months). The 36 months of control showed a 5-fold higher survival rate in our series when challenged with that of compared women undergoing only chemotherapy (p < .001).

  7. Cancer CARtography: charting out a new approach to cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaina M; Dale, Gordon A; Vartabedian, Vincent F; Dey, Paulami; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of: Davila ML, Riviere I, Wang X et al. Efficacy and toxicity management of 19-28z CAR T cell therapy in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Sci. Transl. Med. 6(224), 224ra25 (2014). Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy has entered clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 19-28z CAR T cells express a fusion protein comprised of an anti-CD19 mAb fused with CD28 costimulatory and CD3-zeta-chain signaling domains. The current paper demonstrates that administration of 19-28z CAR T cells in patients with relapsed or refractory B-ALL in a Phase I clinical trial has led to 88% of patients undergoing complete remission. Despite the benefits, CAR T-cell therapy is associated with cytokine release syndrome toxicities. The authors demonstrated criteria to diagnose severe cytokine release syndrome (sCRS) and treated sCRS with either high-dose steroids or with tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor-specific mAb. Although both alleviated sCRS, steroid treatment negated the beneficial effects of CAR T-cell therapy, whereas tocilizumab did not. Taken together, CAR T-cell immunotherapy can be used as a safe and effective approach against tumors with known tumor-associated antigens.

  8. Active Idiotypic Vaccination Versus Control Immunotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ronald; Ganjoo, Kristen N.; Leonard, John P.; Vose, Julie M.; Flinn, Ian W.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Connors, Joseph M.; Berinstein, Neil L.; Belch, Andrew R.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Nichols, Craig; Emmanouilides, Christos E.; Timmerman, John M.; Gregory, Stephanie A.; Link, Brian K.; Inwards, David J.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Robertson, Michael J.; Kunkel, Lori A.; Ingolia, Diane E.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Liu, Chih Long; Tibshirani, Robert; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Denney, Dan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Idiotypes (Ids), the unique portions of tumor immunoglobulins, can serve as targets for passive and active immunotherapies for lymphoma. We performed a multicenter, randomized trial comparing a specific vaccine (MyVax), comprising Id chemically coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) plus granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to a control immunotherapy with KLH plus GM-CSF. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated advanced-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) received eight cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. Those achieving sustained partial or complete remission (n = 287 [44%]) were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:1 to receive one injection per month for 7 months of MyVax or control immunotherapy. Anti-Id antibody responses (humoral immune responses [IRs]) were measured before each immunization. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included IR and time to subsequent antilymphoma therapy. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, no significant difference was observed in either PFS or time to next therapy between the two arms. In the MyVax group (n = 195), anti-Id IRs were observed in 41% of patients, with a median PFS of 40 months, significantly exceeding the median PFS observed in patients without such Id-induced IRs and in those receiving control immunotherapy. Conclusion This trial failed to demonstrate clinical benefit of specific immunotherapy. The subset of vaccinated patients mounting specific anti-Id responses had superior outcomes. Whether this reflects a therapeutic benefit or is a marker for more favorable underlying prognosis requires further study. PMID:24799467

  9. Leveraging Immunotherapy for the treatment of Gynecologic Cancers in the Era of Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zamarin, Dmitriy; Jazaeri, Amir A.

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade significant progress in the understanding of stimulatory and inhibitory signaling pathways in immune cells has reinvigorated the field of immuno-oncology. In this review we outline the current immunotherapy based approaches for the treatment of gynecological cancers, and focus on the emerging clinical data on immune checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell therapies, and vaccines. It is anticipated that in the coming years biomarker-guided clinical trials, will provide for a better understanding of the mechanisms of response and resistance to immunotherapy, and guide combination treatment strategies that will extend the benefit from immunotherapy to patients with gynecologic cancers. PMID:27016233

  10. Leveraging immunotherapy for the treatment of gynecologic cancers in the era of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Zamarin, Dmitriy; Jazaeri, Amir A

    2016-04-01

    During the past decade significant progress in the understanding of stimulatory and inhibitory signaling pathways in immune cells has reinvigorated the field of immuno-oncology. In this review we outline the current immunotherapy based approaches for the treatment of gynecological cancers, and focus on the emerging clinical data on immune checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell therapies, and vaccines. It is anticipated that in the coming years biomarker-guided clinical trials, will provide for a better understanding of the mechanisms of response and resistance to immunotherapy, and guide combination treatment strategies that will extend the benefit from immunotherapy to patients with gynecologic cancers.

  11. FAK-inhibition opens the door to checkpoint immunotherapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Symeonides, Stefan N; Anderton, Stephen M; Serrels, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy has had remarkable success in the treatment of some cancer types. However, pancreatic cancer has remained largely refractory to immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Recently, Jiang and colleagues identified a key role for FAK in regulating the composition of the fibrotic and immuno-suppressive pancreatic tumour niche, and showed that FAK inhibitors can be used in combination with immune checkpoint blockade and gemcitabine chemotherapy to significantly delay pancreatic tumour progression. This study further supports the use of FAK inhibitors in combination with immunotherapy.

  12. Application potential of toll-like receptors in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ming; Chen, Xi; Ye, Kangruo; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    evaluated in this review. We show that targeting TLRs in cancer immunotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer therapy, and the specific TLR ligands, either alone or combination, exhibit antitumor potential. PMID:27336891

  13. Adenovirus-mediated interleukin (IL)-24 immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Rajagopal; Ioannides, Constantine G; Roth, Jack A; Chada, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family. IL-24, also known as melanoma differentiation associated gene 7 (mda-7), is a unique cytokine in that it has cytokine properties and functions as a novel tumor suppressor gene. Studies by us and other investigators using viral and non-viral vectors have demonstrated IL-24 overexpression in human cancer cells inhibited tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. A majority of these studies using immunodeficient animal models have focused on demonstrating the direct anticancer properties of IL-24. Very few studies have focused on studying the immunotherapeutic properties of IL-24 despite it being reported to function as a Th1 cytokine. A phase I clinical trial using an adenovirus vector expressing IL-24 (Ad-IL24/INGN241) reported Ad-IL24 treatment of cancer patients resulted in changes in cytokines and T cells. However, well-designed and detailed preclinical studies to support the clinical findings are warranted. Demonstrating immune modulation by IL-24 will provide a rationale for developing IL-24-based immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer treatment.In the present chapter, we provide experimental details for conducting IL-24-based immunotherapy studies. As it is not possible for the authors to cover all of the information the authors recommend reading other immunology-based literature and procedures for a better understanding of conducting preclinical studies.

  14. Clinical effects of laser immunotherapy on metastatic cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, Mark F.; Lam, Anh K.; Bahavar, Cody F.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trials of late-stage breast cancer patients and late-stage melanoma patients treated by laser immunotherapy (LIT) have shown promising results. In a 2010 study of Li et al, eleven late-stage melanoma patients received LIT in one or multiple 6-week treatment cycles applied to a 200-cm2 treatment site, which usually contained multiple cutaneous metastases. Long-term, positive response was observed in six patients. All lesions in the treatment area of the patients responded to LIT, eight of which achieved complete local response (CLR). CLR was observed in the non-treatment site (regional) lesions in four patients. Five patients were still alive at the time of last follow-up. The probability of 12-month overall survival was 70%.2 In 2011, Li et al, treated ten late stage breast cancer patients with LIT.1 In 8 patients available for evaluation, the objective response rate was 62.5% and the clinical beneficial response rate was 75%.1 This review demonstrates that LIT is safe and well tolerated, so it can be easily applied on an outpatient basis and can be combined with other pharmaceutical modalities to improve the therapeutic response of metastatic cancers.

  15. Targeting cancer testis antigens for biomarkers and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer: Current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anil; Jagadish, Nirmala; Saini, Shikha; Gupta, Namita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks third among the estimated cancer cases and cancer related mortalities in United States in 2014. Early detection and efficient therapy remains a significant clinical challenge for this disease. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel tumor associated molecules to target for biomarker development and immunotherapy. In this regard, cancer testis antigens have emerged as a potential targets for developing novel clinical biomarkers and immunotherapy for various malignancies. These germ cell specific proteins exhibit aberrant expression in cancer cells and contribute in tumorigenesis. Owing to their unique expression profile and immunogenicity in cancer patients, cancer testis antigens are clinically referred as the most promising tumor associated antigens. Several cancer testis antigens have been studied in colorectal cancer but none of them could be used in clinical practice. This review is an attempt to address the promising cancer testis antigens in colorectal cancer and their possible clinical implications as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets with particular focus on challenges and future interventions. PMID:26691579

  16. Bacterial vectors for active immunotherapy reach clinical and industrial stages

    PubMed Central

    Le Gouëllec, Audrey; Chauchet, Xavier; Polack, Benoit; Buffat, Laurent; Toussaint, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Active immunotherapy based on live attenuated bacterial vectors has matured in terms of industrial development and develops through a combination of three phenomena. First, active immunotherapy that stimulates an antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell immune response has become a reality after several years of work. Second, there is still a need to identify vectors that can deliver antigens to the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells in vivo. Third, the recent progress in the understanding of bacterial lifestyle and in developing genetic engineering tools has enabled the design of bioengineered bugs that are capable of delivering antigens. Here, we review the mechanisms by which clinical bacterial vectors deliver antigens into the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells and summarize the development strategy of the three identified firms in this field. PMID:22894945

  17. Considerations on clinical use of T cell immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Plautz, Gregory E; Cohen, Peter A; Shu, Suyu

    2003-01-01

    The recognition by effector T lymphocytes of novel antigenic targets on tumor cells is the premise of specific, targeted immunotherapy of cancer. With the molecular characterization of peptide epitopes from melanoma antigens and, more recently, broadly expressed tumor antigens, there has been considerable enthusiasm for clinical evaluation of peptide tumor vaccines. Immunologic monitoring of vaccinated patients has demonstrated an expansion of CD8+ T cells that react with the relevant peptide and, more importantly, with native tumor. In most instances, however, vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses alone have not been sufficiently robust or sustained to translate into a high percentage of durable clinical responses. Vaccine strategies have also utilized dendritic cells (DCs) that have been modified to present tumor antigens. The superior antigen-processing capacity and co-stimulatory function of DCs convey a powerful stimulatory signal to both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Several strategies are attempting to broaden the immune response beyond single antigens by introducing the entire complement of tumor antigens into DCs. Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising strategy to recover tumor-reactive precursor T cells from patients, stimulate them to induce numerical expansion, and then re-infuse them. Ex vivo manipulation of the tumor-reactive T cells also permits cytotoxic therapy to be administered to the patient without damaging the effector cells. Recently, host lymphodepletion prior to adoptive transfer of effector T cells has resulted in an extremely high and sustained frequency of effectors that has achieved therapeutic efficacy against bulky metastatic disease in a substantial fraction of treated patients.

  18. Immunotherapy of Brain Cancers: The Past, the Present, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Bota, Daniela A.; Natividad, Josephine; Howat, Andrew; Jadus, Martin R.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of brain cancers, especially high grade gliomas (WHO stage III and IV) is slowly making progress, but not as fast as medical researchers and the patients would like. Immunotherapy offers the opportunity to allow the patient's own immune system a chance to help eliminate the cancer. Immunotherapy's strength is that it efficiently treats relatively small tumors in experimental animal models. For some patients, immunotherapy has worked for them while not showing long-term toxicity. In this paper, we will trace the history of immunotherapy for brain cancers. We will also highlight some of the possible directions that this field may be taking in the immediate future for improving this therapeutic option. PMID:21437175

  19. Cancer immunotherapy using a potent immunodominant CTL epitope.

    PubMed

    Song, Liwen; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Knoff, Jayne; Sun, Zu-Yue; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2014-10-21

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising approach that can be used in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy to further improve the survival rate of patients with advanced cancer. We have recently shown in previous studies that chemotherapy and radiation therapy can alter the tumor microenvironment and allow intratumoral vaccination to prime the adaptive immune system leading to the generation of antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses. Here, we investigated whether intratumoral injection of a foreign immunodominant peptide (GP33) and the adjuvant CpG into tumors following cisplatin chemotherapy could lead to potent antitumor effects and antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses. We observed that treatment with all three agents produced the most potent antitumor effects compared to pairwise combinations. Moreover, treatment with cisplatin, CpG and GP33 was able to control tumors at a distant site, indicating that our approach is able to induce cross-presentation of the tumor antigen. Treatment with cisplatin, CpG and GP33 also enhanced the generation of GP33-specific and E7-specific CD8+ T cells and decreased the number of MDSCs in tumor loci, a process found to be mediated by the Fas-FasL apoptosis pathway. The treatment regimen presented here represents a universal approach to cancer control.

  20. DGK-α: A Checkpoint in Cancer-Mediated Immuno-Inhibition and Target for Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Noessner, Elfriede

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy is moving to the forefront of cancer treatments owing to impressive durable responses achieved with checkpoint blockade antibodies and adoptive T-cell therapy. Still, improvements are necessary since, overall, only a small percentage of patients benefit from current therapies. Here, I summarize evidence that DGK-α may represent an immunological checkpoint suppressing the activity of cytotoxic immunocytes in the tumor microenvironment. DGK-inhibitors can restore the antitumor function of tumor-suppressed adaptive and innate cytotoxic immunocytes. The activity of DGK-inhibitors lays downstream of current checkpoint blockade antibodies. Thus, synergistic effects are expected from combination strategies. Moreover, DGK-inhibitors may permit a double-strike attack on tumor cells as DGK-inhibition may not only re-instate immunological tumor attack but also may harm tumor cells directly by interfering with oncogenic survival pathways. Together, DGK-inhibitors have very promising characteristics and may be beneficially included into the armamentarium of cancer immunotherapeutics. PMID:28316970

  1. In vivo stepwise immunomodulation using chitosan nanoparticles as a platform nanotechnology for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hee Dong; Byeon, Yeongseon; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Jeon, Hat Nim; Kim, Ga Hee; Kim, Min Gi; Pack, Chan-Gi; Kang, Tae Heung; Jung, In Duk; Lim, Yong Taik; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Shin, Byung Cheol; Ahn, Hyung Jun; Sood, Anil K.; Park, Yeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Dentritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy faces challenges in both efficacy and practicality. However, DC-based vaccination requires multiple injections and elaborates ex vivo manipulation, which substantially limits their use. Therefore, we sought to develop a chitosan nanoparticle (CH-NP)-based platform for the next generation of vaccines to bypass the ex vivo manipulation and induce immune responses via active delivery of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (poly I:C) to target Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in endosomes. We developed CH-NPs encapsulating ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen and poly I:C as the adjuvant in an ionic complex. These CH-NPs showed increased in vivo intracellular delivery to the DCs in comparison with controls after injection into tumor-bearing mice, and promoted DC maturation, leading to emergence of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Finally, the CH-NPs showed significantly greater antitumor efficacy in EG.7 and TC-1 tumor-bearing mice compared to the control (p < 0.01). Taken together, these data show that the CH-NP platform can be used as an immune response modulatory vaccine for active cancer immunotherapy without ex vivo manipulation, thus resulting in increased anticancer efficacy. PMID:27910914

  2. Targeted depletion of tumour-associated macrophages by an alendronate-glucomannan conjugate for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiudan; Jia, Lixin; Niu, Yiming; Qi, Haixia; Chen, Xiuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Yitao; Dong, Lei; Wang, Chunming

    2014-12-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a set of macrophages residing in the tumour microenvironment. They play essential roles in mediating tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and immune evasion. Delivery of therapeutic agents to eliminate TAMs can be a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy but an efficient vehicle to target these cells is still in pressing need. In this study, we developed a bisphosphonate-glucomannan conjugate that could efficiently target and specifically eliminate TAMs in the tumour microenvironment. We employed the polysaccharide from Bletilla striata (BSP), a glucomannan affinitive for macrophages that express abundant mannose receptors, to conjugate alendronate (ALN), a bisphosphonate compound with in vitro macrophage-inhibiting activities. In both in vitro and in vivo tests, the prepared ALN-BSP conjugate could preferentially accumulate in macrophages and induced them into apoptosis. In the subcutaneous S180 tumour-bearing mice model, the treatment using ALN-BSP effectively eliminated TAMs, remarkably inhibited angiogenesis, recovered local immune surveillance, and eventually suppressed tumour progression, without eliciting any unwanted effect such as systematic immune response. Interestingly, ALN alone failed to exhibit any anti-TAM activity in vivo, probably because this compound was susceptible to the mildly acidic tumour microenvironment. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of ALN-BSP as a safe and efficient tool targeted at direct depletion of TAMs for cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Strategies of antigen-specific T-cell-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-hu; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Wang-Gang

    2005-10-01

    The critical role of antigen-specific T-cells in the eradication of cancer has been demonstrated in numerous animal models, while significant challenges need to be conquered before antigen-specific T-cell immunotherapy can achieve true success in clinical practice. These challenges include: (1) weak or nonimmunogenicity of spontaneous tumors, (2) negative immune regulation mechanisms of the host immune system, (3) immune inhibition exerted by tumor cells, (4) physical barrier in solid tumor, and (5) escape or resistance to immune attack by tumor cells. Nonetheless, significant success has been achieved in several clinical trials recently, highlighting the possibility of successful manipulation of the immune system for control and elimination of tumor. We focused our study on summarizing the current knowledge and corresponding strategies for improving autologous cytotoxic T-cell (CTL)-based cancer immunotherapy, which include the following aspects: (1) the selection of tumor antigens for stimulation of CTL, (2) strategies of enhancing maturation and antigen presentation activity of dendritic cells (DC), (3) strategies of activation and maintenance of CTL response, and (4) recruitment of suitable immune effector cells to tumor sites. The successful manipulation of the immune system, based on the more and more detailed knowledge of tumor immunology, may finally reach the goal of "immune surveillance of malignancy."

  4. Targeting tumor-associated immune suppression with selective protein kinase A type I (PKAI) inhibitors may enhance cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muzammal; Shah, Zahir; Abbas, Nasir; Javeed, Aqeel; Mukhtar, Muhammad Mahmood; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress in last few years, the cancer immunotherapy has not yet improved disease-free because of the tumor-associated immune suppression being a major barrier. Novel trends to enhance cancer immunotherapy aims at harnessing the therapeutic manipulation of signaling pathways mediating the tumor-associated immune suppression, with the general aims of: (a) reversing the tumor immune suppression; (b) enhancing the innate and adaptive components of anti-tumor immunosurveillance, and (c) protecting immune cells from the suppressive effects of T regulatory cells (Tregs) and the tumor-derived immunoinhibitory mediators. A particular striking example in this context is the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A type I (PKAI) pathway. Oncogenic cAMP/PKAI signaling has long been implicated in the initiation and progression of several human cancers. Emerging data indicate that cAMP/PKAI signaling also contributes to tumor- and Tregs-derived suppression of innate and adaptive arms of anti-tumor immunosurveillance. Therapeutically, selective PKAI inhibitors have been developed which have shown promising anti-cancer activity in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Rp-8-Br-cAMPS is a selective PKAI antagonist that is widely used as a biochemical tool in signal transduction research. Collateral data indicate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS has shown immune-rescuing potential in terms of enhancing the innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity, as well as protecting adaptive T cells from the suppressive effects of Tregs. Therefore, this proposal specifically implicates that combining selective PKAI antagonists/inhibitors with cancer immunotherapy may have multifaceted benefits, such as rescuing the endogenous anti-tumor immunity, enhancing the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, and direct anti-cancer effects.

  5. Radiation and immunotherapy: a synergistic combination

    PubMed Central

    Kalbasi, Anusha; June, Carl H.; Haas, Naomi; Vapiwala, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy can be an effective treatment for metastatic cancer, but a significant subpopulation will not respond, likely due to the lack of antigenic mutations or the immune-evasive properties of cancer. Likewise, radiation therapy (RT) is an established cancer treatment, but local failures still occur. Clinical observations suggest that RT may expand the therapeutic reach of immunotherapy. We examine the immunobiologic and clinical rationale for combining RT and immunotherapy, two modalities yet to be used in combination in routine practice. Preclinical data indicate that RT can potentiate the systemic efficacy of immunotherapy, while activation of the innate and adaptive immune system can enhance the local efficacy of RT. PMID:23863633

  6. Immunotherapy for genitourinary cancer: state of the art and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cattrini, Carlo; Dellepiane, Chiara; Cavo, Alessia; Buzzatti, Giulia; Tolomeo, Francesco; Messina, Carlo; Boccardo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In the last few years, cancer immunotherapy has changed the natural history and treatment strategies of a number of solid tumors, including melanoma and lung cancer. The anti-PD-1 nivolumab showed a survival benefit compared with everolimus in the second-line treatment of renal cell carcinoma, resulting in a radical shift in perspective in the treatment of this neoplasia and suggesting a new scenario beyond tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Checkpoint inhibitors might also improve the treatment of urothelial cancer, considering the promising results achieved so far and the relatively low efficacy of currently available treatments. Sipuleucel-T was the first approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer, showing a clear benefit in overall survival, and paved the way for the clinical testing of other novel cancer vaccines. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge and new perspectives of immunotherapy in the treatment of urogenital malignancies.

  7. TriKEs and BiKEs join CARs on the cancer immunotherapy highway.

    PubMed

    Tay, Szun Szun; Carol, Hernan; Biro, Maté

    2016-11-01

    Unprecedented clinical success has recently been achieved in cancer immunotherapy using cytotoxic T cells armed with activating tumor-specific Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs). Natural killer (NK) cells, potent cytotoxic effectors, also hold potential to be effectively harnessed for immunotherapy. The anti-tumor efficacy of NK cell therapies has been limited by a lack of antigen specificity and the poor persistence of NK cells in vivo. To address these limitations, Vallera and colleagues developed novel Trispecific Killer cell Engagers (TriKEs), reported in the Feb. 2016 issue of Clinical Cancer Research. (1) The novel TriKE immunomodulator evolved from the Bispecific Killer cell Engager (BiKE), a precursor developed by the same team. BiKEs comprise 2 antibody fragments, a first recognizing a tumor antigen and a second directed against CD16 on NK cells, which together trigger antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. IL-15 was further integrated to create TriKEs in order to drive NK cell expansion. Compared to BiKEs, TriKEs elicit far superior NK cytotoxicity and NK cell persistence in a xenograft tumor model in vivo, and are proposed to be effective adjuncts to existing NK transfer protocols. Importantly, TriKEs provide a versatile and cost-effective platform onto which novel targeting ligands can be incorporated and hold the potential to stimulate endogenous NK cells in order to circumvent the need for cell transfers altogether, heralding a new generation of immunotherapeutics.

  8. NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy: from basic biology to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yin, Jie; Li, Ting; Huang, Shan; Yan, Han; Leavenworth, JianMei; Wang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which recognize and kill target cells independent of antigen specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching, play pivotal roles in immune defence against tumors. However, tumor cells often acquire the ability to escape NK cell-mediated immune surveillance. Thus, understanding mechanisms underlying regulation of NK cell phenotype and function within the tumor environment is instrumental for designing new approaches to improve the current cell-based immunotherapy. In this review, we elaborate the main biological features and molecular mechanisms of NK cells that pertain to regulation of NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity. We further overview current clinical approaches regarding NK cell-based cancer therapy, including cytokine infusion, adoptive transfer of autologous or allogeneic NK cells, applications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing NK cells and adoptive transfer of memory-like NK cells. With these promising clinical outcomes and fuller understanding the basic questions raised in this review, we foresee that NK cell-based approaches may hold great potential for future cancer immunotherapy.

  9. HLA Class II Antigen Presentation in Prostate Cancer Cells: A Novel Approach to Prostate Tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doonan, Bently Patrick; Haque, Azizul

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a deadly disease that is in drastic need of new treatment strategies for late stage and metastatic prostate cancer. Immunotherapy has emerged as a viable option to fill this void. Clinical trials have been conducted that induce tumor clearance through cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, these studies have had mixed outcomes with the overlying problem being the lack of a complete immune response with sustained killing and the formation of tumor specific memory cells. To overcome this, we have outlined the need for activating the HLA class II pathway in inducing a sustained CD8+ T cell response and the development of effective memory. We have also discussed the ability of prostate cancer cells to express stable HLA class II molecules that can be manipulated for tumor antigen (Ag) processing and presentation. This review also sets to outline new directions that exist for the use of class II-restricted Ags/peptides in devising cancer vaccines as well as combined chemoimmunotherapy. A better understanding of these concepts will improve future cancer vaccine studies and further the field of cancer immunobiology.

  10. Cancer immunotherapy using dendritic cell-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Amigorena, S

    2000-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and the only ones capable of inducing primary cytotoxic immune responses. We found that DCs secrete a population of membrane vesicles, called exosomes. Exosomes are 60-80 nm vesicles of endocytic origin. The protein composition of exosomes was subjected to a systematic proteomic analysis. Besides MHC and co-stimulatory molecules, exosomes bear several adhesion proteins, most likely involved in their specific subjected to targeting. We also found that exosomes accumulate several cytosolic factors, probably involved in their endosomal biogenesis. Like DCs, exosomes induced immune responses in vivo. Indeed, a single injection of DC-derived exosomes sensitized with tumor peptides induced potent anti tumor immune responses in mice and the eradication of established tumors. Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were found in the spleen of exosome-treated mice, and the anti tumor effect of exosomes was sensitive to in vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells. These results show that exosomes induce potent anti tumor effects in vivo, and strongly support the implementation of human DC-derived exosomes for cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Molecular Pathways: Targeting the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) in the Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    Novel immunotherapy approaches are transforming the treatment of cancer, yet many patients remain refractory to these agents. One hypothesis is that immunotherapy fails because of a tumor microenvironment that fails to support recruitment of immune cells, including CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, new approaches designed to initiate a de novo antitumor immune response from within the tumor microenvironment are being pursued. Recent evidence has indicated that spontaneous activation of the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway within tumor-resident dendritic cells leads to type I IFN production and adaptive immune responses against tumors. This pathway is activated in the presence of cytosolic DNA that is detected by the sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and generates cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates STING. As a therapeutic approach, intratumoral injection of STING agonists has demonstrated profound therapeutic effects in multiple mouse tumor models, including melanoma, colon, breast, prostate, and fibrosarcoma. Better characterization of the STING pathway in human tumor recognition, and the development of new pharmacologic approaches to engage this pathway within the tumor microenvironment in patients, are important areas for clinical translation.

  12. Molecular Pathways: Targeting the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) in the Immunotherapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Novel immunotherapy approaches are transforming the treatment of cancer, yet many patients remain refractory to these agents. One hypothesis is that immunotherapy fails because of a tumor microenvironment that fails to support recruitment of immune cells including CD8+ T cells. Therefore, new approaches designed to initiate a de novo anti-tumor immune response from within the tumor microenvironment are being pursued. Recent evidence has indicated that spontaneous activation of the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway within tumor-resident dendritic cells leads to type I interferon (IFN) production and adaptive immune responses against tumors. This pathway is activated in the presence of cytosolic DNA, that is detected by the sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), and generates cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates STING. As a therapeutic approach, intratumoral injection of STING agonists has demonstrated profound therapeutic effects in multiple mouse tumor models, including melanoma, colon, breast, prostate, and fibrosarcoma. Better characterization of the STING pathway in human tumor recognition, and the development of new pharmacologic approaches to engage this pathway within the tumor microenvironment in patients, are important areas for clinical translation. PMID:26373573

  13. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Challenges and Opportunities for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sachamitr, Patty; Hackett, Simon; Fairchild, Paul Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in cancer treatment over the past 30 years, therapeutic options remain limited and do not always offer a cure for malignancy. Given that tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are, by definition, self-proteins, the need to productively engage autoreactive T cells remains at the heart of strategies for cancer immunotherapy. These have traditionally focused on the administration of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) pulsed with TAA, or the ex vivo expansion and adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) as a source of TAA-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Although such approaches have shown some efficacy, success has been limited by the poor capacity of moDC to cross present exogenous TAA to the CD8+ T-cell repertoire and the potential for exhaustion of CTL expanded ex vivo. Recent advances in induced pluripotency offer opportunities to generate patient-specific stem cell lines with the potential to differentiate in vitro into cell types whose properties may help address these issues. Here, we review recent success in the differentiation of NK cells from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells as well as minor subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) with therapeutic potential, including CD141+XCR1+ DC, capable of cross presenting TAA to naïve CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, we review recent progress in the use of TIL as the starting material for the derivation of iPSC lines, thereby capturing their antigen specificity in a self-renewing stem cell line, from which potentially unlimited numbers of naïve TAA-specific T cells may be differentiated, free of the risks of exhaustion. PMID:24860566

  14. [Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
with Brain Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi; Jiao, Shunchang; Li, Fang

    2016-08-20

    Brain metastasis, a common complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an incidence rate of 30%-50%, significantly affects the patients' quality of life. The prognosis of patients of NSCLC with brain metastasis is extremely poor, the average median survival is only 1 m-2 m without treatment. The targeted therapy based on lung cancer driven gene is a new treatment. Besides, the immunotherapy which can enhance the effect of anti-cancer by simulating the immune system is a new approach. The combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy can greatly benefit patients in clinical work.

  15. Prevailing over T cell exhaustion: New developments in the immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christian; Kühnemuth, Benjamin; Duewell, Peter; Ormanns, Steffen; Gress, Thomas; Schnurr, Max

    2016-10-10

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive malignancies and has been considered poorly immunogenic for decades. However, this characterization might be over-simplistic. A more sophisticated approach is needed in order to develop new treatment strategies. In this review, we will focus on T cell exhaustion as a phenomenon of immune failure that is a useful paradigm to characterize immunosuppressive effects. Cancer creates an environment of constant antigen exposure and inflammation. In this setting, T cells transform into a differentiation state that has been termed T cell exhaustion, which is characterized by upregulation of inhibitory receptors, resulting in loss of effector function. The discovery of receptor-mediated immune checkpoints, which prevent uncontrolled T cell reactions, led to the development of a new class of antibodies termed checkpoint inhibitors. Unprecedented results in patients with metastatic melanoma and lung cancer have renewed interest in the immunotherapy of other solid tumor entities, including pancreatic cancer. Data on the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in pancreatic cancer are still sparse and indicate limited efficacy as single agents. Combination of checkpoint inhibitors with other immune-activating strategies or cytotoxic drugs might be a way to overcome therapy resistance in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  16. A2aR antagonists: Next generation checkpoint blockade for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leone, Robert D; Lo, Ying-Chun; Powell, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed exciting progress in the development of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. This has been due in great part to the development of so-called checkpoint blockade. That is, antibodies that block inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 and thus unleash antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. It is clear that tumors evade the immune response by usurping pathways that play a role in negatively regulating normal immune responses. In this regard, adenosine in the immune microenvironment leading to the activation of the A2a receptor has been shown to represent one such negative feedback loop. Indeed, the tumor microenvironment has relatively high concentrations of adenosine. To this end, blocking A2a receptor activation has the potential to markedly enhance anti-tumor immunity in mouse models. This review will present data demonstrating the ability of A2a receptor blockade to enhance tumor vaccines, checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy. Also, as several recent studies have demonstrated that under certain conditions A2a receptor blockade can enhance tumor progression, we will also explore the complexities of adenosine signaling in the immune response. Despite important nuances to the A2a receptor pathway that require further elucidation, studies to date strongly support the development of A2a receptor antagonists (some of which have already been tested in phase III clinical trials for Parkinson Disease) as novel modalities in the immunotherapy armamentarium.

  17. [Criteria of efficacy of adjuvant immunotherapy of surface cancer of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Medvedev, V L; Budnik, N V

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of prognostic significance of interleukine-8 (L-8) urine levels was made in 12 patients with verified surface cancer of the urinary bladder (SCUB) on adjuvant intravesical immunotherapy. Quantitative enzyme immunoassay identified IL-8 in the urine before intravesical injection of BCG vaccine and 6 hours later. A total of 192 urine samples were studied ("Multiskan-Jems", 405 nm). Adjuvant immunotherapy raises an L-8 level in the urine of the patients. After 8-week immunotherapy IL-8 elevated from 169.4 pg/ml to 326 pg/ml. Four patients with minimal difference in IL-8 urine levels (120 pg/ml, on the average) before and 6 hours after intravesical injection of BCG vaccine developed recurrence. Thus, quantitative assessment of IL-8 in urine of SCUB patients given intravesical BCG therapy can serve as one of prognostic criteria of adjuvant immunotherapy efficacy.

  18. Rationale and evidence to combine radiation therapy and immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Dan; Pop, Laurentiu; Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Iyengar, Puneeth; Hannan, Raquibul

    2017-03-01

    Cancer immunotherapy exploits the immune system's ability to differentiate between tumor target cells and host cells. Except for limited success against a few tumor types, most immunotherapies have not achieved the desired clinical efficacy until recently. The field of cancer immunotherapy has flourished with a variety of new agents for clinical use, and remarkable progress has been made in the design of effective immunotherapeutic regimens. Furthermore, the therapeutic outcome of these novel agents is enhanced when combined with conventional cancer treatment modalities including radiotherapy (RT). An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the abscopal effect, an immunologic response occurring in cancer sites distant from irradiated areas. The present work reviews studies on the combination between RT and immunotherapy to induce synergistic and abscopal effects involved in cancer immunomodulation. Further insight into the complex interactions between the immune system and cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment, and their modulation by RT, may reveal the abscopal effect as a clinically relevant and reproducible event leading to improved cancer outcome.

  19. Role of toll-like receptors and their adaptors in adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Seya, Tsukasa; Akazawa, Takashi; Uehori, Junji; Matsumoto, Misako; Azuma, Ichiro; Toyoshima, Kumao

    2003-01-01

    The potentiation of immune responses to tumor-associated antigen (Ag) is a pivotal issue in immunotherapy for cancer and thus requires the use of adjuvants, which are involved in efficient antibody (Ab) production and killer cell induction. The efficacy for tumor regression of a number of adjuvants that have been applied to immunotherapy in humans and tumor-bearing animal models has been tested without understanding of the function of adjuvants. Recent findings on the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptors facilitated the elucidation of the molecular basis of adjuvant activity. TLR signaling was found to induce interferons (IFNs), chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines and mature dendritic cells (DCs) for enhanced efficiency in antigen presentation. The mediators then play a crucial role in the organization of acquired immunity and, together with matured DCs, activate cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and NK cells. These TLR outputs vary among adjuvants, which may depend on adjuvant-specific selection of appropriate sets of TLRs and their adaptors. Here we review how a variety of host immune responses are induced by an individual adjuvant to confer an adjuvant-specific anti-tumor immunity. We elaborate specifically on two adjuvants, BCG-cell wall skeleton and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The former activates TLR2/4 on DCs and induces tumor-specific CTL allowing general application to patients with surgically dissected cancer and improving prognosis, while the latter activates TLR3 on DCs to release type 1 IFN that induces tumor cell apoptosis and NK-mediated tumor cytotoxicity.

  20. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: the next generation of gene-engineered immune cells.

    PubMed

    Berry, L J; Moeller, M; Darcy, P K

    2009-10-01

    Adoptive cellular immunotherapy involving transfer of tumor-reactive T cells has shown some notable antitumor responses in a minority of cancer patients. In particular, transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has resulted in long-term objective responses in patients with advanced melanoma. However, the inability to isolate sufficient numbers of tumor-specific T cells from most malignancies has restricted the broad utility of this approach. An emerging approach to circumvent this limitation involves the genetic modification of effector cells with T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes or chimeric single-chain variable fragment (scFv) receptors that can specifically redirect T cells to tumor. There has been much progress in the design of TCR and scFv receptors to enhance the antigen-specific activation of effector cells and their trafficking and persistence in vivo. Considerable effort has been directed toward improving the safety of this approach and reducing the immunogenicity of the receptor. This review discusses the latest developments in the field of adoptive immunotherapy using genetically modified immune cells that have been transduced with either TCR or scFv receptor transgenes and used in preclinical and clinical settings as anticancer agents.

  1. Novel cancer antigens for personalized immunotherapies: latest evidence and clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T.; Kao, Chiao-Jung; DeGregorio, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical success of monoclonal antibody immune checkpoint modulators such as ipilimumab, which targets cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and the recently approved agents nivolumab and pembrolizumab, which target programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1), has stimulated renewed enthusiasm for anticancer immunotherapy, which was heralded by Science as ‘Breakthrough of the Year’ in 2013. As the potential of cancer immunotherapy has been recognized since the 1890s when William Coley showed that bacterial products could be beneficial in cancer patients, leveraging the immune system in the treatment of cancer is certainly not a new concept; however, earlier attempts to develop effective therapeutic vaccines and antibodies against solid tumors, for example, melanoma, frequently met with failure due in part to self-tolerance and the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Increased knowledge of the mechanisms through which cancer evades the immune system and the identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and negative immune checkpoint regulators have led to the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies targeting specific tumor antigens and immune checkpoints such as CTLA-4 and PD-1. This review first discusses the established targets of currently approved cancer immunotherapies and then focuses on investigational cancer antigens and their clinical potential. Because of the highly heterogeneous nature of tumors, effective anticancer immunotherapy-based treatment regimens will likely require a personalized combination of therapeutic vaccines, antibodies and chemotherapy that fit the specific biology of a patient’s disease. PMID:26753003

  2. Immunotherapy in veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Philip J

    2014-09-01

    Tumor immunology and immunotherapy is one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields. The immune system is divided into 2 primary components: the innate immune response and the highly specific, but more slowly developing, adaptive or acquired immune response. Immune responses are separated by whether they are induced by exposure to a foreign antigen (active response) or transferred through serum or lymphocytes from an immunized individual (passive response). The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should discriminate between cancer and normal cells (specificity), be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells (sensitivity), and prevent recurrence of a tumor (durability).

  3. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cells for Immunotherapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cartellieri, Marc; Bachmann, Michael; Feldmann, Anja; Bippes, Claudia; Stamova, Slava; Wehner, Rebekka; Temme, Achim; Schmitz, Marc

    2010-01-01

    CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are powerful components of adaptive immunity, which essentially contribute to the elimination of tumors. Due to their cytotoxic capacity, T cells emerged as attractive candidates for specific immunotherapy of cancer. A promising approach is the genetic modification of T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). First generation CARs consist of a binding moiety specifically recognizing a tumor cell surface antigen and a lymphocyte activating signaling chain. The CAR-mediated recognition induces cytokine production and tumor-directed cytotoxicity of T cells. Second and third generation CARs include signal sequences from various costimulatory molecules resulting in enhanced T-cell persistence and sustained antitumor reaction. Clinical trials revealed that the adoptive transfer of T cells engineered with first generation CARs represents a feasible concept for the induction of clinical responses in some tumor patients. However, further improvement is required, which may be achieved by second or third generation CAR-engrafted T cells. PMID:20467460

  4. B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0466 TITLE: B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer ...COVERED 1 June 2011 - 31 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER...immune escape generated in breast cancer . Here we report the generation of 84 mouse monoclonal antibodies for the detection of B7-H4 by ELISA, 25 for

  5. SAPHO syndrome with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsumaru, Katsuhiko; Nagai, Kazuki; Murakami, Takayuki; Andoh, Kazuo

    2010-08-31

    The authors describe a case of SAPHO syndrome with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy for bladder cancer. The patient had undergone transurethral resection (TUR) and was treated with BCG immunotherapy following TUR. Two years after treatment for bladder cancer, the patient had palmoplantar pustulosis, and in the past 1 month suffered from pain localised to the anterior chest wall. The bone scintigraphy showed a strong focal enrichment in the right chest wall, suggesting spondyloarthropathy rather than malignant disease. On the basis of clinical and scintigraphy findings, SAPHO syndrome was diagnosed. The patient was treated with topical therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms improved. The authors suggest that SAPHO syndrome might be caused by an association with BCG immunotherapy.

  6. Demystifying Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Understanding Current and Future Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Ravi A.; Gulley, James L.; Kantoff, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a viable therapeutic option for patients with prostate cancer. There are multiple potential strategies that employ the immune system including therapeutic cancer vaccines that are designed to stimulate immune cells to target antigens expressed by cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T is a vaccine currently approved for the treatment of minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer, while the vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab are in phase III testing. Although there are no short term changes in disease progression or available biomarkers to assess response, these agents appear to improve survival. One hypothesis suggests that this apparent paradox can be explained by the growth moderating effects of these treatments which do not cause tumor size to diminish, but rather stall or slow their growth rate over time. For this reason the use of immunotherapy earlier in the disease process is being investigated. Another approach is to block immune regulatory mechanisms mediated by the molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1. Additional future strategies will combine immunotherapy with other standard therapies, potentially enhancing the latter’s clinical impact and thereby improving both time to progression and overall survival due to the combined effects of both treatments. Prospective trials are currently evaluating these hypotheses and will ultimately serve to optimize immunotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23337757

  7. Nasal submucosal administration of antigen-presenting cells induces effective immunological responses in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Fujikawa, Akira; Kurosaki, Motoyoshi; Yamasaki, Kazuki; Sakurai, Daijyu; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    Human NKT cells are known to have strong antitumor activities and to be activated by specific ligand, α-galactosylceramide (αGelCer). We examined the migration pattern of αGalCer-pulsed DCs and the immune responses after administration by different routes. DCs injected into nasal submucosa quickly migrated to the lateral neck lymph rather than the lateral lymph nodes. The absolute number of NKT cells and the IFN-γ-producing cells increased in peripheral blood after injection of the DCs into nasal submucosa. We conducted a phase I study with αGalCer-pulsed DCs administered in nasal submucosa of patients with head and neck cancer, and evaluated safety and feasibility. The results showed that nasal submucosal administration of α-GalCer-pulsed DCs was safe and a smaller number of these DCs could exhibit significant immune responses and some positive clinical effects. In additional study, the use of the intra-arterial infusion of activated NKT cells and the submucosal injection of α-GalCer-pulsed DCs has been shown to induce significant antitumor immunity and had beneficial clinical effects in the management of advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The NKT cell-based cancer immunotherapy may be helpful in management of head and neck cancer and needs to be explored in further detail.

  8. Dendritic cell based PSMA immunotherapy for prostate cancer using a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Williams, Briana Jill; Bhatia, Shilpa; Adams, Lisa K; Boling, Susan; Carroll, Jennifer L; Li, Xiao-Lin; Rogers, Donna L; Korokhov, Nikolay; Kovesdi, Imre; Pereboev, Alexander V; Curiel, David T; Mathis, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. To test this approach, we developed a mouse model of prostate cancer by generating clonal derivatives of the mouse RM-1 prostate cancer cell line expressing human PSMA (RM-1-PSMA cells). To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ). Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. CD40 targeting significantly improved the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of Ad5-huPSMA encoding PSMA when combined with Ad5-IFNγ in the RM-1-PSMA model. These results suggest that a CD-targeted adenovirus delivering PSMA may be effective clinically for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  9. A folate receptor-targeted lipoplex delivering interleukin-15 gene for colon cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Luo, Min; Wei, Xia-Wei; Ma, Cui-Cui; Yang, Yu-Han; Shao, Bin; Liu, Yan-Tong; Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Liu, Li; He, Zhi-Yao; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-08-09

    Interleukin-15 has been implicated as a promising cytokine for cancer immunotherapy, while folate receptor α (FRα) has been shown to be a potentially useful target for colon cancer therapy. Herein, we developed F-PLP/pIL15, a FRα-targeted lipoplex loading recombinant interleukin-15 plasmid (pIL15) and studied its antitumor effects in vivo using a CT26 colon cancer mouse model. Compared with control (normal saline) treatment, F-PLP/pIL15 significantly suppressed tumor growth in regard to tumor weight (P < 0.001) and reduced tumor nodule formation (P < 0.001). Moreover, when compared to other lipoplex-treated mice, F-PLP/pIL15-treated mice showed higher levels of IL15 secreted in the serum (P < 0.001) and ascites (P < 0.01). These results suggested that the targeted delivery of IL15 gene might be associated with its in vivo antitumor effects, which include inducing tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting tumor proliferation and promoting the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining of vital organs following F-PLP/pIL15 treatment showed no detectable toxicity, thus indicating that intraperitoneal administration may be a viable route of delivery. Overall, these results suggest that F-PLP/pIL15 may serve as a potential targeting preparation for colon cancer therapy.

  10. A folate receptor-targeted lipoplex delivering interleukin-15 gene for colon cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Luo, Min; Wei, Xia-Wei; Ma, Cui-Cui; Yang, Yu-Han; Shao, Bin; Liu, Yan-Tong; Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Liu, Li; He, Zhi-Yao; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-15 has been implicated as a promising cytokine for cancer immunotherapy, while folate receptor α (FRα) has been shown to be a potentially useful target for colon cancer therapy. Herein, we developed F-PLP/pIL15, a FRα-targeted lipoplex loading recombinant interleukin-15 plasmid (pIL15) and studied its antitumor effects in vivo using a CT26 colon cancer mouse model. Compared with control (normal saline) treatment, F-PLP/pIL15 significantly suppressed tumor growth in regard to tumor weight (P < 0.001) and reduced tumor nodule formation (P < 0.001). Moreover, when compared to other lipoplex-treated mice, F-PLP/pIL15-treated mice showed higher levels of IL15 secreted in the serum (P < 0.001) and ascites (P < 0.01). These results suggested that the targeted delivery of IL15 gene might be associated with its in vivo antitumor effects, which include inducing tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting tumor proliferation and promoting the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining of vital organs following F-PLP/pIL15 treatment showed no detectable toxicity, thus indicating that intraperitoneal administration may be a viable route of delivery. Overall, these results suggest that F-PLP/pIL15 may serve as a potential targeting preparation for colon cancer therapy. PMID:27438147

  11. Expression of cancer-testis genes in brain tumors: implications for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Modarressi, Mohammad-Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) genes have a restricted expression in normal tissues except testis and a wide range of tumor types. Testis is an immune-privileged site as a result of a blood barrier and lack of HLA class I expression on the surface of germ cells. Hence, if testis-specific genes are expressed in other tissues, they can be immunogenic. Expression of some CT genes in a high percentage of brain tumors makes them potential targets for immunotherapy. In addition, expression of CT genes in cancer stem cells may provide special targets for treatment of cancer recurrences and metastasis. The presence of antibodies against different CT genes in patients with advanced tumors has raised the possibility of polyvalent antitumor vaccine application.

  12. One-Shot Immunomodulatory Nanodiamond Agents for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Cui, Zhifen; Kong, Huating; Xia, Kai; Pan, Liang; Li, Jiang; Sun, Yanhong; Shi, Jiye; Wang, Lihua; Zhu, Ying; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-04-13

    The use of functional nanodiamonds (fNDs) to deliver CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) for sustained immunostimulation is reported. It is demonstrated that monotherapy using this immunostimulatory agent significantly suppresses the tumor growth in two murine tumor models. This fND-based nanoagent opens new opportunities for immunotherapy, as well as clinical applications of various types of therapeutic nucleic acids.

  13. A novel combination immunotherapy for cancer by IL-13Rα2-targeted DNA vaccine and immunotoxin in murine tumor models.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hideyuki; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Husain, Syed R; Puri, Raj K

    2011-11-15

    Optimum efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines may require combinations that generate effective antitumor immune responses, as well as overcome immune evasion and tolerance mechanisms mediated by progressing tumor. Previous studies showed that IL-13Rα2, a unique tumor-associated Ag, is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. A targeted cytotoxin composed of IL-13 and mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin induced specific killing of IL-13Rα2(+) tumor cells. When combined with IL-13Rα2 DNA cancer vaccine, surprisingly, it mediated synergistic antitumor effects on tumor growth and metastasis in established murine breast carcinoma and sarcoma tumor models. The mechanism of synergistic activity involved direct killing of tumor cells and cell-mediated immune responses, as well as elimination of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, consequently, regulatory T cells. These novel results provide a strong rationale for combining immunotoxins with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer.

  14. Development of a Model to Study the Abscopal Effect: Combining Image-Guided Radiation Therapy and Immunotherapy in Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Amanda

    Distant metastases are a limiting factor in cancer patient survival as they are least accessible to conventional therapies. Effective therapy should treat primary tumours and metastatic disease. Use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRx) enables high doses of radiation to be delivered for better tumour control while minimizing toxicity to healthy tissues. Systemic effects on distant non-irradiated tissues have been observed following IGRx. This phenomenon, termed the abscopal effect, is hypothesized to be mediated by the immune system. The inflammatory milieu generated following IGRx may activate immune cells to mount specific anti-tumour responses. The work described in this thesis aims to develop a model to study the abscopal effect, and evaluate the potential of combining IGRx and immunotherapy to enhance such distant tumour killing. Results from these studies may have clinical implications, where a combined IGRx and immunotherapy approach may prove useful in eliciting regression of local tumours and distant metastases.

  15. Targeting gamma delta T cells for cancer immunotherapy: bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Dimpu; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V.

    2013-01-01

    γδ T lymphocytes represent a minor subset of peripheral blood in humans (<10%). γδ T cells expressing Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor recognise the endogenous pool of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) that is overproduced in cancer cells as a result of dysregulated mevalonate pathway. Aminobisphosphonates increase the endogenous pool of IPP in cells by blocking the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) of the mevalonate pathway. Activated γδ T cells release copious amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and exhibit potent anti-tumour activity. Combination of γδ T cells with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies can efficiently mediate antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity against tumours. These features makes γδ T cells attractive mediator of cancer immunotherapy. We review here, the basic properties and importance of γδ T cells in tumour immunity, and highlight the key advances in anti-tumour effector functions of γδ T cells achieved over the last few years and also summarize the results of the clinical trials that have been done till date. Future immunotherapeutic approach utilizing γδ T cells holds considerable promise for treatment of different types of cancer. PMID:24434328

  16. Two-step enhanced cancer immunotherapy with engineered Salmonella typhimurium secreting heterologous flagellin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin Hai; Nguyen, Vu H; Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Park, Seung-Hwan; Tan, Wenzhi; Hong, Seol Hee; Shin, Myung Geun; Chung, Ik-Joo; Hong, Yeongjin; Bom, Hee-Seung; Choy, Hyon E; Lee, Shee Eun; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Min, Jung-Joon

    2017-02-08

    We report a method of cancer immunotherapy using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain engineered to secrete Vibrio vulnificus flagellin B (FlaB) in tumor tissues. Engineered FlaB-secreting bacteria effectively suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models and prolonged survival. By using Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-negative colon cancer cell lines, we provided evidence that the FlaB-mediated tumor suppression upon bacterial colonization is associated with TLR5-mediated host reactions in the tumor microenvironment. These therapeutic effects were completely abrogated in TLR4 and MyD88 knockout mice, and partly in TLR5 knockout mice, indicating that TLR4 signaling is a requisite for tumor suppression mediated by FlaB-secreting bacteria, whereas TLR5 signaling augmented tumor-suppressive host reactions. Tumor microenvironment colonization by engineered Salmonella appeared to induce the infiltration of abundant immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils via TLR4 signaling. Subsequent secretion of FlaB from colonizing Salmonella resulted in phenotypic and functional activation of intratumoral macrophages with M1 phenotypes and a reciprocal reduction in M2-like suppressive activities. Together, these findings provide evidence that nonvirulent tumor-targeting bacteria releasing multiple TLR ligands can be used as cancer immunotherapeutics.

  17. DNA methyltransferase inhibition increases efficacy of adoptive cellular immunotherapy of murine breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Terracina, Krista P; Graham, Laura J; Payne, Kyle K; Manjili, Masoud H; Baek, Annabel; Damle, Sheela R; Bear, Harry D

    2016-09-01

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to cancer treatment that currently has limited clinical applications. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNAMTi) have known potential to affect the immune system through multiple mechanisms that could enhance the cytotoxic T cell responses, including: upregulation of tumor antigen expression, increased MHC class I expression, and blunting of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expansion. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combining the DNAMTi, decitabine, with adoptive T cell immunotherapy in the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma model. We found that expression of neu, MHC class I molecules, and several murine cancer testis antigens (CTA) was increased by decitabine treatment of 4T1 cells in vitro. Decitabine also increased expression of multiple CTA in two human breast cancer cell lines. Decitabine-treated 4T1 cells stimulated greater IFN-gamma release from tumor-sensitized lymphocytes, implying increased immunogenicity. Expansion of CD11b + Gr1 + MDSC in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice was significantly diminished by decitabine treatment. Decitabine treatment improved the efficacy of adoptive T cell immunotherapy in mice with established 4T1 tumors, with greater inhibition of tumor growth and an increased cure rate. Decitabine may have a role in combination with existing and emerging immunotherapies for breast cancer.

  18. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    strong likelihood that combination treatment with LIGHT and immunotherapeutic vaccination will have an impact against primary and possibly metastatic...mediated by regulatory T cells while simultaneously activating tumor-specific immune responses, which we hope to demonstrate can be boosted by vaccination ...of PROVENGE, the first immunotherapeutic cell- based vaccine that can be prescribed for hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients, excitement is

  19. Development of an Oral Barley Beta-Glucan Adjuvant That Augments the Tumoricidal Activity of Antibodies or Vaccines Used for the Immunotherapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    These Data provided strong evidence for the efficacy of an oral beta - glucan adjuvant for use in combination with anti-tumor antibodies such as...oral beta - glucan . The data showing that antibodies must activate complement and deposit iC3b on tumors means that antibodies that do not to activate complement would not benefit from oral beta - glucan .

  20. Influence of Immunotherapy with Autologous Dendritic Cells on Innate and Adaptive Immune Response in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Bruna F.; de Oliveira, Tânia M.; Rodrigues, Cláudia M.; Abdalla, Douglas R.; Montes, Letícia; Murta, Eddie F.C.; Michelin, Márcia A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate some of the mechanisms involved in the activation of the immune system in patients with advanced-stage cancer (n = 7) who received an autologous dendritic cell vaccine. We examined the immune response mediated by macrophages (CD14+), natural killer cells (CD56+), and B lymphocytes (CD19+) by flow cytometry and assessed the expression of Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12), Th2 (IL-4), and Treg (TGF-β) cytokines by flow cytometry and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CD14+ TNF-α+ population was significantly increased (P < 0.04) when patients received the vaccine; IL-2 expression in both NK cells and in B lymphocytes was increased after a transient initial increase showed a nearly significant decrease (P < 0.07 and P < 0.06 respectively), whereas the CD19+ and CD56+ populations did not show significant changes. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy led to increased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-12 and reduced secretion of TGF-β. In conclusion, it is likely that the autologous dendritic cell vaccine stimulated the immune cells from the peripheral blood of patients with cancer and generally increased the production of Th1 cytokines, which are related to immunomodulatory responses against cancer. PMID:23926442

  1. Interdisciplinary critique of sipuleucel-T as immunotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Huber, Marie L; Haynes, Laura; Parker, Chris; Iversen, Peter

    2012-02-22

    Sipuleucel-T was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on April 29, 2010, as an immunotherapy for late-stage prostate cancer. To manufacture sipuleucel-T, mononuclear cells harvested from the patient are incubated with a recombinant prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antigen and reinfused. The manufacturer proposes that antigen-presenting cells exogenously activated by PAP induce endogenous T-cells to attack PAP-bearing prostate cancer cells. However, the lack of demonstrable tumor responses has prompted calls for scrutiny of the design of the trials in which sipuleucel-T demonstrated a 4-month survival benefit. Previously unpublished data from the sipuleucel-T trials show worse overall survival in older vs younger patients in the placebo groups, which have not been shown previously to be prognostic for survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Because two-thirds of the cells harvested from placebo patients, but not from the sipuleucel-T arm, were frozen and not reinfused, a detrimental effect of this large repeated cell loss provides a potential alternative explanation for the survival "benefit." Patient safety depends on adequately addressing this alternative explanation for the trial results.

  2. Current status of immunotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Imbimbo, Martina; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Blackhall, Fiona

    2016-08-03

    In the last few years, the introduction of novel immunotherapeutic agents has represented a treatment shift for a subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Checkpoint inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve survival in advanced stage disease with very good tolerability. This success follows many years of scientific effort to manipulate the human immune system to attack cancer cells. With a variety of approaches ranging from vaccines to administration of interleukin or interferon-γ, the results in NSCLC were unsuccessful, with the view that it is a scarcely immunogenic cancer, unlike melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. The step change has come from understanding of immune checkpoints-cell surface molecules that regulate immune system activation and mediate coinhibitory signaling pathways that physiologically protect the body from autoimmunity. These pathways play an important role in tumors, including NSCLC, and are a mechanism of escape from immune surveillance. Several monoclonal antibodies have been developed in order to inhibit these molecules and unleash the brakes of the immune system. Currently in NSCLC, 7 different checkpoint inhibitors are under investigation: 2 anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, 2 anti-programmed death (PD)-1, and 3 anti-PD-ligand 1 antibodies. Here we review the progress to date in developing immunotherapy for NSCLC, summarize results from published trials, highlight ongoing trials, and discuss progress in the question of how best to select patients for this treatment.

  3. Using chemo-drugs or irradiation to break immune tolerance and facilitate immunotherapy in solid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yawen; Dou, Yan; Duan, Lili; Cong, Changsheng; Gao, Aiqin; Lai, Qinghua; Sun, Yuping

    2015-03-01

    The immunity is dual host-protective and tumor-promoting in cancer development and progression. Many immune suppressive cells and cytokines in microenvironment can prevent cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK) from killing tumor cells. Chemotherapy drugs and irradiation have been reported helpful in breaking immune tolerance and creating microenvironment for adoptive cell therapy. Low-dose cyclophosphamide or gemcitabine therapy can selectively deplete T regulatory cells (Treg). Paclitaxel can alter cytokine network at the tumor site, and 5-fluorouracil shows a pronounced effect on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) depletion. Local tumor irradiation and total body irradiation (TBI) can also affect tumor microenvironment and facilitate immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the particular effects of these agents and methods on immunomodulation, as well as their potential values in immunotherapy. The combination with immunotherapy represents a novel therapeutic strategy.

  4. Combined Treatment Effects of Radiation and Immunotherapy: Studies in an Autochthonous Prostate Cancer Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Satoshi; Harris, Timothy J.; Tryggestad, Erik; Yoshimura, Kiyoshi; Zeng, Jing; Yen, Hung-Rong; Getnet, Derese; Grosso, Joseph F.; Bruno, Tullia C.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Transgenic mice expressing a model antigen under a prostate-specific promoter were treated using a platform that integrates cone-beam CT imaging with 3-dimensional conformal therapy. Using this technology we investigated the immunologic and therapeutic effects of combining ionizing radiation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer in mice bearing autochthonous prostate tumors. Results: The combination of ionizing radiation and immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in pathologic tumor grade and gross tumor bulk that was not evident with either single-modality therapy. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy resulted in improved overall survival in a preventive metastasis model and in the setting of established micrometastases. Mechanistically, combined therapy resulted in an increase of the ratio of effector-to-regulatory T cells for both CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusions: Our preclinical model establishes a potential role for the use of combined radiation-immunotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, which warrants further exploration in a clinical setting.

  5. The emerging role of exosome and microvesicle- (EMV-) based cancer therapeutics and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colin; Kosgodage, Uchini; Lange, Sigrun; Inal, Jameel M

    2017-03-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new combination therapies beyond existing surgery, radio- and chemo-therapy, perhaps initially combining chemotherapy with the targeting specificities of immunotherapy. For this, strategies to limit inflammation and immuno-suppression and evasion in the tumour microenvironment are also needed. To devise effective new immunotherapies we must first understand tumour immunology, including the roles of T cells, macrophages, myeloid suppressor cells and of exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) in promoting angiogenesis, tumour growth, drug resistance and metastasis. One promising cancer immunotherapy discussed uses cationic liposomes carrying tumour RNA (RNA-lipoplexes) to provoke a strong anti-viral-like (cytotoxic CD8(+) ) anti-tumour immune response. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived EMVs, with their capacity to migrate towards inflammatory areas including solid tumours, have also been used. As tumour EMVs clearly exacerbate the tumour microenvironment, another therapy option could involve EMV removal. Affinity-based methods to deplete EMVs, including an immuno-depletion, antibody-based affinity substrate, are therefore considered. Finally EMV and exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (NVs) delivery of siRNA or chemotherapeutic drugs that target tumours using peptide ligands for cognate receptors on the tumour cells are discussed. We also touch upon the reversal of drug efflux in EMVs from cancer cells which can sensitize cells to chemotherapy. The use of immunotherapy in combination with the advent of EMVs provides potent therapies to various cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: glycolipids as targets for tumour immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Durrant, L G; Noble, P; Spendlove, I

    2012-02-01

    Research into aberrant glycosylation and over-expression of glycolipids on the surface of the majority of cancers, coupled with a knowledge of glycolipids as functional molecules involved in a number of cellular physiological pathways, has provided a novel area of targets for cancer immunotherapy. This has resulted in the development of a number of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that are showing promising results in recent clinical trials.

  7. Mechanisms and Αpplications of Ιnterleukins in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Anestakis, Doxakis; Petanidis, Savvas; Kalyvas, Spyridon; Nday, Christiane M.; Tsave, Olga; Kioseoglou, Efrosini; Salifoglou, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in innovative and novel approaches in molecular cancer diagnostics and cancer therapeutic procedures. However, due to tumor heterogeneity and inter-tumoral discrepancy in tumor immunity, the clinical benefits are quite restricted. The goal of this review is to evaluate the major cytokines-interleukins involved in cancer immunotherapy and project their basic biochemical and clinical applications. Emphasis will be given to new cytokines in pre-clinical development, and potential directions for future investigation using cytokines. Furthermore, current interleukin-based approaches and clinical trial data from combination cancer immunotherapies will also be discussed. It appears that continuously increasing comprehension of cytokine-induced effects, cancer stemness, immunoediting, immune-surveillance as well as understanding of molecular interactions emerging in the tumor microenvironment and involving microRNAs, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammation, and DNA methylation processes may hold much promise in improving anti-tumor immunity. To this end, the emerging in-depth knowledge supports further studies on optimal synergistic combinations and additional adjuvant therapies to realize the full potential of cytokines as immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:25590298

  8. TLR agonists: our best frenemy in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaczanowska, Sabina; Joseph, Ann Mary; Davila, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Various TLR agonists are currently under investigation in clinical trials for their ability to orchestrate antitumor immunity. The antitumor responses are largely attributed to their aptitude to stimulate APCs such as DCs which in turn, activate tumor-specific T cell responses. However, there is a potential for TLR signaling to occur on cells other than professional APCs that could negate antitumor responses or even worse, promote tumor growth. The impetus for this review is twofold. First, there is accumulating data demonstrating that the engagement of TLRs on different T cell subsets and different cancer types could promote tumor growth or conversely, contribute to antitumor responses. Second, the efficacy of TLR agonists as monotherapies to treat cancer patients has been limited. In this review, we discuss how TLR signaling within different T cell subsets and cancer cells can potentially impact the generation of antitumor responses. Based on evidence from preclinical models and clinical trials, we draw attention to several criteria that we believe must be considered when selecting TLR agonists for developing effective immunotherapeutic strategies against cancer. PMID:23475577

  9. Highlights of the society for immunotherapy of cancer (SITC) 27th annual meeting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The 27th annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) was held on October 26–28, 2012 in North Bethesda, Maryland and the highlights of the meeting are summarized. The topics covered at this meeting included advances in cancer treatment using adoptive cell therapy (ACT), oncolytic viruses, dendritic cells (DCs), immune check point modulators and combination therapies. Advances in immune editing of cancer, immune modulation by cancer and the tumor microenvironment were also discussed as were advances in single cell analysis and the manufacture and potency testing of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL).

  10. Mouse Models of Tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Loi, Sherene; Thomas, David; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is now evolving into a major therapeutic option for cancer patients. Such clinical advances also promote massive interest in the search for novel immunotherapy targets, and to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs. It is projected that a series of novel immunotherapy agents will be developed and assessed for their therapeutic activity. In light of this, in vivo experimental mouse models that recapitulate human malignancies serve as valuable tools to validate the efficacy and safety profile of immunotherapy agents, before their transition into clinical trials. In this review, we will discuss the major classes of experimental mouse models of cancer commonly used for immunotherapy assessment and provide examples to guide the selection of appropriate models. We present some new data concerning the utility of a carcinogen-induced tumor model for comparing immunotherapies and combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. We will also highlight some recent advances in experimental modeling of human malignancies in mice that are leading towards personalized therapy in patients.

  11. Combining immunotherapy and anticancer agents: the right path to achieve cancer cure?

    PubMed

    Apetoh, L; Ladoire, S; Coukos, G; Ghiringhelli, F

    2015-09-01

    Recent clinical trials revealed the impressive efficacy of immunological checkpoint blockade in different types of metastatic cancers. Such data underscore that immunotherapy is one of the most promising strategies for cancer treatment. In addition, preclinical studies provide evidence that some cytotoxic drugs have the ability to stimulate the immune system, resulting in anti-tumor immune responses that contribute to clinical efficacy of these agents. These observations raise the hypothesis that the next step for cancer treatment is the combination of cytotoxic agents and immunotherapies. The present review aims to summarize the immune-mediated effects of chemotherapeutic agents and their clinical relevance, the biological and clinical features of immune checkpoint blockers and finally, the preclinical and clinical rationale for novel therapeutic strategies combining anticancer agents and immune checkpoint blockers.

  12. Genes to vaccines for immunotherapy: how the molecular biology revolution has influenced cancer immunology.

    PubMed

    Laheru, Dan A; Pardoll, Drew M; Jaffee, Elizabeth M

    2005-11-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the complex signaling pathways involved in immune system regulation, along with analyses of genetic differences between tumors and their normal cellular counterparts, have accelerated development of immune-based strategies for cancer treatment and prevention. More clinically relevant animal models have shown that successful immune-based strategies will require the integration of interventions that target specific tumor antigens with regulators of the antitumor immune response. Immunotherapy for cancer is at a critical crossroad, as therapeutics designed to target cancer-associated antigens and regulatory signaling molecules enter clinical trials. We outline here a paradigm for early-stage clinical development of immunotherapy combinations that use vaccines to drive tumor antigen-specific responses while simultaneously targeting immune regulatory pathways.

  13. Heat shock protein DNAJB8 is a novel target for immunotherapy of colon cancer-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Morita, Rena; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Akari; Tamura, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Sokolovskaya, Alice; Kochin, Vitaly; Kondo, Toru; Hashino, Satoshi; Asaka, Masahiro; Hara, Isao; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Sato, Noriyuki

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish cancer stem-like cell/cancer-initiating cell (CSC/CIC)-targeting immunotherapy. The CSC/CIC are thought to be essential for tumor maintenance, recurrence and distant metastasis. Therefore they are reasonable targets for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that a heat shock protein (HSP) 40 family member, DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 8 (DNAJB8), is preferentially expressed in CSC/CIC derived from colorectal cancer (CRC) cells rather than in non-CSC/CIC. Overexpression of DNAJB8 enhanced the expression of stem cell markers and tumorigenicity, indicating that DNAJB8 has a role in CRC CSC/CIC. A DNAJB8-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response could be induced by a DNAJB8-derived antigenic peptide. A CTL clone specific for DNAJB8 peptide showed higher killing activity to CRC CSC/CIC compared with non-CSC/CIC, and CTL adoptive transfer into CRC CSC/CIC showed an antitumor effect in vivo. Taken together, the results indicate that DNAJB8 is expressed and has role in CRC CSC/CIC and that DNAJB8 is a novel target of CRC CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy.

  14. A review on the evolution of PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy for bladder cancer: The future is now.

    PubMed

    Bellmunt, Joaquin; Powles, Thomas; Vogelzang, Nicholas J

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of bladder cancer has evolved over time to encompass not only the traditional modalities of chemotherapy and surgery, but has been particularly impacted by the use of immunotherapy. The first immunotherapy was the live, attenuated bacterial Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which has been the standard of care non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer since 1990. Modern immunotherapy has focused on inhibitors of checkpoint proteins, which are molecules that impede immune function, thereby allowing tumor cells to grow and proliferate unregulated. Several checkpoint targets (programmed death ligand-1 [PD-L1] programmed cell death protien-1 [PD-1], and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 [CTLA4]) have received the most attention in the treatment of bladder cancer, and have inhibitor agents either approved or in late-stage development. This review describes the most recent data on agents that inhibit PD-L1, found on the surface of tumor cells, and PD-1 found on activated T and B cells and macrophages. Atezolizumab is the only member of this class currently approved for the treatment of bladder cancer, but nivolumab, pembrolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab all have positive results for this indication, and approvals are anticipated in the near future. The checkpoint inhibitors offer an effective alternative for patients for whom previously there were few options for durable responses, including those who are ineligible for cisplatin-based regimens or who are at risk of significant toxicity. Research is ongoing to further categorize responses, define ideal patient populations, and investigate combinations of checkpoint inhibitors to address multiple pathways in immune system functioning.

  15. Poly(I:C) potentiates Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ayari, Cherifa; Besançon, Marjorie; Bergeron, Alain; LaRue, Hélène; Bussières, Vanessa; Fradet, Yves

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific immunotherapy consisting of intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the best available treatment to prevent non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor recurrence and progression. This treatment however is suboptimal, and more effective immunotherapeutic approaches are needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in the activation of the immune system in response to pathogens and danger signals but also in anti-tumor responses. We previously showed that human urothelial cells express functional TLRs and respond to TLR2 and TLR3 agonists. In this study, we analyzed the potential of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a TLR3 agonist, to replace or complement BCG in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We observed that poly(I:C) had an anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effect in vitro on two low-grade human bladder cancer cell lines, MGH-U3 and RT4. In MGH-U3 cells, poly(I:C) induced growth arrest at the G1-S transition. Poly(I:C) also increased the immunogenicity of MGH-U3 and RT4 cells, inducing the secretion of MHC class I molecules and of pro-inflammatory cytokines. By comparison, poly(I:C) had less in vitro impact on two high-grade human bladder cancer cell lines, 5637 and T24, and on MBT-2 murine high-grade bladder cancer cells. The latter can be used as an immunocompetent model of bladder cancer. The combination poly(I:C)/BCG was much more effective in reducing MBT-2 tumor growth in mice than either treatment alone. It completely cured 29% of mice and also induced an immunological memory response. In conclusion, our study suggests that adding poly(I:C) to BCG may enhance the therapeutic effect of BCG.

  16. Preclinical validation of AXL receptor as a target for antibody-based pancreatic cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Leconet, Wilhem; Larbouret, Christel; Chardès, Thierry; Thomas, Gaëlle; Neiveyans, Madeline; Busson, Muriel; Jarlier, Marta; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Pugnière, Martine; Bernex, Florence; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Pasquet, Jean-Max; Pèlegrin, André; Robert, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    AXL receptor tyrosine kinases is implicated in proliferation and invasion of many cancers, particularly in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), for which new therapeutic options are urgently required. We investigated whether inhibition of AXL activity by specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is efficient in limiting proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Expression of AXL was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 42 PDAC. The AXL role in oncogenesis was studied using the short hairpin RNA approach in a pancreatic carcinoma cell line. We further generated anti-human AXL mAbs and evaluated their inhibitory effects and the AXL downstream signaling pathways first in vitro, in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines and then in vivo, using subcutaneous or orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts. AXL receptor was found expressed in 76% (32/42) of PDAC and was predominantly present in invasive cells. The AXL-knockdown Panc-1 cells decreased in vitro cell migration, survival and proliferation, and reduced in vivo tumor growth. Two selected anti-AXL mAbs (D9 and E8), which inhibited phosphorylation of AXL and of its downstream target AKT without affecting GAS6 binding, induced down-expression of AXL by internalization, leading to an inhibition of proliferation and migration in the four pancreatic cancer cell lines studied. In vivo, treatment by anti-AXL mAbs significantly reduced growth of both subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts independently of their KRAS mutation status. Our in vitro and preclinical in vivo data demonstrate that anti-human AXL mAbs could represent a new approach to the pancreatic cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24240689

  17. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Lessons from Responses to Tumor-Associated Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Westdorp, Harm; Sköld, Annette E.; Snijer, Berit A.; Franik, Sebastian; Mulder, Sasja F.; Major, Pierre P.; Foley, Ronan; Gerritsen, Winald R.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men. In recent years, novel therapeutic options for PCa have been developed and studied extensively in clinical trials. Sipuleucel-T is the first cell-based immunotherapeutic vaccine for treatment of cancer. This vaccine consists of autologous mononuclear cells stimulated and loaded with an immunostimulatory fusion protein containing the prostate tumor antigen prostate acid posphatase. The choice of antigen might be key for the efficiency of cell-based immunotherapy. Depending on the treatment strategy, target antigens should be immunogenic, abundantly expressed by tumor cells, and preferably functionally important for the tumor to prevent loss of antigen expression. Autoimmune responses have been reported against several antigens expressed in the prostate, indicating that PCa is a suitable target for immunotherapy. In this review, we will discuss PCa antigens that exhibit immunogenic features and/or have been targeted in immunotherapeutic settings with promising results, and we highlight the hurdles and opportunities for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24834066

  18. Yin-yang effect of tumor infiltrating B cells in breast cancer: From mechanism to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Pin; Huang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Breast cancer cells secrete chemokines, such as CXCL13, and antigens or express high endothelial venules, attracting B cells to infiltrate into the tumor microenvironment and play a "yin-yang" effect. They not only enhance the anti-tumor immune effect via secreting antibodies and influencing the Fas/FasL, CXCR4/CXCL12 and perforin pathways but they also promote the tumor to form a suppressive milieu by producing immunomodulatory factors and cytokines or using cell-to-cell education to induce the generation of Tregs or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Currently, most studies on breast cancer tissue have indicated that B cell infiltration could predict better survival and response to therapy, but two studies have reported opposite results. In a 4T1 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice model, B cell-based immunotherapies were administered, but the efficiency was unstable. Herein, we review the "yin-yang" effect of B cells in breast cancer and discuss B cell-based immunotherapy. B cells are complex aggregates, and breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Further studies are urgently required to define the B cell subsets and to discover ways to use B cell-based immunotherapy in breast cancer.

  19. Optimizing dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Shurin, Michael R; Han, Baohui

    2007-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most powerful professional antigen-presenting cells and are unique in their capability to initiate, maintain and regulate the intensity of primary immune responses, including specific antitumor responses. Development of practical procedures to prepare sufficient numbers of functional human DCs in culture from the peripheral blood precursors, paved the way for clinical trials to evaluate various DC-based strategies in patients with malignant diseases. However, no definite conclusions regarding the clinical and even immunological efficacy of DC vaccination can be stated, despite the fact that 12 years have passed since the first clinical trial utilizing DCs in cancer patients. Many unanswered questions hamper the development of DC-based vaccines, including the source of DC preparation and protocols for DC generation, activation and loading with tumor antigens, source of tumor antigens, route of vaccine administration and methods of immunomonitoring. Fortunately, in spite of the many obstacles, DC vaccines continue to hold promise for cancer therapy.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of immune checkpoints: another target for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Ali, Mahmoud A; Matboli, Marwa; Tarek, Marwa; Reda, Maged; Kamal, Kamal M; Nouh, Mahmoud; Ashry, Ahmed M; El-Bab, Ahmed Fath; Mesalam, Hend A; Shafei, Ayman El-Sayed; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes contribute to carcinogenesis. Understanding the epigenetic and genetic components of tumor immune evasion is crucial. Few cancer genetic mutations have been linked to direct correlations with immune evasion. Studies on the epigenetic modulation of the immune checkpoints have revealed a critical interaction between epigenetic and immune modulation. Epigenetic modifiers can activate many silenced genes. Some of them are immune checkpoints regulators that turn on immune responses and others turn them off resulting in immune evasion. Many forms of epigenetic inheritance mechanisms may play a role in regulation of immune checkpoints including: covalent modifications, noncoding RNA and histone modifications. In this review, we will show how the potential interaction between epigenetic and immune modulation may lead to new approaches for specific epigenome/immunome-targeted therapies for cancer.

  1. [Immunotherapy in uropathology].

    PubMed

    Verkarre, Virginie; Roussel, Hélène; Granier, Clémence; Tartour, Eric; Allory, Yves

    2017-02-01

    The algorithms for treatment of metastatic cancers are evolving due to positive results obtained with immunotherapy. Therapeutics approaches to stimulate the immune system have already been used in the treatment of kidney and bladder cancer, such as the administration of cytokines and BCG therapy, confirming the immunogenicity of these tumors. The aim of immunotherapies is not only to activate the immune system against tumor cells, but also to take into account the tumor-induced suppressive microenvironment, in particular by removing the anergy of T-cell lymphocytes, and by targeting the co-stimulation inhibitors molecules. Among the genito-urinary cancers, second-line clinical trials have clearly shown that kidney and bladder cancers are sensitive to the inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 axis and have already achieved FDA approvals for some molecules. Numerous other clinical trials are underway, particularly in first-line treatment in bladder and renal cancers. Refractory testicular cancer could also benefit from these treatments. Other approaches using vaccine therapy especially in castration-resistant prostate cancer are also of interest. We will see, in this chapter dedicated to the urogenital cancers, the benefit of the immunotherapy by resituating it in the genetic and immunological context of each organ. We will also present briefly the therapeutic outlines and the place of biomarkers.

  2. Combining synthetic carbohydrate vaccines with cancer cell glycoengineering for effective cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Gong, Xi; Wang, Qianli; Li, Jie; Hu, Honggang; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Junping; Guo, Zhongwu

    2012-11-01

    Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are useful targets for the development of cancer vaccines or immunotherapies. However, a major obstacle in this application of TACAs is their poor immunogenicity. To overcome the problem, a new immunotherapeutic strategy combining synthetic vaccines made of artificial TACA derivatives and metabolic glycoengineering of cancer cells to express the artificial TACA derivatives was explored. Using a murine leukemia model FBL3 with GM3 antigen as the target, it was shown that artificial GM3 N-phenylacetyl derivative (GM3NPhAc) elicited robust antigen-specific T cell-dependent immunity and that N-phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNPhAc) as the biosynthetic precursor of GM3NPhAc selectively glycoengineered cancer cells to express GM3NPhAc both in vitro and in vivo. It was also demonstrated that GM3NPhAc-specific antisera and antibodies mediated strong cytotoxicity to ManNPhAc-treated FBL3 cell. Furthermore, vaccination with a conjugate vaccine made of GM3NPhAc followed by ManNPhAc treatment could significantly suppress tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mouse. These results have proved the feasibility of the new cancer immunotherapeutic strategy, as well as its efficacy to cure cancer, which is of general significance.

  3. A Platform for Designing Genome-Based Personalized Immunotherapy or Vaccine against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sudheer; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Shailesh; Sehgal, Manika; Nagpal, Gandharva

    2016-01-01

    Due to advancement in sequencing technology, genomes of thousands of cancer tissues or cell-lines have been sequenced. Identification of cancer-specific epitopes or neoepitopes from cancer genomes is one of the major challenges in the field of immunotherapy or vaccine development. This paper describes a platform Cancertope, developed for designing genome-based immunotherapy or vaccine against a cancer cell. Broadly, the integrated resources on this platform are apportioned into three precise sections. First section explains a cancer-specific database of neoepitopes generated from genome of 905 cancer cell lines. This database harbors wide range of epitopes (e.g., B-cell, CD8+ T-cell, HLA class I, HLA class II) against 60 cancer-specific vaccine antigens. Second section describes a partially personalized module developed for predicting potential neoepitopes against a user-specific cancer genome. Finally, we describe a fully personalized module developed for identification of neoepitopes from genomes of cancerous and healthy cells of a cancer-patient. In order to assist the scientific community, wide range of tools are incorporated in this platform that includes screening of epitopes against human reference proteome (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/cancertope/). PMID:27832200

  4. Directing dendritic cell immunotherapy towards successful cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sabado, Rachel Lubong; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The use of dendritic cells (DCs) for tumor immunotherapy represents a powerful approach for harnessing the patient's own immune system to eliminate tumor cells. However, suboptimal conditions for generating potent immunostimulatory DCs, as well as the induction of tolerance and suppression mediated by the tumors and its microenvironment have contributed to limited success. Combining DC vaccines with new approaches that enhance immunogenicity and overcome the regulatory mechanisms underlying peripheral tolerance may be the key to achieving effective and durable anti-tumor immune responses that translate to better clinical outcomes. PMID:20473346

  5. Combination immunotherapy with 4-1BBL and CTLA-4 blockade for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Youlin, Kuang; Li, Zhang; Xiaodong, Weng; Xiuheng, Liu; Hengchen, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Immune regulation has been shown to be involved in the progressive growth of some murine tumours. Interruption of immune regulatory pathways via activation of 4-1BB or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) blockade appears to be a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of 4-1BBL-expressing tumor cell vaccine in combination with CTLA-4 blockade on rejection of murine prostate cancer RM-1. We found that the combination of both a vaccine consisting of 4-1BBL-expressing RM-1 cells and CTLA-4 blockade resulted in regression of RM-1 tumors and a significant increase in survival of the tumour cell recipients, compared to that of either treatment alone. The combined vaccination resulted in higher CTL against RM-1 cells and increased secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 in the mix-cultured supernatant. These results suggest that combining activation of 4-1BB and blockade of CTLA-4 may offer a new strategy for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Targeting inflammasome/IL-1 pathways for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Beichu; Fu, Shunjun; Zhang, Jinyu; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment has been shown to play important roles in various stages of tumor development including initiation, growth, and metastasis. The inflammasome is a critical innate immune pathway for the production of active IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine. Although inflammasomes are essential for host defense against pathogens and contribute to autoimmune diseases, their role in tumor progression remains controversial. Here, our results demonstrate that the inflammasome and IL-1β pathway promoted tumor growth and metastasis in animal and human breast cancer models. We found that tumor progression was associated with the activation of inflammasome and elevated levels of IL-1β at primary and metastatic sites. Mice deficient for inflammasome components exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis. Furthermore, inflammasome activation promoted the infiltration of myeloid cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) into tumor microenvironments. Importantly, blocking IL-1R with IL-1R antagonist (IL-Ra) inhibited tumor growth and metastasis accompanied by decreased myeloid cell accumulation. Our results suggest that targeting the inflammasome/IL-1 pathway in tumor microenvironments may provide a novel approach for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27786298

  7. Dendritic cell immunotherapy for cancer: application to low-grade lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hart, D N; Hill, G R

    1999-10-01

    The confirmation that most cancers express one or more molecular changes, which may act as tumour-associated antigens (TAA), combined with the knowledge that T lymphocytes recognize even single amino acid differences in MHC presented peptides has stimulated renewed clinical interest in immunotherapeutic strategies. Dendritic cells (DC) are now recognized as specialist antigen-presenting cells, which initiate, direct and regulate immune responses. Recent data suggest that DC are not recruited into, or activated by, cancers and that other abnormalities in DC function are associated with malignancy, including multiple myeloma. This provides a rationale for designing immunotherapeutic strategies, which exploit DC as nature's adjuvant either in vivo or in vitro. Low-grade lymphoma and multiple myeloma are slowly progressive malignancies, which generally express a unique immunoglobulin idiotype as a potential TAA. Data from animal models and clinical studies suggest that DC-based immunotherapy strategies, applied when the patient has minimal residual disease, may improve the long-term prognosis in these diseases.

  8. Immunohistochemical analysis of immune response in breast cancer and melanoma patients after laser immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordquist, Robert E.; Bishop, Shelly L.; Ferguson, Halie; Vaughan, Melville B.; Jose, Jessnie; Kastl, Katherine; Nguyen, Long; Li, Xiaosong; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical trials. It could not only eradicate treated local tumors but also cause regression and elimination of untreated metastases at distant sites. Combining a selective photothermal therapy with an active immunological stimulation, LIT can induce systemic anti-tumor immune responses. Imiquimod (IMQ), a toll-like receptor agonist, was used for the treatment of late-stage melanoma patients and glycated chitosan (GC), a biological immunological modulator, was used for the treatment of late-stage breast cancer patients, in combination of irradiation of a near-infrared laser light. To observe the immunological changes before and after LIT treatment, the pathological tissues of melanoma and breast cancer patients were processed for immunohistochemical analysis. Our results show that LIT changed the expressions of several crucial T cell types. Specifically, we observed significant decreases of CD3+ T-cells and a significant increase of CD4+,CD8+, and CD68+ T-cells in the tumor samples after LIT treatment. While not conclusive, our study could shed light on one the possible mechanisms of anti-tumor immune responses induced by LIT. Further studies will be conducted to identify immunological biomarkers associated with LIT-induced clinical response.

  9. Laser immunotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer and melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-02-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed for the treatment of metastatic tumors. It combines local selective photothermal interaction and active immunological stimulation to induce a long-term, systemic anti-tumor immunity. During the past sixteen years, LIT has been advanced from bench-top to bedside, with promising outcomes. In our pre-clinical and preliminary clinical studies, LIT has demonstrated the capability in inducing immunological responses, which not only can eradicate the treated primary tumors, but also can eliminate untreated metastases at distant sites. Specifically, LIT has been used to treat advanced melanoma and breast cancer patients during the past five years. LIT was shown to be effective in controlling both primary tumors and distant metastases in late-stage patients, who have failed conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other more advanced approaches. The methodology and the development of LIT are presented in this paper. The patients' responses to LIT are also reported in this paper. The preliminary results obtained in these studies indicated that LIT could be an effective modality for the treatment of patients with late-stage, metastatic cancers, who are facing severely limited options.

  10. Cell-based Immunotherapy for Colorectal Cancer with Cytokine-induced Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong Guk; Park, Eun Jae; Kim, Boyeong; Lee, Hong Kyung; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cancer worldwide. Although incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer are gradually decreasing in the US, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have poor prognosis with an estimated 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. Over the past decade, advances in combination chemotherapy regimens for colorectal cancer have led to significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival. However, patients with metastatic disease gain little clinical benefit from conventional therapy, which is associated with grade 3~4 toxicity with negative effects on quality of life. In previous clinical studies, cell-based immunotherapy using dendritic cell vaccines and sentinel lymph node T cell therapy showed promising therapeutic results for metastatic colorectal cancer. In our preclinical and previous clinical studies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells treatment for colorectal cancer showed favorable responses without toxicities. Here, we review current treatment options for colorectal cancer and summarize available clinical studies utilizing cell-based immunotherapy. Based on these studies, we recommend the use CIK cell therapy as a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:27162526

  11. Cancer immunotherapy and immune-related response assessment: The role of radiologists in the new arena of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Mizuki; Tirumani, Sree H; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Hodi, F Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The recent advances in the clinical application of anti-cancer immunotherapeutic agents have opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events, which calls for radiologists' awareness and in-depth knowledge on the topic. This article will provide the state-of-the art review and perspectives of cancer immunotherapy, including its molecular mechanisms, the strategies for immune-related response assessment on imaging and their pitfalls, and the emerging knowledge of radiologic manifestations of immune-related adverse events. The cutting edge clinical and radiologic investigations are presented to provide future directions.

  12. Acute management of autoimmune toxicity in cancer patients on immunotherapy: Common toxicities and the approach for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Anna J; McNeil, Catriona

    2017-01-16

    When a patient receiving anti-cancer treatment presents acutely unwell, an understanding of associated side effects of their therapy is critical. This review will discuss the approach to patients receiving anti-cancer treatment with immunotherapy presenting with autoimmune toxicities in the emergency setting. These toxicities are commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). IrAE might consist of, but are not limited to, dermatologic, gastrointestinal (diarrhoea, colitis), hepatic, endocrine (thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, adrenal crisis), renal, ocular and pulmonary toxicity. General principles of managing these irAE in the acute setting will be outlined. Steroid therapy is a critical component of the treatment algorithm, being administered at high doses and for prolonged periods to switch off immune over-activation. Prompt intervention might prevent multi-organ failure and fatality, and allow patients to remain on effective anti-cancer therapy.

  13. FDA Approves Immunotherapy for a Cancer that Affects Infants and Children | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved dinutuximab (ch14.18) as an immunotherapy for neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that offers poor prognosis for about half of the children who are affected. The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Biopharmaceutical Development Program (BDP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research produced ch14.18 for the NCI-sponsored clinical trials that proved the drug’s effectiveness against the disease.

  14. Strategies and Advancements in Harnessing the Immune System for Gastric Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Yeo, Mei Shi; Tan, Woei Loon; Yong, Wei Peng

    2015-01-01

    In cancer biology, cells and molecules that form the fundamental components of the tumor microenvironment play a major role in tumor initiation, and progression as well as responses to therapy. Therapeutic approaches that would enable and harness the immune system to target tumor cells mark the future of anticancer therapy as it could induce an immunological memory specific to the tumor type and further enhance tumor regression and relapse-free survival in cancer patients. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities that has a modest survival benefit from existing treatment options. The advent of immunotherapy presents us with new approaches in gastric cancer treatment where adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, and antibody therapies have all been used with promising outcomes. In this paper, we review the current advances and prospects in the gastric cancer immunotherapy. Special focus is laid on new strategies and clinical trials that attempt to enhance the efficacy of various immunotherapeutic modalities in gastric cancer. PMID:26579545

  15. Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors for lung cancer: novel agents, biomarkers and paradigms.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Inês-de-Paula; Califano, Raffaele; Mountzios, Giannis; de Mello, Ramon Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances, prognosis of patients with advanced lung cancer remains dismal. Owing to a better understanding of the interactions between immune system and tumor cells, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. After the recent approval of nivolumab and the promising results with other immune checkpoint inhibitors, combination strategies are now subject of intensive research. Notwithstanding these successes, immunotherapy still holds significant drawbacks. As the target shifts from tumor cells to the tumor microenvironment, treatment paradigms are changing and several improvements are needed for optimal use in clinical practice. Robust biomarkers for patient selection and a reliable way of evaluating treatment response are high priorities. Herein we review current data on immune checkpoint inhibitors for lung cancer treatment.

  16. Cancer Immunotherapy Utilized Bubble Liposomes and Ultrasound as Antigen Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yusuke; Otake, Shota; Suzuki, Ryo; Otake, Shota; Nishiie, Norihito; Hirata, Keiichi; Taira, Yuichiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    In dendritic cells (DCs)-based cancer immunotherapy, it is important to present the epitope peptide derived from tumor associated antigens (TAAs) on MHC class I in order to induce tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, MHC class I molecules generally present the epitope peptides derived from endogenous antigens for DCs but not exogenous ones such as TAAs. Recently, we developed the novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) encapsulating perfluoropropane nanobubbles. In this study, we attempted to establish the novel antigen delivery system to induce MHC class I presentation using the combination of ultrasound and Bubble liposomes. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as model antigen, the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound exposure for the DC could induce MHC class I presentation. In addition, the viability of DCs was more than 80%. These results suggest that Bubble liposomes might be a novel ultrasound enhanced antigen delivery tool in DC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Summary of emerging targets in anal cancer: the case for an immunotherapy based-approach

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Van

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) remains a less common gastrointestinal malignancy despite a continued increase in the annual incidence in the United States and globally. The vast majority of all cases are attributed to persistent infection and integration into host cell DNA by human papillomavirus (HPV). For patients with metastatic anal cancer, there is currently no accepted consensus standard of care. Given the viral etiology associated with the oncogenesis of this tumor, great interest exists for the development of immunotherapy as a novel approach to improving clinical outcomes for patients afflicted with this disease. This review highlights various immunotherapies under investigation in the treatment of advanced human malignancies and discusses their potential as future treatments for metastatic anal cancer. PMID:27747086

  18. Locally Advanced Lung Cancer: An Optimal Setting for Vaccines and Other Immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Puneeth; Gerber, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer has traditionally been considered relatively resistant to immunotherapies. However, recent advances in the understanding of tumor-associated antigens, anti-tumor immune responses, and tumor immunosuppression mechanisms have resulted in a number of promising immunomodulatory therapies such as vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors. Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an optimal setting for these treatments because standard therapies such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy may enhance anti-tumor immune effects by debulking the tumor, increasing tumor antigen presentation, and promoting T-cell response and trafficking. Clinical trials incorporating immunomodulatory agents into combined modality therapy of locally advanced NSCLC have shown promising results. Future challenges include identifying biomarkers to predict those patients most likely to benefit from this approach, radiographic assessment of treatment effects, the timing and dosing of combined modality treatment including immunotherapies, and avoidance of potentially overlapping toxicities. PMID:23708072

  19. Optimal culture conditions for the generation of natural killer cell-induced dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Pham, Thanh-Nhan; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Nguyen, Truc-Anh Thi; Lim, Mi-Seon; Hong, Cheol Yi; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Youn-Kyung; Cho, Duck; Bae, Soo-Young; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Chung, Ik-Joo; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines continue to be considered an attractive tool for cancer immunotherapy. DCs require an additional signal from the environment or other immune cells to polarize the development of immune responses toward T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 responses. DCs play a role in natural killer (NK) cell activation, and NK cells are also able to activate and induce the maturation of DCs. We investigated the types of NK cells that can induce the maturation and enhanced function of DCs and the conditions under which these interactions occur. DCs that were activated by resting NK cells in the presence of inflammatory cytokines exhibited increased expression of several costimulatory molecules and an enhanced ability to produce IL-12p70. NK cell-stimulated DCs potently induced Th1 polarization and exhibited the ability to generate tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Our data demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated by coculturing immature DCs with freshly isolated resting NK cells in the presence of Toll-like receptor agonists and proinflammatory cytokines and that the resulting DCs effectively present antigens to induce tumor-specific T-cell responses, which suggests that these cells may be useful for cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Regulatory T-cells are possible effect prediction markers of immunotherapy for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wada, Junji; Yamasaki, Akio; Nagai, Shuntaro; Yanai, Kousuke; Fuchino, Kouta; Kameda, Chizu; Tanaka, Haruo; Koga, Kenichiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masao; Katano, Mitsuo; Morisaki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We previously showed that a combination therapy with tumor cell-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and activated lymphocytes was well tolerated in patients with disseminated carcinomas. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that regulatory T-cells (Tregs), a unique population of CD4+ T-cells, are increased in patients with several advanced malignancies and prevent cell-mediated immune responses against tumors. However, reports analyzing the relationship between the Tregs population and the effects of immunotherapy are extremely rare. In the present study, 22 patients received an intravenous injection of DC-activated lymphocytes (DAK) and/or a subcutaneous injection of tumor-pulsed DCs (DC vaccine) every 2 to 4 weeks. The Tregs were defined based on their expression of CD4, CD25 and FOXP3, a transcription factor. Most CD4+CD25high T-cells expressed FOXP3. Therefore, CD4+CD25high T-cells were evaluated as Tregs in the present study. As reported previously, the percentage of Tregs (% Tregs) among total CD4+ T-cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly higher for advanced cancer patients than for healthy volunteers. When the patients were divided into three groups according to their survival time, i.e. 12 short-survival patients, 4 medium-survival patients and 6 long-survival patients, the % Tregs of the long-survival patients before the therapy was significantly lower than that of the short-survival patients (p=0.026). The % Tregs decreased after the therapy, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. When the patients were divided into a high group (>4.99%: 7 patients) and a low group (<4.99%: 15 patients) according to their % Tregs before the therapy, the survival times of the two groups differed significantly (p=0.0034). These data suggest that the % Tregs among the PBMCs might be used as an effect prediction factor of immunotherapy for patients with advanced cancer.

  1. Clinical response of advanced cancer patients to cellular immunotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hasumi, Kenichiro; Aoki, Yukimasa; Wantanabe, Ryuko; Mann, Dean L

    2013-01-01

    Patients afflicted with advanced cancers were treated with the intratumoral injection of autologous immature dendritic cells (iDCs) followed by activated T-cell infusion and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A second round of iDCs and activated T cells was then administered to patients after the last radiation cycle. This complete regimen was repeated for new and recurring lesions after 6 weeks of follow-up. One year post therapy, outcome analyses were performed to evaluate treatment efficacy. Patients were grouped according to both the number and size of tumors and clinical parameters at treatment initiation, including recurrent disease after standard cancer therapy, Stage IV disease, and no prior therapy. Irrespective of prior treatment status, 23/37 patients with ≤ 5 neoplastic lesions that were ≤ 3 cm in diameter achieved complete responses (CRs), and 5/37 exhibited partial responses (PRs). Among 130 individuals harboring larger and more numerous lesions, CRs were observed in 7/74 patients that had received prior SCT and in 2/56 previously untreated patients. Some patients manifested immune responses including an increase in CD8+CD56+ lymphocytes among circulating mononuclear cells in the course of treatment. To prospectively explore the therapeutic use of these cells, CD8+ cells were isolated from patients that had been treated with cellular immunotherapy and IMRT, expanded in vitro, and injected into recurrent metastatic sites in 13 individuals who underwent the same immunoradiotherapeutic regimens but failed to respond. CRs were achieved in 34 of 58 of such recurrent lesions while PRs in 17 of 58. These data support the expanded use of immunoradiotherapy in advanced cancer patients exhibiting progressive disease. PMID:24349874

  2. Combination Immunotherapy for the Treatment of High-Risk HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    HER2-derived vaccine nelipepimut-S administered with the immunoadjuvant GM-CSF in the adjuvant setting to prevent metastatic disease in high-risk HER2...breast cancer patients. Completion of the trial will allow us to test our hypothesis that combination therapy with trastuzumab plus vaccination is a...HER2-positive, immunotherapy, vaccines , NeuVax, clinical trial 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a

  3. Immunotherapy meets targeted therapy: will this team end the war against cancer?

    PubMed

    Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; García-Román, Silvia; Teixidó, Cristina; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Cancer treatment as we know it today has dramatically changed over the last couple of decades. It has moved from non-specific treatment to personalized approaches. As oncologist, we now have further understanding of the processes leading to carcinogenesis; this has led to develop new therapeutic options. We have cytotoxic treatments, targeted therapy and in recent years, immunotherapy; the time to "mix and match" has begun.

  4. Precision glycocalyx editing as a strategy for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Han; Woods, Elliot C.; Vukojicic, Petar; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface sialosides constitute a central axis of immune modulation that is exploited by tumors to evade both innate and adaptive immune destruction. Therapeutic strategies that target tumor-associated sialosides may therefore potentiate antitumor immunity. Here, we report the development of antibody–sialidase conjugates that enhance tumor cell susceptibility to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by selective desialylation of the tumor cell glycocalyx. We chemically fused a recombinant sialidase to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific antibody trastuzumab through a C-terminal aldehyde tag. The antibody–sialidase conjugate desialylated tumor cells in a HER2-dependent manner, reduced binding by natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) receptors, and enhanced binding to the NK-activating receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D). Sialidase conjugation to trastuzumab enhanced ADCC against tumor cells expressing moderate levels of HER2, suggesting a therapeutic strategy for cancer patients with lower HER2 levels or inherent trastuzumab resistance. Precision glycocalyx editing with antibody–enzyme conjugates is therefore a promising avenue for cancer immune therapy. PMID:27551071

  5. Human Microtumors Generated in 3D: Novel Tools for Integrated In Situ Studies of Cancer Immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Hambach, Lothar; Buser, Andreas; Vermeij, Marcel; Pouw, Nadine; van der Kwast, Theo; Goulmy, Els

    2016-01-01

    Cellular immunotherapy targeting human tumor antigens is a promising strategy to treat solid tumors. Yet clinical results of cellular immunotherapy are disappointing. Moreover, the currently available in vitro human tumor models are not designed to study the optimization of T-cell therapies of solid tumors. Here, we describe a novel assay for multiparametric in situ analysis of therapeutic effects on individual human three-dimensional (3D) tumors. In this assay, tumors of several millimeter diameter are generated from human cancer cell lines of different tumor entities in a collagen type I microenvironment. A newly developed approach for efficient morphological analysis reveals that these in vitro tumors resemble many characteristics of the corresponding clinical cancers such as histological features, immunohistochemical staining patterns, distinct tumor growth compartments and heterogeneous protein expression. To assess the response to therapy with tumor antigen specific T-cells, standardized protocols are described to determine T-cell infiltration and tumor destruction by monitoring soluble factors and tumor growth. Human tumors engineered in 3D collagen scaffolds are excellent in vitro surrogates for avascular tumor stages allowing integrated analyses of the antitumor efficacy of cancer specific immunotherapy in situ.

  6. A novel peptide targeting Clec9a on dendritic cell for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhongyi; Wu, Yahong; Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Guodong; Wang, Shengdian; Cao, Wenpeng; Zhou, Xiuman; Wu, Chunjing; Zhang, Dan; Jing, Xueli; Li, Yifan; Wang, Hongfei; Gao, Yanfeng; Qi, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells with antigen recognition molecules on the surface. Clec9a is selectively expressed on mouse CD8a+ DCs and CD103+ DCs subsets, which are functionally similar to human BDCA3+ DCs. It is reported that Clec9a is responsible for the antigen cross-presentation of these DC subsets. In the present study, by using phage display technique, we discovered a novel peptide WH, which can selectively bind to mouse Flt3L induced Clec9a+ DCs or Clec9a over-expressed HEK-293T cells. Furthermore, by using computer-aided docking model and mutation assay, we observed that Asp248 and Trp250 are two key residues for Clec9a to bind with peptide WH. When coupled with OVA257-264 epitope, peptide WH can significantly enhance the ability of Clec9a+ DCs to activate OVA-specific CD8+ T cells, which elicit strong ability to secret IFN-γ, express perforin and granzyme B mRNA. In B16-OVA lung metastasis mouse model, WH-OVA257-264 fusion peptide can also enhance the activation of CD8+ T cells and decrease the lung metastasis loci. All these results suggested that peptide WH could be considered as an antigen delivery carrier targeting Clec9a+ DCs for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27250027

  7. Active specific T-cell-based immunotherapy for cancer: nucleic acids, peptides, whole native proteins, recombinant viruses, with dendritic cell adjuvants or whole tumor cell-based vaccines. Principles and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, N; Duffour, M T; Perricaudet, M; Lotze, M T; Tursz, T; Zitvogel, L

    1998-03-01

    Whereas tumor cells are poor immunogens, recombinant tumor cells or dendritic cells as well as engineered viruses have been demonstrated to elicit specific antitumor immune responses leading to tumor growth suppression and long-lasting immunity in mouse tumor models. Single cytotoxic T lymphocyte-defined epitope-based strategies have proved useful for immunization in tumor-bearing mice. This strategy is under investigation in human melanoma, along with adjuvants such as cytokines or dendritic cells. Flt3L is an in vivo dendritic-cell growth factor that offers new prospects in the field of active specific immunotherapy. These immunotherapeutic approaches are being tested in clinical trials, and may open up novel avenues for disease-free patients with poor prognostic factors.

  8. Immunotherapy of head and neck cancer: Emerging clinical trials from a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Planning Meeting.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Julie E; Cohen, Ezra; Ferris, Robert L; Adelstein, David J; Brizel, David M; Ridge, John A; O'Sullivan, Brian; Burtness, Barbara A; Butterfield, Lisa H; Carson, William E; Disis, Mary L; Fox, Bernard A; Gajewski, Thomas F; Gillison, Maura L; Hodge, James W; Le, Quynh-Thu; Raben, David; Strome, Scott E; Lynn, Jean; Malik, Shakun

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances have permitted successful therapeutic targeting of the immune system in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These new immunotherapeutic targets and agents are being rapidly adopted by the oncologic community and hold considerable promise. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address the issue of how to further investigate the use of immunotherapy in patients with HNSCC. The goals of the meeting were to consider phase 2 or 3 trial designs primarily in 3 different patient populations: those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-initiated oropharyngeal cancers; those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC; and those with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. In addition, a separate committee was formed to develop integrative biomarkers for the clinical trials. The meeting started with an overview of key immune components and principles related to HNSCC, including immunosurveillance and immune escape. Four clinical trial concepts were developed at the meeting integrating different immunotherapies with existing standards of care. These designs were presented for implementation by the head and neck committees of the National Cancer Institute-funded National Clinical Trials Network. This article summarizes the proceedings of this Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, the purpose of which was to facilitate the rigorous development and design of randomized phase 2 and 3 immunotherapeutic trials in patients with HNSCC. Although reviews usually are published immediately after the meeting is held, this report is unique because there are now tangible clinical trial designs that have been funded and put into practice and the studies are being activated to accrual. Cancer 2017;123:1259-1271. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. SOCS: potential immune checkpoint molecules for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chikuma, Shunsuke; Kanamori, Mitsuhiro; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2017-02-11

    Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules, PD-1 and CTLA4, has been shown to be a promising cancer treatment. PD-1 and CTLA4 inhibit TCR and co-stimulatory signals, respectively. The third T cell activation signal represents the signals from the cytokine receptors. The cytokine Interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays an important role in anti-tumor immunity by activating cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Most cytokines use the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, and the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins are major negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway. Among SOCS proteins, CIS, SOCS1, and SOCS3 proteins can be considered the third immunocheckpoint molecules since they regulate cytokine signals that control the polarization of CD4(+) T cells and the maturation of CD8(+) T cells. This review summarizes recent progress on CIS, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in terms of their anti-tumor immunity and potential applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and the emerging role of immunotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Fox, Stephen B; Salgado, Roberto; Loi, Sherene

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer has not previously been considered a highly immunogenic cancer. Observations of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in and around neoplastic cells in tumour samples, and associations with improved pathological complete response and clinical survival end points have changed our perspective on this. Lymphocytic infiltrates have long been observed in breast cancer; however, more recently, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected tissue samples from clinical trials has demonstrated the potential role of host immunosurveillance in influencing the biology of breast cancer. This association appears to be strongest in triple negative and HER2 positive breast cancer subtypes. Contrastingly, the association in luminal tumours is less clear, and is potentially limited by substantial tumoural heterogeneity. Several methodologies have been employed to quantify, and describe the composition of TILs, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The results of these analyses have been generally consistent, and valuable efforts are currently underway to standardise the evaluation of TILs toward a universal approach. More technical methods of TIL characterisation remain important in the research setting. The evaluation of TILs becomes increasingly relevant with the emerging role of immunotherapy in breast cancer. Early phase trials of checkpoint blockade show promising results; however, it is likely that some patients will require combination treatments to maximise therapeutic benefits. Equally, some patients may not derive any benefit from immunotherapies. This underscores the importance of the development of relevant predictive biomarkers. As a key representative of the immune interaction between host and tumour, lymphocytic infiltrates are ideally placed for continued research into the determinants of immunogenicity, and response to immunotherapeutic approaches. In this review, we will discuss the current methodologies of evaluation, and the clinical

  11. Glucocorticoid-independent modulation of GR activity: Implications for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hapgood, Janet P.; Avenant, Chanel; Moliki, Johnson M.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological doses of glucocorticoids (GCs), acting via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to repress inflammation and immune function, remain the most effective therapy in the treatment of inflammatory and immune diseases. Since many patients on GC therapy exhibit GC-resistance and severe side-effects, much research is focussed on developing more selective GCs and combination therapies, with greater anti-inflammatory potency. GCs mediate their classical genomic transcriptional effects by binding to the cytoplasmic GR, followed by nuclear translocation and modulation of transcription of target genes by direct DNA-binding of the GR or its tethering to other transcription factors. Recent evidence suggests, however, that the responses mediated by the GR are much more complex and involve multiple parallel mechanisms integrating simultaneous signals from other receptors, both in the absence and presence of GCs, to shift the sensitivity of a target cell to GCs. The level of cellular stress, immune activation status, or the cell cycle phase may be crucial for determining GC sensitivity and GC responsiveness as well as subcellular localization of the GR and GR levels. Central to the development of new drugs that target GR signalling alone or as add-on therapies, is an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms of GC-independent GR desensitization, priming and activation of the unliganded GR, as well as synergy and cross-talk with other signalling pathways. This review will discuss the information currently available on these topics and their relevance to immunotherapy, as well as identify unanswered questions and future areas of research. PMID:27288728

  12. Glucocorticoid-independent modulation of GR activity: Implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hapgood, Janet P; Avenant, Chanel; Moliki, Johnson M

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacological doses of glucocorticoids (GCs), acting via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to repress inflammation and immune function, remain the most effective therapy in the treatment of inflammatory and immune diseases. Since many patients on GC therapy exhibit GC resistance and severe side-effects, much research is focused on developing more selective GCs and combination therapies, with greater anti-inflammatory potency. GCs mediate their classical genomic transcriptional effects by binding to the cytoplasmic GR, followed by nuclear translocation and modulation of transcription of target genes by direct DNA binding of the GR or its tethering to other transcription factors. Recent evidence suggests, however, that the responses mediated by the GR are much more complex and involve multiple parallel mechanisms integrating simultaneous signals from other receptors, both in the absence and presence of GCs, to shift the sensitivity of a target cell to GCs. The level of cellular stress, immune activation status, or the cell cycle phase may be crucial for determining GC sensitivity and GC responsiveness as well as subcellular localization of the GR and GR levels. Central to the development of new drugs that target GR signaling alone or as add-on therapies, is an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms of GC-independent GR desensitization, priming and activation of the unliganded GR, as well as synergy and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. This review will discuss the information currently available on these topics and their relevance to immunotherapy, as well as identify unanswered questions and future areas of research.

  13. TGF beta secreted by B16 melanoma antagonizes cancer gene immunotherapy bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Penafuerte, Claudia; Galipeau, Jacques

    2008-08-01

    Tumor-targeted delivery of immune stimulatory genes, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and suicide genes, has shown to cure mouse models of cancer. Total tumor eradication was also found to occur despite subtotal tumor engineering; a phenomenon coined the "bystander effect". The bystander effect in immune competent animals arises mostly from recruitment of a cancer lytic cell-mediated immune response to local and distant tumor cells which escaped gene modification. We have previously described a Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin 2 (IL2) fusokine (aka GIFT2) which serves as a potent anticancer cytokine and it here served as a means to understand the mechanistic underpinnings to the immune bystander effect in an immune competent model of B16 melanoma. As expected, we observed that GIFT2 secreted by genetically engineered B16 tumor cells induces a bystander effect on non modified B16 cells, when admixed in a 1:1 ratio. However, despite keeping the 1:1 ratio constant, the immune bystander effect was completely lost as the total B16 cell number was increased from 10(4) to 10(6) which correlated with a sharp reduction in the number of tumor-infiltrating NK cells. We found that B16 secrete biologically active TGFbeta which in turn inhibited GIFT2 dependent immune cell proliferation in vitro and downregulated IL-2R beta expression and IFN gamma secretion by NK cells. In vivo blockade of B16 originating TGFbeta significantly improved the immune bystander effect arising from GIFT2. We propose that cancer gene immunotherapy of pre-established tumors will be enhanced by blockade of tumor-derived TGFbeta.

  14. Generation of Potent T-cell Immunotherapy for Cancer Using DAP12-Based, Multichain, Chimeric Immunoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Enxiu; Wang, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Bhoj, Vijay; Gershenson, Zack; Moon, Edmund; Newick, Kheng; Sun, Jing; Lo, Albert; Baradet, Timothy; Feldman, Michael D; Barrett, David; Puré, Ellen; Albelda, Steven; Milone, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) bearing an antigen-binding domain linked in cis to the cytoplasmic domains of CD3ζ and costimulatory receptors have provided a potent method for engineering T-cell cytotoxicity toward B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, resistance to immunotherapy due to loss of T-cell effector function remains a significant barrier, especially in solid malignancies. We describe an alternative chimeric immunoreceptor design in which we have fused a single-chain variable fragment for antigen recognition to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of KIR2DS2, a stimulatory killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR). We show that this simple, KIR-based CAR (KIR-CAR) triggers robust antigen-specific proliferation and effector function in vitro when introduced into human T cells with DAP12, an immunotyrosine-based activation motifs-containing adaptor. T cells modified to express a KIR-CAR and DAP12 exhibit superior antitumor activity compared with standard first- and second-generation CD3ζ-based CARs in a xenograft model of mesothelioma highly resistant to immunotherapy. The enhanced antitumor activity is associated with improved retention of chimeric immunoreceptor expression and improved effector function of isolated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. These results support the exploration of KIR-CARs for adoptive T-cell immunotherapy, particularly in immunotherapy-resistant solid tumors.

  15. Targeting myeloid cells using nanoparticles to improve cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Amoozgar, Zohreh; Goldberg, Michael S

    2015-08-30

    While nanoparticles have traditionally been used to deliver cytotoxic drugs directly to tumors to induce cancer cell death, emerging data suggest that nanoparticles are likely to generate a larger impact on oncology through the delivery of agents that can stimulate antitumor immunity. Tumor-targeted nanocarriers have generally been used to localize chemotherapeutics to tumors and thus decrease off-target toxicity while enhancing efficacy. Challengingly, tumor heterogeneity and evolution render tumor-intrinsic approaches likely to succumb to relapse. The immune system offers exquisite specificity, cytocidal potency, and long-term activity that leverage an adaptive memory response. For this reason, the ability to manipulate immune cell specificity and function would be desirable, and nanoparticles represent an exciting means by which to perform such manipulation. Dendritic cells and tumor-associated macrophages are cells of the myeloid lineage that function as natural phagocytes, so they naturally take up nanoparticles. Dendritic cells direct the specificity and potency of cellular immune responses that can be targeted for cancer vaccines. Herein, we discuss the specific criteria needed for efficient vaccine design, including but not limited to the route of administration, size, morphology, surface charge, targeting ligands, and nanoparticle composition. In contrast, tumor-associated macrophages are critical mediators of immunosuppression whose trans-migratory abilities can be exploited to localize therapeutics to the tumor core and which can be directly targeted for elimination or for repolarization to a tumor suppressive phenotype. It is likely that a combination of targeting dendritic cells to stimulate antitumor immunity and tumor-associated macrophages to reduce immune suppression will impart significant benefits and result in durable antitumor responses.

  16. Nanomedicine and cancer immunotherapy: focus on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zulfiqar, Bilal; Mahroo, Amnah; Nasir, Kaenat; Farooq, Rai Khalid; Jalal, Nasir; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Asghar, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    Nanomedicine application in cancer immunotherapy is currently one of the most challenging areas in cancer therapeutic intervention. Innovative solutions have been provided by nanotechnology to deliver cytotoxic agents to the cancer cells partially affecting the healthy cells of the body during the process. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery is an emerging approach to stimulate the immune responses against cancer. The inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a pivotal area of research in cancer immunotherapy. IDO is a heme-containing immunosuppressive enzyme, which is responsible for the degradation of tryptophan while increasing the concentration of kynurenine metabolites. Various preclinical studies showed that IDO inhibition in certain diseases may result in significant therapeutic effects. Here, we provide a review of the natural and synthetic inhibitors of IDO. These inhibitors are classified according to their source, inhibitory concentrations, the chemical structure, and the mechanism of action. Tumor-targeted chemotherapy is an advanced technique and has more advantages as compared to the conventional chemotherapy. Search for more efficient and less toxic nanoparticles in conjunction with compounds to inhibit IDO is still an area of interest for several research groups worldwide, especially revealing to be an extensive and a promising area in cancer therapeutic innovations. PMID:28176942

  17. Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy with Sipuleucel-T: Current Standards and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao X; Fong, Lawrence; Small, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    The management of advanced prostate cancer, specifically metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), remains a therapeutic challenge. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge; APC8015) was approved by the FDA in 2010 for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC patients, and it remains the only FDA-approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer of any indication to date. Given the continued need to improve therapeutics in patients with advanced prostate cancer, as well as recent enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy, there is a wide range of ongoing trials evaluating combinations of sipuleucel-T with other therapeutics. Additional trials are aiming to expand the application of sipuleucel-T to prostate cancer patients beyond the mCRPC setting. Ongoing challenges include understanding the full mechanism of action of sipuleucel-T, optimizing the sequence of sipuleucel-T in relation to other therapies for mCRPC in clinical practice, and the identification of surrogate markers to predict survival benefit in clinical trials.

  18. Zn- and Mg- Containing Tricalcium Phosphates-Based Adjuvants for Cancer Immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiupeng; Li, Xia; Onuma, Kazuo; Sogo, Yu; Ohno, Tadao; Ito, Atsuo

    2013-07-01

    Zn-, and Mg-containing tricalcium phosphates (TCPs) loaded with a hydrothermal extract of a human tubercle bacillus (HTB) were prepared by immersing Zn-TCP and Mg-TCP in HTB-containing supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions. The in vitro and in vivo immunogenic activities of the HTB-loaded Zn-, and Mg-TCPs (Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB, respectively) were evaluated as potential immunopotentiating adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. The Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB adjuvants showed no obvious cytotoxicity and more effectively stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion by macrophage-like cells than unprocessed HTB or HTB-loaded TCP (T-Ap-HTB) in vitro. Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB mixed with liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue markedly inhibited the in vivo development of rechallenged Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells compared with T-Ap-HTB and the unprocessed HTB mixed liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue. Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB contributed to eliciting potent systemic antitumor immunity in vivo.

  19. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  20. The use of dendritic cells for peptide-based vaccination in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed L

    2014-01-01

    Effective antitumor immunity requires the generation and persistence of functional tumor-specific T-cell responses. Among the critical factors that often control these responses is how the antigen is delivered and presented to T cells. The use of peptide-based vaccination has been found to be a promising means to induce antitumor T-cell responses but with limited effects even if the peptide is co-delivered with a potent adjuvant. This limited response could be due to cancer-induced dysfunction in dendritic cells (DC), which play a central role in shaping the quantity and quality of antitumor immunity. Therefore, DC-based peptide delivery of tumor antigen is becoming a potential approach in cancer immunotherapy. In this approach, autologous DC are generated from their precursors in bone marrow or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, loaded with tumor antigen(s) and then infused back to the tumor-bearing host in about 7 days. This DC-based vaccination can act as an antigen delivery vehicle as well as a potent adjuvant, resulting in measurable antitumor immunity in several cancer settings in preclinical and clinical studies. This chapter focuses on DC-based vaccination and how this approach can be more efficacious in cancer immunotherapy.Effective antitumor immunity requires the generation and persistence of functional tumor-specific T-cell responses. Among the critical factors that often control these responses is how the antigen is delivered and presented to T cells. The use of peptide-based vaccination has been found to be a promising means to induce antitumor T-cell responses but with limited effects even if the peptide is co-delivered with a potent adjuvant. This limited response could be due to cancer-induced dysfunction in dendritic cells (DC), which play a central role in shaping the quantity and quality of antitumor immunity. Therefore, DC-based peptide delivery of tumor antigen is becoming a potential approach in cancer immunotherapy. In this approach

  1. Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy clinical trials: are we making progress?

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H

    2013-12-13

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been tested in cancer immunotherapy clinical trials for two decades. Over this time, the methods of DC culture (or manufacture) have evolved, the approaches for antigen loading have broadened, the maturation signals have varied and different sites of administration have been tested. The post-vaccination immunologic questions asked have also varied between trials and over time. In this review, I will consider multiple aspects of DC-based vaccines tested in cancer patients, including the cell culture, antigen loading, maturation, and delivery, as well as what we have learned from testing immune responses in vaccinated patients who have benefited clinically, and those who have not measurably benefited.

  2. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Law, Andrew M K; Lim, Elgene; Ormandy, Christopher J; Gallego-Ortega, David

    2017-04-01

    A cancer cell-centric view has long dominated the field of cancer biology. Research efforts have focussed on aberrant cancer cell signalling pathways and on changes to cancer cell DNA. Mounting evidence demonstrates that many cancer-associated cell types within the tumour stroma co-evolve and support tumour growth and development, greatly modifying cancer cell behaviour, facilitating invasion and metastasis and controlling dormancy and sensitivity to drug therapy. Thus, these stromal cells represent potential targets for cancer therapy. Among these cell types, immune cells have emerged as a promising target for therapy. The adaptive and the innate immune system play an important role in normal mammary development and breast cancer. The number of infiltrating adaptive immune system cells with tumour-rejecting capacity, primarily, T lymphocytes, is lower in breast cancer compared with other cancer types, but infiltration occurs in a large proportion of cases. There is strong evidence demonstrating the importance of the immunosuppressive role of the innate immune system during breast cancer progression. A consideration of components of both the innate and the adaptive immune system is essential for the design and development of immunotherapies in breast cancer. In this review, we focus on the importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as potential targets for breast cancer therapy.

  3. Immunotherapy and patients treated for cancer with microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Colle, Raphaël; Cohen, Romain; Cochereau, Delphine; Duval, Alex; Lascols, Olivier; Lopez-Trabada, Daniel; Afchain, Pauline; Trouilloud, Isabelle; Parc, Yann; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Fléjou, Jean-François; Svrcek, Magali; André, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a tumor phenotype linked to somatic or germline (Lynch syndrome) inactivating alterations of DNA mismatch repair genes. A broad spectrum of neoplasms exhibits MSI phenotype, mainly colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and gastric cancer. MSI tumors are characterized by dense immune infiltration and high load of tumor neo-antigens. Growing evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition for patients treated for MSI solid tumors. We present a comprehensive overview of MSI phenotype, its biological landscape and current diagnostic methods. Then we focus on MSI as a predictive biomarker of response to immune checkpoint inhibition in the context of colorectal cancer and non-colorectal tumors.

  4. TIM-3 as a Target for Cancer Immunotherapy and Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenwen; Yang, Min; Turner, Abbey; Xu, Chunling; Ferris, Robert L; Huang, Jianan; Kane, Lawrence P; Lu, Binfeng

    2017-03-16

    Cancer immunotherapy has produced impressive clinical results in recent years. Despite the success of the checkpoint blockade strategies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), a large portion of cancer patients have not yet benefited from this novel therapy. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) has been shown to mediate immune tolerance in mouse models of infectious diseases, alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and tumor Immunity. Thus, targeting TIM-3 emerges as a promising approach for further improvement of current immunotherapy. Despite a large amount of experimental data showing an immune suppressive function of TIM-3 in vivo, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. To enable effective targeting of TIM-3 for tumor immunotherapy, further in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted. These studies will also provide much-needed insight for the rational design of novel combination therapy with other checkpoint blockers. In this review, we summarize key evidence supporting an immune regulatory role of TIM-3 and discuss possible mechanisms of action.

  5. Laser immunotherapy: initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Lunn, John A.; Adelsteinsson, Orn; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-02-01

    Laser Immunotherapy is an experimental treatment modality for late-stage, metastatic tumors, which targets solid primary and/or secondary tumors and utilizes an autologous vaccine-like approach to stimulate immune responses. Specifically, laser immunotherapy combines laser-induced in situ tumor devitalization with an immunoadjuvant for local immunostimulation. Here we report the initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial with laser immunotherapy. Six stage III and IV cancer patients were treated, all of which were considered to be out of all other options, and preliminary data at the three-month examination are presented. The immediate goal of the trial was to determine the patient tolerance and the toxicity of the therapy, the optimal dose for the alteration of the course of the disease, and the reduction of the tumor burden. Each patient was individually evaluated for toxicity tolerance through physical exams and by appropriate supplemental and routine laboratory tests. Observable tumors in patients were followed with physical examination and radiological evaluations. Treatment efficacy was judged by the size and number of local and distant metastases before and after treatment.

  6. TIM-3 as a Target for Cancer Immunotherapy and Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenwen; Yang, Min; Turner, Abbey; Xu, Chunling; Ferris, Robert L.; Huang, Jianan; Kane, Lawrence P.; Lu, Binfeng

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has produced impressive clinical results in recent years. Despite the success of the checkpoint blockade strategies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), a large portion of cancer patients have not yet benefited from this novel therapy. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) has been shown to mediate immune tolerance in mouse models of infectious diseases, alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and tumor Immunity. Thus, targeting TIM-3 emerges as a promising approach for further improvement of current immunotherapy. Despite a large amount of experimental data showing an immune suppressive function of TIM-3 in vivo, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. To enable effective targeting of TIM-3 for tumor immunotherapy, further in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted. These studies will also provide much-needed insight for the rational design of novel combination therapy with other checkpoint blockers. In this review, we summarize key evidence supporting an immune regulatory role of TIM-3 and discuss possible mechanisms of action. PMID:28300768

  7. Targeting Focal Adhesion Kinase Renders Pancreatic Cancers Responsive to Checkpoint Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Hegde, Samarth; Knolhoff, Brett L.; Zhu, Yu; Herndon, John M.; Meyer, Melissa A.; Nywening, Timothy M.; Hawkins, William G.; Shapiro, Irina M.; Weaver, David T.; Pachter, Jonathan A.; Wang-Gillam, Andrea; DeNardo, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Single-agent immunotherapy has achieved limited clinical benefit to date in patients suffering from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This may be due to the presence of a uniquely immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Critical obstacles to immunotherapy in PDAC tumors include a high number of tumor-associated immunosuppressive cells and a uniquely desmoplastic stroma that acts as a barrier to T-cell infiltration. We have identified hyperactivated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity in neoplastic PDAC cells as a significant regulator of the fibrotic and immunosuppressive TME. We found that FAK activity was elevated in human PDAC tissues and correlates with high levels of fibrosis and poor CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell infiltration. Single-agent FAK inhibition using the selective FAK inhibitor VS-4718 significantly limited tumor progression, resulting in a doubling of survival in the p48-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D/p53Flox/+ (KPC) mouse model of human PDAC. This delay in tumor progression was associated with dramatically reduced tumor fibrosis, and decreased numbers of tumor-infiltrating immunosuppressive cells. We also found that FAK inhibition rendered the previously unresponsive KPC mouse model responsive to T cell immunotherapy and PD-1 antagonists. These data suggest that FAK inhibition increases immune surveillance by overcoming the fibrotic and immunosuppressive PDAC TME and renders tumors responsive to immunotherapy. PMID:27376576

  8. Development of sipuleucel-T: autologous cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sims, Robert B

    2012-06-19

    Sipuleucel-T, the first autologous cellular immunotherapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, is designed to stimulate an immune response to prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T is manufactured by culturing a patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including autologous antigen presenting cells (APCs), with a recombinant protein comprising a tumor-associated antigen (prostatic acid phosphatase [PAP]) and granulocyte colony-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF). A full course of treatment comprises 3 infusions of sipuleucel-T, given at approximately 2-week intervals. The pattern of APC activation is consistent with priming by the first infusion, and boosting by the second and third infusions. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated evidence of a robust antigen-specific immune response that includes a progressive and persistent increase in antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Treatment with sipuleucel-T has demonstrated a survival benefit in Phase 3 studies of subjects with metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer (mCRPC). Adverse events with sipuleucel-T were generally mild to moderate and resolved within 2 days. Serious adverse events, autoimmune events, and cerebrovascular events occurred at a similar rate to control subjects. As the first autologous cellular immunotherapy to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC patients, sipuleucel-T represents a new treatment paradigm in oncology.

  9. Progress in Adaptive Immunotherapy for Cancer in Companion Animals: Success on the Path to a Cure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Katie L; Modiano, Jaime F

    2015-12-01

    Harnessing the ability of the immune system to eradicate cancer has been a long-held goal of oncology. Work from the last two decades has finally brought immunotherapy into the forefront for cancer treatment, with demonstrable clinical success for aggressive tumors where other therapies had failed. In this review, we will discuss a range of therapies that are in different stages of clinical or preclinical development for companion animals with cancer, and which share the common objective of eliciting adaptive, anti-tumor immune responses. Even though challenges remain, manipulating the immune system holds significant promise to create durable responses and improve outcomes in companion animals with cancer. Furthermore, what we learn from this process will inform and accelerate development of comparable therapies for human cancer patients.

  10. Progress in Adaptive Immunotherapy for Cancer in Companion Animals: Success on the Path to a Cure

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Katie L.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2016-01-01

    Harnessing the ability of the immune system to eradicate cancer has been a long-held goal of oncology. Work from the last two decades has finally brought immunotherapy into the forefront for cancer treatment, with demonstrable clinical success for aggressive tumors where other therapies had failed. In this review, we will discuss a range of therapies that are in different stages of clinical or preclinical development for companion animals with cancer, and which share the common objective of eliciting adaptive, anti-tumor immune responses. Even though challenges remain, manipulating the immune system holds significant promise to create durable responses and improve outcomes in companion animals with cancer. Furthermore, what we learn from this process will inform and accelerate development of comparable therapies for human cancer patients. PMID:27066495

  11. Gene expression profiling in vaccine therapy and immunotherapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bedognetti, Davide; Wang, Ena; Sertoli, Mario Roberto; Marincola, Francesco M

    2012-01-01

    The identification of tumor antigens (TA) recognized by T cells led to the design of therapeutic strategies aimed at eliciting adaptive-immune responses. The last decade experience has shown that, although active immunization can induce enhancement of anti-cancer T cell precursors (easily detectable in standard assays), most often they are unable to induce tumor regression and, consequently, have scarce impact on overall survival. Moreover, in the few occasions when tumor rejection occurs, the mechanisms determining this phenomenon remain poorly understood, and data derived from in vivo human observations are rare. The advent of high-throughput gene expression analysis (microarrays) has cast new lights on unrecognized mechanisms that are now deemed as central for the development of an efficient immune-mediated tumor rejection. The aim of this article is to review the data about the molecular signature associated with this process. We believe that the description of how the mechanism of immune-mediated tissue destruction occurs would contribute to understand why it happens, thereby allowing to develop more effective immune-therapeutic strategies. PMID:20518712

  12. Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer by irradiated tumor vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, D.L.; Riggs, D.R.; DeHaven, J.I.; Bryner, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This investigation explored the efficacy of irradiated autologous mouse bladder tumor (Ir-MBT2) as an active specific immunotherapeutic agent and as adjuvant therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against a subcutaneously transplanted murine bladder tumor. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in groups receiving BCG (27%, p less than 0.005) or Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.025), compared to control (93%). Survival was significantly improved in groups treated with BCG (100%, p less than 0.005), 10(5) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.01), or 10(7) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (47%, p less than 0.025) compared with control (13%). Surprisingly, Ir-MBT2 consistently reduced the efficacy of BCG alone. Ir-MBT2 alone (10(7)) appeared to enhance tumor growth. Autologous irradiated bladder tumor vaccine, alone or in combination with BCG, displayed no immunotherapeutic advantage. The use of irradiated tumor cell vaccine for bladder cancer therapy may reduce the results achievable with BCG alone.

  13. Effects of interstitial laser immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahavar, Cody; Goddard, Jessica; Sikes, Allie; Boarman, Ellen; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat metastatic cancers. The current mode of operation of LIT is through dye-enhanced non-invasive irradiation. Although this treatment has given promising results, there are still a number of challenges with this method, such as limited light penetration for deep tumors and strong light absorption by highly pigmented skins. Interstitial laser immunotherapy (ILIT), using a cylindrical diffuser, is designed to overcome these limitations. In this study, rat tumors were treated by ILIT with an 805 nm laser and varying doses of glycated chitosan, an immunological stimulant. The goal was to observe the effects of differing doses of the stimulant on the survival of the tumor-bearing rats. The results suggested that the optimal dose of glycated chitosan is in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 ml per rat tumor.

  14. Antigen-specific immunotherapy of cervical and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, TC; Monie, Archana; Roden, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary We contrast the efforts to treat ovarian cancer and cervical cancer through vaccination because of their different pathobiology. A plethora of approaches have been developed for therapeutic vaccination against cancer, many of which target defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary cause of cervical cancer. Furthermore, cervical cancer patients frequently mount both humoral and T cell immune responses to the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is required for the transformed phenotype. Numerous vaccine studies target these viral TAAs, including recent trials that may enhance clearance of pre-malignant disease. By contrast little is known about the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Although it is clear that p53 mutation or loss is a critical early event in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, no precursor lesion has been described for the most common serous histotype, and even the location of its origin is debated. These issues have complicated the selection of appropriate ovarian TAAs and the design of vaccines. Here we focus on mesothelin as a promising ovarian TAA because it is overexpressed and immunogenic at high frequency in patients, is displayed on the cell surface and potentially contributes to ovarian cancer biology. PMID:18363994

  15. Antibody-based immunotherapy of solid cancers: progress and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Nicodemus, Christopher F

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies remain a primary product option for novel cancer treatment. The properties of an antibody are a function of the antigen specificity and constant region incorporated. The rapid advance in molecular understanding of cancer biology and the host-tumor interaction has defined a new range of targets for antibody development. The clinical success of the checkpoint inhibitors has validated immune modulation and mobilization as a therapeutic approach. Solid cancers are distinguished from hematologic malignancies because the solid tumor stroma contains significant tumor promoting and immune dampening elements less prominent in hematologic cancer. This review highlights how engineered monoclonal antibody products are emerging as potential cornerstones of new more personalized cancer treatment paradigms that target both tumor and the stromal environment.

  16. Antibody-based immunotherapy of solid cancers: progress and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Nicodemus, Christopher F

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies remain a primary product option for novel cancer treatment. The properties of an antibody are a function of the antigen specificity and constant region incorporated. The rapid advance in molecular understanding of cancer biology and the host–tumor interaction has defined a new range of targets for antibody development. The clinical success of the checkpoint inhibitors has validated immune modulation and mobilization as a therapeutic approach. Solid cancers are distinguished from hematologic malignancies because the solid tumor stroma contains significant tumor promoting and immune dampening elements less prominent in hematologic cancer. This review highlights how engineered monoclonal antibody products are emerging as potential cornerstones of new more personalized cancer treatment paradigms that target both tumor and the stromal environment. PMID:26314410

  17. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for cancer and relevant challenges for transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ching Y; Albertini, Mark R; Malter, James S

    2004-07-01

    The encouraging results from dendritic cell-related cancer immunotherapy have created tremendous interest for its broad clinical application. Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen-presenting cells. In cancer patients, dendritic cell production and function along with other antitumor immune defenses are compromised. Autologous dendritic cells enriched and sensitized in vitro with tumor-associated antigens can effectively elicit host cellular immunity against cancer and result in clinical antitumor responses through either direct injection or ex vivo generation of antitumor T lymphocytes. In small group studies, clinical response rates have reached 50% in patients with advanced stage of cancer. These cellular products caused minimal side effects and were well tolerated. The isolation and preparation of clinical grade dendritic cells have been driven by transfusion medicine specialists who are well versed in similar processes for hematopoietic stem-cell preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the mechanisms of tumor immune surveillance and the biology of dendritic cells relevant to tumor antigen presentation, sensitization, and T-lymphocyte stimulation. Information on tumor-associated antigens and clinical trial results with dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy are summarized. The potential challenges for blood banking/transfusion medicine involving both technical and regulatory issues are discussed.

  18. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Recent Advances, Lessons Learned, and Areas for Further Research

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, James L.; Drake, Charles G.

    2012-01-01

    A surge of interest in therapeutic cancer vaccines has arisen in the wake of recent clinical trials suggesting statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in overall survival—with substantially limited side effects compared with chemotherapy—in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. One of these trials led to the registration of sipuleucel-T, the first approved therapeutic vaccine for cancer patients. This review highlights emerging patterns from clinical trials suggesting more appropriate patient populations (i.e., lower tumor volume, less aggressive disease) and endpoints (i.e., overall survival) for studies of immunotherapy alone, as well as biologically plausible explanations for these findings. We also explore the rationale for ongoing and planned studies combining therapeutic vaccines with other modalities. Finally, we attempt to put these findings into a practical clinical context and suggest fertile areas for future study. While our discussion focuses on prostate cancer, the concepts we address most likely have broad applicability to immunotherapy for other cancers as well. PMID:21680544

  19. Development of a T cell receptor targeting an HLA-A*0201 restricted epitope from the cancer-testis antigen SSX2 for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Speiser, Daniel E; Chinnasamy, Nachimuthu; Zheng, Zhili; Xu, Hui; Feldman, Steven A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The clinical success of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer relies on the selection of target antigens that are highly expressed in tumor cells but absent in essential normal tissues. A group of genes that encode the cancer/testis or cancer germline antigens have been proposed as ideal targets for immunotherapy due to their high expression in multiple cancer types and their restricted expression in immunoprivileged normal tissues. In the present work we report the isolation and characterization of human T cell receptors (TCRs) with specificity for synovial sarcoma X breakpoint 2 (SSX2), a cancer/testis antigen expressed in melanoma, prostate cancer, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and pancreatic cancer, among other tumors. We isolated seven HLA-A2 restricted T cell receptors from natural T cell clones derived from tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes of two SSX2-seropositive melanoma patients, and selected four TCRs for cloning into retroviral vectors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) transduced with three of four SSX2 TCRs showed SSX241-49 (KASEKIFYV) peptide specific reactivity, tumor cell recognition and tetramer binding. One of these, TCR-5, exhibited tetramer binding in both CD4 and CD8 cells and was selected for further studies. Antigen-specific and HLA-A*0201-restricted interferon-γ release, cell lysis and lymphocyte proliferation was observed following culture of TCR engineered human PBL with relevant tumor cell lines. Codon optimization was found to increase TCR-5 expression in transduced T cells, and this construct has been selected for development of clinical grade viral vector producing cells. The tumor-specific pattern of expression of SSX2, along with the potent and selective activity of TCR-5, makes this TCR an attractive candidate for potential TCR gene therapy to treat multiple cancer histologies.

  20. Particulate Systems Based on Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic)Acid (pLGA) for Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Sima; Fransen, Marieke F; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Amidi, Maryam; Ossendorp, Ferry; Hennink, Wim E

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer is a promising therapeutic approach which aims to eliminate malignancies by inducing or enhancing an immune response against the tumor. Immunotherapy, however, faces several challenges such as local immunosuppression in the tumor area leading to immunological tolerance. To overcome these challenges, particulate formulations such as nano- and microparticles containing immunotherapeutics have been developed to increase therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity of immunotherapy. Particulate formulations based on biodegradable aliphatic polyesters such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pLGA) have been extensively used with promising results. In this review, we addressed the potential of pLGA-based particulate formulations for immunotherapy of cancer. The discussion was focused on cancer vaccines and delivery of immunomodulatory antibodies. Features and drawbacks of pLGA systems were discussed together with several examples of recently developed therapeutic cancer vaccines and antibody-loaded particulate systems. Various strategies to overcome the drawbacks and optimize the formulations were given. In conclusion, pLGA-based particulate systems are attractive carriers for development of clinically acceptable formulations in immunotherapy of cancer.

  1. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: emerging strategies against a formidable foe

    PubMed Central

    Bilusic, Marijo; Heery, Christopher; Madan, Ravi A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown therapeutic vaccines to be promising treatment modalities against prostate cancer. Unlike preventive vaccines that teach the immune system to fight off specific microorganisms, therapeutic vaccines stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack certain cancer-associated proteins. Additional strategies are being investigated that combine vaccines and standard therapeutics, including radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and hormonal therapy, to optimize the vaccines’ effects. Recent vaccine late-phase clinical trials have reported evidence of clinical benefit while maintaining excellent quality of life. One such vaccine, sipuleucel-T, was recently FDA-approved for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Another vaccine, PSA-TRICOM, is also showing promise in completed and ongoing randomized multicenter clinical trials in both early and late stage prostate cancer. Clinical results available to date indicate that immune-based therapies could play a significant role in the treatment of prostate and other malignancies. PMID:21741424

  2. Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Y.; Imanaka, K.; Ashida, C.; Takashima, H.; Imajo, Y.; Kimura, S.

    1983-04-01

    Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue was studied on the transplanted MM46 tumor of female C3H/He mice after radiotherapy. MM46 tumor cells were inoculated into the right hind paws of mice. On the 5th day, irradiation with the dose irradiated tumor tissue (2000 rad on the fifth day), were injected into the left hind paws of the tumor-bearing mice. Effectiveness of this active specific immunotherapy against tumor was evaluated by the regression of tumor and survival rate of mice. Tumor was markedly regressed and survival rate was significantly increased by the active specific immunitherapy.

  3. T-lymphocyte homing: an underappreciated yet critical hurdle for successful cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sackstein, Robert; Schatton, Tobias; Barthel, Steven R

    2017-03-27

    Advances in cancer immunotherapy have offered new hope for patients with metastatic disease. This unfolding success story has been exemplified by a growing arsenal of novel immunotherapeutics, including blocking antibodies targeting immune checkpoint pathways, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, clinical benefit remains highly variable and patient-specific, in part, because all immunotherapeutic regimens vitally hinge on the capacity of endogenous and/or adoptively transferred T-effector (Teff) cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, to home efficiently into tumor target tissue. Thus, defects intrinsic to the multi-step T-cell homing cascade have become an obvious, though significantly underappreciated contributor to immunotherapy resistance. Conspicuous have been low intralesional frequencies of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs) below clinically beneficial threshold levels, and peripheral rather than deep lesional TIL infiltration. Therefore, a Teff cell 'homing deficit' may arguably represent a dominant factor responsible for ineffective immunotherapeutic outcomes, as tumors resistant to immune-targeted killing thrive in such permissive, immune-vacuous microenvironments. Fortunately, emerging data is shedding light into the diverse mechanisms of immune escape by which tumors restrict Teff cell trafficking and lesional penetrance. In this review, we scrutinize evolving knowledge on the molecular determinants of Teff cell navigation into tumors. By integrating recently described, though sporadic information of pivotal adhesive and chemokine homing signatures within the tumor microenvironment with better established paradigms of T-cell trafficking under homeostatic or infectious disease scenarios, we seek to refine currently incomplete models of Teff cell entry into tumor tissue. We further summarize how cancers thwart homing to escape immune-mediated destruction and raise awareness of the potential impact of immune

  4. Suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the microenvironment of breast cancer and targeted immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiming; Gong, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in promoting tumor growth and metastasis and can even decrease the efficacy of immunotherapy. In breast cancer, MDSCs are recruited mainly by breast cancer cells to form a tumor-favoring microenvironment to suppress the anti-tumor immune response. In addition, MDSCs can react directly with breast cancer cells. In this paper, we describe several ways to recruit MDSCs in breast cancer, including breast cancer cell-derived cytokines and chemokines. The intracellular pathways in MDSCs during recruitment are classified as the STAT3-NF-κB-IDO pathway, the STAT3/IRF-8 pathway and the PTEN/Akt pathway. MDSCs act on T cells and NK cells to suppress the body's immunity, and via IL-6 trans-signaling, promote breast cancer directly. We further describe MDSC-targeted immune therapies for breast cancer, which are classified as: preventing the formation of MDSCs, eliminating MDSDCs, and reducing the products of MDSCs. Furthermore, MDSC-targeted immunotherapy potentiates the effect of the other immunotherapies. Based on the facts that MSDCs have significant roles in breast cancer malignant behaviors and can be suppressed by various strategies, we do believe MDSC-targeted immunotherapy presents a broad prospect in the future. PMID:27542274

  5. Suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the microenvironment of breast cancer and targeted immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Shou, Dawei; Wen, Liang; Song, Zhenya; Yin, Jian; Sun, Qiming; Gong, Weihua

    2016-09-27

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in promoting tumor growth and metastasis and can even decrease the efficacy of immunotherapy. In breast cancer, MDSCs are recruited mainly by breast cancer cells to form a tumor-favoring microenvironment to suppress the anti-tumor immune response. In addition, MDSCs can react directly with breast cancer cells. In this paper, we describe several ways to recruit MDSCs in breast cancer, including breast cancer cell-derived cytokines and chemokines. The intracellular pathways in MDSCs during recruitment are classified as the STAT3-NF-κB-IDO pathway, the STAT3/IRF-8 pathway and the PTEN/Akt pathway. MDSCs act on T cells and NK cells to suppress the body's immunity, and via IL-6 trans-signaling, promote breast cancer directly. We further describe MDSC-targeted immune therapies for breast cancer, which are classified as: preventing the formation of MDSCs, eliminating MDSDCs, and reducing the products of MDSCs. Furthermore, MDSC-targeted immunotherapy potentiates the effect of the other immunotherapies. Based on the facts that MSDCs have significant roles in breast cancer malignant behaviors and can be suppressed by various strategies, we do believe MDSC-targeted immunotherapy presents a broad prospect in the future.

  6. Optimal control on bladder cancer growth model with BCG immunotherapy and chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, C.; Trisilowati

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, an optimal control model of the growth of bladder cancer with BCG (Basil Calmate Guerin) immunotherapy and chemotherapy is discussed. The purpose of this optimal control is to determine the number of BCG vaccine and drug should be given during treatment such that the growth of bladder cancer cells can be suppressed. Optimal control is obtained by applying Pontryagin principle. Furthermore, the optimal control problem is solved numerically using Forward-Backward Sweep method. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the vaccine and drug in controlling the growth of cancer cells. Hence, it can reduce the number of cancer cells that is not infected with BCG as well as minimize the cost of the treatment.

  7. Extracellular vesicles in ovarian cancer: applications to tumor biology, immunotherapy and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Fatima, Farah; Nazarenko, Irina; Ekström, Karin; Murtaza, Iram; Anees, Mariam; Sultan, Aneesa; Neder, Luciano; Camussi, Giovanni; Valadi, Hadi; Squire, Jeremy A; Kislinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been tremendous interest in both the basic biology and applications of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in translational cancer research. This includes a better understanding of their biogenesis and mechanisms of selective cargo packaging, their precise roles in horizontal communication, and their application as non-invasive biomarkers. The rapid advances in next-generation omics technologies are the driving forces for these discoveries. In this review, the authors focus on recent results of EV research in ovarian cancer. A deeper understanding of ovarian cancer-derived EVs, the types of cargo molecules and their biological roles in cancer growth, metastases and drug resistance, could have significant impact on the discovery of novel biomarkers and innovative therapeutics. Insights into the role of EVs in immune regulation could lead to novel approaches built on EV-based immunotherapy.

  8. Human cancer immunotherapy with antibodies to the PD-1 and PD-L1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Assal, Amer; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Yao, Yu; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    The PD-1 receptor and ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, members of the CD28 and B7 families, play critical roles in T cell coinhibition and exhaustion. Overexpression of PD-L1 and PD-1 on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, respectively, correlates with poor disease outcome in some human cancers. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) blockading the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have been developed for cancer immunotherapy via enhancing T cell functions. Clinical trials with mAbs to PD-1 and PD-L1 have shown impressive response rates in patients, particularly for melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and bladder cancer. Further studies are needed to dissect mechanisms of variable response rate, to identify biomarkers for clinical response, to develop small molecule inhibitors, and to combine with other therapies. PMID:25440090

  9. Structure and Cancer Immunotherapy of the B7 Family Member B7x

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyungjun; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Garrett-Thomson, Sarah C.; Janakiram, Murali; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Abadi, Yael M.; Lee, Jun Sik; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Chinai, Jordan M; Zhao, Ruihua; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying; Sparano, Joseph A.; Almo, Steven C.; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY B7x (B7-H4 or B7S1) is a member of the B7 family that can inhibit T cell function. B7x protein is absent in most normal human tissues and immune cells, but is overexpressed in human cancers and often correlates with negative clinical outcome. The expression pattern and function of B7x suggest that it may be a potent immunosuppressive pathway in human cancers. Here we determined the crystal structure of human B7x IgV domain at 1.59Å resolution and mapped the epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies. We developed a new in vivo system to screen therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against B7x, and found that the clone 1H3 significantly inhibited growth of B7x-expressing tumor in vivo via multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, the surviving mice given 1H3 treatment were resistant to tumor re-challenge. Our data suggest that targeting B7x on tumors is a promising cancer immunotherapy and humanized 1H3 may be efficacious for immunotherapy of human cancers. PMID:25437562

  10. Self-adjuvanted nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy: Role of lysosomal rupture-induced ROS in MHC class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ce; Li, Ping; Liu, Lanlan; Pan, Hong; Li, Hongchang; Cai, Lintao; Ma, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    MHC class I (MHC I) antigen presentation of exogenous antigens (so called "cross presentation") is a central mechanism of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses essential for successful vaccine-based cancer immunotherapy. The present study constructed amphiphilic pH-sensitive galactosyl dextran-retinal (GDR) nanogels for cancer vaccine delivery, in which dextran was conjugated with all-trans retinal (a metabolite of vitamin A) through a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond, followed by galactosylation to acquire dendritic cell (DC)-targeting ability. Our results showed that pH-sensitive GDR nanogel was a self-adjuvanted vaccine carrier that not only promoted DC maturation through activating retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling, but also facilitated antigen uptake and cytosolic antigen release in DCs. Furthermore, pH-sensitive GDR nanogel effectively augmented MHC I antigen presentation and evoked potent anti-cancer immune responses in vivo. More importantly, we first reported that nanoparticle-triggered lysosome rupture could directly induce ROS production in DCs, which was found to be essential for augmenting proteasome activity and downstream MHC I antigen presentation. Hence, DC-targeted pH-sensitive GDR nanogels could be a potent delivery system for cancer vaccine development. Triggering lyososomal rupture in DCs with pH-sensitive nanoparticles might be a plausible strategy to elevate intracellular ROS production for promoting antigen cross presentation, thereby improving cancer vaccine efficacy.

  11. Physical modalities inducing immunogenic tumor cell death for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Irena; Fucikova, Jitka; Garg, Abhishek D; Agostinis, Patrizia; Špíšek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The concept of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD), as originally observed during the treatment with several chemotherapeutics or ionizing irradiation, has revolutionized the view on the development of new anticancer therapies. ICD is defined by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, emission of danger-associated molecular patterns and induction of antitumor immunity. Here we describe known and emerging cancer cell death-inducing physical modalities, such as ionizing irradiation, ultraviolet C light, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) with Hypericin, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and hyperthermia (HT), which have been shown to elicit effective antitumor immunity. We discuss the evidence of ICD induced by these modalities in cancer patients together with their applicability in immunotherapeutic protocols and anticancer vaccine development. PMID:25964865

  12. Economic evaluation of sipuleucel-T immunotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Holko, Przemysław; Kawalec, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to examine the cost-utility of sipuleucel-T immunotherapy in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. The addition of sipuleucel-T immunotherapy to standard treatment led to a gain of 0.37 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) at an additional cost of US$104,536. The incremental cost-utility ratio was US$283,000 per QALY saved. Threshold sensitivity analyses indicated that a price reduction of at least 53%, or application in a group of patients resulting in the relative reduction in the mortality rate of at least 39%, ought to augment the economic value of this regimen. Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy treatment at the current price with 96.5% certainty is not cost-effective. The specific group of patients who will benefit more from the treatment should be revealed and treated, or the cost of the vaccine should be lowered significantly to increase its economic value. Accounting for crossover treatment in control patients improves sipuleucel-T's value (US$132,000 per QALY saved) although further investigation is necessary.

  13. T-Cell Immunotherapies for Treating Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    therapeutic efficacies, there is still plenty of room for improvement to reduce the mortality rates. Clearly, this is an important disease for women’s...c-Met specific CAR was constructed by fusing the single-chain variable fragments (scFv) of a mouse anti- human c-Met antibody to the human IgG4 Fc...promotes overexpression of the c-Met receptor in breast cancer cells: implications for tumour-stroma interactions. Endocr Relat Cancer. 13, 1085-99

  14. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, A C; Pimm, M V

    1992-01-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, cell-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigative tool of great potential.

  15. Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: a primer on immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maruf, Mahir; Brancato, Sam J.; Agarwal, Piyush K.

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has long been the gold standard treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Recently, there has been an emergence of novel immunotherapeutic agents, which have shown promise in the treatment of urothelial cell carcinoma. These agents aim to augment, modify, or enhance the immune response. Such strategies include recombinant BCG, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and adoptive T-cell therapy. Here, we review the emerging immunotherapeutics in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. PMID:27458527

  16. Cancer immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer utilizing α-gal epitope/natural anti-Gal antibody reaction

    PubMed Central

    Tanemura, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Eiji; Nagano, Hiroaki; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Taniyama, Kiyomi; Hatanaka, Nobutaka; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the poorest prognosis of all malignancies and is largely resistant to standard therapy. Novel treatments against PDAC are desperately needed. Anti-Gal is the most abundant natural antibody in humans, comprising about 1% of immunoglobulins and is also naturally produced in apes and Old World monkeys. The anti-Gal ligand is a carbohydrate antigen called “α-gal epitopes” with the structure Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R. These epitopes are expressed as major carbohydrate antigens in non-primate mammals, prosimians, and New World monkeys. Anti-Gal is exploited in cancer vaccines to increase the immunogenicity of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Cancer cells or PDAC tumor lysates are processed to express α-gal epitopes. Vaccination with these components results in in vivo opsonization by anti-Gal IgG in PDAC patients. The Fc portion of the vaccine-bound anti-Gal interacts with Fcγ receptors of APCs, inducing uptake of the vaccine components, transport of the vaccine tumor membranes to draining lymph nodes, and processing and presentation of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Cancer vaccines expressing α-gal epitopes elicit strong antibody production against multiple TAAs contained in PDAC cells and induce activation of multiple tumor-specific T cells. Here, we review new areas of clinical importance related to the α-gal epitope/anti-Gal antibody reaction and the advantages in immunotherapy against PDAC. PMID:26523105

  17. Immunotherapy and gene therapy in prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    There are few methods bringing several relatively recent advances in therapy of certain types of prostate cancer. Belonging to personalized therapies, they use cells (normal or pathologic) from the patient, modify and reintroduce them in the patient’s body, leading to an increased efficiency against the neoplastic tissue, proving to increase the patient’s lifespan and/ or tumor progression. PMID:28255378

  18. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    suggests a strong likelihood that combination treatment with LIGHT and immunotherapeutic vaccination will have an impact against primary and... vaccination . This study may potentially provide a practical means of overcoming tumor-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms in a variety of solid...immunotherapeutic cell- based vaccine that can be prescribed for hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients, excitement is dampened because there have been no

  19. Extending the lifespan and efficacies of immune cells used in adoptive transfer for cancer immunotherapies-A review.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Prokar; Galustian, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Cells used in adoptive cell-transfer immunotherapies against cancer include dendritic cells (DCs), natural-killer cells, and CD8(+) T-cells. These cells may have limited efficacy due to their lifespan, activity, and immunosuppressive effects of tumor cells. Therefore, increasing longevity and activity of these cells may boost their efficacy. Four cytokines that can extend immune effector-cell longevity are IL-2, IL-7, IL-21, and IL-15. This review will discuss current knowledge on effector-cell lifespans and the mechanisms by which IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 can extend effector-cell longevity. We will also discuss how lifespan and efficacy of these cells can be regulated to allow optimal clinical benefits.

  20. Novel Checkpoints and Cosignaling Molecules in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Giuroiu, Iulia; Weber, Jeffrey

    The recent demonstration of the antitumor efficacy of checkpoint protein inhibition has resulted in the approval of blocking antibodies against the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway in multiple different histologic findings. Therapeutic successes with PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in melanoma and lung cancer have been followed by approvals in bladder, renal, and head and neck cancers and Hodgkin lymphoma, with others undoubtedly to come. However, PD-1 is only one of many checkpoints and agonistic regulatory molecules expressed on T cells by which maintenance of the balance between costimulatory and coinhibitory signaling pathways is perturbed in cancer. The manipulation of many of these molecules in cancer patients might be associated with clinical benefit. The majority of the T-cell cosignaling receptors belong to either the immunoglobulin superfamily or the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. A total of 29 immunoglobulin superfamily and 26 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily cosignaling receptors have been identified that are expressed on T cells, providing fertile ground for development of inhibitory or agonistic antibodies and small molecules as cancer therapeutics. In the current work, we focus on some of the most promising new checkpoints and agonistic or cosignaling molecules that are in early clinical development as single agents or in combinations with PD-1/PD-L1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 blockade, or chemotherapy with an emphas