Science.gov

Sample records for active car steering

  1. Optimized coordination of brakes and active steering for a 4WS passenger car.

    PubMed

    Tavasoli, Ali; Naraghi, Mahyar; Shakeri, Heman

    2012-09-01

    Optimum coordination of individual brakes and front/rear steering subsystems is presented. The integrated control strategy consists of three modules. A coordinated high-level control determines the body forces/moment required to achieve vehicle motion objectives. The body forces/moment are allocated to braking and steering subsystems through an intermediate unit, which integrates available subsystems based on phase plane notion in an optimal manner. To this end, an optimization problem including several equality and inequality constraints is defined and solved analytically, such that a real-time implementation can be realized without the use of numeric optimization software. A low-level slip-ratio controller works to generate the desired longitudinal forces at small longitudinal slip-ratios, while averting wheel locking at large slip-ratios. The efficiency of the suggested approach is demonstrated through computer simulations.

  2. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    PubMed

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings.

  3. Effect of control order on steering a simulated underground coal shuttle car.

    PubMed

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine; Wallis, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Most terrestrial vehicles are steered via a first-order control for vehicle heading, such as a conventional steering wheel. A joystick which provides second-order control of vehicle heading is used to steer some underground coal shuttle cars. A desktop virtual simulation of the situation was employed to compare the steering accuracy of 24 novice participants randomly assigned to either first-order or second-order joystick steering conditions. The average steering accuracy of participants assigned to the first-order joystick condition was superior, however there was considerable individual variability and some participants assigned to the second-order steering condition were able to perform the task equally and successfully. Desktop virtual simulation may be a useful component of training and competency assessment for operators of these vehicles.

  4. Driver steering dynamics measured in car simulator under a range of visibility and roadmaking conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    A simulation experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reduced visibility on driver lateral (steering) control. The simulator included a real car cab and a single lane road image projected on a screen six feet in front of the driver. Simulated equations of motion controlled apparent car lane position in response to driver steering actions, wind gusts, and road curvature. Six drivers experienced a range of visibility conditions at various speeds with assorted roadmaking configurations (mark and gap lengths). Driver describing functions were measured and detailed parametric model fits were determined. A pursuit model employing a road curvature feedforward was very effective in explaining driver behavior in following randomly curving roads. Sampled-data concepts were also effective in explaining the combined effects of reduced visibility and intermittent road markings on the driver's dynamic time delay. The results indicate the relative importance of various perceptual variables as the visual input to the driver's steering control process is changed.

  5. A Car-Steering Model Based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Mohamed Anis Ben; Oda, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shigeyoshi

    This paper is concerned with the development of a car-steering model for traffic simulation. Our focus in this paper is to propose a model of the steering behavior of a human driver for different driving scenarios. These scenarios are modeled in a unified framework using the idea of target position. The proposed approach deals with the driver’s approximation and decision-making mechanisms in tracking a target position by means of fuzzy set theory. The main novelty in this paper lies in the development of a learning algorithm that has the intention to imitate the driver’s self-learning from his driving experience and to mimic his maneuvers on the steering wheel, using linear networks as local approximators in the corresponding fuzzy areas. Results obtained from the simulation of an obstacle avoidance scenario show the capability of the model to carry out a human-like behavior with emphasis on learned skills.

  6. Determination of Steering Wheel Angles during CAR Alignment by Image Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Voegtle, T.

    2016-06-01

    Optical systems for automatic visual inspections are of increasing importance in the field of automation in the industrial domain. A new application is the determination of steering wheel angles during wheel track setting of the final inspection of car manufacturing. The camera has to be positioned outside the car to avoid interruptions of the processes and therefore, oblique images of the steering wheel must be acquired. Three different approaches of computer vision are considered in this paper, i.e. a 2D shape-based matching (by means of a plane to plane rectification of the oblique images and detection of a shape model with a particular rotation), a 3D shape-based matching approach (by means of a series of different perspectives of the spatial shape of the steering wheel derived from a CAD design model) and a point-to-point matching (by means of the extraction of significant elements (e.g. multifunctional buttons) of a steering wheel and a pairwise connection of these points to straight lines). The HALCON system (HALCON, 2016) was used for all software developments and necessary adaptions. As reference a mechanical balance with an accuracy of 0.1° was used. The quality assessment was based on two different approaches, a laboratory test and a test during production process. In the laboratory a standard deviation of ±0.035° (2D shape-based matching), ±0.12° (3D approach) and ±0.029° (point-to-point matching) could be obtained. The field test of 291 measurements (27 cars with varying poses and angles of the steering wheel) results in a detection rate of 100% and ±0.48° (2D matching) and ±0.24° (point-to-point matching). Both methods also fulfil the request of real time processing (three measurements per second).

  7. Modelling Accuracy of a Car Steering Mechanism with Rack and Pinion and McPherson Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapczyk, J.; Kucybała, P.

    2016-08-01

    Modelling accuracy of a car steering mechanism with a rack and pinion and McPherson suspension is analyzed. Geometrical parameters of the model are described by using the coordinates of centers of spherical joints, directional unit vectors and axis points of revolute, cylindrical and prismatic joints. Modelling accuracy is assumed as the differences between the values of the wheel knuckle position and orientation coordinates obtained using a simulation model and the corresponding measured values. The sensitivity analysis of the parameters on the model accuracy is illustrated by two numerical examples.

  8. Proposal to use vibration analysis steering components and car body to monitor, for example, the state of unbalance wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janczur, R.

    2016-09-01

    The results of road tests of car VW Passat equipped with tires of size 195/65 R15, on the influence of the unbalancing front wheel on vibration of the parts of steering system, steering wheel and the body of the vehicle have been presented in this paper. Unbalances wheels made using weights of different masses, placed close to the outer edge of the steel rim and checked on the machine Hunter GSP 9700 for balancing wheels. The recorded waveforms vibration steering components and car body, at different constant driving speeds, subjected to spectral analysis to determine the possibility of isolating vibration caused by unbalanced wheel in various states and coming from good quality asphalt road surface. The results were discussed in terms of the possibility of identifying the state of unbalancing wheels and possible changes in radial stiffness of the tire vibration transmitted through the system driving wheel on the steering wheel. Vibration analysis steering components and car body, also in the longitudinal direction, including information from the CAN bus of the state of motion of the car, can be used to monitor the development of the state of unbalance wheel, tire damage or errors shape of brake discs or brake drums, causing pulsations braking forces.

  9. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories. PMID:26627125

  10. Influence of Steering Control Devices Mounted in Cars for the Disabled on Passive Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiá, J.; Eixerés, B.; Dols, J. F.; Colomina, F. J.

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of steering control devices for disabled people on passive safety. It is based on the advances made in the modelling and simulation of the driver position and in the suit verification test. The influence of these devices is studied through airbag deployment and/or its influence on driver safety. We characterize the different adaptations that are used in adapted cars that can be found mounted in vehicles in order to generating models that are verified by experimental test. A three dimensional design software package was used to develop the model. The simulations were generated using a dynamic simulation program employing LSDYNA finite elements. This program plots the geometry and assigns materials. The airbag is shaped, meshed and folded just as it is mounted in current vehicles. The thermodynamic model of expansion of gases is assigned and the contact interfaces are defined. Static tests were carried out on deployment of the airbag to contrast with and to validate the computational models and to measure the behaviour of the airbag when there are steering adaptations mounted in the vehicle.

  11. Alcohol badly affects eye movements linked to steering, providing for automatic in-car detection of drink driving.

    PubMed

    Marple-Horvat, Dilwyn E; Cooper, Hannah L; Gilbey, Steven L; Watson, Jessica C; Mehta, Neena; Kaur-Mann, Daljit; Wilson, Mark; Keil, Damian

    2008-03-01

    Driving is a classic example of visually guided behavior in which the eyes move before some other action. When approaching a bend in the road, a driver looks across to the inside of the curve before turning the steering wheel. Eye and steering movements are tightly linked, with the eyes leading, which allows the parts of the brain that move the eyes to assist the parts of the brain that control the hands on the wheel. We show here that this optimal relationship deteriorates with levels of breath alcohol well within the current UK legal limit for driving. The eyes move later, and coordination reduces. These changes lead to bad performance and can be detected by an automated in-car system, which warns the driver is no longer fit to drive.

  12. Evaluation of steering control devices in adapted cars using sled deceleration tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eixerés, B.; Masiá, J.; Dols, J. F.; Esquerdo, T. V.

    2009-11-01

    Steering control devices used by disabled drivers can reduce passive safety, interfering with the existing systems of safety in the vehicle or causing injury to the occupants [1]. In this article, the results obtained in different dynamic tests carried out in a crash test simulator are presented. These tests were carried out on the steering devices which interfere the most with the deployment of the driver's airbag and also with the knee airbag in a Citroen C5.

  13. Polyphenols in alcoholic beverages activating constitutive androstane receptor CAR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Taieishi, Norifumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Kiso, Yoshionobu; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor CAR is a xenosensing nuclear receptor that can be activated by natural polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins. We examined alcoholic beverage phytochemicals for their ability to activate CAR. HepG2 cells were transfected with CAR expression vector and its reporter gene, and then treated with trans-resveratrol, ellagic acid, β-caryophyllene, myrcene, and xanthohumol. A luciferase assay revealed that ellagic acid and trans-resveratrol activated both human and mouse CAR. Since CAR regulates many genes involved in energy metabolism, the possibility exists that these polyphenols would reduce the risk of certain alcohol-induced metabolic disorders with the help of CAR.

  14. Boundaries steer the contraction of active gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuppler, Matthias; Keber, Felix C.; Kröger, Martin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2016-10-01

    Cells set up contractile actin arrays to drive various shape changes and to exert forces to their environment. To understand their assembly process, we present here a reconstituted contractile system, comprising F-actin and myosin II filaments, where we can control the local activation of myosin by light. By stimulating different symmetries, we show that the force balancing at the boundaries determine the shape changes as well as the dynamics of the global contraction. Spatially anisotropic attachment of initially isotropic networks leads to a self-organization of highly aligned contractile fibres, being reminiscent of the order formation in muscles or stress fibres. The observed shape changes and dynamics are fully recovered by a minimal physical model.

  15. Boundaries steer the contraction of active gels

    PubMed Central

    Schuppler, Matthias; Keber, Felix C.; Kröger, Martin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    Cells set up contractile actin arrays to drive various shape changes and to exert forces to their environment. To understand their assembly process, we present here a reconstituted contractile system, comprising F-actin and myosin II filaments, where we can control the local activation of myosin by light. By stimulating different symmetries, we show that the force balancing at the boundaries determine the shape changes as well as the dynamics of the global contraction. Spatially anisotropic attachment of initially isotropic networks leads to a self-organization of highly aligned contractile fibres, being reminiscent of the order formation in muscles or stress fibres. The observed shape changes and dynamics are fully recovered by a minimal physical model. PMID:27739426

  16. Pyrene is a Novel Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activator and Causes Hepatotoxicity by CAR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Zhe; Lyv, Jing-Xi; He, Xuyan; Englert, Neal A; Zhang, Shu-Yun

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous persistent environmental pollutants which are primarily formed from the incomplete combustion of organic materials. Many potential sources of human exposure to PAHs exist, including daily exposures from the ambient environment or occupational settings. PAHs have been found to cause harmful effects on human health. Here, we evaluated the adverse effects of pyrene, a common PAH, on the liver. The present study demonstrates that pyrene is able to activate mouse constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). CAR protein, as measured by Western blot analysis, was observed to translocate into the nucleus from the cytoplasm in mouse liver after exposure to pyrene. Utilizing CAR null mice, we identified that CAR mediates pyrene-induced hepatotoxicity. Increased relative liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels were found in wild-type but not CAR null mice after orally administered pyrene. We further show that pyrene induced the expression of mouse liver metabolism enzymes including CYP2B10, CYP3A11, GSTm1, GSTm3, and SULT1A1, and caused hepatic glutathione depletion in wild-type but not CAR null mice. Moreover, by luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, pyrene was found to be a potential inducer of CYP2B6 expression via activation of human CAR in HepG2 cells and human primary hepatocytes. Our observations suggest that pyrene is a novel CAR activator and that CAR is essential for mediating pyrene-induced liver injury.

  17. Simplified planar model of a car steering system with rack and pinion and McPherson suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapczyk, J.; Kucybała, P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis and optimization of steering system with rack and pinion and McPherson suspension using spatial model and equivalent simplified planar model. The dimension of the steering linkage that give minimum steering error can be estimated using planar model. The steering error is defined as the difference between the actual angle made by the outer front wheel during steering manoeuvers and the calculated angle for the same wheel based on the Ackerman principle. For a given linear rack displacement, a specified steering arms angular displacements are determined while simultaneously ensuring best transmission angle characteristics (i) without and (ii) with imposing linear correlation between input and output. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the proposed method.

  18. Active disturbance rejection control in steering by wire haptic systems.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Angeles, A; Garcia-Antonio, J A

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces a steering by wired haptic system based on disturbance rejection control techniques. High gain Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI) observers are considered for the estimation of tire and steering wheel dynamic disturbances. These disturbances are on line canceled to ensure tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle. The estimated disturbances at the steering rack are feedback to the steering wheel to provide a haptic interface with the driver. The overall system behaves as a bilateral master-slave system. Very few sensors and minimum knowledge of the dynamic model are required. Experimental results are presented on a prototype platform that consists on: (1) half of the steering rack of a beetle VW vehicle, (2) a steering wheel.

  19. Muscle activity and co-contraction of musculoskeletal model during steering maneuver.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen-hai; Fan, Da; Wang, Deping; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Kaishu; Chen, Chaoyang

    2014-01-01

    In this study a musculoskeletal model of driver steering maneuver was established. The model was driven by the steering angle and steering torque when performing typical steering test. The simulation was calculated using inverse dynamics. Maximum muscle activity and the muscle activity of each muscle were studied afterwards. The key muscles that generated steering torque were scapular portion of deltoid, infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, triceps long head and triceps lateral head. Muscle co-contraction was analyzed quantitatively and was significantly different from muscle activity. This paper presents a preliminary research on the mechanical properties of upper limb muscles during steering maneuver. The results can serve as references for vehicle design and performance evaluation using the physiological characteristics of drivers.

  20. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  1. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  2. Phosphorylated nuclear receptor CAR forms a homodimer to repress its constitutive activity for ligand activation.

    PubMed

    Shizu, Ryota; Osabe, Makoto; Perera, Lalith; Moore, Rick; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-03-06

    Nuclear receptor CAR (NR1I3) regulates hepatic drug and energy metabolism as well as cell fate. Its activation can be a critical factor in drug-induced toxicity and disease development such as diabetes and tumors. CAR inactivates its constitutive activity by phosphorylation at threonine 38. Utilizing receptor for protein kinase 1 (RACK1) as the regulatory subunit, protein phosphatase PP2A dephosphorylates threonine 38 to activate CAR. Here we have demonstrated that CAR undergoes its homodimer-monomer conversion to regulate this dephosphorylation. By co-expressing two differently-tagged CAR proteins in Huh-7 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and mouse livers, co-immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that CAR can form a homodimer in a configuration in which the PP2A/RACK1 binding site is buried within its dimer interface. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was found to stimulate CAR homo-dimerization, thus constraining CAR in its inactive form. The agonistic ligand CITCO binds directly to the CAR homodimer and dissociates phosphorylated CAR into its monomer, exposing the PP2A/RACK1 binding site for dephosphorylation. Phenobarbital, which is not a CAR ligand, binds the EGF receptor, reversing the EGF signal to monomerize CAR for its indirect activation. Thus, the homodimer-monomer conversion is the underlying molecular mechanism that regulates CAR activation, by placing phosphorylated threonine 38 as the common target for both direct and in direct activation of CAR.

  3. A Global Genomic Screening Strategy Reveals Diverse Activators of Constitutive Activated Receptor (CAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive survey of conditions that activate CAR in the mouse liver has not been carried out but would be useful in understanding their impact on CAR-dependent liver tumor induction. A gene signature dependent on CAR activation was identified by comparing the transcript pr...

  4. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-08-15

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car{sup -/-}) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car{sup -/-} livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. - Highlights: > The azo dye and mouse carcinogen OAT is a very effective mCAR activator. > OAT increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. > OAT CAR-dependently increases the expression of a specific subset of CAR target genes. > OAT induces an unexpectedly deferred, but CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation.

  5. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes.

    PubMed

    Smetanina, Mariya A; Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Kurinna, Svitlana M; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P; Moore, David D; Merkulova, Tatyana I

    2011-08-15

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car(-/-)) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car(-/-) livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor.

  6. Cars, Cars, Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  7. Current Steering to Control the Volume of Tissue Activated During Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Butson, Christopher R.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last two decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a recognized and effective clinical therapy for numerous neurological conditions. Since its inception, clinical DBS technology has progressed at a relatively slow rate; however, advances in neural engineering research have the potential to improve DBS systems. One such advance is the concept of current steering, or the use of multiple stimulation sources to direct current flow through targeted regions of brain tissue. Objective The goals of this study were to develop a theoretical understanding of the effects of current steering in the context of DBS, and use that information to evaluate the potential utility of current steering during stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. Methods We used finite element electric field models, coupled to multi-compartment cable axon models, to predict the volume of tissue activated (VTA) by DBS as a function of the stimulation parameter settings. Results Balancing current flow through adjacent cathodes increased the VTA magnitude, relative to monopolar stimulation, and current steering enabled us to sculpt the shape of the VTA to fit a given anatomical target. Conclusions These results provide motivation for the integration of current steering technology into clinical DBS systems, thereby expanding opportunities to customize DBS to individual patients, and potentially enhancing therapeutic efficacy. PMID:19142235

  8. Catalytically Active Regenerative Sorbent beds (CARS) for airborne contaminants.

    PubMed

    Akse, J R; Thompson, J O

    1995-01-01

    The Pd on Al2O3 catalyst used in the projected Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) catalytic oxidizer can be poisoned by volatile halogen-, sulfur-, and nitrogen-containing organic species. Catalytically Active Regenerable Sorbents (CARS) eliminate these problematic contaminants and the large carbon bed used for their elimination in a three-step process. Contaminants are conventionally adsorbed by the CARS bed. After saturation, the bed is connected to an off-line recirculation loop, filled with hydrogen, and then heated. At temperature, contaminants are hydrogenated on catalytic sites within the bed, forming simple alkanes and acid gases that are efficiently converted to innocuous salts in an in-line alkaline bed. The CARS bed is regenerated by this cycle and alkane gases are released to be safely oxidized in the catalytic oxidizer. A challenge mixture containing Freon-113, thiophene, trichloroethylene, Halon-1301, and dichloromethane at 1670, 75, 81, 68, and 83 mg/m3 was successfully treated using this technology, demonstrating the CARS feasibility.

  9. Aspects of achievable performance for quarter-car active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkay, Semiha; Akçay, Hüseyin

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, constraints on the transfer functions from the road disturbance to the vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived for a quarter-car active suspension system using the vertical acceleration and/or the suspension travel measurements for feedback. The derived constraints complement the similar constraints in the literature. By using the factorization approach to feedback stability, it is shown that tire damping couples the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses; and eliminates a constraint at the wheel-hop frequency. The influence of tire damping on the design of an active suspension system for a quarter-car model by a mixture of the LQG methodology and the interpolation approach is also illustrated.

  10. Grazing activity and ruminal bacterial population associated with frothy bloat in steers grazing winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two grazing experiments were designed to elucidate the shifts in rumen bacterial populations (Exp. 1) and grazing activities (Exp. 2) in wheat forage diets between bloated and non-bloated steers. In Exp. 1, the bacterial DNA density was greatest for Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Streptococcus bovis, a...

  11. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Thomas, Russell S.; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher’s algorithm (p-value ≤ 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  12. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium.

    PubMed

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Thomas, Russell S; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D; Corton, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher's algorithm (p-value ≤ 10(-4))) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  13. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change: opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Edward; Steg, Linda; Anable, Jillian

    2009-10-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options--walking or cycling--or with public transportation. In this commentary, we review a number of immediate, practical opportunities to implement policies and programs that reduce short car trips and increase active transportation.

  14. Relationships among Ergot Alkaloids, Cytochrome P450 Activity, and Beef Steer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkrans, Charles; Ezell, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Determining a grazing animal’s susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 μM of ergotamine (ET), dihydroergotamine (DHET), and ergonovine (EN)] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800). With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P < 0.001) by an interaction between alkaloids and concentration. That interaction resulted in no concentration effect of EN, but within ET and DHET 20 and 40 µM concentrations inhibited CYP450 activity when compared with controls. In experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 d of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg) after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 d. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control). Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = -0.31; P < 0.05). Steers were genotyped at CYP450 single nucleotide polymorphism, C994G. Steer genotype affected (P < 0.03) inhibition of CYP450 activity by urine; heterozygous steers had the least amount of CYP450 inhibition suggesting that genotyping cattle may be a method of identifying animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins.

  15. Chrysin, baicalein and galangin are indirect activators of the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Carazo Fernández, Alejandro; Smutny, Tomas; Hyrsová, Lucie; Berka, Karel; Pavek, Petr

    2015-03-04

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a crucial transcriptional regulator of key xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6. The flavonoids chrysin, baicalein and galangin have been reported to activate CAR and interfere with EGFR signaling. Nevertheless, it is not known if these flavonoids are direct CAR ligands or indirect phenobarbital-like CAR activators via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We analyze the interactions of chrysin, galangin and baicalein and its glycoside baicalin with human CAR. We have employed and validated methods that can study direct interaction with the CAR ligand binding pocket. Secondly, we determined if the compounds affect human EGFR signaling and interact with EGFR. Employing a TR-FRET coactivator assay with recombinant CAR or CAR assembly assay, a consistent activation of CAR with flavonoids and phenobarbital was not observed. It was determined, however, that galangin, chrysin, and baicalein may slightly repress EGFR-Tyr1068 autophosphorylation after EGF treatment, phosphorylation of downstream transcription factor ELK1 and stimulate EGFP-CAR nuclear translocation in primary human hepatocytes. These data suggest that flavonoids chrysin, galangin and baicalein are indirect human CAR activators. This study also demonstrates new approach how to test the direct CAR interaction with its ligands.

  16. The nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR: structural determinants of constitutive activation and heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Suino, Kelly; Peng, Li; Reynolds, Ross; Li, Yong; Cha, Ji-Young; Repa, Joyce J; Kliewer, Steven A; Xu, H Eric

    2004-12-22

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induces xenobiotic, bilirubin, and thyroid hormone metabolism as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Unlike ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, CAR is constitutively active. Here, we report the heterodimeric structure of the CAR and RXR ligand binding domains (LBDs), which reveals an unusually large dimerization interface and a small CAR ligand binding pocket. Constitutive CAR activity appears to be mediated by the compact nature of the CAR LBD that displays several unique features including a shortened AF2 helix and helix H10, which are linked by a two-turn helix that normally adopts an extended loop in other receptors, and an extended helix H2 that stabilizes the canonical LBD fold by packing tightly against helix H3. These structural observations provide a molecular framework for understanding the atypical transcriptional activation properties of CAR.

  17. Vehicle Steering control: A model of learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiley, A.; Reid, L.; Fraser, M.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of strategies were postulated to describe the process of learning steering control. Vehicle motion and steering control data were recorded for twelve novices who drove an instrumented car twice a week during and after a driver training course. Car-driver describing functions were calculated, the probable control structure determined, and the driver-alone transfer function modelled. The data suggested that the largest changes in steering control with learning were in the way the driver used the lateral position cue.

  18. Optimal run-and-tumble-based transportation of a Janus particle with active steering.

    PubMed

    Mano, Tomoyuki; Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Iwasawa, Junichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-03-14

    Although making artificial micrometric swimmers has been made possible by using various propulsion mechanisms, guiding their motion in the presence of thermal fluctuations still remains a great challenge. Such a task is essential in biological systems, which present a number of intriguing solutions that are robust against noisy environmental conditions as well as variability in individual genetic makeup. Using synthetic Janus particles driven by an electric field, we present a feedback-based particle-guiding method quite analogous to the "run-and-tumbling" behavior of Escherichia coli but with a deterministic steering in the tumbling phase: the particle is set to the run state when its orientation vector aligns with the target, whereas the transition to the "steering" state is triggered when it exceeds a tolerance angle [Formula: see text] The active and deterministic reorientation of the particle is achieved by a characteristic rotational motion that can be switched on and off by modulating the ac frequency of the electric field, which is reported in this work. Relying on numerical simulations and analytical results, we show that this feedback algorithm can be optimized by tuning the tolerance angle [Formula: see text] The optimal resetting angle depends on signal to noise ratio in the steering state, and it is shown in the experiment. The proposed method is simple and robust for targeting, despite variability in self-propelling speeds and angular velocities of individual particles.

  19. Current steering to activate targeted neural pathways during deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic region

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Foutz, Thomas J.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has steadily evolved into an established surgical therapy for numerous neurological disorders, most notably Parkinson’s disease (PD). Traditional DBS technology relies on voltage-controlled stimulation with a single source; however, recent engineering advances are providing current-controlled devices with multiple independent sources. These new stimulators deliver constant current to the brain tissue, irrespective of impedance changes that occur around the electrode, and enable more specific steering of current towards targeted regions of interest. In this study, we examined the impact of current steering between multiple electrode contacts to directly activate three distinct neural populations in the subthalamic region commonly stimulated for the treatment of PD: projection neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus internus (GPi) fibers of the lenticular fasiculus, and internal capsule (IC) fibers of passage. We used three-dimensional finite element electric field models, along with detailed multi-compartment cable models of the three neural populations to determine their activations using a wide range of stimulation parameter settings. Our results indicate that selective activation of neural populations largely depends on the location of the active electrode(s). Greater activation of the GPi and STN populations (without activating any side-effect related IC fibers) was achieved by current steering with multiple independent sources, compared to a single current source. Despite this potential advantage, it remains to be seen if these theoretical predictions result in a measurable clinical effect that outweighs the added complexity of the expanded stimulation parameter search space generated by the more flexible technology. PMID:22277548

  20. Technical note: A procedure to estimate glucose requirements of an activated immune system in steers.

    PubMed

    Kvidera, S K; Horst, E A; Abuajamieh, M; Mayorga, E J; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Baumgard, L H

    2016-11-01

    Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein steers (148 ± 9 kg; = 15) were jugular catheterized bilaterally and assigned to 1 of 3 i.v.

  1. Simple control-theoretic models of human steering activity in visually guided vehicle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple control theoretic model of human steering or control activity in the lateral-directional control of vehicles such as automobiles and rotorcraft is discussed. The term 'control theoretic' is used to emphasize the fact that the model is derived from a consideration of well-known control system design principles as opposed to psychological theories regarding egomotion, etc. The model is employed to emphasize the 'closed-loop' nature of tasks involving the visually guided control of vehicles upon, or in close proximity to, the earth and to hypothesize how changes in vehicle dynamics can significantly alter the nature of the visual cues which a human might use in such tasks.

  2. Vehicle active steering control research based on two-DOF robust internal model control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Fengbo; Bao, Chunjiang; Sun, Qun; Zhao, Youqun

    2016-07-01

    Because of vehicle's external disturbances and model uncertainties, robust control algorithms have obtained popularity in vehicle stability control. The robust control usually gives up performance in order to guarantee the robustness of the control algorithm, therefore an improved robust internal model control(IMC) algorithm blending model tracking and internal model control is put forward for active steering system in order to reach high performance of yaw rate tracking with certain robustness. The proposed algorithm inherits the good model tracking ability of the IMC control and guarantees robustness to model uncertainties. In order to separate the design process of model tracking from the robustness design process, the improved 2 degree of freedom(DOF) robust internal model controller structure is given from the standard Youla parameterization. Simulations of double lane change maneuver and those of crosswind disturbances are conducted for evaluating the robust control algorithm, on the basis of a nonlinear vehicle simulation model with a magic tyre model. Results show that the established 2-DOF robust IMC method has better model tracking ability and a guaranteed level of robustness and robust performance, which can enhance the vehicle stability and handling, regardless of variations of the vehicle model parameters and the external crosswind interferences. Contradiction between performance and robustness of active steering control algorithm is solved and higher control performance with certain robustness to model uncertainties is obtained.

  3. Active Gaze Control Improves Optic Flow-Based Segmentation and Steering

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Mingolla, Ennio; Neumann, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    An observer traversing an environment actively relocates gaze to fixate objects. Evidence suggests that gaze is frequently directed toward the center of an object considered as target but more likely toward the edges of an object that appears as an obstacle. We suggest that this difference in gaze might be motivated by specific patterns of optic flow that are generated by either fixating the center or edge of an object. To support our suggestion we derive an analytical model that shows: Tangentially fixating the outer surface of an obstacle leads to strong flow discontinuities that can be used for flow-based segmentation. Fixation of the target center while gaze and heading are locked without head-, body-, or eye-rotations gives rise to a symmetric expansion flow with its center at the point being approached, which facilitates steering toward a target. We conclude that gaze control incorporates ecological constraints to improve the robustness of steering and collision avoidance by actively generating flows appropriate to solve the task. PMID:22719889

  4. Optimal run-and-tumble–based transportation of a Janus particle with active steering

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Tomoyuki; Iwasawa, Junichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Although making artificial micrometric swimmers has been made possible by using various propulsion mechanisms, guiding their motion in the presence of thermal fluctuations still remains a great challenge. Such a task is essential in biological systems, which present a number of intriguing solutions that are robust against noisy environmental conditions as well as variability in individual genetic makeup. Using synthetic Janus particles driven by an electric field, we present a feedback-based particle-guiding method quite analogous to the “run-and-tumbling” behavior of Escherichia coli but with a deterministic steering in the tumbling phase: the particle is set to the run state when its orientation vector aligns with the target, whereas the transition to the “steering” state is triggered when it exceeds a tolerance angle α. The active and deterministic reorientation of the particle is achieved by a characteristic rotational motion that can be switched on and off by modulating the ac frequency of the electric field, which is reported in this work. Relying on numerical simulations and analytical results, we show that this feedback algorithm can be optimized by tuning the tolerance angle α. The optimal resetting angle depends on signal to noise ratio in the steering state, and it is shown in the experiment. The proposed method is simple and robust for targeting, despite variability in self-propelling speeds and angular velocities of individual particles. PMID:28292904

  5. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  6. Regulation of Drug Disposition Gene Expression in Pregnant Mice with Car Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Amanda S.; Herrera-Garcia, Guadalupe; Moscovitz, Jamie E.; You, Dahea; Guo, Grace L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2016-01-01

    More than half of pregnant women use prescription medications in order to maintain both maternal and fetal health. The constitutive androstane receptor (Car) critically affects the disposition of chemicals by regulating the transcription of genes encoding metabolic enzymes and transporters. However, the effects of Car activation on chemical disposition during pregnancy are unclear. This study aims to determine the degree to which pregnancy alters the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in response to the pharmacological activation of Car. To test this, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were administered IP doses of vehicle, or a potent Car agonist, TCPOBOP, on gestation days 14, 15 and 16. Hepatic mRNA and protein expression of Car target genes (phase I, II and transporters) were quantified on gestation day 17. Pregnancy-related changes, such as induction of Cyp2b10, Ugt1a1 and Sult1a1 and repression of Ugt1a6, Gsta1, Gsta2 and Mrp6, were observed. Interestingly, the induction of Cyp2b10, Gsta1, Gsta2 and Mrp2-4 mRNAs by TCPOBOP was attenuated in maternal livers suggesting that Car activation is impeded by the biochemical and/or physiological changes that occur during gestation. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy and pharmacological activation of Car can differentially regulate the expression of drug metabolism and transport genes. PMID:27818994

  7. Vibration control of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system by reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucak, İ. Ö.; Öz, H. R.

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the investigation of performance of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system with a stochastic real-valued reinforcement learning control strategy. As an example, a model of a quarter car with a nonlinear suspension spring subjected to excitation from a road profile is considered. The excitation is realised by the roughness of the road. The quarter-car model to be considered here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The experimental results indicate that the proposed active suspension system suppresses the vibrations greatly. A simulation of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and examine the performance of the learning control algorithm.

  8. A multielement trace mineral injection improves liver copper and selenium concentrations and manganese superoxide dismutase activity in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Genther, O N; Hansen, S L

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals (TM) are vital to health and growth of livestock, but low dietary concentrations and dietary antagonists may reduce mineral status and feeder cattle TM status is usually unknown at arrival. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of TM status on response to mineral injection in beef cattle. Forty steers were equally assigned to diets for an 84-d depletion period: control (CON; supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn) or deficient (DEF; no supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, or Zn plus Fe and Mo as TM antagonists). Lesser liver Cu and Se concentrations (79.0 ± 11.60 and 1.66 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) in DEF steers compared with CON steers (228.8 ± 11.60 and 2.41 ± 0.080 mg/kg DM, respectively) on d 71 of depletion indicated mild deficiencies of these TM (P < 0.001). On d 1 of the 85-d repletion period, 10 steers within each dietary treatment were injected with sterilized saline (SAL) or Multimin90 (MM), containing 15, 10, 5, and 60 mg/mL of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, respectively, at a dose of 1 mL/68 kg BW. All steers were fed the same repletion diet supplemented with Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn to meet or exceed NRC recommendations. Blood was collected on d 0 and 1, and blood and liver biopsies were collected on d 8, 15, 29, 57, and 85 postinjection. Red blood cell lysate manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was greater in MM (P = 0.02), suggesting incorporation of injectable TM into a biological process. The increase in liver Se in response to MM was greater in CON vs. DEF (P = 0.02), suggesting TM from injection were used rather than stored in DEF steers. Liver Se and Cu (P < 0.05) were elevated through at least d 30 by MM. Dietary TM deficiency decreased neutrophil bacteria killing ability and increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) degranulation (P < 0.04) as measured on d 0, 1, 13, and 14 during the repletion period while injection had no impact. Within CON animals, total MPO was greater in animals that received TM injection, but injection did not affect MPO

  9. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P < 0.05). The Japanese Wagyu breed is well known for its highly marbled and tender meat, and these traits are also present in the Waguli. The Waguli had significantly lower Warner-Bratzler shear force values than the Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P < 0.05); this difference decreased after 14 d postmortem (P = 0.2), when tenderness of the slower aging Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values

  10. Switch-mediated activation and retargeting of CAR-T cells for B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, David T; Mazagova, Magdalena; Hampton, Eric N; Cao, Yu; Ramadoss, Nitya S; Hardy, Ian R; Schulman, Andrew; Du, Juanjuan; Wang, Feng; Singer, Oded; Ma, Jennifer; Nunez, Vanessa; Shen, Jiayin; Woods, Ashley K; Wright, Timothy M; Schultz, Peter G; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Young, Travis S

    2016-01-26

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has produced impressive results in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies. However, safety concerns related to the inability to control CAR-T cells once infused into the patient remain a significant challenge. Here we report the engineering of recombinant antibody-based bifunctional switches that consist of a tumor antigen-specific Fab molecule engrafted with a peptide neo-epitope, which is bound exclusively by a peptide-specific switchable CAR-T cell (sCAR-T). The switch redirects the activity of the bio-orthogonal sCAR-T cells through the selective formation of immunological synapses, in which the sCAR-T cell, switch, and target cell interact in a structurally defined and temporally controlled manner. Optimized switches specific for CD19 controlled the activity, tissue-homing, cytokine release, and phenotype of sCAR-T cells in a dose-titratable manner in a Nalm-6 xenograft rodent model of B-cell leukemia. The sCAR-T-cell dosing regimen could be tuned to provide efficacy comparable to the corresponding conventional CART-19, but with lower cytokine levels, thereby offering a method of mitigating cytokine release syndrome in clinical translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology is readily adaptable to targeting CD20 on cancer cells using the same sCAR-T cell, suggesting that this approach may be broadly applicable to heterogeneous and resistant tumor populations, as well as other liquid and solid tumor antigens.

  11. Donor CD19 CAR T cells exert potent graft-versus-lymphoma activity with diminished graft-versus-host activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Smith, Melody; James, Scott E; Davila, Marco L; Velardi, Enrico; Argyropoulos, Kimon V; Gunset, Gertrude; Perna, Fabiana; Kreines, Fabiana M; Levy, Emily R; Lieberman, Sophie; Jay, Hillary V; Tuckett, Andrea Z; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Tan, Lisa; Young, Lauren F; Takvorian, Kate; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Hanash, Alan M; Motta, Ana Carolina F; Murphy, George F; Liu, Chen; Schietinger, Andrea; Sadelain, Michel; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2017-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments to the success of allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells. CD19 is an attractive CAR target, which is expressed in most B cell malignancies, as well as in healthy B cells. Clinical trials using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable promise in various B cell malignancies. However, the use of allogeneic CAR T cells poses a concern in that it may increase risk of the occurrence of GVHD, although this has not been reported in selected patients infused with donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells after allo-HSCT. To understand the mechanism whereby allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells may mediate anti-lymphoma activity without causing a significant increase in the incidence of GVHD, we studied donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells in allo-HSCT and lymphoma models in mice. We demonstrate that alloreactive T cells expressing CD28-costimulated CD19 CARs experience enhanced stimulation, resulting in the progressive loss of both their effector function and proliferative potential, clonal deletion, and significantly decreased occurrence of GVHD. Concurrently, the other CAR T cells that were present in bulk donor T cell populations retained their anti-lymphoma activity in accordance with the requirement that both the T cell receptor (TCR) and CAR be engaged to accelerate T cell exhaustion. In contrast, first-generation and 4-1BB-costimulated CAR T cells increased the occurrence of GVHD. These findings could explain the reduced risk of GVHD occurring with cumulative TCR and CAR signaling.

  12. Heparanase promotes tumor infiltration and antitumor activity of CAR-redirected T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Ignazio; Savoldo, Barbara; Hoyos, Valentina; Weber, Gerrit; Liu, Hao; Kim, Eugene S.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Marchetti, Dario; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T lymphocytes (CAR-T cells) has had less striking effects in solid tumors1–3 than in lymphoid malignancies4, 5. Although active tumor-mediated immunosuppression may play a role in limiting efficacy6, functional changes in T lymphocytes following their ex vivo manipulation may also account for cultured CAR-T cells’ reduced ability to penetrate stroma-rich solid tumors. We therefore studied the capacity of human in vitro-cultured CAR-T cells to degrade components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast to freshly isolated T lymphocytes, we found that in vitro-cultured T lymphocytes lack expression of the enzyme heparanase (HPSE) that degrades heparan sulphate proteoglycans, which are main components of ECM. We found that HPSE mRNA is down regulated in in vitro-expanded T cells, which may be a consequence of p53 binding to the HPSE gene promoter. We therefore engineered CAR-T cells to express HPSE and showed improved capacity to degrade ECM, which promoted tumor T-cell infiltration and antitumor activity. Employing this strategy may enhance the activity of CAR-T cells in individuals with stroma-rich solid tumors. PMID:25849134

  13. Tuning sensitivity of CAR to EGFR density limits recognition of normal tissue while maintaining potent anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Hillary G.; Hurton, Lenka V.; Najjar, Amer; Rushworth, David; Ang, Sonny; Olivares, Simon; Mi, Tiejuan; Switzer, Kirsten; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Heimberger, Amy B.; Champlin, Richard E.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Many tumors over express tumor-associated antigens relative to normal tissue, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This limits targeting by human T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) due to potential for deleterious recognition of normal cells. We sought to generate CAR+ T cells capable of distinguishing malignant from normal cells based on the disparate density of EGFR expression by generating two CARs from monoclonal antibodies which differ in affinity. T cells with low affinity Nimo-CAR selectively targeted cells over-expressing EGFR, but exhibited diminished effector function as the density of EGFR decreased. In contrast, the activation of T cells bearing high affinity Cetux-CAR was not impacted by the density of EGFR. In summary, we describe the generation of CARs able to tune T-cell activity to the level of EGFR expression in which a CAR with reduced affinity enabled T cells to distinguish malignant from non-malignant cells. PMID:26330164

  14. Activating CAR and β-catenin induces uncontrolled liver growth and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingning; Lee, Ju-Seog; Park, Yun-Yong; Yang, Feng; Xu, Ganyu; Huang, Wendong; Finegold, Milton J; Moore, David D

    2015-02-09

    Aberrant β-catenin activation contributes to a third or more of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but β-catenin activation alone is not sufficient to induce liver cancer in mice. Differentiated hepatocytes proliferate upon acute activation of either β-catenin or the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR. These responses are strictly limited and are tightly linked, since β-catenin is activated in nearly all of the CAR-dependent tumours generated by the tumour promoter phenobarbital. Here, we show that full activation of β-catenin in the liver induces senescence and growth arrest, which is overcome by combined CAR activation, resulting in uncontrolled hepatocyte proliferation, hepatomegaly and rapid lethality despite maintenance of normal liver function. Combining CAR activation with limited β-catenin activation induces tumorigenesis, and the tumours share a conserved gene expression signature with β-catenin-positive human HCC. These results reveal an unexpected route for hepatocyte proliferation and define a murine model of hepatocarcinogenesis with direct relevance to human HCC.

  15. Activating CAR and β-Catenin Induces Uncontrolled Liver Growth and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bingning; Lee, Ju-Seog; Park, Yun-Yong; Yang, Feng; Xu, Ganyu; Huang, Wendong; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant β-catenin activation contributes to a third or more of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but β-catenin activation alone is not sufficient to induce liver cancer in mice. Differentiated hepatocytes proliferate upon acute activation of either β-catenin or the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR. These responses are strictly limited and are tightly linked, since β-catenin is activated in nearly all of the CAR-dependent tumors generated by the tumor promoter phenobarbital. Here we show that full activation of β-catenin in the liver induces senescence and growth arrest, which is overcome by combined CAR activation, resulting in uncontrolled hepatocyte proliferation, hepatomegaly, and rapid lethality despite maintenance of normal liver function. Combining CAR activation with limited β-catenin activation induces tumorigenesis, and the tumors share a conserved gene expression signature with β-catenin positive human HCC. These results reveal an unexpected route for hepatocyte proliferation and define a murine model of hepatocarcinogenesis with direct relevance to human HCC. PMID:25661872

  16. Implementation of active steering on longer combination vehicles for enhanced lateral performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharrazi, Sogol; Lidberg, Mathias; Roebuck, Richard; Fredriksson, Jonas; Odhams, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    A steering-based controller for improving lateral performance of longer combination vehicles (LCVs) is proposed. The controller steers the axles of the towed units to regulate the time span between the driver steering and generation of tyre lateral forces at the towed units and consequently reduces the yaw rate rearward amplification (RWA) and offtracking. The open-loop effectiveness of the controller is evaluated with simulations and its closed loop or driver in the loop effectiveness is verified on a test track with a truck-dolly-semitrailer test vehicle in a series of single- and double-lane change manoeuvres. The developed controller reduces the yaw rate RWA and offtracking considerably without diminishing the manoeuvrability. Furthermore, as a byproduct, it decreases the lateral acceleration RWA moderately. The obtained safety improvements by the proposed controller can promote the use of LCVs in traffic which will result in the reduction of congestion problem as well as environmental and economic benefits.

  17. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  18. The Effects of Surface-Induced Loads on Forearm Muscle Activity During Steering a Bicycle

    PubMed Central

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Önder C.; Soylu, Abdullah R.

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  19. The effects of surface-induced loads on forearm muscle activity during steering a bicycle.

    PubMed

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Onder C; Soylu, Abdullah R

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s(-2) when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s(-2). The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  20. Xenoreceptors CAR and PXR activation and consequences on lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Amélie; Vilarem, Marie José; Maurel, Patrick; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2008-01-01

    Xenobiotic and drug metabolism and transport are managed by a large number of genes coordinately regulated by at least three nuclear receptors or xenosensors: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). Initially characterized as xenosensors, it is now evident that CAR and PXR also trigger pleiotropic effects on liver function. Recent studies have shown the existence of crosstalk between xenosensors and other nuclear receptors or transcription factors controlling endogenous signaling pathways which regulate physiological functions. This review is focused on recent observations showing that activation of CAR and PXR alters lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation by interfering with HNF4alpha, FoxO1, FoxA2, PGC1alpha, or NFkB p65. Such crosstalks explain clinical observations and provide molecular mechanisms allowing understanding how xenobiotics and drugs may affect physiological functions and provoke endocrine disruptions.

  1. The Effects of Morning Naps, Car Trips, and Maternal Separation on Adrenocortical Activity in Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined adrenocortical activity in infants. Morning naps were associated with decreases in salivary cortisol. Riding for 40 minutes in a car lowered salivary cortisol concentrations. Thirty minutes of maternal separation in the laboratory resulted in higher salivary cortisol concentrations than did 30 minutes of play with the mother…

  2. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  3. Time-course comparison of xenobiotic activators of CAR and PPAR{alpha} in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Pamela K.; Woods, Courtney G.; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Gatti, Daniel M.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2009-03-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} are transcription factors known to be primary mediators of liver effects, including carcinogenesis, by phenobarbital-like compounds and peroxisome proliferators, respectively, in rodents. Many similarities exist in the phenotypes elicited by these two classes of agents in rodent liver, and we hypothesized that the initial transcriptional responses to the xenobiotic activators of CAR and PPAR{alpha} will exhibit distinct patterns, but at later time-points these biological pathways will converge. In order to capture the global transcriptional changes that result from activation of these nuclear receptors over a time-course in the mouse liver, microarray technology was used. First, differences in basal expression of liver genes between C57Bl/6J wild-type and Car-null mice were examined and 14 significantly differentially expressed genes were identified. Next, mice were treated with phenobarbital (100 mg/kg by gavage for 24 h, or 0.085% w/w diet for 7 or 28 days), and liver gene expression changes with regards to both time and treatment were identified. While several pathways related to cellular proliferation and metabolism were affected by phenobarbital in wild-type mice, no significant changes in gene expression were found over time in the Car-nulls. Next, we determined commonalities and differences in the temporal response to phenobarbital and WY-14,643, a prototypical activator of PPAR {alpha}. Gene expression signatures from livers of wild-type mice C57Bl6/J mice treated with PB or WY-14,643 were compared. Similar pathways were affected by both compounds; however, considerable time-related differences were present. This study establishes common gene expression fingerprints of exposure to activators of CAR and PPAR{alpha} in rodent liver and demonstrates that despite similar phenotypic changes, molecular pathways differ between classes of chemical carcinogens.

  4. Test procedures and performance measures sensitive to automobile steering dynamics. [considering operator/vehicle responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. H.; Mcruer, D. T.; Weir, D.

    1975-01-01

    A maneuver complex and related performance measures used to evaluate driver/vehicle system responses as effected by variations in the directional response characteristics of passenger cars are described. The complex consists of normal and emergency maneuvers (including random and discrete disturbances) which, taken as a whole, represent all classes of steering functions and all modes of driver response behavior. Measures of driver/vehicle system response and performance in regulation tasks included direct describing function measurements and rms yaw velocity. In transient maneuvers, measures such as steering activity and cone strikes were used.

  5. Murine allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells harbor potent antileukemic activity but have the potential to mediate lethal GVHD.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Elad; Yang, Yinmeng; Qin, Haiying; Chien, Christopher D; Kochenderfer, James N; Fry, Terry J

    2016-03-10

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) persisting or relapsing following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has a dismal prognosis. Success with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells offers an opportunity to treat these patients with leukemia-redirected donor-derived T cells, which may be more functional than T cells derived from patients with leukemia but have the potential to mediate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We, together with others, have previously demonstrated tumor-specific T-cell dysfunction in the allogeneic environment. Here, we studied CAR T-cell function following BMT using an immunocompetent murine model of minor mismatched allogeneic transplantation followed by donor-derived CD19-CAR T cells. Allogeneic donor-derived CD19-CAR T cells eliminated residual ALL with equal potency to those administered after syngeneic BMT. Surprisingly, allogeneic CAR T cells mediated lethal acute GVHD with early mortality, which is atypical for this minor mismatch model. We demonstrated that both allogeneic and syngeneic CAR T cells show initial expansion as effector T cells, with a higher peak but rapid deletion of allogeneic CAR T cells. Interestingly, CAR-mediated acute GVHD was only seen in the presence of leukemia, suggesting CAR-target interactions induced GVHD. Indeed, serum interleukin (IL)-6 was elevated only in the presence of both leukemia and CAR T cells, and IL-6 neutralization ameliorated the severity of GVHD in a delayed donor lymphocyte infusion model. Finally, allogeneic CD4(+) CAR T cells were responsible for GVHD, which correlated with their ability to produce IL-6 upon CAR stimulation. Altogether, we demonstrate that donor-derived allogeneic CAR T cells are active but have the capacity to drive GVHD.

  6. Specific inhibition of transcriptional activity of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) by the splicing factor SF3a3.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hye Jin; Kwon, Jungsun; Seol, Wongi

    2008-10-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays an important role in the degradation of xenobiotics in the liver. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified SF3a3, a 60-kDa subunit of the splicing factor 3a complex, as a specific CAR-interacting protein. We further confirmed their interaction by both co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay. Functional studies showed that overexpression of SF3a3 inhibited the reporter activity driven by a promoter containing CAR binding sequences by up to 50%, whereas reduced expression of SF3a3 activated the same reporter activity by approximately three-fold. The inhibitory function of SF3a3 is independent of the presence of TCPOBOP, a CAR ligand. These data suggest that SF3a3 functions as a co-repressor of CAR transcriptional activity, in addition to its canonical function.

  7. Optimisation of lateral car dynamics taking into account parameter uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Jochen; Bestle, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    Simulation studies on an active all-wheel-steering car show that disturbance of vehicle parameters have high influence on lateral car dynamics. This motivates the need of robust design against such parameter uncertainties. A specific parametrisation is established combining deterministic, velocity-dependent steering control parameters with partly uncertain, velocity-independent vehicle parameters for simultaneous use in a numerical optimisation process. Model-based objectives are formulated and summarised in a multi-objective optimisation problem where especially the lateral steady-state behaviour is improved by an adaption strategy based on measurable uncertainties. The normally distributed uncertainties are generated by optimal Latin hypercube sampling and a response surface based strategy helps to cut down time consuming model evaluations which offers the possibility to use a genetic optimisation algorithm. Optimisation results are discussed in different criterion spaces and the achieved improvements confirm the validity of the proposed procedure.

  8. Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Stankiewicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, a significant development in digital technologies of signal processing made it possible to apply active noise control methods in new domains. A proper selection of the reference signal source is a main problem in implementing such systems. This paper presents an estimation method based on an indicator of the coherent power level. It also presents a simple system of active noise control in a car, operating according to the proposed method of optimising the positioning of reference sources. This system makes it possible to considerably increase the comfort of work of drivers in various kinds of road transport without a great increase in cost. This is especially significant in the case of trucks and vans. Passive barriers are considerably more expensive in them, which results in a higher level of noise than in passenger cars.

  9. Fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers fed supplementary palm oil or soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Gang, G O; Sawyer, J E; Johnson, B J; Kim, K H; Choi, C W; Smith, S B

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers, and that soybean oil supplementation would depress adipocyte differentiation. Twenty-eight Angus steers were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 9 or 10 steers and fed a basal diet without additional fat (control), with 3% palm oil (rich in palmitic acid), or with 3% soybean oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), for 10 wk, top-dressed daily. Palm oil had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG, food intake, or G:F, whereas soybean oil depressed ADG (P = 0.02), food intake (P = 0.04), and G:F (P = 0.05). Marbling scores tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in palm oil-fed steers (Modest(09)) than in soybean oil-fed steers (Small(55)). Subcutaneous adipocyte mean volume was greater in palm oil-fed steers (515.9 pL) than in soybean-supplemented cattle (395.6 pL; P = 0.01). Similarly, glucose and acetate incorporation into total lipids in vitro was greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers (119.9 and 242.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively) than adipose tissue of soybean oil-fed steers in (48.9 and 95.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activities were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in adipose tissue of control steers. Palm oil did not increase palmitic acid or decrease oleic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue or LM, but decreased (P ≤ 0.05) myristoleic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acid in adipose tissue, indicating a depression in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. Soybean oil increased the proportion of α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue and muscle and increased linoleic acid and 18:1trans-10 in muscle. We conclude that palm oil supplementation promoted lipid synthesis in adipose tissue without depressing feed efficiency or increasing the palmitic acid content of beef.

  10. Electronically controlled optical beam-steering by an active phased array of metallic nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    DeRose, C T; Kekatpure, R D; Trotter, D C; Starbuck, A; Wendt, J R; Yaacobi, A; Watts, M R; Chettiar, U; Engheta, N; Davids, P S

    2013-02-25

    An optical phased array of nanoantenna fabricated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process is presented. The optical phased array is fed by low loss silicon waveguides with integrated ohmic thermo-optic phase shifters capable of 2π phase shift with ∼ 15 mW of applied electrical power. By controlling the electrical power to the individual integrated phase shifters fixed wavelength steering of the beam emitted normal to the surface of the wafer of 8° is demonstrated for 1 × 8 phased arrays with periods of both 6 and 9 μm.

  11. Species-specific responses of constitutively active receptor (CAR)-CYP2B coupling: lack of CYP2B inducer-responsive nuclear translocation of CAR in marine teleost, scup (Stenotomus chrysops).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Negishi, Masahiko; Stegeman, John J

    2002-04-01

    The mammalian constitutively active receptor (CAR) is a novel ligand-activated transcription factor that participates in controlling the expression of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) genes in response to pharmaceutical agents (phenobarbital) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (ortho-substituted PCBs). The occurrence and physiological function of this protein are as yet unknown in marine animals, where there has been a paradoxical lack of induction by PB-type chemicals. One approach to understanding CAR function is to study the evolutionary history of processes such as CAR-CYP2B coupling. In this study, CAR function was evaluated in a representative teleost fish (scup, Stenotomus chrysops). Treatment of scup with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), which is one of the most potent CYP2B inducers in mouse, caused no increase in hepatic alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity nor in immunodetectable CYP2B-like protein levels. Western blot analyses of scup livers using anti-human CAR antisera revealed the occurrence of a putative CAR homologue in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, but no nuclear accumulation of CAR following TCPOBOP treatment, which is a first step regulating the transcriptional activation of CYP2B genes in mouse. Immunohistochemical study also showed no translocation of CAR into nucleus in the hepatocytes of TCPOBOP-treated scup. These results suggest that there may be species-specific differences in CAR activation or CAR-CYP2B coupling signaling transduction in fish from those in mouse.

  12. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toshio; Takagi, Atsushi

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and functions by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  13. Integrated chassis control of active front steering and yaw stability control based on improved inverse nyquist array method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Chen, Yizhou; Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    An integrated chassis control (ICC) system with active front steering (AFS) and yaw stability control (YSC) is introduced in this paper. The proposed ICC algorithm uses the improved Inverse Nyquist Array (INA) method based on a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) planar vehicle reference model to decouple the plant dynamics under different frequency bands, and the change of velocity and cornering stiffness were considered to calculate the analytical solution in the precompensator design so that the INA based algorithm runs well and fast on the nonlinear vehicle system. The stability of the system is guaranteed by dynamic compensator together with a proposed PI feedback controller. After the response analysis of the system on frequency domain and time domain, simulations under step steering maneuver were carried out using a 2-DOF vehicle model and a 14-DOF vehicle model by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the system is decoupled and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved by the proposed method.

  14. Integrated Chassis Control of Active Front Steering and Yaw Stability Control Based on Improved Inverse Nyquist Array Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An integrated chassis control (ICC) system with active front steering (AFS) and yaw stability control (YSC) is introduced in this paper. The proposed ICC algorithm uses the improved Inverse Nyquist Array (INA) method based on a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) planar vehicle reference model to decouple the plant dynamics under different frequency bands, and the change of velocity and cornering stiffness were considered to calculate the analytical solution in the precompensator design so that the INA based algorithm runs well and fast on the nonlinear vehicle system. The stability of the system is guaranteed by dynamic compensator together with a proposed PI feedback controller. After the response analysis of the system on frequency domain and time domain, simulations under step steering maneuver were carried out using a 2-DOF vehicle model and a 14-DOF vehicle model by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the system is decoupled and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved by the proposed method. PMID:24782676

  15. Effects of zinc on CarE activities and its gene transcript level in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Zu-Qing; Hu, Xiang-Shun

    2014-05-15

    As a selective stress, heavy metals play an important role in inducing the adaptive adjustments of insects to changing environments. Carboxylesterase (CarE) is one kind of biomarker that could help us to explore the adaptation mechanism of aphids to heavy metal stress. In this study, CarE activity and gene expression level were investigated in English grain aphids, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), exposed to Zn2+ at concentrations of 0, 400, and 1600 mg/kg for 5, 15, 25, and 30 generations. The results showed that the CarE activity was significantly different between different Zn2+ concentrations and different generations. The CarE activity significantly decreased with increasing generations. In the higher generations, the CarE activity was strongly inhibited by the 1600 mg/kg of Zn2+. Realtime quantitative PCR revealed that the CarE gene expression pattern in S. avenae was up-regulated under the condition of 400 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg of Zn2+, but a significant difference was not found after long-term exposure to high concentrations of Zn2+. It was concluded that CarE could be the sensitive biomarker for S. avenae response to the presence of Zn2+. In order to adapt to heavy metal Zn2+ stress, S. avenae had particular patterns of gene expression under long-term stress.

  16. GD2-specific CAR T Cells Undergo Potent Activation and Deletion Following Antigen Encounter but can be Protected From Activation-induced Cell Death by PD-1 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Christo, Susan N; Hayball, John D; Lewis, Ian D; Brenner, Malcolm K; Brown, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but more variable results in the treatment of solid tumors and the persistence and expansion of CAR T cells within patients has been identified as a key correlate of antitumor efficacy. Lack of immunological "space", functional exhaustion, and deletion have all been proposed as mechanisms that hamper CAR T-cell persistence. Here we describe the events following activation of third-generation CAR T cells specific for GD2. CAR T cells had highly potent immediate effector functions without evidence of functional exhaustion in vitro, although reduced cytokine production reversible by PD-1 blockade was observed after longer-term culture. Significant activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CAR T cells was observed after repeated antigen stimulation, and PD-1 blockade enhanced both CAR T-cell survival and promoted killing of PD-L1(+) tumor cell lines. Finally, we assessed CAR T-cell persistence in patients enrolled in the CARPETS phase 1 clinical trial of GD2-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Together, these data suggest that deletion also occurs in vivo and that PD-1-targeted combination therapy approaches may be useful to augment CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in patients.

  17. Cryptic carbapenem antibiotic production genes are widespread in Erwinia carotovora: facile trans activation by the carR transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Holden, M T; McGowan, S J; Bycroft, B W; Stewart, G S; Williams, P; Salmond, G P

    1998-06-01

    Few strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) make carbapenem antibiotics. Strain GS101 makes the basic carbapenem molecule, 1-carbapen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid (Car). The production of this antibiotic has been shown to be cell density dependent, requiring the accumulation of the small diffusible molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) in the growth medium. When the concentration of this inducer rises above a threshold level, OHHL is proposed to interact with the transcriptional activator of the carbapenem cluster (CarR) and induce carbapenem biosynthesis. The introduction of the GS101 carR gene into an Ecc strain (SCRI 193) which is naturally carbapenem-negative resulted in the production of Car. This suggested that strain SCRI 193 contained functional cryptic carbapenem biosynthetic genes, but lacked a functional carR homologue. The distribution of trans-activatable antibiotic genes was assayed in Erwinia strains from a culture collection and was found to be common in a large proportion of Ecc strains. Significantly, amongst the Ecc strains identified, a larger proportion contained trans-activatable cryptic genes than produced antibiotics constitutively. Southern hybridization of the chromosomal DNA of cryptic Ecc strains confirmed the presence of both the car biosynthetic cluster and the regulatory genes. Identification of homologues of the transcriptional activator carR suggests that the cause of the silencing of the carbapenem biosynthetic cluster in these strains is not the deletion of carR. In an attempt to identify the cause of the silencing in the Ecc strain SCRI 193 the carR homologue from this strain was cloned and sequenced. The SCRI 193 CarR homologue was 94% identical to the GS101 CarR and contained 14 amino acid substitutions. Both homologues could be expressed from their native promoters and ribosome-binding sites using an in vitro prokaryotic transcription and translation assay, and when the SCRI 193 carR homologue was

  18. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  19. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-12-28

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver's input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice.

  20. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  1. Activation of CAR and PXR by Dietary, Environmental and Occupational Chemicals Alters Drug Metabolism, Intermediary Metabolism, and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, J.P.; Mota, L.C.; Baldwin, W.S.

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane × receptor (PXR) are activated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, such as steroid hormones, bile acids, pharmaceuticals, and environmental, dietary, and occupational chemicals. In turn, they induce phase I–III detoxification enzymes and transporters that help eliminate these chemicals. Because many of the chemicals that activate CAR and PXR are environmentally-relevant (dietary and anthropogenic), studies need to address whether these chemicals or mixtures of these chemicals may increase the susceptibility to adverse drug interactions. In addition, CAR and PXR are involved in hepatic proliferation, intermediary metabolism, and protection from cholestasis. Therefore, activation of CAR and PXR may have a wide variety of implications for personalized medicine through physiological effects on metabolism and cell proliferation; some beneficial and others adverse. Identifying the chemicals that activate these promiscuous nuclear receptors and understanding how these chemicals may act in concert will help us predict adverse drug reactions (ADRs), predict cholestasis and steatosis, and regulate intermediary metabolism. This review summarizes the available data on CAR and PXR, including the environmental chemicals that activate these receptors, the genes they control, and the physiological processes that are perturbed or depend on CAR and PXR action. This knowledge contributes to a foundation that will be necessary to discern interindividual differences in the downstream biological pathways regulated by these key nuclear receptors. PMID:20871735

  2. Reciprocal activation of Xenobiotic response genes by nuclear receptors SXR/PXR and CAR

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Barwick, Joyce L.; Simon, Cynthia M.; Pierce, Alexis M.; Safe, Stephen; Blumberg, Bruce; Guzelian, Philip S.; Evans, Ronald M.

    2000-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene products such as CYP3A and CYP2B are essential for the metabolism of steroid hormones and xenochemicals including prescription drugs. Nuclear receptor SXR/PXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor/pregnenolone X receptor) has been shown both biochemically and genetically to activate CYP3A genes, while similar studies have established constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) as a CYP2B regulator. The response elements in these genes are also distinct, furthering the concept of independent regulation. Unexpectedly, we found that SXR can regulate CYP2B, both in cultured cells and in transgenic mice via adaptive recognition of the phenobarbital response element (PBRE). In a type of functional symmetry, orphan receptor CAR was also found to activate CYP3A through previously defined SXR/PXR response elements. These observations not only provide a rational explanation for the activation of multiple CYP gene classes by certain xenobiotics, but also reveal the existence of a metabolic safety net that confers a second layer of protection to the harmful effects of toxic compounds and at the same time increases the propensity for drug–drug interactions. PMID:11114890

  3. Trunk extensor and flexor strength of long-distance race car drivers and physically active controls.

    PubMed

    Baur, Heiner; Muller, Steffen; Pilz, Frederike; Mayer, Patrizia; Mayer, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Seventy percent of motor sports athletes report low back pain. Information on the physical capacity of race car drivers is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum trunk extensor and flexor strength of elite race car drivers and physically active controls. Thirteen elite race car drivers and 13 controls were measured in concentric mode for maximal trunk flexion and extension at 60° x s(-1) and 120° x s(-1). Peak torque (mean ± s) at 60° x s(-1) in trunk extension was 283 ± 80 N x m in the drivers and 260 ± 88 N x m in controls (P > 0.05). At 120° x s(-1), drivers produced peak torques of 248 ± 55 N x m compared with 237 ± 74 N x m for controls (P > 0.05). Peak torques in flexion were less than in extension for both groups (60° x s(-1): drivers 181 ± 56 N x m, controls 212 ± 54 N x m, P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): drivers 191 ± 57 N x m, controls 207 ± 48 N x m, P > 0.05). Individual ratios of flexion to extension forces exhibited ratios of 0.88 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.93 (120° x s(-1)) for controls and 0.66 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.77 (120° x s(-1)) for drivers (60° x s(-1): P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): P > 0.05). The maximum strength performance capacity of the trunk muscles of elite motor sport athletes competing in long-distance racing did not differ from that of anthropometrically matched and physically active controls.

  4. Car Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

  5. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  6. Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA networks following the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ruixin; Su, Shengzhong; Wan, Yinan; Shen, Frank; Niu, Ben; Coslo, Denise M; Albert, Istvan; Han, Xing; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2016-09-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a xenosensor, serving to regulate xenobiotic detoxification, lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism. CAR activation is also a key contributor to the development of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. The underlying pathways affected by CAR in these processes are complex and not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of gene expression and appear to impact many cellular pathways, including those involved in chemical detoxification and liver tumor development. In this study, we used deep sequencing approaches with an Illumina HiSeq platform to differentially profile microRNA expression patterns in livers from wild type C57BL/6J mice following CAR activation with the mouse CAR-specific ligand activator, 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP). Bioinformatic analyses and pathway evaluations were performed leading to the identification of 51 miRNAs whose expression levels were significantly altered by TCPOBOP treatment, including mmu-miR-802-5p and miR-485-3p. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs revealed altered effector pathways, including those involved in liver cell growth and proliferation. A functional network among CAR targeted genes and the affected microRNAs was constructed to illustrate how CAR modulation of microRNA expression may potentially mediate its biological role in mouse hepatocyte proliferation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  7. A closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjurul Islam, Md.; Ding, Xuejun; He, Yuping

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) with active trailer steering (ATS) systems. AHVs have poor manoeuvrability at low speeds and exhibit low lateral stability at high speeds. From the design point of view, there exists a trade-off relationship between AHVs' manoeuvrability and stability. For example, fewer articulation points and longer wheelbases will improve high-speed lateral stability, but they will degrade low-speed manoeuvrability. To tackle this conflicting design problem, a systematic method is proposed for the design of AHVs with ATS systems. In order to evaluate vehicle performance measures under a well-defined testing manoeuvre, a driver model is introduced and it 'drivers' the vehicle model to follow a prescribed route at a given speed. Considering the interactions between the mechanical trailer and the ATS system, the proposed design method simultaneously optimises the active design variables of the controllers and passive design variables of the trailer in a single design loop (SDL). Through the design optimisation of an ATS system for an AHV with a truck and a drawbar trailer combination, this SDL method is compared against a published two design loop method. The benchmark investigation shows that the former can determine better trade-off design solutions than those derived by the latter. This SDL method provides an effective approach to automatically implement the design synthesis of AHVs with ATS systems.

  8. Influence of different shoulder-elbow configurations on steering precision and steering velocity in automotive context.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic design requirements are needed to develop optimum vehicle interfaces for the driver. The majority of the current specifications consider only anthropometric conditions and subjective evaluations of comfort. This paper examines specific biomechanical aspects to improve the current ergonomic requirements. Therefore, a research which involved 40 subjects was carried out to obtain more knowledge in the field of steering movement while driving a car. Five different shoulder-elbow joint configurations were analyzed using a driving simulator to find optimum posture for driving in respect of steering precision and steering velocity. Therefore, a 20 s precision test and a test to assess maximum steering velocity over a range of 90° steering motion have been conducted. The results show that driving precision, as well as maximum steering velocity, are significantly increased in mid-positions (elbow angles of 95° and 120°) compared to more flexed (70°) or extended (145° and 160°) postures. We conclude that driver safety can be enhanced by implementing these data in the automotive design process because faster and highly precise steering can be important during evasive actions and in accident situations. In addition, subjective comfort rating, analyzed with questionnaires, confirmed experimental results.

  9. Iterative refinement of a binding pocket model: active computational steering of lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Varela, Rocco; Walters, W Patrick; Goldman, Brian B; Jain, Ajay N

    2012-10-25

    Computational approaches for binding affinity prediction are most frequently demonstrated through cross-validation within a series of molecules or through performance shown on a blinded test set. Here, we show how such a system performs in an iterative, temporal lead optimization exercise. A series of gyrase inhibitors with known synthetic order formed the set of molecules that could be selected for "synthesis." Beginning with a small number of molecules, based only on structures and activities, a model was constructed. Compound selection was done computationally, each time making five selections based on confident predictions of high activity and five selections based on a quantitative measure of three-dimensional structural novelty. Compound selection was followed by model refinement using the new data. Iterative computational candidate selection produced rapid improvements in selected compound activity, and incorporation of explicitly novel compounds uncovered much more diverse active inhibitors than strategies lacking active novelty selection.

  10. Transactivation Assays to Assess Canine and Rodent Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pinne, Marija; Ponce, Elsa; Raucy, Judy L.

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR/SXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) are nuclear receptors (NRs) involved in the regulation of many genes including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and transporters important in metabolism and uptake of both endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. Activation of these receptors can lead to adverse drug effects as well as drug-drug interactions. Depending on which nuclear receptor is activated will determine which adverse effect could occur, making identification important. Screening for NR activation by New Molecular Entities (NMEs) using cell-based transactivation assays is the singular high throughput method currently available for identifying the activation of a particular NR. Moreover, screening for species-specific NR activation can minimize the use of animals in drug development and toxicology studies. With this in mind, we have developed in vitro transactivation assays to identify compounds that activate canine and rat PXR and CAR3. We found differences in specificity for canine and rat PXR, with the best activator for canine PXR being 10 μM SR12813 (60.1 ± 3.1-fold) and for rat PXR, 10 μM dexamethasone (60.9 ± 8.4 fold). Of the 19 test agents examined, 10 and 9 significantly activated rat and canine PXR at varying degrees, respectively. In contrast, 5 compounds exhibited statistically significant activation of rat CAR3 and 4 activated the canine receptor. For canine CAR3, 50 μM artemisinin proved to be the best activator (7.3 ± 1.8 and 10.5 ± 2.2 fold) while clotrimazole (10 μM) was the primary activator of the rat variant (13.7 ± 0.8 and 26.9 ± 1.3 fold). Results from these studies demonstrated that cell-based transactivation assays can detect species-specific activators and revealed that PXR was activated by at least twice as many compounds as was CAR3, suggesting that there are many more agonists for PXR than CAR. PMID:27732639

  11. Active vibration control on a quarter-car for cancellation of road noise disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgacem, Walid; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology is presented for the cancellation of road noise, from the analysis of vibration transmission paths for an automotive suspension to the design of an active control system using inertial actuators on a suspension to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the chassis. First, experiments were conducted on a Chevrolet Epica LS automobile on a concrete test track to measure accelerations induced on the suspension by the road. These measurements were combined with experimental Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured on a quarter-car test bench to reconstruct an equivalent three dimensional force applied on the wheel hub. Second, FRFs measured on the test bench between the three-dimensional driving force and forces at each suspension/chassis linkage were used to characterize the different transmission paths of vibration energy to the chassis. Third, an experimental model of the suspension was constructed to simulate the configuration of the active control system, using the primary (disturbance) FRFs and secondary (control) FRFs also measured on the test bench. This model was used to optimize the configuration of the control actuators and to evaluate the required forces. Finally, a prototype of an active suspension was implemented and measurements were performed in order to assess the performance of the control approach. A 4.6 dB attenuation on transmitted forces was obtained in the 50-250 Hz range.

  12. Azobenzene Modified Imidacloprid Derivatives as Photoswitchable Insecticides: Steering Molecular Activity in a Controllable Manner

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiping; Shi, Lina; Jiang, Danping; Cheng, Jiagao; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the photoisomerizable azobenzene into imidacloprid produced a photoswitchable insecticidal molecule as the first neonicotinoid example of remote control insecticide performance with spatiotemporal resolution. The designed photoswitchable insecticides showed distinguishable activity against Musca both in vivo and in vitro upon irradiation. Molecular docking study further suggested the binding difference of the two photoisomers. The generation of these photomediated insecticides provides novel insight into the insecticidal activity facilitating further investigation on the functions of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and opens a novel way to control and study insect behavior on insecticide poisoning using light. PMID:26434681

  13. Azobenzene Modified Imidacloprid Derivatives as Photoswitchable Insecticides: Steering Molecular Activity in a Controllable Manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiping; Shi, Lina; Jiang, Danping; Cheng, Jiagao; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Incorporating the photoisomerizable azobenzene into imidacloprid produced a photoswitchable insecticidal molecule as the first neonicotinoid example of remote control insecticide performance with spatiotemporal resolution. The designed photoswitchable insecticides showed distinguishable activity against Musca both in vivo and in vitro upon irradiation. Molecular docking study further suggested the binding difference of the two photoisomers. The generation of these photomediated insecticides provides novel insight into the insecticidal activity facilitating further investigation on the functions of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and opens a novel way to control and study insect behavior on insecticide poisoning using light.

  14. Cao-sensing receptor (CaR)-mediated activation of K+ channels is blunted in CaR gene-deficient mouse neurons.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, P M; Ho-Pao, C L; Kanazirska, M P; Ye, C; Hong, K; Seidman, C E; Seidman, J G; Brown, E M

    1997-04-14

    The extracellular Ca2+ (Cao)-sensing receptor (CaR) is expressed in hippocampus and other brain regions, suggesting that it could mediate some of the well recognized but poorly understood direct actions of Cao on neuronal function. This study presents evidence that the CaR is functionally coupled to Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels. The effects of CaR agonists on these channels in neurons from wild type (WT) and CaR-deficient (CaR -/-) mice were compared. Neomycin (100 mM) and elevation of Cao from 0.5 to 3 mM significantly increased the probability of channel opening (Po) in neurons from WT but not in those from CaR -/- mice. Thus the CaR activates neuronal K+ channels and could potentially inhibit neuronal excitability and neurotransmission via membrane repolarization.

  15. Monogamy of quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Antony; Jennings, David; Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Wiseman, Howard

    The quantum steering ellipsoid formalism naturally extends the Bloch vector picture for qubits to provide a visualisation of two-qubit systems. If Alice and Bob share a correlated state then a local measurement by Bob steers Alice's qubit inside the Bloch sphere; given all possible measurements by Bob, the set of states to which Alice can be steered form her steering ellipsoid. We apply the formalism to a three-party scenario and find that steering ellipsoid volumes obey a simple monogamy relation. This gives us a novel derivation of the well-known CKW (Coffman-Kundu-Wootters) inequality for entanglement monogamy. The geometric perspective also identifies a new measure of quantum correlation, `obesity', and a set of `maximally obese' states that saturate the steering monogamy bound. These states are found to have extremal quantum correlation properties that are significant in the steering ellipsoid picture and for the study of two-qubit states in general.

  16. H∞-control of a rack-assisted electric power steering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannöhl, C.; Müller, S.; Ulbrich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Electric power steering (EPS) is more and more in use for passenger cars. Compared with hydraulic steering systems there are many advantages, such as reduced CO2 emissions and the possibility to use the EPS motor torque for advanced driver assistance systems. One task of the steering system is to give the driver an adequate steering feel. This includes providing road feedback and the right level of assistance torque. This article describes the steering torque control of a rack-assisted EPS. The controller's task is to follow a reference steering torque quickly and accurately. First, a mechanical model of the EPS is shown. Then, an H∞-controller is designed, implemented and compared with other steering torque controllers. As steering torque discontinuities are a topic when looking at new control algorithms, the phenomenon and its cause are analysed using a detailed mechanical model. The results of this analysis are considered in the controller design.

  17. Report of International NanoSPD Steering Committee and statistics on recent NanoSPD activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. The Université de Lorraine in Metz, France, is the selected site for the 6th International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation (NanoSPD6) following a series of five earlier conferences. This introductory paper reports on several major developments in NanoSPD activities as well as on very recent NanoSPD citation data which confirm the continued growth and expansion of this important research area. Close attention is given to the topics of workshops, conferences and seminars organized during these last three years as well as on books and reviews published prior to the NanoSPD6 conference. A special concern of the committee is in introducing and discussing the appropriate terminology to be applied in this new field of materials science and engineering.

  18. Acceleration control system for semi-active in-car crib with joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, T.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce the risk of injury to an infant in an in-car crib (or in a child safety bed) collision shock during a car crash, it is necessary to maintain a constant force acting on the crib below a certain allowable value. To realize this objective, we propose a semi-active in-car crib system with the joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms. The arms of the proposed crib system support the crib like a pendulum while the pendulum system itself is supported like an inverted pendulum by the arms. In addition, the friction torque of each arm is controlled using a brake mechanism that enables the proposed in-car crib to decrease the acceleration of the crib gradually and maintain it around the target value. This system not only reduces the impulsive force but also transfers the force to the infant's back using a spin control system, i.e., the impulse force acts is made to act perpendicularly on the crib. The spin control system was developed in our previous work. This work focuses on the acceleration control system. A semi-active control law with acceleration feedback is introduced, and the effectiveness of the system is demonstrated using numerical simulation and model experiment.

  19. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  20. Access to recreational physical activities by car and bus: an assessment of socio-spatial inequalities in mainland Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Neil S; Lamb, Karen E; Wang, Yang; Ogilvie, David; Ellaway, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and other chronic conditions linked with low levels of physical activity (PA) are associated with deprivation. One reason for this could be that it is more difficult for low-income groups to access recreational PA facilities such as swimming pools and sports centres than high-income groups. In this paper, we explore the distribution of access to PA facilities by car and bus across mainland Scotland by income deprivation at datazone level. GIS car and bus networks were created to determine the number of PA facilities accessible within travel times of 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Multilevel negative binomial regression models were then used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities, adjusting for datazone population size and local authority. Access to PA facilities by car was significantly (p<0.01) higher for the most affluent quintile of area-based income deprivation than for most other quintiles in small towns and all other quintiles in rural areas. Accessibility by bus was significantly lower for the most affluent quintile than for other quintiles in urban areas and small towns, but not in rural areas. Overall, we found that the most disadvantaged groups were those without access to a car and living in the most affluent areas or in rural areas.

  1. Autonomous collision avoidance system by combined control of steering and braking using geometrically optimised vehicular trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Isogai, Juzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an autonomous obstacle avoidance system not only by braking but also by steering, as one of the active safety technologies to prevent traffic accidents. The proposed system prevents the vehicle from colliding with a moving obstacle like a pedestrian jumping out from the roadside. In the proposed system, to avoid the predicted colliding position based on constant-velocity obstacle motion assumption, the avoidance trajectory is derived as connected two identical arcs. The system then controls the vehicle autonomously by the combined control of the braking and steering systems. In this paper, the proposed system is examined by real car experiments and its effectiveness is shown from the results of the experiments.

  2. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Shappell, Nancy W.; Flythe, Michael D.; Aiken, Glen E.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0–8.5 ng Eqs g−1 DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL−1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d−1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL−1, P < 0.05), concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 versus 76 and 60 ng mL−1, respectively). Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects

  3. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture.

    PubMed

    Shappell, Nancy W; Flythe, Michael D; Aiken, Glen E

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0-8.5 ng Eqs g(-1) DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL(-1), based on 2.3 kg SBHs d(-1), 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL(-1), P < 0.05), concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 versus 76 and 60 ng mL(-1), respectively). Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects

  4. Novel CAR-mediated mechanism for synergistic activation of two distinct elements within the human cytochrome P450 2B6 gene in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Swales, Karen; Kakizaki, Satoru; Yamamoto, Yukio; Inoue, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Negishi, Masahiko

    2005-02-04

    The constitutive active receptor (CAR) regulates the induction of the cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) gene by phenobarbital-type inducers, such as 1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) via the distal phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM, at -1732/-1685 bp). Activation of the PBREM by TCPOBOP generated a 10-fold induction of CYP2B6 mRNA in HepG2 cells stably expressing mouse CAR (Ym17). Co-treatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) synergistically increased this induction over 100-fold without directly activating CAR or the PBREM. Although OA synergy required the presence of PBREM, deletion assays delineated the OA-responsive activity to a proximal 24-bp (-256/-233) sequence (OARE) in the CYP2B6 promoter. CAR did not directly bind to the OARE in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. However, both DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed a significant increase in CAR association with the OARE after co-treatment with TCPOBOP and OA, indicating the indirect binding of CAR to the OARE. The two cis-acting elements, the distal PBREM and the proximal OARE, within the chromatin structure are both regulated by CAR in response to TCPOBOP and OA, respectively, to maximally induce the CYP2B6 promoter. This functional interaction between the two sites expands the current understanding of the mechanism of CAR-mediated inducible transcription.

  5. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane technical mixture regulates cell cycle and apoptosis genes through the activation of CAR and ERα in mouse livers

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.

    2013-09-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and a xenoestrogen that promotes rodent hepatomegaly and tumours. A recent study has shown significant correlation between DDT serum concentration and liver cancer incidence in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesised that a mixture of DDT isomers could exert effects on the liver through pathways instead of classical ERs. The acute effects of a DDT mixture containing the two major isomers p,p′-DDT (85%) and o,p′-DDT (15%) on CAR and ERα receptors and their cell cycle and apoptosis target genes were studied in mouse livers. ChIP results demonstrated increased CAR and ERα recruitment to their specific target gene binding sites in response to the DDT mixture. The results of real-time RT-PCR were consistent with the ChIP data and demonstrated that the DDT was able to activate both CAR and ERα in mouse livers, leading to target gene transcriptional increases including Cyp2b10, Gadd45β, cMyc, Mdm2, Ccnd1, cFos and E2f1. Western blot analysis demonstrated increases in cell cycle progression proteins cMyc, Cyclin D1, CDK4 and E2f1 and anti-apoptosis proteins Mdm2 and Gadd45β. In addition, DDT exposure led to Rb phosphorylation. Increases in cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis proteins were accompanied by a decrease in p53 content and its transcriptional activity. However, the DDT was unable to stimulate the β-catenin signalling pathway, which can play an important role in hepatocyte proliferation. Thus, our results indicate that DDT treatment may result in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition through CAR- and ERα-mediated gene activation in mouse livers. These findings suggest that the proliferative and anti-apoptotic conditions induced by CAR and ERα activation may be important contributors to the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis as produced by DDT in rodent livers. - Highlights: • DDT activated both CAR and ERα and their cell

  6. Experimental investigation of different active noise control concepts applied to a passenger car equipped with an active windshield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misol, M.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2012-05-01

    The main purpose of this work is the implementation and experimental investigation of different active structural acoustic control (ASAC) concepts for the reduction of interior noise in an automobile passenger compartment. For the control experiments, a medium-class test car was used, which had been equipped with an active windshield. The active windshield consists of the serial-production laminated glass pane augmented with piezoceramic patch-transducers applied to the blackened rim of the windshield. A multi-reference test provided measurement data for the identification of a local discrete-time state-space model (SSM). The subsequent acquisition of frequency response functions (FRF) by way of using the same actuators but measuring on a much finer grid provided the database for the formulation of a least-squares problem to derive a global system model. Based on the local and global discrete-time SSMs, different controllers were designed and experimentally realized. The comparison of the vibration levels in open- and closed-loop showed a global reduction of 5-7 dB in the acoustically relevant frequency band containing the second and third structural resonance of the windshield system. The occurrence of complex operational deflection shapes (ODS) was identified as the main limitation concerning the disturbance rejection of the active system. The acoustic performance of the ASAC system is reflected in a reduction up to 15 dB in sound pressure level (SPL).

  7. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Clinical Imaging

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical Imaging Steering Committee serves as a forum for the extramural imaging and oncology communities to provide strategic input to the NCI regarding its significant investment in imaging activities in clinical trials.

  8. Multiphysics modelling of multibody systems: application to car semi-active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docquier, N.; Poncelet, A.; Delannoy, M.; Fisette, P.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the present article is to analyse the performances of a modern vehicle equipped with a novel suspension system linking front, rear, right and left cylinders via a semi-active hydraulic circuit, developed by the Tenneco Automotive company. In addition to improving the vehicle's vertical performances (in terms of comfort), both the stiff roll motion of the carbody and the soft wrap motion of the rear/front wheel-axle units can be obtained and tuned via eight electrovalves. The proposed system avoids the use of classical anti-roll bars, which would be incompatible with the wrap performance. A major problem of the project is to produce a realistic and efficient 3D multibody dynamic model of an Audi A6 coupled, at the equational level, with an hydraulic model of the suspension including cylinders, accumulators, valve characteristics, oil compressibility and pipe dynamics. As regards the hydraulic submodel, a particular attention is paid to assemble resistive components properly without resorting to the use of artificial volumes, as proposed by some software dealing with the dynamics of hydraulic systems. According to Tenneco Automotive requirements, this model must be produced in a Matlab/Simulink form, in particular for control purposes. Thanks to the symbolic approach underlying our multibody program; a unified hybrid model can be obtained as a unique plant dynamic block to be real-time integrated in the Simulink environment on a standard computer. Simulation results highlight the advantages of this new suspension system, in particular regarding the behaviour of the car which can remain stiff in roll for curve negotiation, while maintaining a soft wrap behaviour on uneven surfaces.

  9. Asymptotic sideslip angle and yaw rate decoupling control in four-wheel steering vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Riccardo; Scalzi, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    This paper shows that, for a four-wheel steering vehicle, a proportional-integral (PI) active front steering control and a PI active rear steering control from the yaw rate error together with an additive feedforward reference signal for the vehicle sideslip angle can asymptotically decouple the lateral velocity and the yaw rate dynamics; that is the control can set arbitrary steady state values for lateral speed and yaw rate at any longitudinal speed. Moreover, the PI controls can suppress oscillatory behaviours by assigning real stable eigenvalues to a widely used linearised model of the vehicle steering dynamics for any value of longitudinal speed in understeering vehicles. In particular, the four PI control parameters are explicitly expressed in terms of the three real eigenvalues to be assigned. No lateral acceleration and no lateral speed measurements are required. The controlled system maintains the well-known advantages of both front and rear active steering controls: higher controllability, enlarged bandwidth for the yaw rate dynamics, suppressed resonances, new stable cornering manoeuvres and improved manoeuvrability. In particular, zero lateral speed may be asymptotically achieved while controlling the yaw rate: in this case comfort is improved since the phase lag between lateral acceleration and yaw rate is reduced. Also zero yaw rate can be asymptotically achieved: in this case additional stable manoeuvres are obtained in obstacle avoidance. Several simulations, including step references and moose tests, are carried out on a standard small SUV CarSim model to explore the robustness with respect to unmodelled effects such as combined lateral and longitudinal tyre forces, pitch, roll and driver dynamics. The simulations confirm the decoupling between the lateral velocity and the yaw rate and show the advantages obtained by the proposed control: reduced lateral speed or reduced yaw rate, suppressed oscillations and new stable manoeuvres.

  10. Assessment of anti-CarP antibodies, disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis patients on conventional and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Pangtey, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Rachna; Rehan, Harmeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Objective Good biomarkers are important to guide decisions in the clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients harbor antibodies directed against carbamylated proteins which may predict joint damage. This study investigated whether antibodies against carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) may serve as surrogate prognostic markers. Material and methods Fifty-three patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis according to ACR 1987 criteria were included. Blood samples were analyzed for CarP antibody levels using the ELISA method. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the WHO SF-36 questionnaire, and disease activity was assessed using the DAS28 calculator. Newly diagnosed patients were assessed at the first visit and at 12 weeks of treatment, while a single assessment was made for patients already on maintenance therapy. Results Out of 53 patients, 22 had titers of anti-CarP above the cut-off range and considered as positive for anti-CarP antibodies. Anti-CarP antibody serum level was significantly higher in patients with deformity of joints and with erosions in comparison to those without any destructive changes (p < 0.05). There was a weak positive correlation between anti-CarP and DAS 28 (p > 0.05). Also there was a weak negative correlation in all domains of quality of life with anti-CarP antibody titers (p > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between titers of anti-CarP antibodies and presence or absence of rheumatoid factor. Conclusions Serum levels of anti-CarP antibodies in RA patients with joint erosions/deformities were much higher than in those without any joint damage. Anti-CarP antibodies may have good prognostic value in RA patients with erosions. Disease activity and QoL of RA patients improved during treatment, but no correlation was found between DAS 28/QoL and anti-CarP antibody serum levels. PMID:28386136

  11. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  12. Flame retardant BDE-47 effectively activates nuclear receptor CAR in human primary hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 (2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is a thyroid hormone disruptor in mice; hepatic induction of various metabolic enzymes and transporters has been suggested as the mechanism for this disruption. Utilizing Car-/- and Pxr-/- mice as well as h...

  13. "RED" Matters When Naming "CAR": The Cascading Activation of Nontarget Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sébastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Seven experiments tested, whether when naming a colored object (e.g., "CAR"), its color (e.g., "red") is phonologically encoded. In the first experiment, adults had to say aloud the names of colored line drawings of objects that were each displayed among 3 black-and-white line drawings (Experiment 1a) or that were presented…

  14. Non-dimensionalised closed-form parametric analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions using a quarter-car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Blanchard, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a non-dimensionalised closed-form analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions, using a quarter-car model. The derivation of the closed-form solutions for three indices that can be used for ride comfort, vehicle handling, and stability are presented based on non-dimensionalised suspension parameters. The behaviour of semi-active vehicle suspensions is evaluated using skyhook, groundhook, and hybrid control policies, and compared with passive suspensions. The relationship between vibration isolation, suspension deflection, and road holding is studied, using three performance indices based on the mean square of the sprung mass acceleration, rattle space, and tyre deflection, respectively. The results of the study indicate that the hybrid control policy yields significantly better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The results also indicate that for typical passenger cars, the hybrid control policy results in a better compromise between comfort, road holding and suspension travel requirements than both the skyhook and groundhook control methods.

  15. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering.

  16. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    PubMed Central

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  17. A study on single lane-change manoeuvres for determining rearward amplification of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiushi; He, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers issued a test procedure, SAE-J2179, to determine the rearward amplification (RA) of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles (MTAHVs). Built upon the procedure, the International Organization for Standardization released the test manoeuvres, ISO-14791, for evaluating directional performance of MTAHVs. For the RA measures, ISO-14791 recommends two single lane-change manoeuvres: (1) an open-loop procedure with a single sine-wave steering input; and (2) a closed-loop manoeuvre with a single sine-wave lateral acceleration input. For an articulated vehicle with active trailer steering (ATS), the RA measure in lateral acceleration under the open-loop manoeuvre was not in good agreement with that under the closed-loop manoeuvre. This observation motivates the research on the applicability of the two manoeuvres for the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS. It is reported that transient response under the open-loop manoeuvre often leads to asymmetric curve of tractor lateral acceleration [Winkler CB, Fancher PS, Bareket Z, Bogard S, Johnson G, Karamihas S, Mink C. Heavy vehicle size and weight - test procedures for minimum safety performance standards. Final technical report, NHTSA, US DOT, contract DTNH22-87-D-17174, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Report No. UMTRI-92-13; 1992]. To explore the effect of the transient response, a multiple cycle sine-wave steering input (MCSSI) manoeuvre is proposed. Simulation demonstrates that the steady-state RA measures of an MTAHV with and without ATS under the MCSSI manoeuvre are in excellent agreement with those under the closed-loop manoeuvre. It is indicated that between the two manoeuvres by ISO-14791, the closed-loop manoeuvre is more applicable for determining the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS.

  18. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase enzyme activity and mRNA levels are not different in subcutaneous adipose tissue from Angus and American Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P J; Rogers, M; Oman, J; May, S G; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B

    1994-10-01

    We proposed that greater stearoyl coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase enzyme activity caused the elevated monounsaturated fatty acids observed in American Wagyu adipose tissue. Stearoyl CoA desaturase mRNA concentrations and enzyme activities were measured in subcutaneous adipose samples from Angus (n = 5) and American Wagyu (n = 5), fed to the Japanese market end point. A rat liver stearoyl CoA desaturase cDNA clone was used to measure the relative amounts of stearoyl CoA desaturase mRNA. Enzyme activities and mRNA concentrations, as measured by laser densitometry of slot-blot autoradiograms, were not significantly different between the two breeds at this stage of growth. This investigation has demonstrated that, at this stage of maturity, differences in fatty acid composition between Angus and American Wagyu steers cannot be attributed to differences in stearoyl CoA desaturase enzyme activity.

  19. Expression of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris and characterization of its anti-coxsackievirus activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kebin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Wei; Xu, Zihui; Zhou, Shiwen; Huang, Chunji; Sheng, Halei; He, Xiaomei; Xiong, Junzhi; Qian, Guisheng

    2013-04-15

    Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors (CARs) are the common cellular receptors which mediate coxsackievirus or adenovirus infection. Receptor trap therapy, which uses soluble viral receptors to block the attachment and internalization of virus, has been developed for the inhibition of virus infection. In this study, we have constructed a pPIC3.5K/CAR-Fc expression plasmid for the economical and scale-up production of CAR-Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris. The coding sequence of the fusion protein was optimized according to the host codon usage bias. The amount of the CAR-Fc protein to total cell protein was up to 10% by 1% methanol induction for 96h and the purity was up to 96% after protein purification. Next, the virus pull-down assay demonstrated the binding activity of the CAR-Fc to coxsackievirus. The analyses of MTT assay, immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR after virus neutralization assay revealed that CAR-Fc could significantly block coxsackievirus B3 infection in vitro. In coxsackievirus B3 infected mouse models, CAR-Fc treatment reduced mortality, myocardial edema, viral loads and inflammation, suggesting the significant virus blocking effect in vivo. Our results indicated that the P. pastoris expression system could be used to produce large quantities of bioactive CAR-Fc for further clinical purpose.

  20. Comparison of homology models and X-ray structures of the nuclear receptor CAR: assessing the structural basis of constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Windshügel, Björn; Jyrkkärinne, Johanna; Vanamo, Jenni; Poso, Antti; Honkakoski, Paavo; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) possesses an intrinsic basal activity whose structural basis has been analysed during the last decade. Recently, we published a homology model of the CAR ligand binding domain (LBD) based on the X-ray structures of the closely related pregnane X (PXR) and vitamin D (VDR) receptor. A detailed analysis of the homology model and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations afforded us to propose a potential mechanism underlying the constitutive activity of CAR. Almost simultaneously, X-ray structures of human and mouse CAR LBD were released. In the present study, a detailed analysis and comparison of homology model and X-ray structures is carried out in order to evaluate the quality and reliability of our homology modelling procedure. The hypothesis of the constitutive activity which we proposed on the basis of our modelling results was tested for consistency with the crystal structures. In addition, the features stated to be essential for the basal activity based on the X-ray data were investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the homology modelling procedure was able to predict the CAR LBD structure with high accuracy. Structural features that have been revealed as critical for constitutive activity in the model are also observed in the X-ray structures. Furthermore, the MD simulations of the CAR X-ray structures and a detailed analysis of other NRs clarify the role of distinct structural features that have been assigned an important role for the constitutive activity.

  1. Car Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic ... Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español ...

  2. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  3. Leading to distraction: Driver distraction, lead car, and road environment.

    PubMed

    Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N

    2016-04-01

    Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought.

  4. Getting More Mileage out of Mousetrap Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Wylo, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    Building and racing mousetrap cars is a common activity in many eighth- and ninth-grade physical science classrooms. However, once students have raced their cars, most mousetrap assignments come to an end. In this article, the authors developed a project to help teachers get more mileage out of mousetrap cars. The Mousetrap Car Project addresses…

  5. Method of achieving ultra-wideband true-time-delay beam steering for active electronically scanned arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Loui, Hung; Brock, Billy C.

    2016-10-25

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to beam steering an array antenna by modifying intermediate frequency (IF) waveforms prior to conversion to RF signals. For each channel, a direct digital synthesis (DDS) component can be utilized to generate a waveform or modify amplitude, timing and phase of a waveform relative to another waveform, whereby the generation/modification can be performed prior to the IF input port of a mixer on each channel. A local oscillator (LO) signal can be utilized to commonly drive each of the mixers. After conversion at the RF output port of each of the mixers, each RF signal can be transmitted by a respective antenna element in the antenna array. Initiation of transmission of each RF signal can be performed simultaneously at each antenna. The process can be reversed during receive whereby timing, amplitude, and phase of the received can be modified digitally post ADC conversion.

  6. A novel estimating method for steering efficiency of the driver with electromyography signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahui; Ji, Xuewu; Hayama, Ryouhei; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2014-05-01

    The existing research of steering efficiency mainly focuses on the mechanism efficiency of steering system, aiming at designing and optimizing the mechanism of steering system. In the development of assist steering system especially the evaluation of its comfort, the steering efficiency of driver physiological output usually are not considered, because this physiological output is difficult to measure or to estimate, and the objective evaluation of steering comfort therefore cannot be conducted with movement efficiency perspective. In order to take a further step to the objective evaluation of steering comfort, an estimating method for the steering efficiency of the driver was developed based on the research of the relationship between the steering force and muscle activity. First, the steering forces in the steering wheel plane and the electromyography (EMG) signals of the primary muscles were measured. These primary muscles are the muscles in shoulder and upper arm which mainly produced the steering torque, and their functions in steering maneuver were identified previously. Next, based on the multiple regressions of the steering force and EMG signals, both the effective steering force and the total force capacity of driver in steering maneuver were calculated. Finally, the steering efficiency of driver was estimated by means of the estimated effective force and the total force capacity, which represented the information of driver physiological output of the primary muscles. This research develops a novel estimating method for driver steering efficiency of driver physiological output, including the estimation of both steering force and the force capacity of primary muscles with EMG signals, and will benefit to evaluate the steering comfort with an objective perspective.

  7. Objectification of steering feel around straight-line driving for vehicle/tyre design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsik; Yoon, Yong-San

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the objectification techniques for the assessment of steering feel including {on-centre} feel and steering response by measurement data. Here, new objective parameters are developed by considering not only the process by which the steering feel is evaluated subjectively but also by the ergonomic perceptive sensitivity of the driver. In order to validate such objective parameters, subjective tests are carried out by professional drivers. Objective measurements are also performed for several cars at a proving ground. The linear correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings and the objective parameters are calculated. As one of new objective parameters, steering wheel angle defined by ergonomic perception sensitivity shows high correlation with the subjective questionnaires of on-center responses. Newly defined steering torque curvature also shows high correlation with the subjective questionnaires of on-center effort. These correlation results conclude that the subjective assessment of steering feel can be successfully explained and objectified by means of the suggested objective parameters.

  8. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  9. Light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus: evidence that CarS acts as an anti-repressor of CarA.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, D E; Hodgson, D A

    2001-11-01

    In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, carotenoids are produced in response to illumination, as a result of expression of the crt carotenoid biosynthesis genes. The majority of crt genes are clustered in the crtEBDC operon, which is repressed in the dark by CarA. Genetic data suggest that, in the light, CarS is synthesized and achieves activation of the crtEBDC operon by removing the repressive action of CarA. As CarS contains no known DNA-binding motif, the relief of CarA-mediated repression was postulated to result from a direct interaction between these two proteins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated direct interaction between CarA and CarS. The two-hybrid system also implied that CarA and, possibly, CarS are capable of homodimerization. Direct evidence for CarS anti-repressor action was provided in vitro. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-CarA protein fusion was shown to bind specifically to a palindromic operator sequence within the crtEBDC promoter. CarA was prevented from binding to its operator, and prebound CarA was removed by the addition of purified CarS. CarS is therefore an anti-repressor.

  10. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Is an Endogenous Signal Retaining the Nuclear Constitutive Active/Androstane Receptor (CAR) in the Cytoplasm of Mouse Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Chika; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) is sequestered in the cytoplasm of liver cells before its activation by therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics such as phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-Bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) in mouse liver, the regulatory mechanism of which remains poorly understood. Given the finding that epidermal growth factor repressed PB activation of CAR-mediated transcription (Mol Pharmacol 65:172–180, 2004), here we investigated the regulatory role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated signal in sequestering CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse primary hepatocytes. HGF treatment effectively repressed the induction of endogenous CYP2b10 gene by PB and TCPOBOP in mouse primary hepatocytes. On the other hand, inhibition by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(methyl-thio)butadiene (U0126) of an HGF downstream kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) induced the Cyp2b10 gene and up-regulated the CAR-regulated promoter activity in the absence of TCPOBOP. HGF treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in the cytosol, thus decreasing the TCPOBOP-induced nuclear accumulation of CAR. In contrast, U0126 dephosphorylated ERK1/2 and increased nuclear CAR accumulation in the absence of TCPOBOP. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the HGF-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is the endogenous signal that sequesters CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse primary hepatocytes. PMID:17314319

  11. 52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view from starboard looking aft. Photograph by Jet Lowe, April 1988. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and enzyme activity in adipose tissue of short- and long-fed Angus and Wagyu steers fed corn- or hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Yano, H; Smith, S B

    2007-02-01

    Angus and Wagyu steers consuming high-roughage diets exhibit large differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition, but there are no differences in terminal measures of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity or gene expression. Also, adipose tissue lipids of cattle fed corn-based diets have greater MUFA:SFA ratios than cattle fed hay-based diets. We hypothesized that any changes in SCD gene expression and activity would precede similar changes in adipose tissue lipogenesis between short- and long-fed endpoints. Furthermore, changes in SCD activity and gene expression between production endpoints would differ between corn- and hay-fed steers and between Wagyu and Angus steers. Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers were fed a corn-based diet for 8 mo (short-fed; 16 mo of age) or 16 mo (long-fed; 24 mo of age), whereas another group of Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers was fed a hay-based diet for 12 mo (short-fed; 20 mo of age) or 20 mo (long-fed; 28 mo of age) to match the end point BW of the corn-fed steers. Acetate incorporation into lipids in vitro was greater (P < 0.01) in corn-fed steers than in hay-fed steers and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in Wagyu than in Angus s.c. adipose tissue because the rate in Wagyu was twice that of Angus adipose tissue in the corn-fed, short-fed steers. There were diet x end point interactions for lipogenesis in i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues (both P < 0.01) because lipogenesis was 60 to 90% lower in the long-fed cattle than in short-fed cattle fed the corn-based diet. The greatest SCD enzyme activity in Angus s.c. adipose tissue was observed at 24 mo of age (corn-based diet), but activity in Wagyu adipose tissue was greatest at 28 mo of age (hay-based diet; breed x diet x end point interaction, P = 0.08). For short- vs. long-fed endpoints in Angus, s.c. adipose tissue SCD activity was less (hay diet) or the same (corn diet). Conversely, SCD gene expression was greatest in long-fed Wagyu steers fed the hay- or corn

  13. Superactivation of quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    We consider Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering in the regime where the parties can perform collective measurements on many copies of a given shared entangled state. We derive a simple and efficient condition for guaranteeing that an entangled state is k -copy steerable. In particular, we show that any two-qubit and qubit-qutrit entangled state is k -copy steerable. This allows us to discuss the effect of superactivation of steering, whereby an entangled state that is unsteerable (i.e., admits a local hidden state model) in the one-copy regime becomes k -copy steerable. We provide examples with few copies and low dimensions. Our results give evidence that entanglement and steering could become equivalent in the multicopy regime.

  14. CCCT - Patient Advocate Steering Committee

    Cancer.gov

    The Patient Advocate Steering Committee (PASC) works to ensure advocates involved with the Scientific Steering Committees (SSCs) are completely integrated in the development, implementation, and monitoring of clinical trials within those groups.

  15. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  16. Car sick.

    PubMed

    Renner, M G

    1988-01-01

    The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission

  17. Development of a Systems Computational Model to Investigate Early Biological Events in Hepatic Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by Phenobarbital

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activation of the nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive active/androstane receptor) is implicated in the control several key biological events such as metabolic pathways. Here, we combined data from literature with information obtained from in vitro assays in the US EPA ToxCast dat...

  18. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-29

    the path of the vehicle is difficult to conu·ol which may lead to more aborted test u·ials than using driver-conu·olled steer inputs. Using a driver...reduces both the time required to prepare the vehicle and the probability of aborted u·ials. This allows more attempts to be made, but test results

  19. Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, B; Beruete, M; Khromova, I

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate tunable mid-infrared (MIR) beam steering devices based on multilayer graphene-dielectric metamaterials. The effective refractive index of such metamaterials can be manipulated by changing the chemical potential of each graphene layer. This can arbitrarily tailor the spatial distribution of the phase of the transmitted beam, providing mechanisms for active beam steering. Three different beam steerer (BS) designs are discussed: a graded-index (GRIN) graphene-based metamaterial block, an array of metallic waveguides filled with graphene-dielectric metamaterial and an array of planar waveguides created in a graphene-dielectric metamaterial block with a specific spatial profile of graphene sheets doping. The performances of the BSs are numerically analyzed, showing the tunability of the proposed designs for a wide range of output angles (up to approximately 70°). The proposed graphene-based tunable beam steering can be used in tunable transmitter/receiver modules for infrared imaging and sensing.

  20. CAR, driving into the future.

    PubMed

    Swales, Karen; Negishi, Masahiko

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear orphan receptor CAR is active in the absence of ligand with the unique capability to be further regulated by activators. A number of these activators, including phenobarbital, do not directly bind to the receptor. Considered a xenobiotic sensing receptor, CAR transcriptionally modifies the expression of genes involved in the metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics and steroids in response to these compounds and other cellular metabolites. Its hepatic expression pattern endows the liver with the ability to protect against not only exogenous but also endogenous insults. The mechanism of CAR activation is complex, involving translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of activators, followed by further activation steps in the nucleus. Although this mechanism remains under investigation, we have summarized here the cellular signaling pathways elucidated so far and speculate on the mechanism by which CAR activators regulate gene expression through this network.

  1. Xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation associated with constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is enhanced by pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shizu, Ryota; Benoki, Satoshi; Numakura, Yuki; Kodama, Susumu; Miyata, Masaaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    Xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) play pivotal roles in the metabolic functions of the liver such as xenobiotics detoxification and energy metabolism. While CAR or PPARα activation induces hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodent models, it remains unclear whether PXR activation also shows such effects. In the present study, we have investigated the role of PXR in the xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation with or without CAR activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and phenobarbital, or PPARα activation by Wy-14643 in mice. Treatment with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital increased the percentage of Ki-67-positive nuclei as well as mRNA levels of cell proliferation-related genes in livers as expected. On the other hand, treatment with the PXR activator pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) alone showed no such effects. Surprisingly, PCN co-treatment significantly augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by CAR activation with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital in wild-type mice but not in PXR-deficient mice. Intriguingly, PXR activation also augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by Wy-14643 treatment. Moreover, PCN treatment increased the RNA content of hepatocytes, suggesting the induction of G0/G1 transition, and reduced mRNA levels of Cdkn1b and Rbl2, encoding suppressors of cell cycle initiation. Our present findings indicate that xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation mediated by CAR or PPARα is enhanced by PXR co-activation despite that PXR activation alone does not cause the cell proliferation in mouse livers. Thus PXR may play a novel and unique role in the hepatocyte/liver hyperplasia upon exposure to xenobiotics.

  2. Laser beam steering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.

  3. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV talk about them. If a car with air bags is in a front-end accident, the bags burst out of the steering wheel and dashboard and — whoosh! — blow up like big balloons. This happens very quickly — in the blink of an eye. Air bags cushion passengers during an accident to keep ...

  4. An Exploratory Simulator Study on the Use of Active Control Devices in Car Driving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    system to the driver and therefore concurrently serve as a proprioceptive -tactual display (RPihmann, 1981). The term "tactual" is used in the meaning of...displayed proprioceptive -tactual cues (see common coding approach in information processing, Prinz, 1990). The control loop for an active control...KlMckner & St6cker; 1990). In its present form the accelerator hardly pvrode- any systematic proprioceptive - tactual feedback to the driver abot.t the

  5. Quantum coherence of steered states.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-19

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to 'steer' Bob's reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob's steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob's channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  6. Beam steering device using CGHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin S.; An, Jun-Won; Kim, Nam; Sohn, Young-Jun; Suh, Dongwoo; Baek, Mun-Chul

    2003-05-01

    A new beam steering scheme using computer-generated holograms(CGHs) is proposed. The steering devices in order to control the reference and object wave are necessary in various holographic multiplexing methods. The beam steering device using CGHs can be simultaneously processed the coarse address function controlling the beam up or down so as to select slice and the fine address function adjusting to the particular holographic page within the chosen layer. From the experimental results, we show that the beam steering can be easily implemented and so powerful to generate the electrically addressed reference wave in digital holographic memory system.

  7. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  8. DNA polymorphisms and transcript abundance of PRKAG2 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase in the rumen are associated with gain and feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef steers with variation in feed efficiency phenotypes were evaluated previously on a high density SNP panel. Ten markers from rs110125325-rs41652818 on bovine chromosome 4 were associated with average daily gain (ADG). To identify the gene(s) in this 1.2Mb region responsible for variation in AD...

  9. Quantum coherence of steered states

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation. PMID:26781214

  10. Holographic memory using beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  11. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on steering and suspension are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Eleven units of instruction cover the following topics: chassis, tires, and wheels; steering; and suspension. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing…

  12. Steer assistance for teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Olivier; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane

    2005-05-01

    Giat Industries, expert in combat system, designs and integrates the technologies (electrical network, mechanical design, ergonomic and mobility command and control) for the French military and civil robotic. One of the main problems of current robotics is to treat the lack of operator's perception due to teleoperation. The article details the assistance for the steer control part of mobility command and control. The purpose of the assistance is to secure the vehicle, to insure the continuity of the command (in particular for tracked vehicle equipped of hydrostatic steering group), and to adapt the command (to use all the range of the command even at high speed and to adapt the speed to the desired curve). The advantage of the system presented in the article is to filter the order first and to transmit to the actuators only safe orders preserving the vehicle. This approach transforms the telepilot's order watching and correction problem, to a telepilot's order filtering problem. We pass here, from a logical "a posteriori" to a logical of "a priori" processing. The assistance includes: a model of the dynamic behavior of the vehicle and an open loop, some feed forward with appropriate filters and a closed loop. The article presents the result of the command studies from time simulation to "man on the loop" simulation. This system, at present time applied to the French Observation Robot demonstrator SYRANO (developped for the DGA-French Defence Procurement Agency), is the subject of a patent.

  13. [Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Cardiology for car driving, airplane flying,and underwater activities in subjects with heart disease].

    PubMed

    García-Cosío Mir, F; Alberca Vela, T; Rubio Sanz, J; Grande Ruiz, A; Viqueira Caamaño, J A; Curcio Ruigómez, A; Navarro Ruiz, V

    2001-04-01

    Car driving, airplane piloting and underwater activities by subjects with heart disease may cause sudden incapacitation leading to the loss of the safety margins necessary to avoid accidents. In the case of car driving and airplane piloting the risk affects, not only the driver or pilot, but also passengers and/or bystanders within an accident zone. In the case of diving the risk resides basically in the loss of control of the vital support mechanisms necessary in a very hostile medium. This document reviews the possible causes of unexpected incapacitation, with or without loss of consciousness, in the light of the pathophysiologic consequences of fatigue, hypoxia, stress or barotrauma posed by each activity. Detailed recommendations are made for limiting driving, piloting and diving, based on official Spanish and European regulations and the addresses of specialized centers are provided for consultation. Moreover, recommendations for airplane travel for patients with heart disease are indicated.

  14. Need for airbag and seatbelt to reduce orbital injuries from steering wheel knob.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to report a blowout fracture of the orbital floor and medial wall caused by being struck by a steering wheel knob of an automobile and to discuss the use of airbags and seatbelts as a preventive measure for orbital injuries. A 58-year-old man was struck in the left eye by a steering wheel. His car hit a telephone pole, and he had a frontal collision injury. In this frontal impact, his left eye was hit by a Brodie knob attached to the steering wheel. At the time of injury, the speed of the car was about 65 km/h. He was not wearing a seatbelt, and the airbag had not deployed. Swelling and ecchymosis were observed at the left periorbital area, and he had diplopia on a left-side gaze. A CT revealed fractures in the medial and inferior wall of the left orbit. Entrapped soft tissues were reduced, and the medial wall and floor were reconstructed with a resorbable sheet. His diplopia disappeared 12 days after surgery. To prevent the injury from the steering wheel knob, an airbag should be installed in any vehicle, which has a steering wheel knob. Legislation mandating the use of airbags as well as seatbelts in vehicles with attached steering wheel knobs should be made.

  15. Mode of action and human relevance analysis for nuclear receptor-mediated liver toxicity: A case study with phenobarbital as a model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator

    PubMed Central

    Elcombe, Clifford R.; Peffer, Richard C.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Bailey, Jason; Bars, Remi; Bell, David; Cattley, Russell C.; Ferguson, Stephen S.; Geter, David; Goetz, Amber; Goodman, Jay I.; Hester, Susan; Jacobs, Abigail; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Schoeny, Rita; Xie, Wen; Lake, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are important nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses from exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic indirect CAR activator, which induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is known to produce liver foci/tumors in mice and rats. From literature data, a mode of action (MOA) for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was developed. A MOA for PXR activators was not established owing to a lack of suitable data. The key events in the PB-induced liver tumor MOA comprise activation of CAR followed by altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, increased cell proliferation, formation of altered hepatic foci and ultimately the development of liver tumors. Associative events in the MOA include altered epigenetic changes, induction of hepatic CYP2B enzymes, liver hypertrophy and decreased apoptosis; with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication being an associative event or modulating factor. The MOA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill criteria for causality and other possible MOAs were excluded. While PB produces liver tumors in rodents, important species differences were identified including a lack of cell proliferation in cultured human hepatocytes. The MOA for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was considered to be qualitatively not plausible for humans. This conclusion is supported by data from a number of epidemiological studies conducted in human populations chronically exposed to PB in which there is no clear evidence for increased liver tumor risk. PMID:24180433

  16. Front-End Types. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile front-end types. Covered in the module are three common types of passenger car front suspension systems and their major components as well as two types…

  17. Glycolytic potential and activity of adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) in steer carcasses with normal (<5.8) or high (>5.9) 24h pH determined in M. longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Apaoblaza, A; Galaz, A; Strobel, P; Ramírez-Reveco, A; Jeréz-Timaure, N; Gallo, C

    2015-03-01

    Muscle glycogen concentration (MGC) and lactate (LA), activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) were determined at 0.5h (T0) and 24h (T24) post-mortem in Longissimus dorsi samples from 38 steers that produced high pH (>5.9) and normal pH (<5.8) carcasses at 24h postmortem. MGC, LA and glycolytic potential were higher (P<0.05) in normal pH carcasses. GDE activity was similar (P>0.05) in both pH categories. GP activity increased between T0 and T24 only in normal pH carcasses. AMPK activity was four times higher in normal pH v/s high pH carcasses, without changing its activity over time. Results reinforce the idea that differences in postmortem glycogenolytic/glycolytic flow in L. dorsi of steers showing normal v/s high muscle pH at 24h, could be explained not only by the higher initial MGC in normal pH carcasses, but also by a high and sustained activity of AMPK and an increased GP activity at 24h postmortem.

  18. Steering Bell-diagonal states

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250

  19. Levels of steering control: Reproduction of steering-wheel movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godthelp, H.

    1982-01-01

    A schematic description of the steering control process is presented. It is shown that this process can be described in terms of levels of control. Level of control will depend on driver's skill in making use of 'clever' strategies which may be related to knowledge about the path to follow (input) and/or the vehicle under control. This knowledge may be referred to as an internal model of a particular task element. Internal information, as derived from these internal models will probably be used together with proprioceptive feedback. It is hypothesized that the efficiency of the higher levels of control will be dependent on the accuracy of both the internal and proprioceptive information. Based on this research philosophy a series of experiments is carried out. Two primary experiments were done in order to analyse subjects' ability to reproduce steering-wheel positions and movements without visual feedback. Steering-wheel angle amplitude, steering force and movement frequency were involved as independent variables.

  20. A control theoretic model of driver steering behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donges, E.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative description of driver steering behavior such as a mathematical model is presented. The steering task is divided into two levels: (1) the guidance level involving the perception of the instantaneous and future course of the forcing function provided by the forward view of the road, and the response to it in an anticipatory open-loop control mode; (2) the stabilization level whereby any occuring deviations from the forcing function are compensated for in a closed-loop control mode. This concept of the duality of the driver's steering activity led to a newly developed two-level model of driver steering behavior. Its parameters are identified on the basis of data measured in driving simulator experiments. The parameter estimates of both levels of the model show significant dependence on the experimental situation which can be characterized by variables such as vehicle speed and desired path curvature.

  1. Why do drivers maintain short headways in fog? A driving-simulator study evaluating feeling of risk and lateral control during automated and manual car following.

    PubMed

    Saffarian, M; Happee, R; Winter, J C F de

    2012-01-01

    Drivers in fog tend to maintain short headways, but the reasons behind this phenomenon are not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of headway on lateral control and feeling of risk in both foggy and clear conditions. Twenty-seven participants completed four sessions in a driving simulator: clear automated (CA), clear manual (CM), fog automated (FA) and fog manual (FM). In CM and FM, the drivers used the steering wheel, throttle and brake pedals. In CA and FA, a controller regulated the distance to the lead car, and the driver only had to steer. Drivers indicated how much risk they felt on a touchscreen. Consistent with our hypothesis, feeling of risk and steering activity were elevated when the lead car was not visible. These results might explain why drivers adopt short headways in fog. Practitioner Summary: Fog poses a serious road safety hazard. Our driving-simulator study provides the first experimental evidence to explain the role of risk-feeling and lateral control in headway reduction. These results are valuable for devising effective driver assistance and support systems.

  2. Steering UNICORE applications with VISIT.

    PubMed

    Eickermann, Thomas; Frings, Wolfgang; Gibbon, Paul; Kirtchakova, Lidia; Mallmann, Daniel; Visser, Anke

    2005-08-15

    The UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing REsources) software provides a Grid infrastructure together with a computing portal for engineers and scientists to access supercomputer centres from anywhere on the Internet. While UNICORE is primarily designed for the submission and control of batch jobs, it is also feasible to establish an on-line connection between an application and the UNICORE user-client. This opens up the possibility of performing on-line visualization and computational steering of applications under UNICORE control while maintaining the security provided by this system. This contribution describes the design of a steering extension to UNICORE based on the steering toolkit VISIT (VISualization Interface Toolkit). VISIT is a lightweight library that supports bidirectional data exchange between visualizations and parallel applications. As an example application, a parallel simulation of a laser-plasma interaction that can be steered by an AVS/Express application is presented.

  3. Effective and persistent antitumor activity of HER2-directed CAR-T cells against gastric cancer cells in vitro and xenotransplanted tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjing; Tong, Chuan; Wang, Yao; Gao, Yunhe; Dai, Hanren; Guo, Yelei; Zhao, Xudong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Zizheng; Han, Weidong; Chen, Lin

    2017-03-10

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) proteins are overexpressed in a high proportion of gastric cancer (GC) cases and affect the maintenance of cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations, which are used as targets for the clinical treatment of patients with HER2-positive GC. Despite improvements in survival, numerous HER2-positive patients fail treatment with trastuzumab, highlighting the need for more effective therapies. In this study, we generated a novel type of genetically modified human T cells, expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), and targeting the GC cell antigen HER2, which harbors the CD137 and CD3ζ moieties. Our findings show that the expanded CAR-T cells, expressing an increased central memory phenotype, were activated by the specific recognition of HER2 antigens in an MHC-independent manner, and effectively killed patient-derived HER2-positive GC cells. In HER2-positive xenograft tumors, CAR-T cells exhibited considerably enhanced tumor inhibition ability, long-term survival, and homing to targets, compared with those of non-transduced T cells. The sphere-forming ability and in vivo tumorigenicity of patient-derived gastric cancer stem-like cells, expressing HER2 and the CD44 protein, were also inhibited. Our results support the future development and clinical application of this adoptive immunotherapy in patients with HER2-positive advanced GC.

  4. Holographic memory using beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirrors steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  5. Loophole-free Quantum Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelow, Sven; Wittmann, Bernhard; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K.; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-02-01

    Experiments testing quantum mechanics have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, a conclusive test that simultaneously closes all major loopholes (the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes) remains an open challenge. An important class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of ``steering.'' Schr"odinger introduced this term for entanglement seemingly allowing to remotely steer the state of a distant system [1]. Einstein called this ``spooky action at a distance.'' Steering was recently formalized by deriving steering inequalities allowing experimental tests. Here, we present the first loophole-free steering experiment [2]. We use entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories and close all loopholes by a large separation, ultra-fast switching and quantum random number generation, and high, overall detection efficiency. Beside its foundational importance loop-hole-free steering is relevant for is relevant for device-independent certification of quantum entanglement. [4pt] [1] E. Schr"odinger, Proc. Camb. , Phil. Soc. 31, 553 (1935) [0pt] [2] B. Wittmann, S. Ramelow, F. Steinlechner, N. K. Langford, N. Brunner, H. Wiseman, R. Ursin, A. Zeilinger, arXiv:1111.0760, (2011)

  6. Identifying cognitive distraction using steering wheel reversal rates.

    PubMed

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Spyridakos, Panagiotis; Carsten, Oliver M J; Merat, Natasha

    2016-11-01

    The influence of driver distraction on driving performance is not yet well understood, but it can have detrimental effects on road safety. In this study, we examined the effects of visual and non-visual distractions during driving, using a high-fidelity driving simulator. The visual task was presented either at an offset angle on an in-vehicle screen, or on the back of a moving lead vehicle. Similar to results from previous studies in this area, non-visual (cognitive) distraction resulted in improved lane keeping performance and increased gaze concentration towards the centre of the road, compared to baseline driving, and further examination of the steering control metrics indicated an increase in steering wheel reversal rates, steering wheel acceleration, and steering entropy. We show, for the first time, that when the visual task is presented centrally, drivers' lane deviation reduces (similar to non-visual distraction), whilst measures of steering control, overall, indicated more steering activity, compared to baseline. When using a visual task that required the diversion of gaze to an in-vehicle display, but without a manual element, lane keeping performance was similar to baseline driving. Steering wheel reversal rates were found to adequately tease apart the effects of non-visual distraction (increase of 0.5° reversals) and visual distraction with offset gaze direction (increase of 2.5° reversals). These findings are discussed in terms of steering control during different types of in-vehicle distraction, and the possible role of manual interference by distracting secondary tasks.

  7. Infinitely variable steering transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.O.

    1989-04-04

    A steering transmission is described comprising: first and second drive units each driven at a substantially constant speed for producing respective first and second unidirectional, continuous outputs infinitely variable between a minimum speed and a maximum speed; a first output planetary gear drivingly connected to a first transmission output; a second output planetary gear set drivingly connected to a second transmission output; an input gear set; means interconnecting the first and second output planetary gear sets; means connecting the first drive unit to the first output planetary gear set; means applying the second drive unit output to the second output planetary gear set; means applying a substantially constant speed input to the input gear set; means for selectively conditioning the input gear set to drive the one output planetary gear set at a speed having a first predetermined fixed ratio to the constant speed input, whereby to operate the transmission in one speed range; and means for selectively applying the first drive unit output to second output planetary gear set, whereby to operate the transmission in another speed range different from the one speed range.

  8. 17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN LOADING AREA NEXT TO CAR DUMP AND CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. Beam Shaping for CARS Measurements in Turbulent Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique to mitigate the effect of beam steering on CARS measurements in turbulent, variable density environments. The new approach combines Planar BOXCARS phase-matching with elliptical shaping of one of the beams to generate a signal insensitive to beam steering, while keeping the same spatial resolution. Numerical and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. One set of experiments investigated the effect of beam shaping in the presence of a controlled and well quantified displacement of the beams at the focal plane. Another set of experiments, more qualitative, proved the effectiveness of the technique in the presence of severe beam steering due to turbulence.

  10. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  11. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, Eugene; Butler, Joel; Dawson, Sally; Edwards, Helen; Himel, Thomas; Holmes, Stephen; Kim, Young-Kee; Lankford, Andrew; McGinnis, David; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  12. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  13. Robot-Assisted Needle Steering

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Majewicz, Ann; Kallem, Vinutha; Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Ken; Cowan, Noah J.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion is a critical aspect of many medical treatments, diagnostic methods, and scientific studies, and is considered to be one of the simplest and most minimally invasive medical procedures. Robot-assisted needle steering has the potential to improve the effectiveness of existing medical procedures and enable new ones by allowing increased accuracy through more dexterous control of the needle tip path and acquisition of targets not accessible by straight-line trajectories. In this article, we describe a robot-assisted needle steering system that uses three integrated controllers: a motion planner concerned with guiding the needle around obstacles to a target in a desired plane, a planar controller that maintains the needle in the desired plane, and a torsion compensator that controls the needle tip orientation about the axis of the needle shaft. Experimental results from steering an asymmetric-tip needle in artificial tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the system and its sensitivity to various environmental and control parameters. In addition, we show an example of needle steering in ex vivo biological tissue to accomplish a clinically relevant task, and highlight challenges of practical needle steering implementation. PMID:23028210

  14. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-03

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.

  16. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  17. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  18. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  19. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  20. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  1. Steering magnet design for a limited space

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Fite, J.; Lodestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.

    2009-05-04

    We compare two extreme designs of steering magnets. The first one is a very thin steering magnet design which occupies only 6 mm in length and can be additionally installed as needed. The other is realized by applying extra coil windings to a quadrupole magnet and does not consume any length. The properties and the features of these steering magnets are discussed.

  2. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.251 - Steering apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering apparatus. 169.251 Section 169.251 Shipping... Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.251 Steering apparatus. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the steering apparatus is inspected and operationally tested to determine...

  4. 46 CFR 169.251 - Steering apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering apparatus. 169.251 Section 169.251 Shipping... Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.251 Steering apparatus. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the steering apparatus is inspected and operationally tested to determine...

  5. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems...

  6. 46 CFR 115.814 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering systems. 115.814 Section 115.814 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems of the vessel and make...

  7. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism. (d) Alignment. Toe-in and toe-out measurements shall...) Lash (inches) 16 or less 2 18 21/4 20 21/2 22 23/4 (b) Linkage play. Free play in the steering linkage... front or rear tread of the tire exceeds one-quarter inch there is excessive steering linkage play....

  8. Signaling control of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-02-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) plays a crucial role in the regulation of drug metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cancer development through modulating the transcription of its numerous target genes. Different from prototypical nuclear receptors, CAR can be activated by either direct ligand binding or ligand-independent (indirect) mechanisms both initiated with nuclear translocation of CAR from the cytoplasm. In comparison to the well-defined ligand-based activation, indirect activation of CAR appears to be exclusively involved in the nuclear translocation through mechanisms yet to be fully understood. Accumulating evidence reveals that without activation, CAR forms a protein complex in the cytoplasm where it can be functionally affected by multiple signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent progresses in our understanding of the signaling regulation of CAR nuclear accumulation and activation. We expect that this review will also provide greater insight into the similarity and difference between the mechanisms of direct vs. indirect human CAR activation.

  9. Risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance using a combined steering torque overlay and differential braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junyung; Yi, Kyongsu; Yoo, Hyunjae; Chong, Hyokjin; Ko, Bongchul

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance. The proposed risk management algorithm consists of a supervisor and a coordinator. The supervisor is designed to monitor collision risks between the subject vehicle and approaching vehicle in the adjacent lane. An appropriate criterion of intervention, which satisfies high acceptance to drivers through the consideration of a realistic traffic, has been determined based on the analysis of the kinematics of the vehicles in longitudinal and lateral directions. In order to assist the driver actively and increase driver's safety, a coordinator is designed to combine lateral control using a steering torque overlay by motor-driven power steering and differential braking by vehicle stability control. In order to prevent the collision while limiting actuator's control inputs and vehicle dynamics to safe values for the assurance of the driver's comfort, the Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequalities based optimisation methods have been used. The proposed risk management algorithm has been evaluated via simulation using CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink.

  10. Work and Learning in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises. A Comparative Study on the Relationship between Technological and Organisational Developments and Training Activities in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises in Four European Countries. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Tillaart, Harry; van den Berg, Sjaak; Warmerdam, John

    Work and learning in microenterprises in the car repair industries of four European Community (EC) countries were examined through 21 case studies of firms with 10 or fewer employees (6 firms in Ireland and 5 each in Greece, the Netherlands, and Spain). Structured interviews were conducted with each firm's owner and 60 motor vehicle mechanics at…

  11. ELECTRIC MOTOR CARS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The electric automobiles studied are designed as the equivalent of their gasoline-engine counterparts in size, comfort, performance, and initial...acceleration. Top speeds comparable to those of small present-day cars are shown to be realizable, though the range between refueling is not. Batteries...noise abatement. The lifetime costs derived can be somewhat lower than those of conventional cars ; therefore it is concluded that electric cars

  12. Retinal flow is sufficient for steering during observer rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Warren, William H Jr

    2002-01-01

    How do people control locomotion while their eyes are simultaneously rotating? A previous study found that during simulated rotation, they can perceive a straight path of self-motion from the retinal flow pattern, despite conflicting extraretinal information, on the basis of dense motion parallax and reference objects. Here we report that the same information is sufficient for active control ofjoystick steering. Participants steered toward a target in displays that simulated a pursuit eye movement. Steering was highly inaccurate with a textured ground plane (motion parallax alone), but quite accurate when an array of posts was added (motion parallax plus reference objects). This result is consistent with the theory that instantaneous heading is determined from motion parallax, and the path of self-motion is determined by updating heading relative to environmental objects. Retinal flow is thus sufficient for both perceiving self-motion and controlling self-motion with a joystick; extraretinal and positional information can also contribute, but are not necessary.

  13. Regulation of gene expression by CAR: an update.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Mari; Honkakoski, Paavo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a well-known xenosensor that regulates hepatic drug metabolism and detoxification. CAR activation can be elicited by a large variety of xenobiotics, including phenobarbital (PB) which is not a directly binding CAR ligand. The mechanism of CAR activation is complex and involves translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, followed by further activation steps in the nucleus. Recently, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been identified as a PB-responsive receptor, and PB activates CAR by inhibiting the EGFR signaling. In addition to regulation of drug metabolism, activation of CAR has multiple biological end points such as modulation of xenobiotic-elicited liver injury, and the role of CAR in endobiotic functions such as glucose metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Thus, investigations on the molecular mechanism of CAR activation are critical for the real understanding of CAR-mediated processes. Here, we summarize the current understanding of mechanisms by which CAR activators regulate gene expression through cellular signaling pathways and the roles of CAR on xenobiotic-elicited hepatocellular carcinoma, liver injury, glucose metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis.

  14. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  15. The theoretical analysis of an instrument for linear and angular displacements of the steered wheel measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wach, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper the theoretical analysis of the measuring instrument for determination of translation and rotation of the stub axle with the steered wheel against car body was presented. The instrument is made of nine links with elongation sensors embedded in it. One of several possible structures of instrument of this kind was presented. Basing on solution of the geometrical constraints system of equations of the device, the numerical analysis of the measurement accuracy was conducted.

  16. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid composition and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2007-07-01

    Eighteen steers were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental corn oil level to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue on fatty acid composition of LM, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and expression as well as cellularity in s.c. adipose. Corn oil was supplemented (g/kg of BW) at 0 (none), 0.75 (medium), and 1.5 (high). Cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the corn oil and were supplemented according to pasture availability (0.7 to 1% of BW). Steers were finished on a rotationally grazed, tall fescue pasture for 116 d. Fatty acid composition of LM, s.c. adipose, and diet was determined by GLC. Total linoleic acid intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with corn oil supplementation (90.7, 265.1, and 406.7 g in none, medium, and high, respectively). Oil supplementation linearly reduced (P < 0.05) myristic, palmitic, and linolenic acid percentage in LM and s.c. adipose. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11; VA) percentage was 46 and 32% greater (linear, P = 0.02; quadratic, P = 0.01) for medium and high, respectively, than none, regardless of tissue. Effect of oil supplementation on CLA cis-9, trans-11 was affected by type of adipose tissue (P < 0.01). In the LM, CLA cis-9, trans-11 isomer was 25% greater for medium than for none and intermediate for high, whereas CLA cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was 48 and 33% greater in s.c. adipose tissue for medium and high than for none, respectively. Corn oil linearly increased (P 0.05) the percentage of total SFA, MUFA, or PUFA but linearly increased (P = 0.03) n-6:n-3 ratio from 2.4 to 2.9 in none and high, respectively. Among tissues, total SFA and MUFA were greater in s.c. adipose than LM, whereas total PUFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6:n-3 ratio were lower. Trans-10 octadecenoic acid, VA, and CLA trans-10, cis-12 were greater (P

  17. 2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING WEST TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF LOADING AREA OF CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. 3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH THE VAL TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  1. Relationship between antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, and feed efficiency in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S; Hansen, S L

    2016-07-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) can vary between individuals but sources of variation are not well characterized. Oxidative stress is among the biological mechanisms believed to contribute to variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FE, antioxidant activity, and oxidative stress in feedlot steers representing phenotypic extremes for FE. Crossbred beef steers ( = 181) fed 70-d growing phase (GP) whole-shell corn-based (G-Corn) or rye baleage and soybean hull-based (G-Rough) diets in GrowSafe bunks at the University of Missouri were shipped to Iowa State University where the 12 most feed efficient (HFE) and 12 least feed efficient (LFE) steers from each diet (n = 48; 467 kg [SD 51]) were selected for evaluation. Steers received diets similar to GP diets, and 3 d after arrival, blood was sampled to evaluate antioxidant activity and oxidative stress markers for the GP following transit. Steers were transitioned to finishing phase (FP) cracked corn-based (F-Corn) or dried distillers' grains and soybean hull-based (F-Byp) diets, and on FP d 97, blood samples for the FP were collected. Data for the GP were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial, and data for the FP were analyzed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial using PROC MIXED of SAS. No GP diet × FP diet, FP diet × FE group, or 3-way interactions were noted ( ≥ 0.11) for FP measures. Steers fed the G-Rough diet had greater ( = 0.04) GP plasma protein carbonyl concentrations. During the GP, HFE steers had greater ( ≤ 0.04) protein carbonyl and ratio of oxidized:reduced blood lysate glutathione concentrations than LFE steers. There were GP diet × FE group interactions ( ≤ 0.03) during the GP and FP. During the GP, total blood lysate superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was greater ( ≤ 0.03) in G-Rough/LFE steers than in G-Rough/HFE and G-Corn/LFE steers; G-Corn/HFE steers were intermediate. The G-Rough/LFE steers had greater ( < 0.04) glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity than other groups and

  2. Efficacy and Limitations of Research Steering in Different Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeber, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Higher education reforms informed by the managerial paradigm aim at increasing the capability of the university leadership to steer research activity, with no substantial variation across the disciplines. However, literature points out the limitations of universities to act as strategic actors, as well as the differences between the disciplines…

  3. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  4. Characterization of Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) Treated Rice Husk Activated Carbon and Adsorption of Lead from Car Battery Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanum, F.; Bani, O.; Izdiharo, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The use of rice husk as adsorbent would not only reduce its disposal problems, but would also produce value-added products, such as activated carbon derived from rice husk. This study aimed to determine the optimum carbonization temperature for activated carbon production from rice husk and its adsorption performance on Pb in car battery wastewater. In this study, activated carbon was produced by carbonizing rice husk 400–600 °C for 90–150 minutes followed by chemical activation using 5% Na2CO3 and sieving to 100 meshes. Lead adsorption was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results suggested that highest carbon yield of 47.75% was obtained for carbonization at 500 °C for 150 minutes. At that condition, produced activated carbon contained 3.35% moisture, 30.86% ash, 18.04% volatile matter. The adsorption capacity was found to be 0.6007 mg lead/g adsorbent with % adsorpsi 58.08%

  5. The Design of a Controller for the Steer-by-Wire System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Se-Wook; Chae, Ho-Chol; Yun, Seok-Chan; Han, Chang-Soo

    Drive-by-Wire (DBW) technologies improve conventional vehicle performance and a Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system is one of the DBW technologies. The control algorithm of the SBW system was designed in this paper. To verify the control algorithm, the SBW system is modeled using the bond graph method. The first aim of the control algorithm is controlling the steering wheel assist motor to make the real vehicle's steering feel and for a vehicle designer to adjust the steering feel as he finds necessary. Therefore, torque map is designed to determine the steering wheel reactive torque. The second aim is controlling the front wheel assist motor to improve vehicle's maneuverability and stability by using understeer and oversteer propensity of a vehicle. Furthermore, high performance control algorithm is proposed in this paper and Active Roll Stability Control (ARSC) method is designed as one of the high performance control algorithm.

  6. Influencing driver chosen cornering speed by means of modified steering feel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothhämel, Malte; IJkema, Jolle; Drugge, Lars

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation about influencing the driver's behaviour intuitively by means of modified steering feel. For a rollover indication through haptic feedback a model was developed and tested that returned a warning to the driver about too high vehicle speed. This was realised by modifying the experienced steering wheel torque as a function of the lateral acceleration. The hypothesis for this work was that drivers of heavy vehicles will perform with more margin of safety to the rollover threshold if the steering feel is altered by means of decreased or additionally increased steering wheel torque at high lateral acceleration. Therefore, the model was implemented in a test truck with active steering with torque overlay and used for a track test. Thirty-three drivers took part in the investigation that showed, depending on the parameter setting, a significant decrease of lateral acceleration while cornering.

  7. Extracting quantum coherence via steering

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xueyuan; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    As the precious resource for quantum information processing, quantum coherence can be created remotely if the involved two sites are quantum correlated. It can be expected that the amount of coherence created should depend on the quantity of the shared quantum correlation, which is also a resource. Here, we establish an operational connection between coherence induced by steering and the quantum correlation. We find that the steering-induced coherence quantified by such as relative entropy of coherence and trace-norm of coherence is bounded from above by a known quantum correlation measure defined as the one-side measurement-induced disturbance. The condition that the upper bound saturated by the induced coherence varies for different measures of coherence. The tripartite scenario is also studied and similar conclusion can be obtained. Our results provide the operational connections between local and non-local resources in quantum information processing. PMID:27682450

  8. Extracting quantum coherence via steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Fan, Heng

    2016-09-01

    As the precious resource for quantum information processing, quantum coherence can be created remotely if the involved two sites are quantum correlated. It can be expected that the amount of coherence created should depend on the quantity of the shared quantum correlation, which is also a resource. Here, we establish an operational connection between coherence induced by steering and the quantum correlation. We find that the steering-induced coherence quantified by such as relative entropy of coherence and trace-norm of coherence is bounded from above by a known quantum correlation measure defined as the one-side measurement-induced disturbance. The condition that the upper bound saturated by the induced coherence varies for different measures of coherence. The tripartite scenario is also studied and similar conclusion can be obtained. Our results provide the operational connections between local and non-local resources in quantum information processing.

  9. Study concerning the loads over driver's chests in car crashes with cars of the same or different generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, N.; Năstăsoiu, M.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing occupant injuries for cars involves in traffic accidents is a main target of today cars designers. Known as active or passive safety, many technological solutions were developing over the time for an actual better car's occupant safety. In the real world, in traffic accidents are often involved cars from different generations with various safety historical solutions. The main aim of these papers are to quantify the influences over the car driver chest loads in cases of same or different generation of cars involved in side car crashes. Both same and different cars generations were used for the study. Other goal of the paper was the study of in time loads conformity for diver's chests from both cars involved in crash. The paper's experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2015 PC-Crash Seminar”. In all crashes we obtaining results from both dummy placed in impacted and hits car. The novelty of the paper are the comparisons of data set from each of driver (dummy) of two cars involved in each of six experimental crashes. Another novelty of this paper consists in possibilities to analyse the influences of structural historical cars solutions over deformation and loads in cases of traffic accidents involved. Paper's conclusions can be future used for car passive safety improvement.

  10. Detection of steering direction using EEG recordings based on sample entropy and time-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Caldero-Bardaji, P; Longfei, X; Jaschke, S; Reermann, J; Mideska, K G; Schmidt, G; Deuschl, G; Muthuraman, M

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring driver's intentions beforehand is an ambitious aim, which will bring a huge impact on the society by preventing traffic accidents. Hence, in this preliminary study we recorded high resolution electroencephalography (EEG) from 5 subjects while driving a car under real conditions along with an accelerometer which detects the onset of steering. Two sensor-level analyses, sample entropy and time-frequency analysis, have been implemented to observe the dynamics before the onset of steering. Thus, in order to classify the steering direction we applied a machine learning algorithm consisting of: dimensionality reduction and classification using principal-component-analysis (PCA) and support-vector-machine (SVM), respectively. The results showed an increase of the sample entropy and the estimated power values in the theta and alpha frequency bands, 100 ms before the onset of steering. The detection of steering direction depicted that sample entropy gives a higher classification accuracy (73.5% ±6.8) as compared to that of using the estimated power for theta and alpha frequency bands (62.6% ±5.6).

  11. Audit of Car Ownership Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    In this report, a review was presented of existing models for car ownership. This review contains a description and comparison of existing Dutch car ...the AVV car ownership models. The car ownership model that AVV uses for most applications is the so-called FACTS model (Forecasting Air pollution...through Car Traffic Simulation). FACTS also provides the future total number of cars that is used as an external total in the Dutch national Model System

  12. Application of a self-tuning fuzzy PI-PD controller in an active anti-roll bar system for a passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniandy, V.; Samin, P. M.; Jamaluddin, H.

    2015-11-01

    A fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has not been widely investigated for active anti-roll bar (AARB) application due to its unspecific mathematical analysis and the derivative kick problem. This paper briefly explains how the derivative kick problem arises due to the nature of the PID controller as well as the conventional fuzzy PID controller in association with an AARB. There are two types of controllers proposed in this paper: self-tuning fuzzy proportional-integral-proportional-derivative (STF PI-PD) and PI-PD-type fuzzy controller. Literature reveals that the PI-PD configuration can avoid the derivative kick, unlike the standard PID configuration used in fuzzy PID controllers. STF PI-PD is a new controller proposed and presented in this paper, while the PI-PD-type fuzzy controller was developed by other researchers for robotics and automation applications. Some modifications were made on these controllers in order to make them work with an AARB system. The performances of these controllers were evaluated through a series of handling tests using a full car model simulated in MATLAB Simulink. The simulation results were compared with the performance of a passive anti-roll bar and the conventional fuzzy PID controller in order to show improvements and practicality of the proposed controllers. Roll angle signal was used as input for all the controllers. It is found that the STF PI-PD controller is able to suppress the derivative kick problem but could not reduce the roll motion as much as the conventional fuzzy PID would. However, the PI-PD-type fuzzy controller outperforms the rest by improving ride and handling of a simulated passenger car significantly.

  13. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all...

  14. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all...

  15. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all...

  16. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all...

  17. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all...

  18. Detecting genuine multipartite entanglement in steering scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebaratnam, C.

    2016-05-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a form of quantum nonlocality which is intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. EPR steering is a resource for quantum key distribution that is device independent on only one side in that it certifies bipartite entanglement when one party's device is not characterized while the other party's device is fully characterized. In this work, we introduce two types of genuine tripartite EPR steering, and derive two steering inequalities to detect them. In a semi-device-independent scenario where only the dimensions of two parties are assumed, the correlations which violate one of these inequalities also certify genuine tripartite entanglement. It is known that Alice can demonstrate bipartite EPR steering to Bob if and only if her measurement settings are incompatible. We demonstrate that quantum correlations can also detect tripartite EPR steering from Alice to Bob and Charlie, even if Charlie's measurement settings are compatible.

  19. Transcription coactivator PRIP, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-interacting protein, is redundant for the function of nuclear receptors PParalpha and CAR, the constitutive androstane receptor, in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Joy; Qi, Chao; Guo, Dongsheng; Ahmed, Mohamed R; Jia, Yuzhi; Usuda, Nobuteru; Viswakarma, Navin; Rao, M Sambasiva; Reddy, Janardan K

    2007-01-01

    Disruption of the genes encoding for the transcription coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-interacting protein (PRIP/ASC-2/RAP250/TRBP/NRC) and PPAR-binding protein (PBP/TRAP220/DRIP205/MED1), results in embryonic lethality by affecting placental and multiorgan development. Targeted deletion of coactivator PBP gene in liver parenchymal cells (PBP(LIV-/-)) results in the near abrogation of the induction of PPARalpha and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor)-regulated genes in liver. Here, we show that targeted deletion of coactivator PRIP gene in liver (PRIP(LIV-/-)) does not affect the induction of PPARalpha-regulated pleiotropic responses, including hepatomegaly, hepatic peroxisome proliferation, and induction of mRNAs of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation system, indicating that PRIP is not essential for PPARalpha-mediated transcriptional activity. We also provide additional data to show that liver-specific deletion of PRIP gene does not interfere with the induction of genes regulated by nuclear receptor CAR. Furthermore, disruption of PRIP gene in liver did not alter zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Studies with adenovirally driven EGFP-CAR expression in liver demonstrated that, unlike PBP, the absence of PRIP does not prevent phenobarbital-mediated nuclear translocation/retention of the receptor CAR in liver in vivo and cultured hepatocytes in vitro. These results show that PRIP deficiency in liver does not interfere with the function of nuclear receptors PPARalpha and CAR. The dependence of PPARalpha- and CAR-regulated gene transcription on coactivator PBP but not on PRIP attests to the existence of coactivator selectivity in nuclear receptor function.

  20. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions.

  1. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  2. Quantitative High-throughput Luciferase Screening in Identifying CAR Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caitlin; Zhao, Jinghua; Wang, Hongbing; Xia, Menghang

    2017-01-01

    Summary The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is responsible for the transcription of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. There are two possible methods of activation for CAR, direct ligand binding and a ligand-independent method, which makes this a unique nuclear receptor. Both of these mechanisms require translocation of CAR from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Interestingly, CAR is constitutively active in immortalized cell lines due to the basal nuclear location of this receptor. This creates an important challenge in most in vitro assay models because immortalized cells cannot be used without inhibiting the basal activity. In this book chapter, we go into detail of how to perform quantitative high-throughput screens to identify hCAR1 modulators through the employment of a double stable cell line. Using this line, we are able to identify activators, as well as deactivators, of the challenging nuclear receptor, CAR. PMID:27518621

  3. Evolutionary history and functional characterization of the amphibian xenosensor CAR.

    PubMed

    Mathäs, Marianne; Burk, Oliver; Qiu, Huan; Nusshag, Christian; Gödtel-Armbrust, Ute; Baranyai, Dorothea; Deng, Shiwei; Römer, Kristin; Nem, Dieudonné; Windshügel, Björn; Wojnowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The xenosensing constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is widely considered to have arisen in early mammals via duplication of the pregnane X receptor (PXR). We report that CAR emerged together with PXR and the vitamin D receptor from an ancestral NR1I gene already in early vertebrates, as a result of whole-genome duplications. CAR genes were subsequently lost from the fish lineage, but they are conserved in all taxa of land vertebrates. This contrasts with PXR, which is found in most fish species, whereas it is lost from Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) and plays a role unrelated to xenosensing in Xenopus. This role is fulfilled in Xenopus by CAR, which exhibits low basal activity and pronounced responsiveness to activators such as drugs and steroids, altogether resembling mammalian PXR. The constitutive activity typical for mammalian CAR emerged first in Sauropsida, and it is thus common to all fully terrestrial land vertebrates (Amniota). The constitutive activity can be achieved by humanizing just two amino acids of the Xenopus CAR. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the NR1I subfamily of nuclear receptors. They identify CAR as the more conserved and remarkably plastic NR1I xenosensor in land vertebrates. Nonmammalian CAR should help to dissect the specific functions of PXR and CAR in the metabolism of xeno- and endobiotics in humans. Xenopus CAR is a first reported amphibian xenosensor, which opens the way to toxicogenomic and bioaugmentation studies in this critically endangered taxon of land vertebrates.

  4. A new model to compute the desired steering torque for steer-by-wire vehicles and driving simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fankem, Steve; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the control of the hand wheel actuator in steer-by-wire (SbW) vehicles and driving simulators (DSs). A novel model for the computation of the desired steering torque is presented. The introduced steering torque computation does not only aim to generate a realistic steering feel, which means that the driver should not miss the basic steering functionality of a modern conventional steering system such as an electric power steering (EPS) or hydraulic power steering (HPS), and this in every driving situation. In addition, the modular structure of the steering torque computation combined with suitably selected tuning parameters has the objective to offer a high degree of customisability of the steering feel and thus to provide each driver with his preferred steering feel in a very intuitive manner. The task and the tuning of each module are firstly described. Then, the steering torque computation is parameterised such that the steering feel of a series EPS system is reproduced. For this purpose, experiments are conducted in a hardware-in-the-loop environment where a test EPS is mounted on a steering test bench coupled with a vehicle simulator and parameter identification techniques are applied. Subsequently, how appropriate the steering torque computation mimics the test EPS system is objectively evaluated with respect to criteria concerning the steering torque level and gradient, the feedback behaviour and the steering return ability. Finally, the intuitive tuning of the modular steering torque computation is demonstrated for deriving a sportier steering feel configuration.

  5. Mode of Action and Human Relevance Analysis for Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Liver Toxicity: A Case Study with Phenobarbital as a Model Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are key nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses. to exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non­ genotoxic i...

  6. CAR-T Cell Therapy for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos A; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas arise from clonal expansions of B, T, or NK cells at different stages of differentiation. Because they occur in the immunocyte-rich lymphoid tissues, they are easily accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy. Expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on T cells is a means of combining the antigen-binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the activating machinery of a T cell, enabling antigen recognition independent of major histocompatibility complex restriction, while retaining the desirable antitumor properties of a T cell. Here, we discuss the basic design of CARs and their potential advantages and disadvantages over other immune therapies for lymphomas. We review current clinical trials in the field and consider strategies to improve the in vivo function and safety of immune cells expressing CARs. The ultimate driver of CAR development and implementation for lymphoma will be the demonstration of their ability to safely and cost-effectively cure these malignancies.

  7. CAR-T Cell Therapy for Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Carlos A.; Heslop, Helen E.; Brenner, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas arise from clonal expansions of B, T, or NK cells at different stages of differentiation. Because they occur in the immunocyte-rich lymphoid tissues, they are easily accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy. Expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on T cells is a means of combining the antigen-binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the activating machinery of a T cell, enabling antigen recognition independent of major histocompatibility complex restriction, while retaining the desirable antitumor properties of a T cell. Here, we discuss the basic design of CARs and their potential advantages and disadvantages over other immune therapies for lymphomas. We review current clinical trials in the field and consider strategies to improve the in vivo function and safety of immune cells expressing CARs. The ultimate driver of CAR development and implementation for lymphoma will be the demonstration of their ability to safely and cost-effectively cure these malignancies. PMID:26332003

  8. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... through the limit of travel in both directions. Feel for binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism... diameter (inches) Lash (inches) 16 or less 2 18 21/4 20 21/2 22 23/4 (b) Linkage play. Free play in the steering linkage shall not exceed the values shown in Table 3. (1) Inspection procedure. Elevate the...

  9. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... through the limit of travel in both directions. Feel for binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism... diameter (inches) Lash (inches) 16 or less 2 18 21/4 20 21/2 22 23/4 (b) Linkage play. Free play in the steering linkage shall not exceed the values shown in Table 3. (1) Inspection procedure. Elevate the...

  10. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... through the limit of travel in both directions. Feel for binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism... diameter (inches) Lash (inches) 16 or less 2 18 21/4 20 21/2 22 23/4 (b) Linkage play. Free play in the steering linkage shall not exceed the values shown in Table 3. (1) Inspection procedure. Elevate the...

  11. Car driving with and without a movable back support: Effect on transmission of vibration through the trunk and on its consequences for muscle activation and spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of a movable backrest on vibration transmission through the trunk during driving and on the physiological consequences thereof. Eleven healthy male subjects drove for about 1 h on normal roads with a movable and with a fixed backrest while surface electromyography (EMG) was measured at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) and vertical accelerations were measured at the seat, backrest and at the spine at the levels of the second sacral vertebra (S2) and seventh cervical vertebra (C7). The movable backrest significantly reduced accelerations at C7 by up to 11.9% at the 5 Hz frequency band. The movable backrest also significantly reduced the coherence and transmission between S2 and C7 accelerations, but not the differential motion between these sensors. EMG at both sides of L5 was on average 28% lower when using the movable backrest. Spinal shrinkage was unaffected by backrest type. It is concluded that a movable backrest reduces the transmission of vibration through the trunk and that it reduces low back EMG. Car driving is associated with the risk of developing low back pain and this may be related to exposure to whole body vibration. This study found an effect of a simple ergonomics measure on the transmission of vibration through the trunk as well as on back muscle activation.

  12. Steering Dynamics of Tilting Narrow Track Vehicle with Passive Front Wheel Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TAN, Jeffrey Too Chuan; ARAKAWA, Hiroki; SUDA, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, narrow track vehicle has been emerged as a potential candidate for the next generation of urban transportation system, which is greener and space effective. Vehicle body tilting has been a symbolic characteristic of such vehicle, with the purpose to maintain its stability with the narrow track body. However, the coordination between active steering and vehicle tilting requires considerable driving skill in order to achieve effective stability. In this work, we propose an alternative steering method with a passive front wheel that mechanically follows the vehicle body tilting. The objective of this paper is to investigate the steering dynamics of the vehicle under various design parameters of the passive front wheel. Modeling of a three-wheel tilting narrow track vehicle and multibody dynamics simulations were conducted to study the effects of two important front wheel design parameters, i.e. caster angle and trail toward the vehicle steering dynamics in steering response time, turning radius, steering stability and resiliency towards external disturbance. From the results of the simulation studies, we have verified the relationships of these two front wheel design parameters toward the vehicle steering dynamics.

  13. Steering control system for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolli, Kaylan C.; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a steering mechanism for an autonomous mobile robot. The steering mechanism replaces a manually turned rack and pinion arrangement with a crank mechanism driven by a linear actuator that in turn is powered by a brushless dc motor. The system was modeled, analyzed, and redesigned to meet the requirements. A 486 computer through a 3-axis motion controller supervises the steering control. The steering motor is a brushless dc motor powered by three phase signals. It is run in current loop mode. The steering control system is supervised by a personal computer through a multi-axis motion controller. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results.

  14. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  15. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) instrument has been developed to obtain simultaneous measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in supersonic combustion and generate databases for validation and development of CFD codes. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. Approximately one million dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & MANUFACTURING COMPANY. BATCH STORAGE SILOS IN BACKGROUND - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. Highly sensitive beam steering with plasmonic antenna.

    PubMed

    Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen

    2014-08-05

    In this work, we design and study a highly sensitive beam steering device that integrates a spiral plasmonic antenna with a subwavelength metallic waveguide. The short effective wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mode supported by the metallic waveguide is exploited to dramatically miniaturize the device and improve the sensitivity of the beam steering. Through introducing a tiny displacement of feed point with respect to the geometrical center of the spiral plasmonic antenna, the direction of the radiation can be steered at considerably high angles. Simulation results show that steering angles of 8°, 17° and 34° are obtainable for a displacement of 50 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Benefiting from the reduced device size and the shorter SPP wavelength, the beam steering sensitivity of the beam steering is improved by 10-fold compared with the case reported previously. This miniature plasmonic beam steering device may find many potential applications in quantum optical information processing and integrated photonic circuits.

  18. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  19. Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER).

    PubMed

    Generoso, Jose Roberto; Latoures, Renee Elizabeth; Acar, Yahya; Miller, Dean Scott; Ciano, Mark; Sandrei, Renan; Vieira, Marlon; Luong, Sean; Hirsch, Jan; Fidler, Richard Lee

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER)," found on pages 255-263, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Define the purpose of the Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER) study. Review the outcome of the STEER study. DISCLOSURE

  20. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING NORTH TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Acousto-Optic Beam Steering Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    8217111 INK $ 1 1 illl iII Ill i, R L-TR-94-121 !1!1Il t 11I1!I!11! ilI, / Final Technical Report August 1994 ACOUSTO - OPTIC BEAM STEERING STUDY Harris...contractual obligations or notices on a specific document require that it be returned. For i ..........I ,, ACOUSTO - OPTIC BEAM STEERING STUDY H. W...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ACOUSTO - OPTIC BEAM STEERING STUDY C - F30602-91-C-0131 PE - 63215C 6. AUTHOR(S) PR - 1405 TA - 02 H. W

  2. Automated beam steering using optimal control

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. K.

    2004-01-01

    We present a steering algorithm which, with the aid of a model, allows the user to specify beam behavior throughout a beamline, rather than just at specified beam position monitor (BPM) locations. The model is used primarily to compute the values of the beam phase vectors from BPM measurements, and to define cost functions that describe the steering objectives. The steering problem is formulated as constrained optimization problem; however, by applying optimal control theory we can reduce it to an unconstrained optimization whose dimension is the number of control signals.

  3. Joint measurability and temporal steering [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, H. S.; Prabhu Tej, J.; Usha Devi, A. R.; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    Quintino et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160402 (2014)) and Uola et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160403 (2014)) have recently established an intrinsic relation between non-joint measurability and Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen steering. They showed that a set of measurements is incompatible (i.e., not jointly measurable) if and only if it can be used for the demonstration of steering. In this paper, we prove the temporal analog of this result viz., a set of measurements are incompatible if and only if it exhibits temporal steering.

  4. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623... Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven steering... system must automatically resume operation after an electric power outage. (b) Control of...

  5. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem: Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Voisinet, Leeann

    1995-01-01

    A report presents additional information about laser-beam-steering apparatus described in "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193) and "More About Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19381). Reiterates basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem, with emphasis on modes of operation, basic design concepts, and initial experiments on partial prototype of apparatus.

  6. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must...

  7. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must...

  8. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary...

  9. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must...

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must...

  11. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary...

  12. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary...

  13. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must...

  14. Design of an intelligent car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  15. NetSim-Steer: A Runtime Steering Framework for Network Simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Akyol, Bora A.

    2012-08-07

    This paper presents NetSim-Steer, a runtime steering framework for network simulators. With this framework, users can specify execution constraints for the network protocols and network models. In addition to this, users can implement steering rules to be executed when a constraint is violated. These rules allows users to alter the parameters of the protocols/models during the simulation so that they stay within the boundaries of the constraints.

  16. NetSim Steer: A Runtime Steering Framework for Network Simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Akyol, Bora A.

    2012-08-09

    This paper presents NetSim-Steer, a runtime steering framework for network simulators. With this framework, users can specify execution constraints for the network protocols and network models. In addition to this, users can implement steering rules to be executed when a constraint is violated. These rules allows users to alter the parameters of the protocols/models during the simulation so that they stay within the boundaries of the constraints.

  17. LUMINOSITY OPTIMIZATION USING AUTOMATED IR STEERING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.D'OTTAVIO,T.

    2004-07-05

    The goal of the RHIC 2004 Au-Au run was to maximize the achieved integrated luminosity. One way is to increase beam currents and minimize beam transverse emittances. Another important ingredient is the minimization of time spent on activities postponing the declaration of ''physics conditions'', i.e. stable beam conditions allowing the experimental detectors to take data. Since collision rates are particularly high in the beginning of the store the integrated luminosity benefits considerably from any minute saved early in the store. In the RHIC run 2004 a new IR steering application uses luminosity monitor signals as a feedback for a fully automated steering procedure. This report gives an overview of the used procedure and summarizes the achieved results.

  18. Lymphocytes can self-steer passively with wind vane uropods.

    PubMed

    Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Nègre, Paulin; Cadra, Sophie; Lellouch, Annemarie C; Gallet, François; Hénon, Sylvie; Theodoly, Olivier

    2014-10-17

    A wide variety of cells migrate directionally in response to chemical or mechanical cues, however the mechanisms involved in cue detection and translation into directed movement are debatable. Here we investigate a model of lymphocyte migration on the inner surface of blood vessels. Cells orient their migration against fluid flow, suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechano-tranduction mechanism. We find that flow detection may not require molecular mechano-sensors of shear stress, and detection of flow direction can be achieved by the orientation in the flow of the non-adherent cell rear, the uropod. Uropods act as microscopic wind vanes that can transmit detection of flow direction into cell steering via the on-going machinery of polarity maintenance, without the need for novel internal guidance signalling triggered by flow. Contrary to chemotaxis, which implies active regulation of cue-dependent signalling, upstream flow mechanotaxis of lymphocytes may only rely on a passive self-steering mechanism.

  19. Design of assistive wheelchair system directly steered by human thoughts.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Liang, Jianyi; Zhao, Qibin; Li, Jie; Hong, Kan; Zhang, Liqing

    2013-06-01

    Integration of brain-computer interface (BCI) technique and assistive device is one of chief and promising applications of BCI system. With BCI technique, people with disabilities do not have to communicate with external environment through traditional and natural pathways like peripheral nerves and muscles, and could achieve it only by their brain activities. In this paper, we designed an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based wheelchair which can be steered by users' own thoughts without any other involvements. We evaluated the feasibility of BCI-based wheelchair in terms of accuracies and real-world testing. The results demonstrate that our BCI wheelchair is of good performance not only in accuracy, but also in practical running testing in a real environment. This fact implies that people can steer wheelchair only by their thoughts, and may have a potential perspective in daily application for disabled people.

  20. Chem-E-Car Downunder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Presents the Chem-E-Car competition in which students build a small car powered by a chemical reaction. Focuses on a controlled chemical reaction in which the car travels a required specific distance and stops. Requires participants to prepare poster presentations. (YDS)

  1. Minimum time cornering: the effect of road surface and car transmission layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernini, Davide; Massaro, Matteo; Velenis, Efstathios; Katzourakis, Diomidis I.; Lot, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the minimum time/limit handling car manoeuvring through nonlinear optimal control techniques. The resulting 'optimal driver' controls the car at its physical limits. The focus is on cornering: different road surfaces (dry and wet paved road, dirt and gravel off-road) and transmission layouts (rear-wheel-drive, front-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive) are considered. Low-drift paved circuit-like manoeuvres and aggressive/high-drift even counter-steering rally like manoeuvres are found depending on terrain/layout combinations. The results shed a light on the optimality of limit handling techniques.

  2. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Gynecologic Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    The Gynecologic Cancers Steering Committee evaluates and prioritizes concepts for phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in adult gynecologic cancers. The GCSC is also intent on fostering collaboration with international groups and institutions conducting trials.

  3. CCCT - NCORP Cancer Control Steering Committees

    Cancer.gov

    The National Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Steering Committees review concepts for clinical trials to control cancer symptoms and cancer treatment side effects, and concepts for studies of cancer care delivery.

  4. No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks, rail cars carrying solid rocket booster segments sit idle. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

  5. No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of two solid rocket booster rail cars is off the track after being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

  6. Girls, Cars, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Beth

    2005-03-01

    For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.

  7. Oxalate urinary calculi in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Huntington, G B; Emerick, R J

    1984-01-01

    Hereford X Angus steers (10/treatment) were fed 90% concentrate diets containing 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, or 1.2% of calcium for 92 days (trial 1) or 114 days (trial 2). Ground limestone was the supplemental calcium source. At slaughter, 12 of 20 steers fed 0.3% calcium had calculi in the urinary bladder or kidneys, compared with 5 of 20 fed 0.6% calcium, 5 of 20 fed 0.9% calcium, and 4 of 20 fed 1.2% calcium. Analyses of calculi indicated they were oxalate calculi. During the first 49 days of trial 2, plasma hydroxyproline concentrations were higher (P less than 0.10) for steers fed 0.3% calcium than for steers fed higher calcium concentrations. Increased bone resorption in steers fed concentrations of 0.3% calcium, resulting in increased plasma hydroxyproline, an oxalate precursor, was indicated as a source of oxalate in calculi and as an explanation of lower occurrence of calculi in steers fed higher concentrations of calcium.

  8. Usability of car stereo.

    PubMed

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  9. New developments in clinical CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  10. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan; Qu, Mingren

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat.

  11. Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanan; Wan, Jingfang; Cheng, Ming-Chieh; Zhang, Zhipeng; Jhiang, Sissy M; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a three-axis steering system, wherein a micro/nanoparticle is optically trapped and propelled to serve as a measurement probe. The actuators in the system consist of a deformable mirror enabling axial steering and a two-axis acousto-optic deflector for lateral steering. The actuation range is designed and calibrated to be over 20 microm along the two lateral axes and over 10 microm along the axial direction. The actuation bandwidth of the two lateral axes is over 50 kHz and the associated resolution is 0.016 nm (1sigma). The axial resolution is 0.16 nm, while the bandwidth is enhanced to over 3 kHz by model cancellation method. The performance of the three-axis steering system is illustrated by three sets of experiments. First, active Brownian motion control of the trapped probe is utilized to enhance trapping stability. Second, a large range three-dimensional (3D) steering of a 1.87 microm probe, contouring a complex 3D trajectory in a 6 x 6 x 4 microm3 volume, is demonstrated. Third, a closed-loop steering is implemented to achieve improved precision.

  12. Does haptic steering guidance instigate speeding? A driving simulator study into causes and remedies.

    PubMed

    Melman, T; de Winter, J C F; Abbink, D A

    2017-01-01

    An important issue in road traffic safety is that drivers show adverse behavioral adaptation (BA) to driver assistance systems. Haptic steering guidance is an upcoming assistance system which facilitates lane-keeping performance while keeping drivers in the loop, and which may be particularly prone to BA. Thus far, experiments on haptic steering guidance have measured driver performance while the vehicle speed was kept constant. The aim of the present driving simulator study was to examine whether haptic steering guidance causes BA in the form of speeding, and to evaluate two types of haptic steering guidance designed not to suffer from BA. Twenty-four participants drove a 1.8m wide car for 13.9km on a curved road, with cones demarcating a single 2.2m narrow lane. Participants completed four conditions in a counterbalanced design: no guidance (Manual), continuous haptic guidance (Cont), continuous guidance that linearly reduced feedback gains from full guidance at 125km/h towards manual control at 130km/h and above (ContRF), and haptic guidance provided only when the predicted lateral position was outside a lateral bandwidth (Band). Participants were familiarized with each condition prior to the experimental runs and were instructed to drive as they normally would while minimizing the number of cone hits. Compared to Manual, the Cont condition yielded a significantly higher driving speed (on average by 7km/h), whereas ContRF and Band did not. All three guidance conditions yielded better lane-keeping performance than Manual, whereas Cont and ContRF yielded lower self-reported workload than Manual. In conclusion, continuous steering guidance entices drivers to increase their speed, thereby diminishing its potential safety benefits. It is possible to prevent BA while retaining safety benefits by making a design adjustment either in lateral (Band) or in longitudinal (ContRF) direction.

  13. Acute myeloid leukemia therapeutics: CARs in the driver's seat.

    PubMed

    Mardiros, Armen; Brown, Christine E; Budde, L Elizabeth; Wang, Xiuli; Forman, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. To this end, we developed CD123 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected T cells which exhibited potent antileukemic activity. We discuss what we learned during the development of CD123 CARs and future directions for this immunotherapy.

  14. A single amino acid controls the functional switch of human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) 1 to the xenobiotic-sensitive splicing variant CAR3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Tompkins, Leslie M; Li, Linhao; Li, Haishan; Kim, Gregory; Zheng, Yuxin; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is constitutively activated in immortalized cell lines independent of xenobiotic stimuli. This feature of CAR has limited its use as a sensor for xenobiotic-induced expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Recent reports, however, reveal that a splicing variant of human CAR (hCAR3), which contains an insertion of five amino acids (APYLT), exhibits low basal but xenobiotic-inducible activities in cell-based reporter assays. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms of this functional shift are not well understood. We have now generated chimeric constructs containing various residues of the five amino acids of hCAR3 and examined their response to typical hCAR activators. Our results showed that the retention of alanine (hCAR1+A) alone is sufficient to confer the constitutively activated hCAR1 to the xenobiotic-sensitive hCAR3. It is noteworthy that hCAR1+A was significantly activated by a series of known hCAR activators, and displayed activation superior to that of hCAR3. Moreover, intracellular localization assays revealed that hCAR1+A exhibits nuclear accumulation upon 6-(4-chlorophenyl) imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl) oxime (CITCO) treatment in COS1 cells, which differs from the spontaneous nuclear distribution of hCAR1 and the nontranslocatable hCAR3. Mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays further demonstrated that hCAR1+A interacts with the coactivator SRC-1 and GRIP-1 at low level before activation, while at significantly enhanced level in the presence of CITCO. Thus, the alanine residue in the insertion of hCAR3 seems in charge of the xenobiotic response of hCAR3 through direct and indirect mechanisms. Activation of hCAR1+A may represent a sensitive avenue for the identification of hCAR activators.

  15. Real-time identification method of driver model with steering manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokutake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Youichi; Shirakata, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a method for real-time identification of a driver model. The proposed method requires only the yaw rate sensor, the steering angle sensor, and velocity sensors that are usually installed in the production car. The identification algorithm involves the division of the recorded data, prefiltering of the divided data, estimation of the driver's desired response, and identification. The prefilter extracts the driver's involuntary response that can be modelled in a simple form. The ideal car response that the driver attempts to track is estimated from the recorded data, and this response is provided to the identification algorithm of the feedback driver model for error tracking. These newly developed methods enable real-time identification under actual driving conditions. The driving simulator experiments and the actual driving tests were performed, and the proposed method was validated. The results show that the time history of the variation in the driver's characteristics can be realised in real time using the proposed method.

  16. Genome-wide Analysis of Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Transcriptome in Wild-type and CAR-knockout HepaRG cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daochuan; Mackowiak, Bryan; Brayman, Timothy G.; Mitchell, Michael; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Wang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) modulates the transcription of numerous genes involving drug metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation. Most functions of CAR however were defined from animal studies. Given the known species difference of CAR and the significant cross-talk between CAR and the pregnane X receptor (PXR), it is extremely difficult to decipher the exact role of human CAR (hCAR) in gene regulation, relying predominantly on pharmacological manipulations. Here, utilizing a newly generated hCAR-knockout (KO) HepaRG cell line, we carried out RNA-seq analysis of the global transcriptomes in wild-type (WT) and hCAR-KO HepaRG cells treated with CITCO, a selective hCAR agonist, phenobarbital (PB), a dual activator of hCAR and hPXR, or vehicle control. Real-time PCR assays in separate experiments were used to validate RNA-seq findings. Our results indicate that genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes are among the main clusters altered by both CITCO and PB. Specifically, CITCO significantly changed the expression of 135 genes in an hCAR-dependent manner, while PB altered the expression of 227 genes in WT cells of which 94 were simultaneously modulated in both cell lines reflecting dual effects of PB on hCAR/PXR. Notably, we found that many genes promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were up-regulated in hCAR-KO cells, suggesting that hCAR may play an important role in cell growth that differs from mouse CAR. Together, our results reveal both novel and known targets of hCAR and support the role of hCAR in maintaining the homeostasis of metabolism and cell proliferation in the liver. PMID:26275810

  17. Genome-wide analysis of human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transcriptome in wild-type and CAR-knockout HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Daochuan; Mackowiak, Bryan; Brayman, Timothy G; Mitchell, Michael; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Wang, Hongbing

    2015-11-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) modulates the transcription of numerous genes involving drug metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation. Most functions of CAR however were defined from animal studies. Given the known species difference of CAR and the significant cross-talk between CAR and the pregnane X receptor (PXR), it is extremely difficult to decipher the exact role of human CAR (hCAR) in gene regulation, relying predominantly on pharmacological manipulations. Here, utilizing a newly generated hCAR-knockout (KO) HepaRG cell line, we carried out RNA-seq analysis of the global transcriptomes in wild-type (WT) and hCAR-KO HepaRG cells treated with CITCO, a selective hCAR agonist, phenobarbital (PB), a dual activator of hCAR and hPXR, or vehicle control. Real-time PCR assays in separate experiments were used to validate RNA-seq findings. Our results indicate that genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes are among the main clusters altered by both CITCO and PB. Specifically, CITCO significantly changed the expression of 135 genes in an hCAR-dependent manner, while PB altered the expression of 227 genes in WT cells of which 94 were simultaneously modulated in both cell lines reflecting dual effects of PB on hCAR/PXR. Notably, we found that many genes promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were up-regulated in hCAR-KO cells, suggesting that hCAR may play an important role in cell growth that differs from mouse CAR. Together, our results reveal both novel and known targets of hCAR and support the role of hCAR in maintaining the homeostasis of metabolism and cell proliferation in the liver.

  18. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the... STB-54, Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated, together with the accompanying...

  19. Active infrared materials for beam steering.

    SciTech Connect

    Brener, Igal; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Gin, Aaron V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Miao, Xiaoyu; Barrick, Todd A.

    2010-10-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR, 3 {micro}m -12 {micro}m) is a highly desirable spectral range for imaging and environmental sensing. We propose to develop a new class of mid-IR devices, based on plasmonic and metamaterial concepts, that are dynamically controlled by tunable semiconductor plasma resonances. It is well known that any material resonance (phonons, excitons, electron plasma) impacts dielectric properties; our primary challenge is to implement the tuning of a semiconductor plasma resonance with a voltage bias. We have demonstrated passive tuning of both plasmonic and metamaterial structures in the mid-IR using semiconductors plasmas. In the mid-IR, semiconductor carrier densities on the order of 5E17cm{sup -3} to 2E18cm{sup -3} are desirable for tuning effects. Gate control of carrier densities at the high end of this range is at or near the limit of what has been demonstrated in literature for transistor style devices. Combined with the fact that we are exploiting the optical properties of the device layers, rather than electrical, we are entering into interesting territory that has not been significantly explored to date.

  20. Optomechanical beam steering by surface plasmon nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Kohoutek, John; Mohseni, Hooman

    2012-09-01

    Controlling the far field pattern of the electromagnetic (EM) waves has many applications including wireless communications, radar detection, and industrial applications. The dynamic control of EM patterns is called beam steering. Despite advantages in each technique, the speed, angular range, and spectral range of beam steering is limited due to mechanical and optical properties of such systems. Here we present a beam steering method by means of an array of optomechanical nanoantennas in which the generated optical force of each antenna results in changes to the antenna response due to mechanical reconfiguration. As a result, the antenna far field phase is changed due to the mechanical movement generated by the optical force. Depending on the mechanical properties of the movable component of the antenna, the phase of the antenna can be tailored for a given optical source power. FDTD simulations are used to calculate the optical response of antenna. A phase array of optomechanical nanoantennas is used to do beam steering. The main far field lobe is steered by 0.5 degrees as a result of the mechanical reconfiguration of the phased array.

  1. No-cloning of quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Yi; Lambert, Neill; Liao, Teh-Lu; Nori, Franco; Li, Che-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering allows two parties to verify their entanglement, even if one party’s measurements are untrusted. This concept has not only provided new insights into the nature of non-local spatial correlations in quantum mechanics, but also serves as a resource for one-sided device-independent quantum information tasks. Here, we investigate how EPR steering behaves when one-half of a maximally entangled pair of qudits (multidimensional quantum systems) is cloned by a universal cloning machine. We find that EPR steering, as verified by a criterion based on the mutual information between qudits, can only be found in one of the copy subsystems but not both. We prove that this is also true for the single-system analogue of EPR steering. We find that this restriction, which we term ‘no-cloning of quantum steering’, elucidates the physical reason why steering can be used to secure sources and channels against cloning-based attacks when implementing quantum communication and quantum computation protocols.

  2. Development of formula varsity race car chassis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Mansur, M. R.; Tamaldin, N.; Thanaraj, K.

    2013-12-01

    Three chassis designs have been developed using commercial computer aided design (CAD) software. The design is based on the specifications of UTeM Formula VarsityTM 2012 (FV2012). The selection of the design is derived from weighted matrix which consists of reliability, cost, time consumption and weight. The score of the matrix is formulated based on relative weighted factor among the selections. All three designs are then fabricated using selected materials available. The actual cost, time consumption and weight of the chassis's are compared with the theoretical weighted scores. Standard processes of cuttings, fittings and welding are performed in chassis mock up and fabrication. The chassis is later assembled together with suspension systems, steering linkages, brake systems, engine system, and drive shaft systems. Once the chassis is assembled, the studies of driver's ergonomic and part accessibility are performed. The completion in final fittings and assembly of the race car and its reliability demonstrate an outstanding design for manufacturing (DFM) practices of the chassis.

  3. CARS-based silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Nathalie; Debaes, Christof; Thienpont, Hugo

    2009-05-01

    In this invited paper, we will first discuss the recent research progress regarding silicon-on-insulator (SOI) Raman wavelength converters, the working principle of which is based on the four-wave mixing process of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). Next, we will present our research results on other aspects of CARS in SOI waveguides. First, starting from the basic formalism for CARS we will show that, in contrast to what most scientists believe, CARS exchanges energy with the Raman medium in which it takes place and is even able to extract energy (i.e. extract phonons) from it. Furthermore, we will introduce a novel CARS-based approach to reduce the heat dissipation in Raman lasers due to the quantum defect between pump and lasing photons, and we will numerically demonstrate that with this "CARS-based heat mitigation technique" the quantum-defect heating in SOI waveguide Raman lasers could be reduced with as much as 35%.

  4. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  5. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  6. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Bele,:1t )"(vaiaable Copy AD AD-E4OI 102 TECMNICA._ REPORT ;RLCD-TR-83047 CARS SPECTROSCOPY Of PROPELLANT FLAMES L. E. HARRIS DTIC ii IELECTE0 "" NOV...4. TITLE (mid Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CARS SPECTROSCOPY OF PROPELLANT FLAMES Final Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a...ea•abo. Broadband CARS CARS spectra Spectroscopy Propellant *0AUINIACT (0w o roemtae 401 N uueedswr Mu $000tit? b7 61"k Auhee) Obtaining useful

  7. Sparks fly over electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, V.

    1994-10-01

    While the US automobile industry scrambles to meet 1998 deadlines to put electric vehicles on the market, controversy about the environmental benefits and commercial viability of battery-operated cars is mounting. Circumstances in the US increasingly favor the electric car. Air quality laws in California and Massachusetts now demand that {open_quotes}zero-emission{close_quotes} vehicles comprise 2 percent of total sales in the car market by 1998. Electric cars are the only vehicles to meet such standards so far. Other states are considering similar laws. This article examines the pros and cons of electric vehicle use.

  8. Toward effective needle steering in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Engh, J A; Podnar, G; Kondziolka, D; Riviere, C N

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has exploited the inherent bending of a bevel-tipped needle during insertion, accomplishing steering of the needle by rotating the needle shaft. Combining this technique with the observation that a straight trajectory can be accomplished by spinning the needle at a constant rate during insertion, this paper presents a novel technique for proportional control of the curvature of the trajectory via duty-cycled spinning of the needle. In order to accommodate this technique to very soft tissues such as the brain, several custom needle prototypes have also been designed in order to increase the steering versatility of the system by maximizing the attainable curvature. The paper describes the needle-steering system and the needle prototypes, and presents preliminary results from tests in an artificial brain tissue substitute.

  9. Aeroelastic Tailoring via Tow Steered Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    The use of tow steered composites, where fibers follow prescribed curvilinear paths within a laminate, can improve upon existing capabilities related to aeroelastic tailoring of wing structures, though this tailoring method has received relatively little attention in the literature. This paper demonstrates the technique for both a simple cantilevered plate in low-speed flow, as well as the wing box of a full-scale high aspect ratio transport configuration. Static aeroelastic stresses and dynamic flutter boundaries are obtained for both cases. The impact of various tailoring choices upon the aeroelastic performance is quantified: curvilinear fiber steering versus straight fiber steering, certifiable versus noncertifiable stacking sequences, a single uniform laminate per wing skin versus multiple laminates, and identical upper and lower wing skins structures versus individual tailoring.

  10. Steering object-oriented computations with Python

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.-Y.B.; Dubois, P.F.; Furnish, G.; Beazley, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    We have described current approaches and future plans for steering C++ application, running Python on parallel platforms, and combination of Tk interface and Python interpreter in steering computations. In addition, there has been significant enhancement in the Gist module. Tk mega widgets has been implemented for a few physics applications. We have also written Python interface to SIJLO, a data storage package used as an interface to a visualization system named MeshTv. Python is being used to control large-scale simulations (molecular dynamics in particular) running on the CM-5 and T3D at LANL as well. A few other code development projects at LLNL are either using or considering Python as their steering shells. In summary, the merits of Python have been appreciated by more and more people in the scientific computation community.

  11. A computer algorithm for automatic beam steering

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, E.

    1992-06-01

    Beam steering is done by modifying the current in a trim or bending magnet. If the current change is the right amount the beam can be made to bend in such a manner that it will hit a swic or BPM downstream from the magnet at a predetermined set point. Although both bending magnets and trim magnets can be used to modify beam angle, beam steering is usually done with trim magnets. This is so because, during beam steering the beam angle is usually modified only by a small amount which can be easily achieved with a trim magnet. Thus in this note, all steering magnets will be assumed to be trim magnets. There are two ways of monitoring beam position. One way is done using a BPM and the other is done using a swic. For simplicity, beam position monitoring in this paper will be referred to being done with a swic. Beam steering can be done manually by changing the current through a trim magnet and monitoring the position of the beam downstream from the magnet with a swic. Alternatively the beam can be positioned automatically using a computer which periodically updates the current through a specific number of trim magnets. The purpose of this note is to describe the steps involved in coming up with such a computer program. There are two main aspects to automatic beam steering. First a relationship between the beam position and the bending magnet is needed. Secondly a beamline setup of swics and trim magnets has to be chosen that will position the beam according to the desired specifications. A simple example will be looked at that will show that once a mathematical relationship between the needed change of the beam position on a swic and the change in trim currents is established, a computer could be programmed to calculate and update the trim currents.

  12. 54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ASSEMBLIES AND METAL REINFORCING, December 19, 1947. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 102. STEERING GEAR ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. STEERING GEAR ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING RUDDER POST, HYDRAULIC RAM, EMERGENCY STEERING PUMP PIPING AND REMOTE OPERATING LINKAGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. 22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen boom has been removed for repairs (note boom cradle just forward of steering gear box). - Schooner C.A. THAYER, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. Experimental Quantification of Asymmetric Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Jin-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one observer to nonlocally "steer" the other observer's state through local measurements. EPR steering exhibits a unique asymmetric property; i.e., the steerability can differ between observers, which can lead to one-way EPR steering in which only one observer obtains steerability in the steering process. This property is inherently different from the symmetric concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and it has attracted increasing interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate asymmetric EPR steering for a class of two-qubit states in the case of two measurement settings. We propose a practical method to quantify the steerability. We then provide a necessary and sufficient condition for EPR steering and clearly demonstrate one-way EPR steering. Our work provides new insight into the fundamental asymmetry of quantum nonlocality and has potential applications in asymmetric quantum information processing.

  16. [Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified CAR-T/NK Cells to Treatment of Multiple Myeloma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Ou, jian-Feng; Bai, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor(CAR) is a synthesized transmembrane protein, which redirects the modified cells through specific or associated antigen on tumor cells. CAR-modified T/NK cells, especially CAR-T cells, are a new tool of rapidly developing of adoptive immunotherapy of tumor in recent years, they give T/NK cells the targeting cytotoxic activity and can overcome the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment and break the state of the host immune tolerance. CAR combines the single-chain antibody to tumor-associated antigen with T/NK cells' activated motifs, giving T/NK cells' tumor targeting activity, so enhancing their cytotoxic activity and lasting the vitality by gene transduction. In this article the CAR development, comparison of CAR-T and CAR-NK cells, surface markers on MM cells and use of CAR in MM, and CAR perspectives are summarized.

  17. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel R.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator, and as the cell rotates during the forward motion, the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model, and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. Our model shows switching between directed phototaxis when the light is on and run-and-tumble behaviour in the dark. PMID:25589576

  18. Self-steering partially coherent beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a class of shape-invariant partially coherent beams with a moving guiding center which we term self-steering partially coherent beams. The guiding center of each such beam evolves along a straight line trajectory which can be engineered to make any angle with the x-axis. We show that the straight line trajectory of the guiding center is the only option in free space due to the linear momentum conservation. We experimentally generate a particular subclass of new beams, self-steering Gaussian Schell beams and argue that they can find applications for mobile target tracing and trapped micro- and/or nanoparticle transport.

  19. Steering in spin tomographic probability representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Markovich, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    The steering property known for two-qubit state in terms of specific inequalities for the correlation function is translated for the state of qudit with the spin j = 3 / 2. Since most steering detection inequalities are based on the correlation functions we introduce analogs of such functions for the single qudit systems. The tomographic probability representation for the qudit states is applied. The connection between the correlation function in the two-qubit system and the single qudit is presented in an integral form with an intertwining kernel calculated explicitly in tomographic probability terms.

  20. Vibration Isolation, Suppression, Steering, and Pointing (VISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Rahman, Zahidul; Kedikian, Roland

    1996-01-01

    The design of a six degree of freedom flight vibration isolation suppression and steering (VISS) subsystem for a mid-wave infrared camera on the top of a spacecraft is presented. The development of a long stroke piezoelectric, redundant, compact, low stiffness and power efficient actuator is summarized. A subsystem that could be built and validated for flight within 15 months was investigated. The goals of the VISS are 20 dB vibration isolation above 2 Hz, 15 dB vibration suppression of disturbances at about 60 Hz and 120 Hz, and +/- 0.3 deg steering at 2 Hz and 4 Hz.

  1. Self-steering partially coherent beams

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a class of shape-invariant partially coherent beams with a moving guiding center which we term self-steering partially coherent beams. The guiding center of each such beam evolves along a straight line trajectory which can be engineered to make any angle with the x-axis. We show that the straight line trajectory of the guiding center is the only option in free space due to the linear momentum conservation. We experimentally generate a particular subclass of new beams, self-steering Gaussian Schell beams and argue that they can find applications for mobile target tracing and trapped micro- and/or nanoparticle transport. PMID:28051164

  2. More About Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Norman A.; Chen, Chien-Chu; Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about developmental beam-steering subsystem of laser-communication system. Aspects of this subsystem described previously in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069) and "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193). Reports reiterate basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem and of laser-communication system as whole. Also presents some of details of optical and mechanical design of prototype of subsystem, called Optical Communication Demonstrator.

  3. A control theory approach to clock steering techniques.

    PubMed

    Farina, Marcello; Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia; Bittanti, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    Several clock and time scale steering methods have been developed according to different viewpoints by various time laboratories. By resorting to control theory ideas, we propose a common theoretical framework encompassing these methods. A comparison of the most common steering methodologies, namely, the classical steering approach, the GPS bang-bang method, and the linear quadratic Gaussian technique, is carried out. We believe that the use of control theory methods can potentially lead to a better understanding of clock steering algorithms.

  4. Car versus bicycle: conclusion.

    PubMed

    Ross, David W; Wichman, Carol; Mackinnon, Mike

    2009-01-01

    A 58-year-old man was riding his bicycle and was struck by a car. He was ejected and landed on his back on the pavement of the roadway. He complained of severe pain in his lower back and sacral area. Ground emergency medical services (EMS) arrived to find a pale, diaphoretic man who was alert but in distress. His medical history was negative, and he was taking no medications. The initial heart rate was 130 beats/minute, and the blood pressure was 70 mmHg by palpation. A helicopter air ambulance was requested from the rural scene location to transport the patient to a trauma center. The physical examination by the flight crew demonstrated the patient had not changed from the original EMS assessment, despite the administration of 1 L normal saline intravenously. There were no apparent injuries to his head, neck, chest, or extremities.

  5. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  6. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  7. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  8. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  9. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system. PMID:27528864

  10. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI.

    PubMed

    Stawicki, Piotr; Gembler, Felix; Volosyak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system.

  11. The visual control of bicycle steering: The effects of speed and path width.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Cardon, Greet; D'Hondt, Eva; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-03-01

    Although cycling is a widespread form of transportation, little is known about the visual behaviour of bicycle users. This study examined whether the visual behaviour of cyclists can be explained by the two-level model of steering described for car driving, and how it is influenced by cycling speed and lane width. In addition, this study investigated whether travel fixations, described during walking, can also be found during a cycling task. Twelve adult participants were asked to cycle three 15m long cycling lanes of 10, 25 and 40cm wide at three different self-selected speeds (i.e., slow, preferred and fast). Participants' gaze behaviour was recorded at 50Hz using a head mounted eye tracker and the resulting scene video with overlay gaze cursor was analysed frame by frame. Four types of fixations were distinguished: (1) travel fixations, (2) fixations inside the cycling lane (path), (3) fixations to the final metre of the lane (goal), and (4) fixations outside of the cycling lane (external). Participants were found to mainly watch the path (41%) and goal (40%) region while very few travel fixations were made (<5%). Instead of travel fixations, an OptoKinetic Nystagmus was revealed when looking at the near path. Large variability between subjects in fixation location suggests that different strategies were used. Wider lanes resulted in a shift of gaze towards the end of the lane and to external regions, whereas higher cycling speeds resulted in a more distant gaze behaviour and more travel fixations. To conclude, the two-level model of steering as described for car driving is not fully in line with our findings during cycling, but the assumption that both the near and the far region is necessary for efficient steering seems valid. A new model for visual behaviour during goal directed locomotion is presented.

  12. 46 CFR 169.826 - Steering, communications and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering, communications and control. 169.826 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.826 Steering, communications and control. The master shall test the vessel's steering gear, signaling whistle, engine controls,...

  13. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  14. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  15. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional information about proposed apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). Discusses design of digital beam-steering control subsystem and, in particular, that part of design pertaining to digital compensation for frequency response of steering mirror.

  16. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  17. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without further restriction under this subpart....

  18. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  19. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  20. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  1. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  2. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  3. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  4. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  5. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  6. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  7. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  8. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  9. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  10. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  11. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  12. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  13. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Effect of a footrest and a steering wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, M. G. R.; Griffin, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    The apparent mass of the seated human body influences the vibration transmitted through a car seat. The apparent mass of the body is known to be influenced by sitting posture but the influence of the position of the hands and the feet is not well understood. This study was designed to quantify the influence of steering wheel location and the position of a footrest on the vertical apparent mass of the human body. The influences of the forces applied by the hands to a steering wheel and by the feet to a footrest were also investigated. Twelve subjects were exposed to whole-body vertical random vibration (1.0 m s -2 rms over the frequency range 0.13-40.0 Hz) while supported by a rigid seat with a backrest reclined to 15°. The apparent mass of the body was measured with five horizontal positions and three vertical positions of a steering wheel and also with hands in the lap, and with five horizontal positions of a footrest. The influence of five forward forces (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 N) applied separately to the 'steering wheel' and the footrest were also investigated as well as a 'no backrest' condition. With their hands in their laps, subjects exhibited a resonance around 6.7 Hz, compared to 4.8 Hz when sitting upright with no backrest. In the same posture holding a steering wheel, the mass supported on the seat surface decreased and there was an additional resonance at 4 Hz. Moving the steering wheel away from the body reduced the apparent mass at the primary resonance frequency and increased the apparent mass around the 4 Hz resonance. As the feet moved forward, the mass supported on the seat surface decreased, indicating that the backrest and footrest supported a greater proportion of the subject weight. Applying force to either the steering wheel or the footrest reduced the apparent mass at resonance and decreased the mass supported on the seat surface. It is concluded that the positions and contact conditions of the hands and the feet affect the biodynamic

  14. Of CARs and TRUCKs: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells engineered with an inducible cytokine to modulate the tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Markus; Hombach, Andreas A; Abken, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy recently achieved impressive efficacy in early phase trials, in particular in hematologic malignancies, strongly supporting the notion that the immune system can control cancer. A current strategy of favor is based on ex vivo-engineered patient T cells, which are redirected by a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and recognize a predefined target by an antibody-derived binding domain. Such CAR T cells can substantially reduce the tumor burden as long as the targeted antigen is present on the cancer cells. However, given the tremendous phenotypic diversity in solid tumor lesions, a reasonable number of cancer cells are not recognized by a given CAR, considerably reducing the therapeutic success. This article reviews a recently described strategy for overcoming this shortcoming of the CAR T-cell therapy by modulating the tumor stroma by a CAR T-cell-secreted transgenic cytokine like interleukin-12 (IL-12). The basic process is that CAR T cells, when activated by their CAR, deposit IL-12 in the targeted tumor lesion, which in turn attracts an innate immune cell response toward those cancer cells that are invisible to CAR T cells. Such TRUCKs, T cells redirected for universal cytokine-mediated killing, exhibited remarkable efficacy against solid tumors with diverse cancer cell phenotypes, suggesting their evaluation in clinical trials.

  15. Robust steering control of spacecraft carrier rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Adriana Elysa Alimandro; da Rosa, Alex; Ferreira, Henrique Cezar; Ishihara, Joao Yoshiyuki; Borges, Renato Alves; Sheptun, Yuri Dmitrievich

    In the year of 2003 it was established a cooperation agreement between Ukraine and Brazil for utilization of Cyclone-4 launch vehicle at Alcantara Launch Center. The company responsible for the marketing and operation of launch services is the company bi-national Alcantara Cyclone Space (ACS). The Cyclone-4 launch vehicle is the newest version of the Ukrainian Cyclone family launchers developed by Yuzhnoye State Design Office. This family has been used for many successful spacecrafts launches since 1969. This paper is concerned with the yaw stabilization problem around a nominal trajectory for the third stage of a satellite carrier rocket similar to the Cyclone-4. Only the steering machine of the main engine is considered as actuator. The dynamic behavior of the third stage around the nominal trajectory is modeled as a fourthorder time-varying linear system whereas the steering machine is modeled as a linear dynamical system up to third order. The values of the parameters of the steering machine model are unknown, however belonging to known intervals. As the main result, the stabilization problem is solved with a proportional derivative (PD) controller. The proposed tuning approach takes into account the robustness of the controller with respect to the steering machine model uncertainties. The performance of the PD controller is demonstrated by simulation results.

  16. Steering Mechanisms for Knowability. 1984 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernard

    The foundations of knowledge by tradition have been treated analytically, and knowledge has been characterized as a theoretical subject. This article introduces a steering mechanism as the prerequisite for a study of knowledge work and maintenance on empirical grounds. Knowledge is treated synthetically, that is, as something that exists only…

  17. Steering Dynamics in the Dutch Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waslander, Sietske; Hooge, Edith; Drewes, Tineke

    2016-01-01

    Based on detailed empirical analyses, we paint a layered picture of emerging steering dynamics. Inspired by Foucault, we put the focus on roles stakeholders define both for themselves and others, how they give sense to policy, how they work together in policy elaboration and implementation, and the subtle and sometimes deceitful function of soft…

  18. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering system. 570.60 Section 570.60 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY...) Inspection procedure. Examine fluid reservoir, hoses and pump belts for the conditions indicated....

  19. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... in the reservoir. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine fluid reservoir and pump belts for...

  20. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... in the reservoir. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine fluid reservoir and pump belts for...

  1. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering system. 570.60 Section 570.60 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY...) Inspection procedure. Examine fluid reservoir, hoses and pump belts for the conditions indicated....

  2. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  3. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  4. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  5. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  6. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  7. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  8. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities from entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Walborn, Stephen P.; Cavalcanti, Eric G.; Howell, John C.

    2013-06-01

    We use entropic uncertainty relations to formulate inequalities that witness Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering correlations in diverse quantum systems. We then use these inequalities to formulate symmetric EPR-steering inequalities using the mutual information. We explore the differing natures of the correlations captured by one-way and symmetric steering inequalities and examine the possibility of exclusive one-way steerability in two-qubit states. Furthermore, we show that steering inequalities can be extended to generalized positive operator-valued measures, and we also derive hybrid steering inequalities between alternate degrees of freedom.

  9. Beam steering using CGHs in spatial multiplexing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin-Seon; Kim, Nam

    2002-09-01

    In spatial multiplexing method, the steering devices for reference wave and object wave are necessary. A new scheme applying computer-generated holograms(CGHs) to the steering device is proposed. The beam steering device using CGHs can be performed simultaneously the coarse address function directing the reading or writing beams to the suitable layer and the fine address function corresponding to the particular holographic page within the chosen common volume unit. This new scheme is compared with both the beam steering method using spatial/angular multiplex AODs and the mechanically steered method in terms of access time, cost, and efficiency.

  10. Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Meenakshi; Mukherjee, Malini; Grada, Zakaria; Pignata, Antonella; Landi, Daniel; Navai, Shoba A; Wakefield, Amanda; Fousek, Kristen; Bielamowicz, Kevin; Chow, Kevin K H; Brawley, Vita S; Byrd, Tiara T; Krebs, Simone; Gottschalk, Stephen; Wels, Winfried S; Baker, Matthew L; Dotti, Gianpietro; Mamonkin, Maksim; Brenner, Malcolm K; Orange, Jordan S; Ahmed, Nabil

    2016-08-01

    In preclinical models of glioblastoma, antigen escape variants can lead to tumor recurrence after treatment with CAR T cells that are redirected to single tumor antigens. Given the heterogeneous expression of antigens on glioblastomas, we hypothesized that a bispecific CAR molecule would mitigate antigen escape and improve the antitumor activity of T cells. Here, we created a CAR that joins a HER2-binding scFv and an IL13Rα2-binding IL-13 mutein to make a tandem CAR exodomain (TanCAR) and a CD28.ζ endodomain. We determined that patient TanCAR T cells showed distinct binding to HER2 or IL13Rα2 and had the capability to lyse autologous glioblastoma. TanCAR T cells exhibited activation dynamics that were comparable to those of single CAR T cells upon encounter of HER2 or IL13Rα2. We observed that TanCARs engaged HER2 and IL13Rα2 simultaneously by inducing HER2-IL13Rα2 heterodimers, which promoted superadditive T cell activation when both antigens were encountered concurrently. TanCAR T cell activity was more sustained but not more exhaustible than that of T cells that coexpressed a HER2 CAR and an IL13Rα2 CAR, T cells with a unispecific CAR, or a pooled product. In a murine glioblastoma model, TanCAR T cells mitigated antigen escape, displayed enhanced antitumor efficacy, and improved animal survival. Thus, TanCAR T cells show therapeutic potential to improve glioblastoma control by coengaging HER2 and IL13Rα2 in an augmented, bivalent immune synapse that enhances T cell functionality and reduces antigen escape.

  11. Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Malini; Grada, Zakaria; Pignata, Antonella; Landi, Daniel; Navai, Shoba A.; Wakefield, Amanda; Bielamowicz, Kevin; Chow, Kevin K.H.; Brawley, Vita S.; Byrd, Tiara T.; Krebs, Simone; Gottschalk, Stephen; Wels, Winfried S.; Baker, Matthew L.; Dotti, Gianpietro; Mamonkin, Maksim; Brenner, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical models of glioblastoma, antigen escape variants can lead to tumor recurrence after treatment with CAR T cells that are redirected to single tumor antigens. Given the heterogeneous expression of antigens on glioblastomas, we hypothesized that a bispecific CAR molecule would mitigate antigen escape and improve the antitumor activity of T cells. Here, we created a CAR that joins a HER2-binding scFv and an IL13Rα2-binding IL-13 mutein to make a tandem CAR exodomain (TanCAR) and a CD28.ζ endodomain. We determined that patient TanCAR T cells showed distinct binding to HER2 or IL13Rα2 and had the capability to lyse autologous glioblastoma. TanCAR T cells exhibited activation dynamics that were comparable to those of single CAR T cells upon encounter of HER2 or IL13Rα2. We observed that TanCARs engaged HER2 and IL13Rα2 simultaneously by inducing HER2-IL13Rα2 heterodimers, which promoted superadditive T cell activation when both antigens were encountered concurrently. TanCAR T cell activity was more sustained but not more exhaustible than that of T cells that coexpressed a HER2 CAR and an IL13Rα2 CAR, T cells with a unispecific CAR, or a pooled product. In a murine glioblastoma model, TanCAR T cells mitigated antigen escape, displayed enhanced antitumor efficacy, and improved animal survival. Thus, TanCAR T cells show therapeutic potential to improve glioblastoma control by coengaging HER2 and IL13Rα2 in an augmented, bivalent immune synapse that enhances T cell functionality and reduces antigen escape. PMID:27427982

  12. Car design and risk of pedestrian deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1990-01-01

    Fatal pedestrian injury rates by cars with relatively sharp front-corner designs were compared to such rates by cars of similar-size with relatively smooth front-corner designs. The relative risk of death by front-corner impact was 26 percent greater among the sharp-cornered cars. Pedestrian death rates from impact with other points on the cars and insurance claim frequencies among the studied cars were similar between the two sets of cars. PMID:2327543

  13. Comparison of hepatic-like cell production from human embryonic stem cells and adult liver progenitor cells: CAR transduction activates a battery of detoxification genes.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Natalie; Duret, Cédric; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Blanc, Pierre; Maurel, Patrick; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine

    2011-09-01

    In vitro production of human hepatocytes is of primary importance in basic research, pharmacotoxicology and biotherapy of liver diseases. We have developed a protocol of differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ES) towards hepatocyte-like cells (ES-Hep). Using a set of human adult markers including CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4/7 ratio (HNF4alpha1/HNF4alpha7), cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), CYP3A4 and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and fetal markers including alpha-fetoprotein, CYP3A7 and glutathione S-transferase P1, we analyzed the expression of a panel of 41 genes in ES-Hep comparatively with human adult primary hepatocytes, adult and fetal liver. The data revealed that after 21 days of differentiation, ES-Hep are representative of fetal hepatocytes at less than 20 weeks of gestation. The glucocorticoid receptor pathway was functional in ES-Hep. Extending protocols of differentiation to 4 weeks did not improve cell maturation. When compared with hepatocyte-like cells derived from adult liver non parenchymal epithelial (NPE) cells (NPE-Hep), ES-Hep expressed several adult and fetal liver makers at much greater levels (at least one order of magnitude), consistent with greater expression of liver-enriched transcription factors Forkhead box A2, C/EBPalpha, HNF4alpha and HNF6. It therefore seems that ES-Hep reach a better level of differentiation than NPE-Hep and that these cells use different lineage pathways towards the hepatic phenotype. Finally we showed that lentivirus-mediated expression of xenoreceptor CAR in ES-Hep induced the expression of several detoxification genes including CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UDP-glycosyltransferase 1A1, solute carriers 21A6, as well as biotransformation of midazolam, a CYP3A4-specific substrate.

  14. Adaptive beam tracking and steering via electrowetting-controlled liquid prism

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, JT; Chen, CL

    2011-11-07

    We report an electrowetting-controlled optofluidic system for adaptive beam tracking and agile steering. With two immiscible fluids in a transparent cell, we can actively control the contact angle along the fluid-fluid-solid tri-junction line and hence the orientation of the fluid-fluid interface via electrowetting. The naturally formed meniscus between the two liquids can function as an optical prism. We have fabricated a liquid prism module with an aperture size of 10 mm -10mm. With 1 wt.% KCl and 1 wt.% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate added into deionized water, the orientation of the water-silicone oil interface has been modulated between -26 degrees and 26 degrees that can deflect and steer beam within the incidence angle of 0 degrees-15 degrees. The wide-range beam tracking and steering enables the liquid prism work as an electrowetting solar cell. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3660578

  15. Safety upgrades plug car leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    To lessen the chance of a chemical leak occurring during rail transport, some companies are improving tank car sturdiness and safety by adding such features as top-loading valves, on-board monitoring devices, and thicker, more impact-resistant hulls. Results include a dramatic drop in the number of rail incidents and leak tank cars. Chemicals Division of Olin Corporation (Stamford, Connecticut) has assigned its name to a new fleet of chlorine, caustic soda and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) tank cars. Each car carries the company's Care[trademark]Car registered trademark. The upgrade is part of a company-wide quality improvement process started in 1986. The company requires acoustic emissions (AE) testing on all hazardous materials tank cars. If an area has a defect, it expands and makes a slight sound when subjected to stress. In an AE test, cars are subject to simulated bumps and jolts as in rail shipment. Electronic sensors transfer any stress noises onto a computer screen, where an operator can pinpoint the trouble source.

  16. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  17. Distributed wireless sensor for smart car seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baz, A.; Smoker, Jason

    2009-03-01

    A distributed wireless sensor network is embedded inside car seats to enable the measurements of the weight of the occupants, location of their center of gravity, and spatial orientation of their bodies. Based on these measurements, intelligent decisions can be made to ensure their comfort and safety particularly in case of accidents. Appropriate activation of the inflatable bags according to the weight and position of the occupants will be critical to avoiding unnecessary and undesirable injuries.

  18. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano

    Successful design of hypersonic air-breathing engines requires new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for turbulence and turbulence-chemistry interaction in supersonic combustion. Unfortunately, not enough data are available to the modelers to develop and validate their codes, due to difficulties in taking measurements in such a harsh environment. Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a non-intrusive, non-linear, laser-based technique that provides temporally and spatially resolved measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in H2-air flames. A dual-pump CARS instrument has been developed to obtain measurements in supersonic combustion and generate databases for the CFD community. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. The facility provides a central jet of hot "vitiated air" simulating the hot air entering the engine of a hypersonic vehicle flying at Mach numbers between 5 and 7. Three different silicon carbide nozzles, with exit Mach number 1, 1.6 and 2, are used to provide flows with the effects of varying compressibility. H2 co-flow is available in order to generate a supersonic combusting free jet. Dual-pump CARS measurements have been obtained for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Approximately one million Dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N 2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  19. Steering system for a train of rail-less vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Voight, Edward T.

    1983-01-01

    A steering system for use with a multiple vehicle train permits tracking without rails of one vehicle after another. This system is particularly useful for moving conveyor systems into and out of curved paths of room and pillar underground mine installations. The steering system features an elongated steering bar pivotally connected to each of adjacent vehicles at end portions of the bar permitting angular orientation of each vehicle in respect to the steering bar and other vehicles. Each end portion of the steering bar is linked to the near pair of vehicle wheels through wheel yoke pivot arms about king pin type pivots. Movement of the steering bar about its pivotal connection provides proportional turning of the wheels to effect steering and tracking of one vehicle following another in both forward and reverse directions.

  20. Improving Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  1. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  2. A Hierarchical Model Predictive Tracking Control for Independent Four-Wheel Driving/Steering Vehicles with Coaxial Steering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Masato; Hagimori, Yuki; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we apply a hierarchical model predictive control to omni-directional mobile vehicle, and improve the tracking performance. We deal with an independent four-wheel driving/steering vehicle (IFWDS) equipped with four coaxial steering mechanisms (CSM). The coaxial steering mechanism is a special one composed of two steering joints on the same axis. In our previous study with respect to IFWDS with ideal steering, we proposed a model predictive tracking control. However, this method did not consider constraints of the coaxial steering mechanism which causes delay of steering. We also proposed a model predictive steering control considering constraints of this mechanism. In this study, we propose a hierarchical system combining above two control methods for IFWDS. An upper controller, which deals with vehicle kinematics, runs a model predictive tracking control, and a lower controller, which considers constraints of coaxial steering mechanism, runs a model predictive steering control which tracks the predicted steering angle optimized an upper controller. We verify the superiority of this method by comparing this method with the previous method.

  3. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kakehashi, Anna; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Nagano, Kasuke; Nishimaki, Fukumi; Banton, Marcy; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans.

  4. Improvement of Steering Feel of Electric Power Steering System with Variable Gear Transmission System Using Decoupling Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yokoi, Akitoshi; Iwasaki, Makoto; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Ito, Norihisa; Uryu, Nobuhiko; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    In this paper a new control method of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system with Variable Gear Transmission System (VGTS) is proposed. The control purpose is to achieve the desired steering gear ratio and the desired power assist with good steering feel. The basic idea of controller design is to apply decoupling control to this system and to separately design controllers for two decoupled systems. The angle control system and the torque control system are designed for the decoupled systems. In the angle control system the PID control is used for the desired gear ratio. In the torque control system the PID control is used for the desired assist torque designed so as to achieve good steering feel. In order to evaluate steering feel the Lissajous curve between the steering torque and steering angle is used. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified experimentally.

  5. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  6. Braking, steering, and wear performance of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Martinson, Veloria J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary steering, braking, and tread wear performance results from testing of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley are described. An overview of the joint NASA/FAA/industry START program is presented. Attention is given to the Langley Test Facility, equipment and future activities.

  7. Surface localization of the nuclear receptor CAR in influenza A virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Moriyama, Yusuke; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miwa, Masao

    2008-04-11

    Constitutive active/androstane receptor CAR is a member of the nuclear receptors which regulate transcription of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes. CAR is usually localized in the cytosol and nucleus. Here, we found that CAR was localized at the cell surface of influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that expression of a viral envelope glycoprotein, either hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA), but not viral nucleoprotein (NP), was responsible for this localization. This report is the first demonstration of CAR at the surface of tissue culture cells, and suggests that CAR may exert the IAV infection mechanism.

  8. Car Safety for Special Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Suzanne Hauser

    1983-01-01

    Various car seats, harnesses, and vests that can be used with handicapped children are described. Suggestions are also made for improvment when existing equipment is not appropriate. A list of resources on the topic is also provided. (CL)

  9. CAR and PXR: The Xenobiotic-Sensing Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Timsit, Yoav E.; Negishi, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    The xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR constitute two important members of the NR1I nuclear receptor family. They function as sensors of toxic byproducts of endogenous metabolism and of exogenous chemicals and enhance their elimination. This unique function of CAR and PXR sets them apart from the steroid hormone receptors. In contrast, the steroid receptors, exemplified by the estrogen receptor (ER) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), are the sensors that tightly monitor and respond to changes in circulating steroid hormone levels to maintain body homeostasis. This divergence of the chemical- and steroid-sensing functions has evolved to ensure the fidelity of the steroid hormone endocrine regulation while allowing development of metabolic elimination pathways for xenobiotics. The development of the xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR also reflect the increasing complexity of metabolism in higher organisms, which necessitate novel mechanisms for handling and eliminating metabolic byproducts and foreign compounds from the body. The purpose of this review is to discuss similarities and differences between the xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR with the prototypical steroid hormone receptors ER and GR. Interesting differences in structure explain in part the divergence in function and activation mechanisms of CAR/PXR from ER/GR. In addition, the physiological roles of CAR and PXR will be reviewed, with discussion of interactions of CAR and PXR with endocrine signaling pathways. PMID:17284330

  10. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  11. Mirrors Steer NASA in the Right Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Left Hand Design completed the production of the fine-steering mirror technology through 1995 Phase I and 1996 Phase II SBIR contracts with JPL's Interferometric Astronomy group. Presently, the work resulting from the collaboration with NASA represents the company's main line of products for the commercial sector. Aerospace-related applications include: image motion compensation; interceptor seekers for the U.S. Army and Navy; Earth observation and resource monitoring from spacecraft and airborne platforms; space astronomy; helicopter-based surveillance; and interferometric metrology. Left Hand Design's fine-steering mirrors have also penetrated the commercial marketplace with non-aerospace applications, including laser communications, video cameras, infrared inspection, solar observatories, and bathymeters. These cost-effective, commercial mirrors perform a variety of functions, such as scanning, alignment, chopping, tracking, pointing, and beam stabilization. Potential future applications include laser surgery and photolithography.

  12. Steering magnetic micropropellers along independent trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vach, Peter J.; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

    2016-02-01

    Multi-microrobot control is highly promising for the assembly of matter on the microscale, in situ sensing, targeted drug delivery or nanosurgery. Magnetic micropropellers can be powered and steered by external magnetic fields and therefore represent a promising microrobotic actuation mechanism. However, the simultaneous actuation of multiple propellers along independent trajectories has yet to be realized. This is challenging, specifically because all propellers are steered by the same fields. We identify here an optimal control strategy based on a thorough theoretical analysis of multi-microrobot control. Based on analytical results and simulations, we estimate the limitations to the achievable control precisions due to diffusion, errors in the field application, and interactions between propellers. We find that control precisions of a few micrometers might be achievable.

  13. EPR Steering inequalities with Communication Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Sándor; Vértesi, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the communication cost of reproducing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering correlations arising from bipartite quantum systems. We characterize the set of bipartite quantum states which admits a local hidden state model augmented with c bits of classical communication from an untrusted party (Alice) to a trusted party (Bob). In case of one bit of information (c = 1), we show that this set has a nontrivial intersection with the sets admitting a local hidden state and a local hidden variables model for projective measurements. On the other hand, we find that an infinite amount of classical communication is required from an untrusted Alice to a trusted Bob to simulate the EPR steering correlations produced by a two-qubit maximally entangled state. It is conjectured that a state-of-the-art quantum experiment would be able to falsify two bits of communication this way.

  14. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Bartosik, Hannes; Cornelis, Karel; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wenninger, Jorg

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  15. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface.

  16. EPR Steering inequalities with Communication Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Sándor; Vértesi, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the communication cost of reproducing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering correlations arising from bipartite quantum systems. We characterize the set of bipartite quantum states which admits a local hidden state model augmented with c bits of classical communication from an untrusted party (Alice) to a trusted party (Bob). In case of one bit of information (c = 1), we show that this set has a nontrivial intersection with the sets admitting a local hidden state and a local hidden variables model for projective measurements. On the other hand, we find that an infinite amount of classical communication is required from an untrusted Alice to a trusted Bob to simulate the EPR steering correlations produced by a two-qubit maximally entangled state. It is conjectured that a state-of-the-art quantum experiment would be able to falsify two bits of communication this way. PMID:26880376

  17. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets.

  18. Car drivers attend to different gaze targets when negotiating closed vs. open bends.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Farid I; Rotter, Alexander; Lappe, Markus

    2010-04-29

    On winding roads, car drivers have to control speed and steering angle in order to keep the car in an optimal lane position. Among the strategies proposed for steering regulation are the use of the tangent point, a geometrical method, and gaze sampling, in which retinal flow lines obtained by tracking a spot on the future road need to be assessed. Previous studies used a variety of scenarios (real-road vs. simulator) and different road designs (closed vs. open bends, different curvatures) and found results speaking in favor of either strategy. Here, we investigate what effects the openness of the bend, i.e. the sight distance of the driver, has on the percentage with which drivers use the tangent point. Six drivers drove a test car repeatedly through a series of twelve bends on real roads while their eye-movements were recorded. Results show that the reliance on the tangent point is generally high and increases with the closedness (shorter sight distances) of the bend and higher curvature. In open bends they alternatively look far into the straight road segments adjacent to the bend, but do not use gaze sampling.

  19. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  20. A Diagonal-Steering-Based Binaural Beamforming Algorithm Incorporating a Diagonal Speech Localizer for Persons With Bilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Chang; Nam, Kyoung Won; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2015-12-01

    Previously suggested diagonal-steering algorithms for binaural hearing support devices have commonly assumed that the direction of the speech signal is known in advance, which is not always the case in many real circumstances. In this study, a new diagonal-steering-based binaural speech localization (BSL) algorithm is proposed, and the performances of the BSL algorithm and the binaural beamforming algorithm, which integrates the BSL and diagonal-steering algorithms, were evaluated using actual speech-in-noise signals in several simulated listening scenarios. Testing sounds were recorded in a KEMAR mannequin setup and two objective indices, improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNRi ) and segmental SNR (segSNRi ), were utilized for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrated that the accuracy of the BSL was in the 90-100% range when input SNR was -10 to +5 dB range. The average differences between the γ-adjusted and γ-fixed diagonal-steering algorithms (for -15 to +5 dB input SNR) in the talking in the restaurant scenario were 0.203-0.937 dB for SNRi and 0.052-0.437 dB for segSNRi , and in the listening while car driving scenario, the differences were 0.387-0.835 dB for SNRi and 0.259-1.175 dB for segSNRi . In addition, the average difference between the BSL-turned-on and the BSL-turned-off cases for the binaural beamforming algorithm in the listening while car driving scenario was 1.631-4.246 dB for SNRi and 0.574-2.784 dB for segSNRi . In all testing conditions, the γ-adjusted diagonal-steering and BSL algorithm improved the values of the indices more than the conventional algorithms. The binaural beamforming algorithm, which integrates the proposed BSL and diagonal-steering algorithm, is expected to improve the performance of the binaural hearing support devices in noisy situations.

  1. On the Feasibility of Dynamic Power Steering

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Anger, Eric A.

    2014-11-16

    While high performance has always been the primary constraint behind large-scale system design, future systems will be built with increasing energy efficiency in mind. Mechanisms such as fine-grained power scaling and gating will provide tools to system-software and application developers to ensure the most efficient use of tightly constrained power budgets. Such approaches to-date have been focused on node level optimizations to impact overall system energy efficiency. In this work we introduce Dynamic Power Steering, in which power can be dynamically routed across a system to resources where it will be of most benefit and away from other resources to maintain a near-constant overall power budget. This, a higher level algorithmic approach to improving energy efficiency, considers the whole extent of a system being used by an application. It can be used for applications in which there is load imbalance that varies over its execution. Using two classes of applications, namely those that contain a wave front type processing, and a particle-in-cell, we quantify the benefit of Dynamic Power Steering for a variety of workload characteristics and derive some insight into the ways in which workload behavior affect Power Steering applicability.

  2. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    PubMed

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production.

  3. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  4. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  5. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  6. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  7. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  8. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  9. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  10. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  11. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned...

  12. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  13. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  14. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  15. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  16. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  17. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  18. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  19. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  20. Oblique incidence effect on steering efficiency of liquid crystal polarization gratings used for optical phased array beam steering amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo

    2016-10-01

    A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.

  1. Comparison of manual steering and steering via joystick of a flexible rhino endoscope.

    PubMed

    Eckl, R; Gumprecht, J J; Strauss, G; Hofer, M; Dietz, A; Lueth, T C

    2010-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes are used in ENT surgery for examination tasks in cases wherever rigid endoscopes are unsuitable to reach certain positions in the nasal cavity. Until today they are steered by hand and no robotized system has been put into clinical practice. One qualification a robot manipulator system has to fulfill to be accepted is not to create new disadvantages compared to the conventional method in surgery. An important factor is the time needed to steer the new system compared to the time needed to steer the conventional system. In this article a robot manipulator system and an experiment are presented to compare the particular times test persons need to perform a certain task. This approach offers the possibility to benchmark the developed robot manipulator system and future systems for flexible rhino endoscopes.

  2. Elucidation of bacteria found in car interiors and strategies to reduce the presence of potential pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rachel E; Gutierrez, Daniel; Peters, Cindy; Nichols, Mark; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome is influenced by a number of factors, including environmental exposure to microbes. Because many humans spend a large amount of time in built environments, it can be expected that the microbial ecology of these environments will influence the human microbiome. In an attempt to further understand the microbial ecology of built environments, the microbiota of car interiors was analyzed using culture dependent and culture independent methods. While it was found that the number and type of bacteria varied widely among the cars and sites tested, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium were nearly always the dominant genera found at the locations sampled. Because Staphylococcus is of particular concern to human health, the characteristics of this genus found in car interiors were investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and S. warnerii were the most prevalent staphylococcal species found, and 22.6% of S. aureus strains isolated from shared community vehicles were resistant to methicillin. The reduction in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in cars by using silver-based antimicrobial surface coatings was also evaluated. Coatings containing 5% silver ion additives were applied to steering wheels, placed in cars for five months and were found to eliminate the presence of culturable pathogenic bacteria recovered from these sites relative to controls. Together, these results provide new insight into the microbiota found in an important built environment, the automobile, and potential strategies for controlling the presence of human pathogens.

  3. The risk of airborne influenza transmission in passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, L D; Morawska, L; Bell, S C

    2012-03-01

    Travel in passenger cars is a ubiquitous aspect of the daily activities of many people. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic a case of probable transmission during car travel was reported in Australia, to which spread via the airborne route may have contributed. However, there are no data to indicate the likely risks of such events, and how they may vary and be mitigated. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the risk of airborne influenza transmission in two cars (1989 model and 2005 model) by employing ventilation measurements and a variation of the Wells-Riley model. Results suggested that infection risk can be reduced by not recirculating air; however, estimated risk ranged from 59% to 99·9% for a 90-min trip when air was recirculated in the newer vehicle. These results have implications for interrupting in-car transmission of other illnesses spread by the airborne route.

  4. Steering and Suspension Systems. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 5. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the fifth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Seventeen units cover: steering system design; diagnosing steering systems problems; inspecting and replacing steering linkage components; manual and power steering gear service; manual and power rack and pinion steering gear service; power…

  5. 46 CFR 58.25-80 - Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. 58.25-80... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-80 Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear. (a) Automatic pilots and ancillary steering gear, and steering-gear control systems, must...

  6. Multipartite Gaussian steering: Monogamy constraints and quantum cryptography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Kogias, Ioannis; Adesso, Gerardo; He, Qiongyi

    2017-01-01

    We derive laws for the distribution of quantum steering among different parties in multipartite Gaussian states under Gaussian measurements. We prove that a monogamy relation akin to the generalized Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality holds quantitatively for a recently introduced measure of Gaussian steering. We then define the residual Gaussian steering, stemming from the monogamy inequality, as an indicator of collective steering-type correlations. For pure three-mode Gaussian states, the residual acts as a quantifier of genuine multipartite steering, and is interpreted operationally in terms of the guaranteed key rate in the task of secure quantum secret sharing. Optimal resource states for the latter protocol are identified, and their possible experimental implementation discussed. Our results pin down the role of multipartite steering for quantum communication.

  7. Adjusting inequalities for detection-loophole-free steering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Guryanova, Yelena; McCutcheon, Will; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-09-01

    We study the problem of certifying quantum steering in a detection-loophole-free manner in experimental situations that require postselection. We present a method to find the modified local-hidden-state bound of steering inequalities in such a postselected scenario. We then present a construction of linear steering inequalities in arbitrary finite dimension and show that they certify steering in a loophole-free manner as long as the detection efficiencies are above the known bound below which steering can never be demonstrated. We also show how our method extends to the scenarios of multipartite steering and Bell nonlocality, in the general case where there can be correlations between the losses of the different parties. In both cases we present examples to demonstrate the techniques developed.

  8. Eye Carduino: A Car Control System using Eye Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.

  9. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability.

  10. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  11. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed...

  12. Binary micro optics: An application to beam steering

    SciTech Connect

    Goltsos, W.; Holz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Agile steering of a helium-neon laser beam (lambda = 632.8nm) was demonstrated using a complementary pair of 5-cm-aperture diffractive microlens arrays in the Galilean telescopic geometry. Having as many as 60,000 F/5 microlenses, each with parabolic phase profile and 200 micrometers diameter, results in nearly aberration-free beam steering over 11 deg. field of view for top + or - 100 micrometers lateral displacements of one array relative to the other. Wavefront quality and steering efficiency of the deflected beam has been measured as a function of steering angle and is compared to a simple theoretical model.

  13. TCEQ State of Texas Environmental Electronic Reporting System (STEERS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    TCEQ's State of Texas Environmental Electronic Reporting System (STEERS) is an existing electronic document receiving system for collecting numerous reports required under the state's EPA-authorized programs.

  14. Certifying single-system steering for quantum-information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Lambert, Neill; Chiu, Ching-Yi; Nori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d -dimensional systems (qudits) and devise efficient conditions to certify the steerability therein, which we find are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering conditions enable the unambiguous ruling out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Ruling out "false-steering" scenarios has implications for securing channels against both cloning-based individual attack and coherent attacks when implementing quantum key distribution using qudits. We also show that these steering conditions also have applications in quantum computation, in that they can serve as an efficient criterion for the evaluation of quantum logic gates of arbitrary size. Finally, we describe how the nonlocal EPR variant of these conditions also function as tools for identifying faithful one-way quantum computation, secure entanglement-based quantum communication, and genuine multipartite EPR steering.

  15. Comparing and validating models of driver steering behaviour in collision avoidance and vehicle stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkula, G.; Benderius, O.; Wahde, M.

    2014-12-01

    A number of driver models were fitted to a large data set of human truck driving, from a simulated near-crash, low-friction scenario, yielding two main insights: steering to avoid a collision was best described as an open-loop manoeuvre of predetermined duration, but with situation-adapted amplitude, and subsequent vehicle stabilisation could to a large extent be accounted for by a simple yaw rate nulling control law. These two phenomena, which could be hypothesised to generalise to passenger car driving, were found to determine the ability of four driver models adopted from the literature to fit the human data. Based on the obtained results, it is argued that the concept of internal vehicle models may be less valuable when modelling driver behaviour in non-routine situations such as near-crashes, where behaviour may be better described as direct responses to salient perceptual cues. Some methodological issues in comparing and validating driver models are also discussed.

  16. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and quantum steering ellipsoids: Optimal two-qubit states and projective measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, R.; Ferraro, A.; Paternostro, M.

    2017-01-01

    We identify the families of states that maximize some recently proposed quantifiers of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and the volume of the quantum steering ellipsoid (QSE). The optimal measurements which maximize genuine EPR steering measures are discussed and we develop a way to find them using the QSE. We thus explore the links between genuine EPR steering and the QSE and introduce states that can be the most useful for one-sided device-independent quantum cryptography for a given amount of noise.

  17. Interactive visual steering--rapid visual prototyping of a common rail injection system.

    PubMed

    Matković, Kresimir; Gracanin, Denis; Jelović, Mario; Hauser, Helwig

    2008-01-01

    Interactive steering with visualization has been a common goal of the visualization research community for twenty years, but it is rarely ever realized in practice. In this paper we describe a successful realization of a tightly coupled steering loop, integrating new simulation technology and interactive visual analysis in a prototyping environment for automotive industry system design. Due to increasing pressure on car manufacturers to meet new emission regulations, to improve efficiency, and to reduce noise, both simulation and visualization are pushed to their limits. Automotive system components, such as the powertrain system or the injection system have an increasing number of parameters, and new design approaches are required. It is no longer possible to optimize such a system solely based on experience or forward optimization. By coupling interactive visualization with the simulation back-end (computational steering), it is now possible to quickly prototype a new system, starting from a non-optimized initial prototype and the corresponding simulation model. The prototyping continues through the refinement of the simulation model, of the simulation parameters and through trial-and-error attempts to an optimized solution. The ability to early see the first results from a multidimensional simulation space--thousands of simulations are run for a multidimensional variety of input parameters--and to quickly go back into the simulation and request more runs in particular parameter regions of interest significantly improves the prototyping process and provides a deeper understanding of the system behavior. The excellent results which we achieved for the common rail injection system strongly suggest that our approach has a great potential of being generalized to other, similar scenarios.

  18. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  19. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  20. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  1. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  2. Automatic loop steering for directional drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, W.N.; Kuehn, J.L.; Ziaja, M.B.

    1994-12-31

    A closed loop controller design for the steering of directed drilling is proposed in the paper. The paper first describes the development of a causal model of the directed drilling process that consists of two critical components. First a closed form bottom hole assembly (BHA) model is described. The BHA model makes it possible to solve the `inverse` problem on-line in real time. That is, having measured the `shape` of the compliant BHA at any instant, the real time BHA model will be used to determine both the exact location and orientation of the bit in a global reference frame and boundary conditions of the BHA at the rock/bit interface. Those boundary conditions include the instantaneous values of the net forces and moments at the rock/bit interface. Secondly, the paper describes a proposed input-output rock/bit interaction (RBI) model that can be shown to accurately determine the directional tendency of the bit on-line. The model structure is consistent with the models proposed by Ho (1987) and Rafie (1988) in the case when a constant build/drop rate is achieved. The model is shown to mimic field data which was published by Jogi et al (1988). The BHA and RBI models are then combined to yield a continuous differential model of the drilling process. It is assumed that force inputs to the BHA are obtained from continuously variable eccentric stabilizers in the BHA near the bit. A closed loop steering control algorithm is designed around the proposed drilling process model (DPM). Finally, simulations of the controlled DPM and an uncontrolled building BHA are compared to demonstrate the feasibility of the automatic steering controller.

  3. CAR-T therapy for leukemia: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Xiao, Qing; Wang, Zhe; Feng, Wen-Li

    2016-10-27

    Despite the rapid development of therapeutic strategies, leukemia remains a type of difficult-to-treat hematopoietic malignancy that necessitates introduction of more effective treatment options to improve life expectancy and quality of patients. Genetic engineering in adoptively transferred T cells to express antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has proved highly powerful and efficacious in inducing sustained responses in patients with refractory malignancies, as exemplified by the success of CD19-targeting CAR-T treatment in patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Recent strategies, including manipulating intracellular activating domains and transducing viral vectors, have resulted in better designed and optimized CAR-T cells. This is further facilitated by the rapid identification of an accumulating number of potential leukemic antigens that may serve as therapeutic targets for CAR-T cells. This review will provide a comprehensive background and scrutinize recent important breakthrough studies on anti-leukemia CAR-T cells, with focus on recently identified antigens for CAR-T therapy design and approaches to overcome critical challenges.

  4. Effects of supplement type and selenium source on measures of growth and selenium status in yearling beef steers.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D

    2008-06-01

    Sugarcane molasses is a widely used animal feed by-product, but is concentrated in S (approximately 1%, DM basis) and has been shown to reduce the Cu status of cattle. Dietary S may also antagonize Se; therefore, two 90-d studies were conducted with forage-fed, yearling steers (12 pens; 2 steers/pen for each study) to investigate the impact of molasses supplementation on measures of Se status. In Exp. 1, steers were assigned isonitrogenous supplements with equivalent amounts of TDN from 2 sources (molasses or corn). Supplemental Se was provided (3.0 mg of Se/d; Na selenite) to both treatments. After 90 d of supplementation, steers provided corn diets had greater (P = 0.02) liver Se concentrations and tended (P = 0.07) to have greater ADG compared with steers supplemented with molasses. Irrespective of treatment (P >/= 0.54), plasma Se concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity increased (P < 0.001) from d 0 to 90. In Exp. 2, sources of supplemental Se (2.5 mg/ d), fed within molasses supplements, were compared. Treatments included 1) Na selenite, 2) Se-yeast (Sel-Plex, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY), or 3) no Se (control). Cattle provided supplemental Se, irrespective of source, had greater (P activity compared with control steers on d 60 and 90. Measures of Se status did not differ among steers supplemented with Na selenite and Se-yeast. These data suggest that dietary S, derived from sugarcane molasses, may antagonize liver tissue accumulation of Se in cattle. The Se status of cattle consuming sugar-cane molasses was similar when provided 2.5 mg of supplemental Se/d from Na selenite or Se-yeast sources.

  5. Minimalistic optic flow sensors applied to indoor and outdoor visual guidance and odometry on a car-like robot.

    PubMed

    Mafrica, Stefano; Servel, Alain; Ruffier, Franck

    2016-11-10

    Here we present a novel bio-inspired optic flow (OF) sensor and its application to visual  guidance and odometry on a low-cost car-like robot called BioCarBot. The minimalistic OF sensor was robust to high-dynamic-range lighting conditions and to various visual patterns encountered thanks to its M(2)APIX auto-adaptive pixels and the new cross-correlation OF algorithm implemented. The low-cost car-like robot estimated its velocity and steering angle, and therefore its position and orientation, via an extended Kalman filter (EKF) using only two downward-facing OF sensors and the Ackerman steering model. Indoor and outdoor experiments were carried out in which the robot was driven in the closed-loop mode based on the velocity and steering angle estimates. The experimental results obtained show that our novel OF sensor can deliver high-frequency measurements ([Formula: see text]) in a wide OF range (1.5-[Formula: see text]) and in a 7-decade high-dynamic light level range. The OF resolution was constant and could be adjusted as required (up to [Formula: see text]), and the OF precision obtained was relatively high (standard deviation of [Formula: see text] with an average OF of [Formula: see text], under the most demanding lighting conditions). An EKF-based algorithm gave the robot's position and orientation with a relatively high accuracy (maximum errors outdoors at a very low light level: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] over about [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) despite the low-resolution control systems of the steering servo and the DC motor, as well as a simplified model identification and calibration. Finally, the minimalistic OF-based odometry results were compared to those obtained using measurements based on an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a motor's speed sensor.

  6. Steering disturbance rejection using a physics-based neuromusculoskeletal driver model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Naser; Sharif Razavian, Reza; McPhee, John

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive yet practical driver model to be used in studying driver-vehicle interactions. Drivers interact with their vehicle and the road through the steering wheel. This interaction forms a closed-loop coupled human-machine system, which influences the driver's steering feel and control performance. A hierarchical approach is proposed here to capture the complexity of the driver's neuromuscular dynamics and the central nervous system in the coordination of the driver's upper extremity activities, especially in the presence of external disturbance. The proposed motor control framework has three layers: the first (or the path planning) plans a desired vehicle trajectory and the required steering angles to perform the desired trajectory; the second (or the musculoskeletal controller) actuates the musculoskeletal arm to rotate the steering wheel accordingly; and the final layer ensures the precision control and disturbance rejection of the motor control units. The physics-based driver model presented here can also provide insights into vehicle control in relaxed and tensed driving conditions, which are simulated by adjusting the driver model parameters such as cognition delay and muscle co-contraction dynamics.

  7. Cortisol awakening response (CAR)'s flexibility leads to larger and more consistent associations with psychological factors than CAR magnitude.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Vanootighem, Valentine; Lambert, Florence; Lahaye, Magali; Fillée, Catherine; de Timary, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is increasingly recognized as a potential biological marker of psychological and physical health status. Yet, the CAR literature is replete with contradictory results: both supposedly protective and vulnerability psychosocial factors have been associated with both increased and decreased CAR. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CAR flexibility would be a better indicator of psychological status than CAR magnitude. Forty-two men measures of happiness, perceived stress and neuroticism, and took saliva samples immediately on awakening, then at 15, 30, 45 and 60min post-awakening on three study days (i.e., Sunday, Monday and Tuesday). When considering the CAR magnitude, our effects perfectly reflect the inconsistencies previously observed in the literature (i.e., the main effects of the psychological predictors are not consistent with each other, and the effect of one predictor on a given day contradicts the effect of the same predictor on another day). However, considering the CAR flexibility leads to a fully consistent pattern: protective factors (i.e., high happiness, low stress, low neurotiscim) are associated with a flexible CAR (i.e., lower CAR during weekends compared to workdays) whereas vulnerability factors (i.e., low happiness, high stress, high neurotiscim) are associated with a stiff CAR (i.e., same magnitude during weekends and workdays). We conclude that considering the CAR flexibility (e.g., between weekends and workdays) rather than the traditional CAR magnitude might be a way to understand the apparent conflicts in the CAR literature.

  8. Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E D; Hussein, A H; Detmann, E; Miesner, M D; Titgemeyer, E C

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 ± 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered ( ≥ 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased ( = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations

  9. Steering electromagnetic beams with conical curvature singularities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2015-10-15

    We describe how the transformation-optics technique can be used to design an effective medium mimicking the conical curvature singularity. Anholonomic coordinate transformation gives rise to linear topological defects that break the rotational symmetry. The bending and splitting of the optical beams are found analytically and numerically, depending on the incident direction and the topological charge. Beyond their practical applications to omnidirectional beam steering for photonics, our findings set forth an attractive realm to simulate the relevant physical phenomena in the optical laboratory.

  10. Auto-steering apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.

    2007-03-13

    A vehicular guidance method involves providing a user interface using which data can be input to establish a contour for a vehicle to follow, the user interface further configured to receive information from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), determining cross track and offset data using information received from the DGPS, generating control values, using at least vehicular kinematics, the cross track, and the offset data, and providing an output to control steering of the vehicle, using the control values, in a direction to follow the established contour while attempting to minimize the cross track and the offset data.

  11. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kakehashi, Anna; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Nagano, Kasuke; Nishimaki, Fukumi; Banton, Marcy; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: • We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. • ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. • Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. • ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. • The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

  12. Development of an Automated Steering Mechanism for Bladder Urothelium Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, W. Jong; Park, Sangtae; Reinhall, Per G.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Given the advantages of cystoscopic exams compared with other procedures available for bladder surveillance, it would be beneficial to develop an improved automated cystoscope. We develop and propose an active programmable remote steering mechanism and an efficient motion sequence for bladder cancer detection and postoperative surveillance. The continuous and optimal path of the imaging probe can enable a medical practitioner to readily ensure that images are produced for the entire surface of the bladder in a controlled and uniform manner. Shape memory alloy (SMA) based segmented actuators disposed adjacent to the distal end of the imaging probe are selectively activated to bend the shaft to assist in positioning and orienting the imaging probe at a plurality of points selected to image all the interior of the distended bladder volume. The bending arc, insertion depth, and rotational position of the imaging probe are automatically controlled based on patient-specific data. The initial prototype is tested on a 3D plastic phantom bladder, which is used as a proof-of-concept in vitro model and an electromagnetic motion tracker. The 3D tracked tip trajectory results ensure that the motion sequencing program and the steering mechanism efficiently move the image probe to scan the entire inner tissue layer of the bladder. The compared experimental results shows 5.1% tip positioning error to the designed trajectory given by the simulation tool. The authors believe that further development of this concept will help guarantee that a tumor or other characteristic of the bladder surface is not overlooked during the automated cystoscopic procedure due to a failure to image it. PMID:20011075

  13. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  14. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  15. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  16. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  17. Friction in a Moving Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

  18. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  19. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  20. Coke quench car emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coke quench car emission control system includes a coke car and a filter car connected in tandem for joint movement on rails disposed adjacent a coke oven. A hood and recuperator are mounted on a third car disposed on auxiliary rails which extend longitudinally along the upper portions of both the quench car and the filter car and in end-wise alignment. The hood is adapted to be coupled to the coke oven for receiving coke during a pushing operation. The recuperation has an inlet coupled to the hood for receiving emissions and withdrawing heat therefrom. The recuperator also has an outlet which is disposed adjacent the inlet of a filter system mounted on the filter car, when the third car is positioned atop the quench car. The third car is sized so that it can be moved on the auxiliary rails from a position atop the quench car to a position atop the filter car whereby the quench car can be exposed for a quenching operation.

  1. Steering into the Curve: Getting Real in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Dozens and dozens of little deaths occur in college classrooms each day as teachers, mostly because of fear, steer themselves and their students away from what is alive and real and toward what is dead, safe, and boring. In this paper, I use a collection of stories to describe a practice that enlivens classroom dynamics that I call "Steering Into…

  2. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.641 Instructions for changing steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to...

  3. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.641 Instructions for changing steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to...

  4. 78 FR 23961 - Request for Steering Committee Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Request for Steering Committee Nominations ACTION: Request for nominations to the Steering Committee for the Foundation's Innovation in Medical Evidence Development and Surveillance program. SUMMARY: The Reagan-Udall Foundation for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA),...

  5. Cecum microbial communities from steers differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To characterize the microbial communities of the cecum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Methods and Results: Individual feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) gain were determined from animals fed the same ration, within two contemporary groups of steers. BW gain was regressed on F...

  6. Dynamic two-dimensional beam-pattern steering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shaomin; Yeh, Pochi; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1993-06-01

    A dynamic two-dimensional laser-beam-pattern steering technique using photorefractive holograms in conjunction with electrically addressed spatial light modulators is proposed and investigated. The experimental results demonstrate the dynamic steering of random combinations of basis beam patterns. The proposed method has the advantages of random beam-pattern combination, good beam intensity uniformity, and higher diffraction efficiency compared with conventional methods.

  7. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers. 164.39 Section 164.39 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign...

  8. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers. 164.39 Section 164.39 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign...

  9. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers. 164.39 Section 164.39 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign...

  10. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers. 164.39 Section 164.39 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign...

  11. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers. 164.39 Section 164.39 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign...

  12. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Cao, Haixin; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by the Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside the event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a "sudden death" and the steering from anti-Bob to Bob experiences a "sudden birth" with increasing Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry cannot exceed ln 2 , which means the state never evolves to an extremal asymmetry state. Furthermore, we obtain the parameter settings that maximize steering asymmetry and find that (i) s =arccosh cosh/2r 1 -sinh2r is the critical point of steering asymmetry and (ii) the attainment of maximal steering asymmetry indicates the transition between one-way steerability and both-way steerability for the two-mode Gaussian state under the influence of Hawking radiation.

  13. ICESat-2 ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a beam steering mechanism (BSM) used to accurately guide a laser on the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) down to Earth in order to measure elevation. It describes the main components in the BSM that allows it to perform and meet stringent requirements. Requirements of the BSM include two-axis steering of the transmitted laser beam, +-5000 uRad mechanical motion in each axis, and 1.5 uRad RMS pointing stability among many other requirements. The BSM uses four voice coil actuators in order to locate the mirror at the angle we need. There are four Differential Position Sensors that determine the position and angle of the mirror at all times. These sensors were verified through optical testing in both ambient and thermal conditions. Testing and extensive analyses were performed on the two-axis flexure throughout the program to check flexure thickness, positive margins, and infinite life. The mirror mount design has been modified to eliminate radial preload, while incorporating a titanium wave spring to provide an axial preload of 10.8N. The BSM underwent multiple tests in order to verify all components work as required under various conditions.

  14. Internal models direct dragonfly interception steering.

    PubMed

    Mischiati, Matteo; Lin, Huai-Ti; Herold, Paul; Imler, Elliot; Olberg, Robert; Leonardo, Anthony

    2015-01-15

    Sensorimotor control in vertebrates relies on internal models. When extending an arm to reach for an object, the brain uses predictive models of both limb dynamics and target properties. Whether invertebrates use such models remains unclear. Here we examine to what extent prey interception by dragonflies (Plathemis lydia), a behaviour analogous to targeted reaching, requires internal models. By simultaneously tracking the position and orientation of a dragonfly's head and body during flight, we provide evidence that interception steering is driven by forward and inverse models of dragonfly body dynamics and by models of prey motion. Predictive rotations of the dragonfly's head continuously track the prey's angular position. The head-body angles established by prey tracking appear to guide systematic rotations of the dragonfly's body to align it with the prey's flight path. Model-driven control thus underlies the bulk of interception steering manoeuvres, while vision is used for reactions to unexpected prey movements. These findings illuminate the computational sophistication with which insects construct behaviour.

  15. Effect of early grain feeding of beef steers on postabsorptive metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nayananjalie, W A D; Pike, K L; Wiles, T R; McCann, M A; Scheffler, J M; Greiner, S P; Schramm, H H; Gerrard, D E; Jiang, H; Hanigan, M D

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of early weaning followed by a period of high-grain feeding on plasma acetate kinetics and signaling protein phosphorylation in LM tissue of growing steers. We hypothesized that early grain feeding would result in altered cell signaling and acetate use to support observed improvements in carcass gain and marbling. Fall-born Angus × Simmental steers were weaned at 106 ± 4 d of age (early weaned [EW]; n = 6) and fed a high-grain diet for 148 d or remained with their dams (normal weaned [NW]; n = 6) on pasture until weaning at 251 ± 5 d of age. Both treatments were subsequently combined and grazed on mixed summer pasture to 394 ± 5 d of age followed by a feedlot ration until harvest at 513 ± 5 d of age. Longissimus muscle tissue biopsies were collected at 253 ± 5 and 394 ± 5 d of age and at harvest. Total and phosphorylated forms of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and downstream proteins of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway were determined by western blotting. Eight steers were used to assess acetate clearance at different age points via a bolus infusion of acetate (4 mmol/kg of BW). Early weaned steers had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than NW steers during the early grain feeding period. Phosphorylated to total ratios of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) were significantly different during the early grain feeding period. Phosphorylated to total ratios of S6K1, rpS6, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and 4E binding protein 1 and the absolute amount of phosphorylated AMPK were correlated with ADG, explaining 46% of the variance. Acetate clearance rates were less (P < 0.05) and synthesis rates were greater (P = 0.06) in EW steers during early grain feeding. Acetate synthesis rates were also greater (P < 0.05) in NW steers at harvest, suggesting a permanent shift in the gut microflora or gut function in response to the treatment. Neither

  16. Colour of muscle from 18-month-old steers given long-term daily exercise.

    PubMed

    Dunne, P G; O'Mara, F P; Monahan, F J; French, P; Moloney, A P

    2005-10-01

    Darker beef from pasture-fed compared with grain-fed cattle may result from differences in physical activity rather than differences in nutrition. The objective was to determine if steers that were exercised produced darker meat than non-exercised steers and whether any effect was muscle-related. Exercised steers were walked 4.41 km daily in a single bout, six days per week for 18 weeks at an average speed of 5.2 kmh(-1). All steers were fed grass silage on an ad libitum basis plus 6 kg concentrates. Following slaughter, muscle colour coordinates ('L' (lightness), 'a' (redness) and 'b' (yellowness) values) of M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM) and M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR) were recorded at 48 h postmortem and redness and yellowness were used to calculate muscle hue ('H') and colour intensity/saturation ('C'). The pH of all muscles was measured at 1.5, 3, 6, 22 and 48 h postmortem and LD samples were recovered (90 min postmortem) for glycolytic potential (GP) assessment. Exercise did not affect muscle lightness, yellowness, hue or colour intensity. However, LD was the darkest (P<0.001) and SM the most saturated (P<0.001) muscle. Exercise affected muscle redness in a muscle-dependent manner (muscle×exercise, P=0.038) whereby ECR became more red with exercise but LD and SM were unaffected. There were muscle×time (P<0.001) and time×exercise (P=0.045) interactions for muscle pH. The ECR muscle had the highest pH at all times. The exercised steers had higher (P<0.05) LD muscle pH than control steers at 3 and 6 h postmortem. Exercise did not affect myoglobin concentration, which was muscle dependent, decreasing in the order: SM (6.72 mg/g)>ECR (6.33 mg/g)>LD (5.48 mg/g), which were all different (P<0.001). Exercise had no effect on GP in LD muscle (111 vs. 99 μmol/g for control and exercised steers, respectively; SED=6.6 μmol/g). It was concluded that although application of exercise did not affect muscle lightness and thus, did not cause

  17. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition-edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geoff; de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Wiseman, Howard M.; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date, all experimental tests with single-photon states have relied on post selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavourable events in losses. Here we close this 'detection loophole' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition-edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ~62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 s.d.s. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  18. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gertis, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-02-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this ``detection loophole'' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ˜62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  19. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  20. A Demonstration of Car Braking Instabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Jack; Swinson, Derek

    1990-01-01

    Detailed are the construction of a demonstration car, apparatus and procedures used in the demonstration, and the analysis of the effects of car braking. The cases of rear-wheel and front-wheel braking are considered. (CW)

  1. Solar-powered car. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, D.

    1982-03-30

    The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (LEW)

  2. RNA-Seq Reveals Age- and Species Differences of CAR-targeted Drug-Processing Genes in Liver.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Bammler, Theo K; Cui, Julia Yue

    2017-02-23

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) is an important xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in liver, and is well known to have species differences. During development, age-specific activation of CAR may lead to modified pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of drugs and environmental chemicals, leading to higher risks for adverse drug reactions in newborns and children. The goal of this study was to systematically investigate the age- and species-specific regulation of various drug-processing genes (Li et al.) following neonatal or adult CAR activation in livers of wild-type (WT), CAR-null, and humanized CAR-transgenic (hCAR-TG) mice. At either 5- or 60-days of age, the 3 genotypes of mice were administered a species-appropriate CAR ligand or vehicle once daily for 4-days (i.p.). The majority of DPGs were differentially regulated by age and/or CAR activation, and they partitioned into 3 patterns: DPGs in Pattern-1 (up-regulated with age) and Pattern-2 (down-regulated with age) were predominantly regulated by age, whereas DPGs in Pattern 3 were predominantly regulated by CAR activation. There were 36 DPGs that were commonly up-regulated by CAR activation regardless of age or species of CAR; however, the fold-induction in the mRNA expression of these genes was profoundly modified by age. Although the cumulative mRNAs of uptake transporters were not readily altered by CAR, the cumulative Phase-I and -II enzymes as well as efflux transporters were all increased following CAR activation in both species. In general, mCAR activation produced comparable or even greater fold-increases of many DPGs in newborns than in adults; conversely, hCAR activation produced weaker induction in newborns than in adults. Western blotting and enzyme activity assays confirmed the age- and species-specificities of selected CAR-targeted DPGs. In conclusion, neonatal livers appear to be more sensitive to CAR-activators, whereas hCAR and mCAR produce overlapping

  3. [Car driving and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jonas, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature.

  4. Implementation of object-oriented programming in study of electrical race car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.; Baier, M.

    2016-08-01

    The paper covers issue of conducting advanced research of electrical race car participating in international competition called Sileverline Corporate Challenge. Process of designing race cars in Silesian Greenpower team is aided by a professional engine test stand built particularly in purpose of this research. Phase of testing and simulation is an important part of the implementation of new technologies. Properly developed solutions and test procedures are able to significantly shorten development time and reduce design costs. Testing process must be controlled by a modular and flexible application, easy to modify and ensuring safety. This paper describes the concept of object-oriented programming in LabVIEW and exemplary architecture of object-oriented control application designed to control engine test stand of the electrical race car. Eventually, the task of application will be to steer the electromagnetic brake and the engine load torque to perform according to data from the actual race track. During the designing process of the car, minimizing energy losses and maximizing powertrain efficiency are the main aspects taken into consideration. One of the crucial issues to accomplish these goals is to maintain optimal performance of the motor by applying effective cooling. The paper covers the research verifying the effectiveness of the cooling system.

  5. Shuttle-Car System for Continuous Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Buffer storage catches coal production between loadings. Telescoping reservoir filled continuously. With tailgate down, shuttle car slides into place along sides and bottom of reservoir. Reservoir retracts along inside of car and out through tailgate, leaving coal behind in car. System not restricted to coal mining and may prove economical for hauling other solid materials.

  6. Determining the Air Drag on a Car.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Students' cars and wristwatches are used as "apparatus" to introduce and demonstrate Newton's second law of motion. Forces acting on cars are discussed and typical student data (for different makes of cars) are provided. Data could also be used in discussions of work, horsepower, efficiency, and energy cost. (JN)

  7. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  8. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  9. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  10. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  11. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  12. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  13. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  14. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  15. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  16. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  17. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  18. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  19. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  20. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  1. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  2. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  3. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  4. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J.; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03). SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04), and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43) gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05). AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03). Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  5. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03). SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04), and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43) gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05). AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03). Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  6. CAR-T Cells Inflict Sequential Killing of Multiple Tumor Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Cross, Ryan S; Yong, Carmen S; Prince, H Miles; Ritchie, David S; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells shows great promise clinically. However, there are important aspects of CAR-T-cell biology that have not been explored, particularly with respect to the kinetics of activation, immune synapse formation, and tumor cell killing. Moreover, the effects of signaling via the endogenous T-cell receptor (TCR) or CAR on killing kinetics are unclear. To address these issues, we developed a novel transgenic mouse (designated CAR.OT-I), in which CD8(+) T cells coexpressed the clonogenic OT-I TCR, recognizing the H-2K(b)-presented ovalbumin peptide SIINFEKL, and an scFv specific for human HER2. Primed CAR.OT-I T cells were mixed with SIINFEKL-pulsed or HER2-expressing tumor cells and visualized in real-time using time-lapse microscopy. We found that engagement via CAR or TCR did not affect cell death kinetics, except that the time from degranulation to CAR-T-cell detachment was faster when CAR was engaged. We showed, for the first time, that individual CAR.OT-I cells can kill multiple tumor cells ("serial killing"), irrespective of the mode of recognition. At low effector:target ratios, the tumor cell killing rate was similar via TCR or CAR ligation over the first 20 hours of coincubation. However, from 20 to 50 hours, tumor cell death mediated through CAR became attenuated due to CAR downregulation throughout the time course. Our study provides important insights into CAR-T-tumor cell interactions, with implications for single- or dual receptor-focused T-cell therapy.

  7. Predicting water intake by yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Sexson, J L; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Eickhoff, J

    2012-06-01

    Data from 4 separate beef cattle feedlot experiments, which were conducted at the Southeast Colorado Research Center (SECRC) in Lamar, CO, in 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, were utilized in a retrospective longitudinal study investigating possible relationships between daily water consumption (WC), DMI, and weather variables. The data set consisted of 8,209 records from 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, with pen based daily WC (L•animal(-1)) and DMI measurements and calculated daily steer BW from April to October in each year. Daily weather data were obtained from the weather station located at Lamar Municipal Airport located approximately 1.9 km from SECRC. Data collected consisted of daily high, low, and mean temperature; high, low, and mean humidity; high, low, and mean sea level pressure; mean wind speed; total precipitation; and average daily wind direction (cosine of radians from due north). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the continuous variables of BW, humidity, and sea level pressure were negatively related (P < 0.0001), whereas DMI, temperature the previous day, daily temperature, change in temperature from the previous day, average wind speed, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) were positively related (P < 0.001) to daily WC. There was a trend (P < 0.06) for the cosine of wind direction (1 = due north and -1 = due south) to be negatively related to WC. The multivariate, parsimonious model predicting average daily WC included (P < 0.05) average humidity, average humidity squared, high temperature squared, high humidity squared, low temperature, low temperature squared, low humidity, average sea level pressure, average wind speed, average daily BW, high sea level pressure, low sea level pressure, high humidity, and low humidity. The generalized R(2) of the parsimonious multivariate model was 0.32. These results indicate that BW and numerous weather factors are related to WC by yearling feedlot steers. Dry matter intake had minimal impact on WC for

  8. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  9. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  10. A brief history of the discovery of PXR and CAR as xenobiotic receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiong; Xie, Wen

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) were cloned and/or established as xenobiotic receptors in 1998. Due to their activities in the transcriptional regulation of phase I and phase II enzymes as well as drug transporters, PXR and CAR have been defined as the master regulators of xenobiotic responses. The discovery of PXR and CAR provides the essential molecular basis by which drugs and other xenobiotic compounds regulate the expression of xenobiotic enzymes and transporters. This article is intended to provide a historical overview on the discovery of PXR and CAR as xenobiotic receptors.

  11. Differences in Gene Regulation by Dual Ligands of Nuclear Receptors Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) and Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) in HepG2 Cells Stably Expressing CAR/PXR.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Tanuma, Nobuaki; Yazawa, Saki; Zhao, Shuai; Inaba, Miki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Inouye, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulate various genes involved in xenobiotics and drug metabolism. In many cases, CAR/PXR share ligands termed dual ligands of CAR/PXR. It is difficult to investigate the effect of CAR/PXR dual ligands in cell lines because CAR and PXR expression is scarcely detected in cultured cell lines. Here, we established a tetracycline-inducible human CAR and stably human PXR-overexpressing HepG2 cell line (HepTR/hCAR/hPXR) to examine CAR/PXR dual ligands. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, which are target genes of CAR/PXR, by dual ligands of CAR/PXR in two transfectants. Activation of CAR and PXR in cells treated with a high dose of CITCO [6-(4-chlorophenyl)-imidazo(2,1-b)thiazole-5-carbaldehyde] or cotreated with rifampicin and tetracycline resulted in synergistic enhancement of CYP3A4, but not CYP2B6, CYP2C9, or UGT1A1, mRNA expression in HepTR/hCAR/hPXR cells. In contrast, this synergistic effect was not observed in HepTR/hCAR cells. These observations were also demonstrated in human primary hepatocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that dual ligands of CAR/PXR show distinct gene regulation patterns by cross-talk between CAR and PXR. Furthermore, the two newly established cell lines are useful tools to investigate dual ligands of CAR/PXR.

  12. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    .m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch.

  13. Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light.

    PubMed

    Kienberger, R; Hentschel, M; Uiberacker, M; Spielmann, Ch; Kitzler, M; Scrinzi, A; Wieland, M; Westerwalbesloh, Th; Kleineberg, U; Heinzmann, U; Drescher, M; Krausz, F

    2002-08-16

    Photoelectrons excited by extreme ultraviolet or x-ray photons in the presence of a strong laser field generally suffer a spread of their energies due to the absorption and emission of laser photons. We demonstrate that if the emitted electron wave packet is temporally confined to a small fraction of the oscillation period of the interacting light wave, its energy spectrum can be up- or downshifted by many times the laser photon energy without substantial broadening. The light wave can accelerate or decelerate the electron's drift velocity, i.e., steer the electron wave packet like a classical particle. This capability strictly relies on a sub-femtosecond duration of the ionizing x-ray pulse and on its timing to the phase of the light wave with a similar accuracy, offering a simple and potentially single-shot diagnostic tool for attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  14. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gosten, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the Earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  15. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morrell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  16. Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. High resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of methodology to verify performance was a significant effortadvancement. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 Mission (ICESat 2), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat 2 primary mission is to map the earths surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness as well as vegetation canopy thickness.

  17. New twist to steering. [Magnus effect rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The new vessel steering system is based on The Magnus Effect which is defined in simplified terms; if a vertical cylinder immersed in water is rotated, it produces a force at right angles to the direction of the water flowing past it. The Magnus Effect rotor needs only sufficient torque to overcome bearing and surface friction forces, so that the power requirements are very low. Further energy savings are realized because the rotor can develop maximum turning force or can return to zero in a few seconds. Tests with these cylindrical rudders have been conducted to verify the hydrodynamic theory. This concept is in the preliminary stages of development. Results are expected soon from field testing on an 1800-hp pushboat working four barges on the Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers in Alabama and Mississippi.

  18. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  19. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  20. S-branch CARS applicability to thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Akihama, K.; Asai, T. )

    1990-07-20

    The pressure and temperature dependence of background-free {ital S}-branch CARS spectra of N{sub 2} are investigated in the temperature range of 300--700 K for pressures of 1--20 atm. Collisional narrowing for {ital S}-branch CARS spectra is proved to be negligible. Individual {ital S}-branch lines are clearly resolved in the entire range, enabling unequivocal determination of temperatures by their peak ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry are discussed on the basis of experimental results. The dual narrowband Stokes CARS technique is also discussed as a practical method of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry.