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Sample records for active caries lesions

  1. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  2. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

    PubMed Central

    Simón-Soro, Aurea; Guillen-Navarro, Miriam; Mira, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15) and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12) were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci detected confirms that they

  3. How different do visuo-tactile criteria assess caries lesions activity status on occlusal surfaces?

    PubMed

    Floriano, I; Bonini, G C; Matos, R; Novaes, T F; Ekstrand, K R; Mendes, F M; Braga, M M

    2015-04-01

    We tested the association between active caries lesions assessed by two different criteria and clinical features of these caries lesions. Three examiners examined forty-nine 3- to 12-year-old children: one examiner used the Nyvad criteria, another examiner used the International Caries Detection and Assessment System with an additional criteria--Lesion Activity Assessment (ICDAS + LAA), and a reference examiner classified lesions regarding plaque stagnation, colour, lustre, cavities, depth and texture. Logistic regressions were used to test associations. For analyses, we grouped sound sites and inactive lesions vs active caries lesions, but also considering only inactive vs active lesions. Active lesions scored by both criteria were similarly associated with different clinical parameters tested, except when the sound sites were excluded from the analysis. In these cases, active lesions according to ICDAS + LAA were associated only with cavitation and texture. Texture was associated with divergences between criteria when differentiating sound or inactive lesions from active ones. Fewer divergences in differentiating active from inactive lesions were observed when lesions present lustre. Most clinical signs associated with active caries lesions were similar, but texture and severity tend to have a greater importance when using ICDAS + LAA for distinguishing caries activity status. Attention should be given to differences due to texture and lustre when using different indices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  5. Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert C; Darling, Cynthia L; Staninec, Michal; Ragadio, Antonio; Fried, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate thermal and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging methods for the assessment of the activity of root caries lesions. In addition, changes in the lesion structure were monitored with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Artificial bovine and natural root caries lesions were imaged with PS-OCT, and their dehydration rate was measured with thermal and NIR cameras. The lesion activity of the natural root caries samples was also assessed by two clinicians by conventional means according to ICDAS II guidelines. The thickness of the highly mineralized transparent surface layer measured using PS-OCT increased and the area enclosed by the time-temperature curve, ΔQ, measured with thermal imaging decreased significantly with longer periods of remineralization in simulated dentin lesions, but the NIR reflectance intensity differences, ΔI, failed to show any significant relationship with the degree of remineralization. The PS-OCT algorithm for the automated assessment of remineralization successfully detected the highly mineralized surface layer on both natural and simulated lesions. Thermal imaging provided the most accurate diagnosis of root caries lesion activity. These results demonstrate that thermal imaging and PS-OCT may be ideally suited for the nondestructive root caries lesion activity during a clinical examination. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Infiltration of natural caries lesions in relation to their activity status and acid pretreatment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Schlafer, S; Lussi, A; Nyvad, B

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing how active and inactive enamel caries lesions differ by their degree of resin infiltration, and whether the choice of acid pretreatment plays a crucial role. Four examiners assessed 104 human molars and premolars with noncavitated enamel lesions and classified them as 'active' or 'inactive' using the Nyvad criteria. Forty-five teeth were included in this study after independent unanimous lesion activity assessment. Lesions were cut perpendicularly into 2 halves. Each half lesion was pretreated with either 15% hydrochloric acid or 35% phosphoric acid. The lesions were infiltrated after staining with rhodamine isothiocyanate. Thin sections of 100 µm were prepared and the specimens were bleached with 30% hydrogen peroxide. The specimens were then counterstained with sodium fluorescein, subjected to confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed quantitatively. Outcome parameters were maximum and average infiltration depths as well as relative penetration depths and areas. In active lesions no significant difference of percentage maximum penetration depth and percentage average penetration depth between lesions pretreated with hydrochloric or phosphoric acid could be observed. In inactive lesions, however, phosphoric acid pretreatment resulted in significantly lower penetration compared to hydrochloric acid pretreatment. Surface conditioning with hydrochloric acid led to similar infiltration results in active and inactive lesions. Moreover, inactive lesions showed greater variability in all assessed infiltration parameters than did active lesions. In conclusion, caries lesion activity and acid pretreatment both influenced the infiltration. The use of phosphoric acid to increase permeability of the surface layer of active lesions should be further explored.

  7. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05–2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65–3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07–2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother’s schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15–4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother’s schooling. PMID:26900846

  8. Infrared Methods for Assessment of the Activity of Natural Enamel Caries Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert C.; Staninec, Michal; Le, Oanh; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods are needed for the accurate assessment of caries lesion activity to establish the need for surgical treatment. Detection of the highly mineralized surface layer that forms near the surface of the lesions as a result of remineralization is important for diagnosis of the lesion activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that novel imaging methods can be used to detect remineralization of artificial enamel caries lesions. In this paper, the activity of natural enamel caries lesions was assessed in-vitro via detection of the surface layer with PS-OCT and dehydration rate measurements with NIR reflectance and thermal imaging modalities. An automated approach for detecting the surface layer with PS-OCT yielded high sensitivity (= 0.79) and high specificity (= 0.93) with moderate correlation (R2 = 0.5920) with histology. Significant differences in dehydration rate measurements were found between the active and the arrested lesions using both the NIR reflectance and thermal imaging modalities. These results demonstrate that these novel imaging methods are ideally suited for nondestructive, noninvasive and quantitative measurement of lesion activity during a single clinical examination in real-time. PMID:27642246

  9. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and family characteristics among Finnish schoolchildren with and without active initial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Seppä, Liisa; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of active initial caries lesions among 11 to 12-year-old schoolchildren is associated with parental and child-related factors and whether there are gender differences in these associations. The data were gathered by questionnaires from children and their parents, who replied without knowing the other's answers. All the children were invited to participate in a screening for the presence or absence of active initial caries lesions. Factors associated with children's initial caries were studied with logistic regression analyses. The parents' self-assessed poor dental health, the parents' and the child's poor oral health-related behavior, and the child's response "I don't know" to the question concerning his/her parents' possible dental caries were associated with the presence of active initial caries lesions. The results of logistic regression analyses were different between girls and boys. Among the girls, many parent-related factors were associated with the presence of initial caries. Among the boys, most factors were related to the child; and of the parent-related factors, only parents' poor self-assessed dental health was associated with initial caries; the effect was modified by the father's occupational level. Parental factors affect boys' and girls' dental health differently. Among boys, the effect of the fathers was seen as the father's occupational level; among girls, parental knowledge and behavior were important. When school interventions to promote health are planned, the important role of the parents should be emphasized.

  10. Pilot clinical study to assess caries lesion activity using quantitative light-induced fluorescence during dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masatoshi; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andrea G.; Eckert, George J.; Zero, Domenick T.; Stookey, George K.

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) to assess caries lesion activity using visual examination (VE) as the gold standard. Twenty-four visible white spot lesions on buccal surfaces were examined from 23 children, ages 9 to 14 years. At baseline, the surface was hydrated with water, and thereafter, it was dehydrated with continuous compressed air during image acquisition. QLF images were acquired at 0 (baseline), 5, and 15 s. QLF variables [QLFV: fluorescence loss (ΔF), lesion size (S), ΔQ: ΔF×S] was recorded. Changes-in-QLFV per second (ΔQLFV) were determined: ΔQLFV=(QLFVN-QLF/N), where N indicates dehydration time. One experienced dentist conducted VE independently using a dental unit's light, compressed air, and explorer. QLFV and ΔQLFV of the active group (n=11) were compared with those of the inactive group (n=13) using two-sample t-tests. As the surface was dehydrated, S and ΔQ values of the active group increased, whereas QLFV of the inactive group showed only a small change. ΔQLFV of the active group were larger than those of the inactive group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p>0.11). Within the limitations of this study, QLF data indicated increments for lesions designated as active and minimal change for lesions defined as inactive.

  11. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  12. Intraoral pH measurement of carious lesions with qPCR of cariogenic bacteria to differentiate caries activity.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Megumi; Kitasako, Yuichi; Matin, Khairul; Sadr, Alireza; Shida, Kanako; Tagami, Junji

    2012-03-01

    A low pH environment is created by cariogenic bacteria. This study was aimed to measure pH of carious lesions intraorally using a micro-pH sensor, and assess predominant acid-producing cariogens by qPCR to differentiate caries activities. 103 dentine lesions classified as active or arrested caries based on the clinical and radiological examinations were collected from patients after intraoral measurement of the lesion surface pH using a micro-pH sensor. Quantitative detection of genomic DNA copies of target cariogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp.) in each lesion was performed using real-time PCR. Correlation between the pH ranges and the number of bacterial species was examined by Spearman test. 50 samples were diagnosed as active and 53 as arrested lesions. Statistically significant difference was observed on average surface pH value between active and arrested lesions (p<0.05). Prevalence of Lactobacillus spp. was higher in active lesions than in arrested lesions (76% vs. 58% of samples, respectively). When the carious lesions were categorised into four different pH ranges (up to 5.5, from 5.6 to 5.8, from 5.9 to 6.1 and 6.2 or above), increased prevalence of Lactobacillus spp. was observed with decrease of pH levels. A significant negative relationship was found between pH value and number of Lactobacillus spp. (r=-0.209, p<0.05) but no such correlation was found for mutans streptococci. Intraoral pH measurement might be clinically useful to determine acidity of the local environment of carious lesions as one aspect of the caries activity assessment. The population of certain bacteria may indicate activity of carious lesions. Intraoral pH measurement of the carious lesions using a micro-pH sensor may be a clinically feasible method for assessment of lesion acidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reproducibility and diagnostic outcomes of two visual-tactile criteria used by dentists to assess caries lesion activity: a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, S M; Feine, J S; Pustavoitava, N N; Allison, P J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and differences in diagnostic outcomes by practicing dental clinicians previously inexperienced in using the Nyvad criteria and the ICDAS II criteria with the Lesion Activity Assessment system (ICDAS II + LAA). Four volunteer dentists were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Both groups of dentists examined the same voluntary sample (n = 140) of caries active young adults using Nyvad and ICDAS II + LAA criteria in different sequences. The first group used the Nyvad criteria during period 1, followed by ICDAS II + LAA during period 2; the second group did the examinations in the opposite sequence. Before the period 1 and 2 examinations, dentists from both groups were trained with the Nyvad or ICDAS II + LAA criteria, depending on the group to which they were assigned. Intra-examiner agreement for lesion severity was high for both diagnostic instruments (weighted kappa 0.62-0.80). For lesion activity the intra-examiner unweighted kappa values ranged from 0.31 to 0.61 for ICDAS II + LAA and from 0.36 to 0.51 for Nyvad. The mean number of active non-cavitated caries lesions was significantly higher for ICDAS II + LAA (6.14 ± 5.4) than for Nyvad (3.90 ± 3.9) (p < 0.001). Active cavitated/dentinal caries lesions were significantly higher for ICDAS II + LAA (4.14 ± 4.1) than for Nyvad (2.13 ± 3.1) (p < 0.001). Both the Nyvad and ICDAS II + LAA diagnostic criteria showed high reproducibility for lesion severity assessment. The mean number of active caries lesions among high caries risk subjects was significantly higher using the ICDAS II + LAA criteria, which may subsequently lead to more caries treatment. ISRCTN65592532.

  14. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation.

  15. PS-OCT of natural pigmented and nonpigmented interproximal caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural caries lesions with the mineral loss measured using digital microradiography. An all polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of natural white spot lesions and pigmented lesions on the smooth surfaces of extracted teeth. There was a strong positive correlation between the increase in the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system and the increase in the integrated mineral loss or lesion severity for both white-spot and pigmented lesions, P <0.001. Therefore, PS-OCT is well-suited to assess the severity of natural caries lesions and resolve the internal structure of early caries lesions for the potential assessment of the lesion activity.

  16. Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    2001-05-01

    Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.

  17. Detecting and Treating Occlusal Caries Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Stolpe, M.; Meyer-Lueckel, H.; Paris, S.

    2015-01-01

    The health gains and costs resulting from using different caries detection strategies might not only depend on the accuracy of the used method but also the treatment emanating from its use in different populations. We compared combinations of visual-tactile, radiographic, or laser-fluorescence–based detection methods with 1 of 3 treatments (non-, micro-, and invasive treatment) initiated at different cutoffs (treating all or only dentinal lesions) in populations with low or high caries prevalence. A Markov model was constructed to follow an occlusal surface in a permanent molar in an initially 12-y-old male German patient over his lifetime. Prevalence data and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature, while validity parameters of different methods were synthesized or obtained from systematic reviews. Microsimulations were performed to analyze the model, assuming a German health care setting and a mixed public-private payer perspective. Radiographic and fluorescence-based methods led to more overtreatments, especially in populations with low prevalence. For the latter, combining visual-tactile or radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment retained teeth longest (mean 66 y) at lowest costs (329 and 332 Euro, respectively), while combining radiographic or fluorescence-based detections with invasive treatment was the least cost-effective (<60 y, >700 Euro). In populations with high prevalence, combining radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment was most cost-effective (63 y, 528 Euro), while sensitive detection methods combined with invasive treatments were again the least cost-effective (<59 y, >690 Euro). The suitability of detection methods differed significantly between populations, and the cost-effectiveness was greatly influenced by the treatment initiated after lesion detection. The accuracy of a detection method relative to a “gold standard” did not automatically convey into better health or reduced costs. Detection

  18. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  19. Management of patients with active caries.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports on a mechanism to manage caries as a disease and to medically intervene in the disease process to halt progression. The goal of this paper is to provide this alternative to a surgical-only approach. The management of caries begins with assessing lesion activity and the potential for arrest. This requires a clinical and radiological assessment and evaluation of risk. Hopeless teeth are extracted and large cavities filled to reduce infection. Risk reduction strategies are employed so efforts to arrest lesions can be successful. Teeth with lesions in the enamel or outer third of the dentin should be sealed, not restored, as restorations can weaken teeth and can be traumatic to pulps.

  20. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol ≥ xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  1. Transillumination of interproximal caries lesions with 830-nm light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Graham C.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    New imaging technology is needed for the early detection of dental caries (decay) in the interproximal contact sites between teeth. Previous measurements have demonstrated that dental enamel is highly transparent in the near-IR near 1310-nm making that wavelength range ideal for the transillumination of interproximal lesions. However, imaging at 1310-nm involves the use of expensive InGaAs technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a low cost near-IR sensitive imaging system employing a CCD camera with enhanced near-IR sensitivity operating at 830-nm with the 1310-nm InGaAs system. Images of simulated caries lesions were acquired through tooth sections of varying thickness and whole teeth in order to demonstrate the utility of a near-IR dental transillumination system for the imaging of early dental caries (decay). Simulated lesions, representing the optical scattering of natural dental caries, were placed in plano-parallel dental enamel sections and whole anterior teeth. The contrast ratio between the simulated lesions and surrounding sound enamel was calculated from analysis of the respective spatial intensity profiles in the acquired projection images. This study shows that near-IR transillumination at 830-nm offers significantly improved image contrast over the visible range, but less image contrast than at 1310-nm.

  2. Imaging simulated secondary caries lesions with cross polarization OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Jonathan; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The clinical diagnosis of secondary caries has been found to account for the replacement of the majority of intra-coronal restorations. Current methods to diagnose the presence of these lesions at early stages are considered insufficient due to their low sensitivity. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging studies have confirmed its effectiveness for imaging carious subsurface lesions in enamel and dentin. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively image demineralization through resin restorations on extracted teeth with both simulated and natural lesions. Simulated secondary caries lesions were created by exposing cavity preparations made in extracted human teeth to a demineralizing solution for 48 hours and subsequently restoring with resin. Negative control restorations were also prepared on each tooth. Optical changes in demineralized versus control preparations beneath restorations were measured as a function of depth using PS-OCT. PS-OCT images indicated that a significant increase in reflectivity and depth occurred in the simulated lesions compared with the control preparations. This study suggests that PS-OCT is well-suited to nondestructively detect early caries lesions in enamel beneath composite restorations.

  3. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  4. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  5. Remineralization of human natural caries and artificial caries-like lesions with an experimental whisker-reinforced ART-composite

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Flaim, Glenn; Dickens, Sabine H.

    2011-01-01

    To compare the remineralization of human natural caries and artificial caries-like dentin lesions from a novel whisker-reinforced experimental composite resin to a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) as control. Ten molars with moderate natural dentin caries were prepared (N). Artificial caries-like dentin lesions were prepared in occlusal dentin of ten caries-free molars and demineralized at pH=4.3 for 48 h (A). The cavities were restored with ART-composite or RM-GIC. All restored teeth were sliced into 120-μm sections. Transverse microradiography combined with digital image analysis was performed to analyze the change in mineral density at the same position of the specimens before, after 4 weeks and 8 weeks remineralization/demineralization treatment. The mean percent remineralization ± standard deviation after 4 weeks and 8 weeks are: N: ART-composite: 27±9, 46±14; RM-GIC: 18±6, 36±11; A: ART-composite: 48±9, 66±11; RM-GIC: 50±13, 62±11. For the remineralization of natural caries, there was a significant difference between ART-composite and RM-GIC (p<0.05). For both restoratives there were significant differences between remineralization of natural and artificial caries (p<0.001). ART-composite and RM-GIC remineralized natural and artificial caries differently most likely due to differences in microstructure and composition of caries dentin. PMID:21232637

  6. Quantifying the remineralization of artificial caries lesions using PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    New optical imaging methods are needed to determine whether caries lesions (tooth decay) are active and progressing or have become remineralized and arrested and are no longer progressing. The objective of this study was to use Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) to image the fluoride enhanced remineralization of artificial enamel lesions. Artificial lesions were created by an acetate buffer on smooth enamel surfaces and were exposed for 20 days to a 2 ppm fluoride containing remineralization solution. PS-OCT images revealed the presence of a low scattering surface zone after the artificial lesions were remineralized. These samples displayed intact nondepolarizing surface zones when analyzed with Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). No statistical difference in lesion depth before and after remineralization was found with both PS-OCT and PLM. The remineralized lesions showed a significant decrease in the overall integrated reflectivity compared with the demineralized lesions. Digital Microradiography confirmed the increase in mineral volume of the remineralized surface zone. This study determined that PS-OCT can image the restoration of the surface zone enamel after fluoride-enhanced remineralization of artificial in vitro dental caries.

  7. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 4. Detection and diagnosis of initial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, A; Gaucher, C; Bonte, E; Lasfargues, J J

    2012-12-01

    The detection of carious lesions is focused on the identification of early mineral changes to allow the demineralisation process to be managed by non-invasive interventions. The methods recommended for clinical diagnosis of initial carious lesions are discussed and illustrated. These include the early detection of lesions, evaluation of the extent of the lesion and its state of activity and the establishment of appropriate monitoring. The place of modern tools, including those based on fluorescence, is discussed. These can help inform patients. They are also potentially useful in regular control visits to monitor the progression or regression of early lesions. A rigorous and systematic approach to caries diagnosis is essential to establish a care plan for the disease and to identify preventive measures based on more precise diagnosis and to reduce reliance on restorative measures.

  8. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa; Cruz, Jader Dos Santos; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-10-01

    This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries.

  9. Differences between reported and actual restored caries lesion depths: results from The Dental PBRN.

    PubMed

    Rindal, D B; Gordan, V V; Fellows, J L; Spurlock, N L; Bauer, M R; Litaker, M S; Gilbert, G H

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) quantify the discordance between the caries lesion depth at which dentists restored initial lesions during a clinical study ("actual depth") and the lesion depth that they reported during a hypothetical clinical scenario ("reported depth"); (2) test the hypothesis that certain practitioner, practice, patient, and caries lesion characteristics are significantly associated with this discordance. Practitioner-investigators who perform restorative dentistry in their practices completed an enrollment questionnaire and participated in 2 consecutive studies on caries diagnosis and treatment. The first study was a survey asking about caries treatment. The second study collected data on restorations placed in routine clinical practice due to caries in patients over 19 years of age on occlusal surfaces only or proximal surfaces only. We report results on 2,691 restorations placed by 205 dentists in 1,930 patients with complete data. Discordance between actual depth and reported depth occurred in only about 2% of the restorations done due to proximal caries, but about 49% of the restorations done due to occlusal caries. Practice type, restorative material used and the diagnostic methods used were significantly associated with discordance. Dentists frequently restored occlusal caries at a shallower depth as compared to their reported depth, but the discordance was very small for proximal lesions. Discordance for occlusal caries was more common when radiographs were not taken or if a resin restoration was placed.

  10. Differences Between Reported And Actual Restored Caries Lesion Depths: Results From The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Rindal, DB; Gordan, VV; Fellows, JL; Spurlock, NL; Bauer, MR; Litaker, MS; Gilbert, GH

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this research were to (1) quantify the discordance between the caries lesion depth at which dentists restored initial lesions during a clinical study (“actual depth”) and the lesion depth that they reported during a hypothetical clinical scenario (“reported depth”); (2) test the hypothesis that certain practitioner, practice, patient, and caries lesion characteristics are significantly associated with this discordance. Methods Practitioner-investigators who perform restorative dentistry in their practices completed an enrollment questionnaire and participated in two consecutive studies on caries diagnosis and treatment. The first study was a survey asking about caries treatment. The second study collected data on restorations placed in routine clinical practice due to caries in patients over 19 years of age on occlusal surfaces only or proximal surfaces only. We report results on 2691 restorations placed by 205 dentists in 1930 patients with complete data. Results Discordance between actual depth and reported depth occurred in only about 2% of the restorations done due to proximal caries, but about 49% of the restorations done due to occlusal caries. Practice type, restorative material used and the diagnostic methods used were significantly associated with discordance. Conclusion Dentists frequently restored occlusal caries at a shallower depth as compared to their reported depth, but the discordance was very small for proximal lesions. Discordance for occlusal caries was more common when radiographs were not taken or if a resin restoration was placed. PMID:22245444

  11. Support for the role of Candida spp. in extensive caries lesions of children.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Caterina; Burlacchini, Gloria; Faccioni, Fiorenzo; Zanderigo, Massimiliano; Bozzola, Nicolò; Canepari, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    Candida spp. are frequently detected in the mouths of children with extensive caries lesions compared with caries-free subjects. In this study we evaluated the presence of Candida spp. in association with mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in the saliva of children with dental decay, before and after anti-caries treatment. Samples of saliva from 14 children with caries lesions and from 13 caries-free subjects were evaluated for the presence of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida spp. by culture. Eleven of 14 carious subjects hosted Candida spp. in their saliva as against only 2 out of 13 subjects without caries lesions. Carious subjects were treated by adopting a conventional protocol for caries disease (rinses with a mouthwash containing 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluorine). After treatment, the salivary bacterial counts decreased for mutans streptococci and in some cases for lactobacilli, but large numbers of Candida spp. remained in the saliva of several children. The latter were treated with the antifungal drug nystatin (oral rinses) and evaluation of the level of yeasts in the saliva showed disappearance of the microorganism in several cases. The results indicate that antiseptic treatment alone for dental decay is not sufficient for the eradication of microorganisms potentially responsible for caries lesions, in particular when yeasts are present. We hypothesize that the oral cavity of children could act as a reservoir of fungi, and eradication could be needed to prevent both exacerbation of caries lesions, and colonization by Candida spp. of other host sites.

  12. Detecting Proximal Secondary Caries Lesions: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Brouwer, F; Paris, S; Stolpe, M

    2016-02-01

    When choosing detection methods for secondary caries lesions, dentists need to weigh sensitivity, allowing early initiation of retreatments to avoid lesion progression, against specificity, aiming to reduce risks of false-positive diagnoses and invasive overtreatments. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different detection methods for proximal secondary lesions using Monte Carlo microsimulations. A vital permanent molar with an occlusal-proximal restoration was simulated over the lifetime of an initially 20-y-old. Three methods were compared: biannual tactile detection, radiographic detection every 2 y, and biannual laser fluorescence detection. Methods were employed either on their own or in pairwise combinations at sensitive and specific thresholds estimated with systematically collected data. A mixed public-private payer perspective in the context of German health care was applied. Effectiveness was calculated as years of tooth retention. Net-benefit analyses were used to evaluate cost-effectiveness acceptability at different willingness-to-pay thresholds. Radiographic detection verified by tactile assessment (both at specific thresholds) was least costly (mean, 1,060 euros) but had limited effectiveness (mean retention time, 50 y). The most effective but also more costly combination was laser fluorescence detection verified by radiography, again at specific thresholds (1157 euros, 53 y, acceptable if willingness to pay >32 euro/y). In the majority of simulations, not combining detection methods or applying them at sensitive thresholds was less effective and more costly. Net benefits were not greatly altered by applying different discounting rates or using different baseline prevalence of secondary lesions. Current detection methods for secondary lesions should best be used in combination, not on their own, at specific thresholds to avoid false-positive diagnoses leading to costly and invasive overtreatment. The relevant characteristics, such as predictive

  13. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults: an EAPD policy document.

    PubMed

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I; Twetman, S; van Loveren, C; Gizani, S; Spyridonos Loizidou, M

    2016-02-01

    The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and disease management. A search of different databases was conducted using all terms related to the subject. Relevant papers were identified after a review of their titles, abstracts or full texts. Three workshops were held during the corresponding EAPD interim seminar in Brussels in 2015. Several statements were agreed upon and, furthermore, gaps in our knowledge were identified. Following the systematic reviews and outcomes of the seminars, it was concluded that visual and radiographic caries detection should be utilised as a basic diagnostic approach to locate, assess and monitor non-cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. As another important evaluation step, a caries risk assessment should be performed at a child's first dental visit, and reassessments should be performed on a regular basis. It is widely accepted that non-cavitated caries lesions can be managed non-invasively in the majority of cases. The spectrum of measures includes a low cariogenicity tooth-friendly diet, daily and appropriate management of the biofilm, home and within the dental office/surgery usage of fluorides as well as sealing techniques. The detection and management of non-cavitated caries is an essential aspect of preventive dentistry. Therefore, the EAPD encourages oral health care providers and caregivers to implement preventive practices that can arrest early caries and improve individual and public dental health.

  14. Systematic Review on Noninvasive Treatment of Root Caries Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Lueckel, H.

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review critically summarizes results of clinical studies investigating chemical agents to reduce initiation or inactivation of root caries lesions (RCLs). Outcomes were DMFRS/DFRS (decayed, missing, filled root surfaces), surface texture (hard/soft), and/or RCI (root caries index). Three electronic databases were screened for studies from 1947 to 2014. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data abstraction were done in duplicate. Languages were restricted to English and German. Mean differences (MD) were calculated for changes in DMFRS/DFRS. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for changes in surface texture and RCI in a random effects model. Thirty-four articles with 1 or more agents were included; they reported 30 studies with 10,136 patients who were 20 to 101 y old; and they analyzed 28 chemical agents (alone or in combination). Eleven studies investigated dentifrices, 10 rinses, 8 varnishes, 3 solutions, 3 gels, and 2 ozone applications. Meta-analyses revealed that dentifrices containing 5,000 ppm F- (RR = 0.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.42, 0.57; high level of evidence) or 1.5% arginine plus 1,450 ppm F- (RR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.98; very low level) are more effective in inactivating RCLs than dentifrices containing 1,100 to 1,450 ppm F-. Self-applied AmF/SnF2-containing dentifrice and rinse decreased the initiation of RCLs when compared with NaF products (standardized MD = 0.15; 95% CI = −0.22, 0.52; low level). Patients rinsing with a mouth rinse containing 225 to 900 ppm F- revealed a significantly reduced DMFRS/DFRS (MD = −0.18; 95% CI = −0.35, −0.01; low level) when compared with a placebo rinse. Significantly reduced RCI was found for CHX (MD = −0.67; 95% CI = −1.01, −0.32; very low level) as well as SDF (MD = −0.33; 95% CI = −0.39, −0.28; very low level) when compared with placebo varnish. Regular use of dentifrices containing 5,000 ppm F- and quarterly

  15. Actinomyces spp. gene expression in root caries lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dame-Teixeira, Naile; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Maltz, Marisa; Tugnait, Aradhna; Devine, Deirdre; Do, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries. Objective The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries. Design The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected. The total bacterial RNA was extracted, and the mRNA was isolated. Samples with low RNA concentration were pooled, yielding a final sample size of SRS=10 and RC=9. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina® HiSeq 2500 system. Sequence reads were mapped to eight Actinomyces genomes. Count data were normalized using DESeq2 to analyse differential gene expression applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.001). Results Actinomyces spp. had similar numbers of reads (Mann-Whitney U-test; p>0.05), except for Actinomyces OT178 (p=0.001) and Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.004), which had higher read counts in the SRS. Genes that code for stress proteins (clp, dnaK, and groEL), enzymes of glycolysis pathways (including enolase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), adhesion (Type-2 fimbrial and collagen-binding protein), and cell growth (EF-Tu) were highly – but not differentially (p>0.001) – expressed in both groups. Genes with the most significant upregulation in RC were those coding for hypothetical proteins and uracil DNA glycosylase (p=2.61E-17). The gene with the most significant upregulation in SRS was a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (log2FC=−6.00, FDR=2.37E-05). Conclusion There were similar levels of Actinomyces gene expression in both sound and carious root biofilms. These bacteria can be commensal in root surface sites but may be cariogenic

  16. Isolated development of inner (wall) caries like lesions in a bacterial-based in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Diercke, K; Lussi, A; Kersten, T; Seemann, R

    2009-12-01

    The study conducted in a bacterial-based in vitro caries model aimed to determine whether typical inner secondary caries lesions can be detected at cavity walls of restorations with selected gap widths when the development of outer lesions is inhibited. Sixty bovine tooth specimens were randomly assigned to the following groups: test group 50 (TG50; gap, 50 microm), test group 100 (TG100; gap, 100 microm), test group 250 (TG250; gap, 250 microm) and a control group (CG; gap, 250 microm). The outer tooth surface of the test group specimens was covered with an acid-resistant varnish to inhibit the development of an outer caries lesion. After incubation in the caries model, the area of demineralization at the cavity wall was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. All test group specimens demonstrated only wall lesions. The CG specimens developed outer and wall lesions. The TG250 specimens showed significantly less wall lesion area compared to the CG (p < 0.05). In the test groups, a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in lesion area could be detected in enamel between TG50 and TG250 and in dentine between TG50 and TG100. In conclusion, the inner wall lesions of secondary caries can develop without the presence of outer lesions and therefore can be regarded as an entity on their own. The extent of independently developed wall lesions increased with gap width in the present setting.

  17. Effectiveness of two mouth rinses solutions in arresting caries lesions: a short-term clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana Rita; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Vieira, Ricardo Sousa; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Modesto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    To clinically evaluate the additional effect of adding 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) to a 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) mouth rinse in arresting active enamel caries lesions after 28 days. A short-term double-blind clinical trial that included a total of 170 children, aged 11 to 15 years, with active smooth surface caries lesions (average 6.52) was conducted. The participants were enrolled and randomly distributed into two equal groups. Under the supervision of the research team, the children rinsed with a 15 ml solution of either 0.05% NaF (G1) or 0.05% NaF + 0.12% CHX (G2) for 1 min/day for 28 days. A clinical examination was carried out at the beginning and at the end of the study with children who underwent supervised tooth brushing. A calibrated examiner, who was unaware of the treatment given to each subject, examined all smooth surfaces dried with compressed air, isolated and illuminated with a reflector. The surface was considered active (A) or arrested (I). The frequency of A or I surfaces was evaluated by calculating the difference between the number found at the beginning and at the end of the trial. No significant differences were detected between the two groups with respect to caries lesion surfaces at baseline (6.49 +/- 4.45 - G1, 6.55 +/- 4.23 - G2, respectively), nor were differences found when age and gender wer taken into consideration. Arrestment proportions were 84.4% (G1) and 85.3% (G2) (P = 0.71; not significant). Although both solutions showed high arrestment proportions, the addition of CHX did not improve the arrestment capacity of the NaF mouth rinse.

  18. Remineralization effects of gum arabic on caries-like enamel lesions.

    PubMed

    Onishi, T; Umemura, S; Yanagawa, M; Matsumura, M; Sasaki, Y; Ogasawara, T; Ooshima, T

    2008-03-01

    Gum arabic is a natural polysaccharide exudate from Acacia senegal and other related African species of Acacia. Gum arabic is considered to have an ability to enhance remineralization, because of its high concentration of Ca(2+). However, the caries preventive capacity of gum arabic has been scarcely investigated. We evaluated the cariostatic activities of gum arabic using histopathological methods to determine its effects on remineralization. Following incubation in demineralization solution, human third molars were exposed to 10 mg/ml of gum arabic, sodium fluoride at 1000 ppm (NaF), or double distilled water (DW, negative control), then subjected to demineralization-remineralization cycles. Before and after demineralization-remineralization cycles, contact microradiographs of each sample were taken and mineral distribution quantities were calculated. The remineralization ratio of the molars exposed to gum arabic was similar to that of those exposed to NaF, while the ratios of both were significantly greater than that of those exposed to DW. Gum arabic enhanced the remineralization of caries-like enamel lesions in vitro, suggesting its inhibitory effects towards dental caries.

  19. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for quantifying the severity of natural caries lesions on occlusal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Ho, Chi M.

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the measured integrated reflectivity of natural caries lesions with the mineral loss measured using digital microradiography in order to determine if PS-OCT can be used as a nondestructive in vivo method to measure the severity of dental decay in the important occlusal surfaces. A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of natural caries lesions on the occlusal surfaces of extracted teeth. The integrated reflectivity from lesion areas was compared to the integrated mineral loss from the same lesion area measured using digital microradiography. There was a strong correlation between the integrated mineral loss of the caries lesion measured using high resolution digital microradiography and the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system demonstrating the potential for this method to nondestructively monitor the severity of caries lesion in the occlusal pit and fissure where most new decay is found. Although we find these results encouraging, we desire a higher correlation between the integrated mineral loss and the integrated reflectivity and we believe a higher correlation is attainable with better matching of the PS-OCT scans and the histological thin sections.

  20. Approximal secondary caries lesion progression, a 20-week in situ study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Z; Ruben, J L; ten Bosch, J J; Fidler, V; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2007-01-01

    There is no consensus about the definition and progression of outer and wall lesions in secondary caries. In this study we investigated whether lesion progression is influenced by an adjacent composite restoration and whether wall lesions develop at the composite-tooth interface. In order to study the appearance and progression of approximal primary caries lesions and lesions next to composite restorations, 16 samples were placed in a full denture of each of 8 subjects. Each denture housed 4 restored and 4 unrestored enamel samples and similarly 8 dentin samples. All samples were distributed over 2 sample holders, in each of which 4 approximal spaces were simulated. Every 4 weeks the sample holders were microradiographed using transversal wavelength independent microradiography and lesion depth was measured. At the end of the study, after 20 weeks, the lesion depth of the outer lesions was 0-350 microm for enamel and 0-750 microm for dentin. The estimated difference in progression between secondary and primary lesions (1.1 microm/4 weeks, 95% CI: -9.2 to 11.4 microm) was not statistically significant (p = 0.83). Secondary outer lesions appeared and progressed as primary caries lesions. No clear wall lesions were found next to composite, but they were observed next to acrylic resin.

  1. Predicting caries by measuring its activity using quantitative light-induced fluorescence in vivo: a 2-year caries increment analysis.

    PubMed

    Meller, C; Santamaria, R M; Connert, T; Splieth, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the predictive power of several clinical baseline parameters and the de-/remineralisation properties of in vivo etched sites measured with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) for subsequent 2-year caries increment. At baseline, in 44 children (8.23 ± 1.5 years) two areas (diameter 2 mm) of the buccal surface of a primary posterior tooth were etched with 36% phosphoric acid gel for 1 and 4 min, respectively. The etched sites were analysed immediately after etching (ΔQ1) and 24 h (ΔQ2) later by QLF. Additionally, caries status (deft/DMFT and initial caries), approximal plaque, bleeding on probing, and the patient's current use of fluorides were recorded. In the 2-year follow-up, 29 children were re-assessed. After clinical examination, the caries increment was calculated (ΔDMFT) and correlated with the baseline clinical variables and the QLF readings. Results showed a significant positive correlation between ΔQ(1 min) and the ΔDMFT (r = 0.44, p = 0.02). The ΔDMFT was significantly correlated with the baseline deft (r = 0.56, p = 0.002), cavitated active caries lesions (r = 0.52, p = 0.003), and filled teeth (r = 0.53, p = 0.003). In a regression analysis the use of fluoridated salt (SC = -0.10) and fluoride gel (SC = -0.14) were negatively associated with ΔDMFT. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the demineralisation properties of the etched sites and the outcome of the 24-hour measurements with QLF are significantly associated with caries increment. Previous caries experience strongly correlated with caries increment in this group of children.

  2. Effect of Lesion Baseline Severity and Mineral Distribution on Remineralization and Progression of Human and Bovine Dentin Caries Lesions.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Frank; Churchley, David; Lynch, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this laboratory study were to compare the effects of lesion baseline severity, mineral distribution and substrate on remineralization and progression of caries lesions created in root dentin. Lesions were formed in dentin specimens prepared from human and bovine dentin using three protocols, each utilizing three demineralization periods to create lesions of different mineral distributions (subsurface, moderate softening, extreme softening) and severity within each lesion type. Lesions were then either remineralized or demineralized further and analyzed using transverse microradiography. At lesion baseline, no differences were found between human and bovine dentin for integrated mineral loss (x0394;Z). Differences in mineral distribution between lesion types were apparent. Human dentin lesions were more prone to secondary demineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) than bovine dentin lesions, although there were no differences in x0394;L. Likewise, smaller lesions were more susceptible to secondary demineralization than larger ones. Subsurface lesions were more acid-resistant than moderately and extremely softened lesions. After remineralization, differences between human and bovine dentin lesions were not apparent for x0394;x0394;Z although bovine dentin lesions showed greater reduction in lesion depth L. For lesion types, responsiveness to remineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) was in the order extremely softened>moderately softened>subsurface. More demineralized lesions exhibited greater remineralization than shallower ones. In summary, some differences exist between human and bovine dentin and their relative responsiveness to de- and remineralization. These differences, however, were overshadowed by the effects of lesion baseline mineral distribution and severity. Thus, bovine dentin appears to be a suitable substitute for human dentin in mechanistic root caries studies.

  3. Update on Nonsurgical, Ultraconservative Approaches to Treat Effectively Non-Cavitated Caries Lesions in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Souza Borges, Juliane; de Araujo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleao; Machado, Claudia Tavares; dos Santos, Alex Jose Souza; de Assunçao Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries on tooth surfaces is still a problem in many industrialized countries. For many years, dentistry was influenced by a mechanical approach characterized by the use of high-speed rotary cutting instruments, and dentists predominantly used surgical methods to address caries. This included radical removal of diseased portions of the tooth, along with material-driven geometric extensions to areas that were assumed to be caries-resistant. This concept of extension for prevention was introduced by G. V. Black and influenced dentists for more than 120 years. Recently, a new paradigm of operative conservatism, sometimes referred to as “minimally invasive dentistry,” has gained popularity. This paradigm is designed to promote maximum preservation of healthy dental structures over a lifetime. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of current nonsurgical treatments for non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth. Based on results obtained from clinical trials, this review evaluates treatments such as consumption of CPP-ACP added gums, resin infiltration and fissure sealing. Although in a few cases an invasive approach is needed to arrest caries progression, the non-surgical approach generally provides potential benefits that include conserving structure by delaying intervention or minimizing the operative procedure. All current non-invasive methods are effective in treating non-cavitated caries lesions. The adoption of non-invasive approaches in the management of these lesions can preserve dental tissues, thus increasing tooth longevity. PMID:21494394

  4. Evaluation of the strain identity between isolates from caries lesions and root canals in early childhood caries cases.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Dana; Svec, Pavel; Kukletová, Martina; Záčková, Lenka; Sedláček, Ivo

    2013-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) has become a serious medical problem worldwide in the last decade. Bacterial microflora of the dental plaque and oral cavity is considered an important factor in the formation and progression of dental caries. The aim of this study was strain typing and comparison of bacterial isolates retrieved from caries lesions and root canal contents of the same teeth. In total, 18 pairs of presumptive streptococci and lactobacilli retrieved from dental caries and root canals isolated from ECC-affected children, were selected on the basis of biotyping results and rep-PCR fingerprinting with (GTG)5 primer. Strain typing was further done using the RiboPrinter microbial characterization system (DuPont Qualicon). The automated ribotyping determined 14 pairs of the strains (77.8 %) to be identical. The results obtained confirmed that identical bacterial strains colonized both the decayed dental surface and the necrotic content of the dental pulp cavity during the cariogenesis. Our finding supports the assumption that bacteria could penetrate through the damaged dental surface to the inner parts of the teeth.

  5. In vitro ability of a laser fluorescence device in quantifying approximal caries lesions in primary molars.

    PubMed

    Celiberti, P; Leamari, V M; Imparato, J C P; Braga, M M; Mendes, F M

    2010-08-01

    This in vitro study aimed at evaluating the ability of Laser Fluorescence device (LFpen) in quantifying approximal caries lesions in primary molars. Two examiners assessed 123 approximal surfaces of primary molars using the DIAGNOdent pen (LFpen). Surfaces were determined to be either sound with white-spot lesions or have small cavitations. After sectioning, lesion depth was determined through polarized light microscopy. The intra-/inter-examiner agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analyses. Furthermore, Spearman correlation coefficients (Rs) were calculated between LFpen readings and lesion depth. Correlation between LFpen values and lesion depth was low for both examiners (Rs=0.36 and 0.51), especially when cavitated lesions were excluded from the analysis (Rs=0.22 and 0.40). For all surfaces, ICC revealed intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility values of 0.75 and 0.63, respectively, but when only non-cavitated surfaces were analyzed, these values decreased (0.41 and 0.33, respectively). LFpen readings present low correlation with approximal caries lesion depth and low reproducibility, especially in white-spot lesions. Therefore, the device could not be a suitable method for monitoring non-cavitated approximal caries lesion in primary molars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A randomized clinical trial of the anti-caries efficacy of 5,000 compared to 1,450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste on root caries lesions in elderly disabled nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, K R; Poulsen, J E; Hede, B; Twetman, S; Qvist, V; Ellwood, R P

    2013-01-01

    Root caries is prevalent in elderly disabled nursing home residents in Denmark. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of tooth brushing with 5,000 versus 1,450 ppm of fluoridated toothpaste (F-toothpaste) for controlling root caries in nursing home residents. The duration of the study was 8 months. Elderly disabled residents (n = 176) in 6 nursing homes in the Copenhagen area consented to take part in the study. They were randomly assigned to use one of the two toothpastes. Both groups had their teeth brushed twice a day by the nursing staff. A total of 125 residents completed the study. Baseline and follow-up clinical examinations were performed by one calibrated examiner. Texture, contour, location and colour of root caries lesions were used to evaluate lesion activity. No differences (p values >0.16) were noted in the baseline examination with regards to age, mouth dryness, wearing of partial or full dentures in one of the jaws, occurrence of plaque and active (2.61 vs. 2.67; SD, 1.7 vs.1.8) or arrested lesions (0.62 vs. 0.63; SD, 1.7 vs. 1.7) between the 5,000 and the 1,450 ppm fluoride groups, respectively. Mean numbers of active root caries lesions at the follow-up examination were 1.05 (2.76) versus 2.55 (1.91) and mean numbers of arrested caries lesions were 2.13 (1.68) versus 0.61 (1.76) in the 5,000 and the 1,450 ppm fluoride groups, respectively (p < 0.001). To conclude, 5,000 ppm F-toothpaste is significantly more effective for controlling root caries lesion progression and promoting remineralization compared to 1,450 ppm F-toothpaste. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A novel classification system for assessment of approximal caries lesion progression in bitewing radiographs.

    PubMed

    Senneby, Anna; Elfvin, Margareta; Stebring-Franzon, Christina; Rohlin, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    To design and pilot a novel classification system for the assessment of caries lesion progression in bitewing radiography and to report rater agreement of the system. A classification system with drawings and text was designed to assess caries lesion progression. Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies were used to study and report rater agreement. Pairs of posterior bitewing radiographs (baseline and 1-year follow-up) with different status concerning caries lesion progression were selected from files from public dental health clinics. 10 raters, 5 general dental practitioners and 5 specialists in oral and maxillofacial radiology were asked to assess the radiographs with the aid of the classification system. Seven raters repeated their assessments. Rater agreement was expressed as percentage of agreement and kappa. Kappa for the interrater agreement of 10 raters assessing progression was 0.61, indicating substantial agreement. Agreement was moderate for progression in the outer half of the dentine (kappa 0.55) and within enamel (kappa 0.44). Pairwise interrater agreement varied (range 69-92%; kappa 0.42-0.84). For about half of the pairs of raters, kappa was substantial (≥0.61). Intrarater agreement assessing progression was substantial (kappa 0.66-0.82). We demonstrated the applicability of the proposed classification system on caries lesion progression with respect to rater agreement. This system can provide a common framework for clinical decision-making on caries interventional methods and patient visiting intervals. Scientifically, this system allows for a comparative analysis of different methods of prevention and treatment of caries as well as of different caries risk assessment methods.

  8. A novel classification system for assessment of approximal caries lesion progression in bitewing radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Elfvin, Margareta; Stebring-Franzon, Christina; Rohlin, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To design and pilot a novel classification system for the assessment of caries lesion progression in bitewing radiography and to report rater agreement of the system. Methods: A classification system with drawings and text was designed to assess caries lesion progression. Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies were used to study and report rater agreement. Pairs of posterior bitewing radiographs (baseline and 1-year follow-up) with different status concerning caries lesion progression were selected from files from public dental health clinics. 10 raters, 5 general dental practitioners and 5 specialists in oral and maxillofacial radiology were asked to assess the radiographs with the aid of the classification system. Seven raters repeated their assessments. Rater agreement was expressed as percentage of agreement and kappa. Results: Kappa for the interrater agreement of 10 raters assessing progression was 0.61, indicating substantial agreement. Agreement was moderate for progression in the outer half of the dentine (kappa 0.55) and within enamel (kappa 0.44). Pairwise interrater agreement varied (range 69–92%; kappa 0.42–0.84). For about half of the pairs of raters, kappa was substantial (≥0.61). Intrarater agreement assessing progression was substantial (kappa 0.66–0.82). Conclusions: We demonstrated the applicability of the proposed classification system on caries lesion progression with respect to rater agreement. This system can provide a common framework for clinical decision-making on caries interventional methods and patient visiting intervals. Scientifically, this system allows for a comparative analysis of different methods of prevention and treatment of caries as well as of different caries risk assessment methods. PMID:27043978

  9. Optical quantification of caries-like lesions in vitro by use of a fluorescent dye

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Rijke, J.W.; Ten Bosch, J.J. )

    1990-05-01

    An experimental method was developed for measurement of the fluorescence intensity of a dye that was introduced into caries-like lesions in vitro. A distinct pattern of change of fluorescence intensity with time appeared, displaying a plateau value and a peak value for each measurement. Both plateau and peak values showed a linear correlation with calcium loss, as measured with longitudinal microradiography. The correlation coefficients were r = 0.87 for plateau values and r = 0.89 for peak values. The difference in scattering by dry and wet caries lesions was also measured with the same equipment, which showed a linear correlation with calcium loss of r = -0.53.

  10. Molecular and structural evaluation of dentin caries-like lesions produced by different artificial models.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Larissa Ferreira; Banzi, Éfani Caroline de Freitas; Rodrigues, Eliana; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated structural and molecular issues of dentin caries-like lesions produced by different artificial models (ACL) compared with natural caries lesions (NCL). One hundred twenty-four sound occlusal dentin blocks and 47 carious blocks were obtained and surface hardness was analyzed (SH1). They were assigned to groups according to ACL: GB: Biological; GC: Chemical; GIS: In situ; GNC: natural caries (control). Blocks from groups 1, 2 and 3 were submitted to caries lesion induction. NCL and ACL blocks were submitted to surface hardness (SH 2), FT-Raman and µEDXRF analysis. All blocks were longitudinally sectioned and one of the halves was submitted to cross-sectional hardness (CSH) and the other to SEM analysis. SH1 and SH2 data were submitted to t test (unpaired and paired, respectively), CSH and SEM data to two-way and one-way ANOVA respectively, and Tukey and t tests, respectively (p<0.05). Data from FT-Raman/µEDXRF were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Dunnett multiple-comparisons test (a=0.05). GB and GNC showed lowest SH2 values that were significantly different from GC and GIS. Regarding CSH, GB and GNC showed no significant difference between them. SEM showed similar caries lesion depth for GB and GNC, being significantly higher than for GC and GIS. µEDXRF showed similar values of calcium and phosphate for GB and GNC; GNC values were significantly different from GIS. No significant difference was found among the groups concerning phosphate, carbonate and CH bonds values. For collagen type I, GC values were significantly different compared to other groups. It may be concluded that caries-like lesions produced by GB were the closest model to NCL.

  11. Remineralization of artificial dentinal caries lesions by biomimetically modified Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yi-pin; Li, Nan; Niu, Li-na; Primus, Carolyn M.; Ling, Jun-Qi; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride-releasing restorative materials are available for remineralization of enamel and root caries. However, dentin remineralization is more difficult than enamel remineralization due to the paucity of apatite seed crystallites along the lesion surface for heterogeneous crystal growth. Extracellular matrix proteins play critical roles in controlling apatite nucleation/growth in collagenous tissues. This study examined the remineralization efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in phosphate-containing simulated body fluid (SBF) by incorporating polyacrylic acid and sodium tripolyphosphate as biomimetic analogs of matrix proteins for remineralizing caries-like dentin. Artificial caries-like dentin lesions incubated in SBF were remineralized over a 6-week period using MTA or MTA containing biomimetic analogs in the absence or presence of dentin adhesive application. Lesion depths and integrated mineral loss were monitored with micro-computed tomography. Ultrastructure of baseline and remineralized lesions were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Dentin remineralization was best achieved using MTA containing biomimetic analogs regardless of whether an adhesive was applied; dentinal tubules within the remineralized dentin were occluded by apatite. It is concluded that the MTA version employed in the study may be doped with biomimetic analogs for remineralization of unbonded and bonded artificial caries-like lesions in the presence of SBF. PMID:22085925

  12. The effects of 1% pyrophosphate and 0.02% sodium fluoride on artificial caries lesions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mellberg, J R; Petrou, I D; Deutchman, M; Grote, N

    1988-12-01

    We evaluated the potential of a pyrophosphate-fluoride solution to affect the remineralizing-demineralizing equilibrium, i.e., caries-inhibiting/-promoting effects on enamel in vivo. Fifteen subjects carried dentin blocks and enamel thin sections with artificial caries lesions in removable partial dentures for periods of two weeks, during which time they rinsed twice daily in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design with solutions containing (a) 90 ppm F, (b) 90 ppm F and 1% pyrophosphate, or (c) no active agents (placebo). A severe cariogenic challenge provided to the lesions by plaque under a stainless steel mesh cover resulted in the placebo-treated lesions losing 70.2% +/- 72.1% mineral. The pyrophosphate rinse with fluoride held the mineral loss to only 28.1 +/- 52.8%, while the fluoride rinse without pyrophosphate held the loss to 24.2 +/- 50.1%. The differences between the fluoride and placebo results were significant (p less than 0.01), but the difference between the two fluoride groups was not. A large amount of fluoride was deposited in the dentin lesions. In the surface layer, the concentration was increased from 1000 ppm F to more than 2300 ppm F by both fluoride treatments. The concentration of fluoride in both groups of fluoride-treated lesions further increased to more than 3500 ppm F in the approximate center of the lesion before declining in deeper layers toward the level found in the placebo-treated group. The findings from both mineral change and fluoride uptake phases of this study show that in the presence of 90 ppm F, 1% pyrophosphate did not promote demineralization of artificial caries lesions.

  13. Insights into the Virulence Traits of Streptococcus mutans in Dentine Carious Lesions of Children with Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Daniela S; Stipp, Rafael N; Neves, Beatriz G; Guedes, Sarah F F; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an oral bacterium considered to play a major role in the development of dental caries. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. mutans in active and arrested dentine carious lesions of children with early childhood caries and to examine the expression profile of selected S. mutans genes associated with survival and virulence, within the same carious lesions. Dentine samples were collected from 29 active and 16 arrested carious lesions that were diagnosed in preschool children aged 2-5 years. Total RNA was extracted from the dentine samples, and reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for the quantification of S. mutans and for analyses of the expression of S. mutans genes associated with bacterial survival (atpD, nox, pdhA) and virulence (fabM and aguD). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of S. mutans between active and arrested carious lesions. Expression of the tested genes was detected in both types of carious dentine. The pdhA (p = 0.04) and aguD (p = 0.05) genes were expressed at higher levels in arrested as compared to active lesions. Our findings revealed that S. mutans is part of the viable microbial community in active and arrested dentine carious lesions. The increase in expression of the pdhA and aguD genes in arrested lesions is likely due to the unfavourable environmental conditions for microbial growth, inherent to this type of lesions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Relative fluoride response of caries lesions created in fluorotic and sound teeth studied under remineralizing conditions.

    PubMed

    Alhawij, Hala; Lippert, Frank; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles

    2015-01-01

    The present in vitro pH cycling study investigated potential differences between caries lesions created in fluorosed and sound enamel with regards to their responsiveness to fluoride under remineralizing conditions. 360 human first molars (sound and fluorosed) were divided into four groups based on their Thylstrup-Fejerskov score (TF0-3). Each group was further divided into two treatment groups (n=45): deionized water or 383 ppm fluoride. Artificial enamel caries lesions were created and pH cycled for 20 d using an established net remineralization model. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used throughout the study to investigate lesion severity and changes thereof. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. There were no differences in lesion severity between all groups after lesion creation (plesion=0.1934). The TF score vs. treatment interaction was significant at all other time points (p10 d=0.0280; p20 d≤0.0001; psecdemin=0.0411). Relative differences in responsiveness to fluoride vs. deionized water increased with increasing TF scores. In comparison to lesions created in sound enamel, lesions created in enamel with moderate fluorosis (TF 2/3) were more prone to remineralization in the presence than in the absence of fluoride. Furthermore, lesions created in enamel with moderate fluorosis exhibited more remineralization in the presence of fluoride than lesions created in sound teeth, whereas the opposite was true for deionized water. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the extent of enamel fluorosis severity may directly impact subsequent lesion re- and progression as well as the lesion's responsiveness to fluoride. Caries lesions in fluorotic teeth are more vulnerable to progression but respond more strongly to fluoride than those in non-impacted teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New methodology to assess activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth using laser fluorescence device.

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana Minatel; de Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; Imparato, Jose Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo study was conducted to verify the ability of laser fluorescence (LF) to assess the activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth, using different air-drying times. Occlusal sites (707) were examined using LF (DIAGNOdent) after air-drying for 3 s and 15 s, and the difference between readings (DIF15 s-3 s) was calculated. For concurrent validation of LF, visual criteria-Nyvad (NY) and Lesion Activity Assessment associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (LAA-ICDAS)-were the reference standards for lesion activity. Histological exam using a pH-indicator dye (0.1% methyl red) was performed in 46 exfoliated/extracted teeth for criterion validation. LF readings and DIF15 s-3 s were compared using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and validity parameters calculated, considering the caries activity assessment. Using NY, active lesions (3 s: 30.0+/-29.3; 15 s: 34.2+/-30.6) presented higher LF readings than inactive lesions (3 s: 17.0+/-16.3; 15 s: 19.2+/-17.3; p<0.05), different from LAA-ICDAS. Active cavitated caries resulted in higher LF readings (3 s: 50.3+/-3.5; 15 s: 54.7+/-30.2) than inactive cavitated caries (3 s: 19.9+/-16.3; 15 s: 22.8+/-16.8). Therefore, LF can distinguish cavitated active and inactive lesions classified by NY, but not by LAA-ICDAS; however, this difference might be related to the visual system rather than to LF. The air-drying time could be an alternative to improve the caries activity assessment; however, longer air-drying time is suggested to be tested subsequently.

  16. New methodology to assess activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth using laser fluorescence device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Mariana Minatel; Saveriano de Benedetto, Monique; Imparato, Jose Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-07-01

    An in vivo study was conducted to verify the ability of laser fluorescence (LF) to assess the activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth, using different air-drying times. Occlusal sites (707) were examined using LF (DIAGNOdent) after air-drying for 3 s and 15 s, and the difference between readings (DIF15 s-3 s) was calculated. For concurrent validation of LF, visual criteria-Nyvad (NY) and Lesion Activity Assessment associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (LAA-ICDAS)-were the reference standards for lesion activity. Histological exam using a pH-indicator dye (0.1% methyl red) was performed in 46 exfoliated/extracted teeth for criterion validation. LF readings and DIF15 s-3 s were compared using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and validity parameters calculated, considering the caries activity assessment. Using NY, active lesions (3 s: 30.0+/-29.3 15 s: 34.2+/-30.6) presented higher LF readings than inactive lesions (3 s: 17.0+/-16.3 15 s: 19.2+/-17.3 p<0.05), different from LAA-ICDAS. Active cavitated caries resulted in higher LF readings (3 s: 50.3+/-3.5 15 s: 54.7+/-30.2) than inactive cavitated caries (3 s: 19.9+/-16.3 15 s: 22.8+/-16.8). Therefore, LF can distinguish cavitated active and inactive lesions classified by NY, but not by LAA-ICDAS; however, this difference might be related to the visual system rather than to LF. The air-drying time could be an alternative to improve the caries activity assessment; however, longer air-drying time is suggested to be tested subsequently.

  17. Rehardening of caries-like lesions in root surfaces by saliva substitutes.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Lima, Renata Q V; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana J; Serra, Mônica C

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether root dentine caries-like lesions could be remineralised by saliva substitutes. Root dentine slabs (3 x 3 x 2 mm) were cut from bovine incisors, ground flat, polished and pre-tested for Knoop microhardness (KHN) at five locations spaced 500 microm apart and 500 microm from the left edge of each sectioned piece. After 60 out of the 100 slabs had been selected based upon their KHN values, specimens were coated with wax except for their outer surface. Specimens were then cycled through a highly cariogenic challenge model to induce caries-like lesions, whose formation was confirmed by KHN measurements located 500 microm from the right edge of the specimen. According to a randomised complete block design, the experimental units (n = 15) were exposed to 1.5 ml of saliva substitutes, based on either mucin (MC) or carboxymethylcellulose (CM), to natural human saliva (HS) or to 100% relative humidity (RH) over 20 days. Remineralisation was verified by KHN measurements located 1000 microm apart from the right edge of the specimen. Analysis of variance indicated a significant (p < 0.0001) difference among the KHN values attained by the carious root dentine after exposure to the remineralising agents. Tukey's test ascertained that remineralisation was greatest with MC, intermediate with CM and least with HS, but rehardening did not reach the pre-caries lesion formation values. Saliva substitutes may provide partial remineralisation to preformed caries-like lesions in root dentine.

  18. A 20-year study of dentists' and dental hygienists' assessment of dental caries lesions in bite-wing radiographs.

    PubMed

    Gabre, Pia; Birring, Eva; Gahnberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological data reveal that the prevalence of dental caries in western countries has decreased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate how dentists and dental hygienists assess dental caries lesions in bite-wing radiographs between 1983 and 2003. All dentists and dental hygienists in Public Dental Health in Uppsala County were offered to take part in the study. The participants assessed manifest and initial caries lesions in eight bite-wing radiographs from three patients individually. An X-ray viewer and binoculars were used. The assessments were repeated in the same radiographs every five years, a total of five times, between 1983 and 2003. In the different test occasions 80-103 dentists and 11-48 dental hygienists participated. The registration of dental caries changed between 1983 and 2003. The number of manifest lesions registered by dentists decreased between 1983 and 1988, but were stable after 1988. Dental hygienists showed no changes in the registration of manifest lesions during the study. Initial lesions registered by dentists and dental hygienists increased between 1988 and 1998. Assessments of initial caries lesions displayed a wider range than manifest lesions. Increasing age and more years in the profession resulted in fewer registered initial caries lesions. Dental hygienists had a tendency to register less caries than dentists. In conclusion, the result of the study indicate that inclusion of initial caries lesions in epidemiological reports should lead to a reduction in reliability. The changes in assessments of manifest caries lesions that took place in the 19805s should be considered when epidemiological data are evaluated.

  19. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children aged 1 year old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables it was found that mothers were more able to identify dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children aged 1 year old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children aged 1 year old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  20. Clinical monitoring of early caries lesions using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Pelzner, Roger B.

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization and to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role, since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm. It is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper we present early results from two clinical studies underway to measure the effect of fluoride intervention on early lesions. CP-OCT was used to monitor early lesions on enamel and root surfaces before and after intervention with fluoride varnish. The lesion depth and internal structure were resolved for all the lesions examined and some lesions had well defined surface zones of lower reflectivity that may be indicative of arrested lesions. Changes were also noted in the structure of some of the lesions after fluoride intervention.

  1. Preventing Advanced Carious Lesions with Caries Atraumatic Restorative Technique.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Tammi O

    2016-06-01

    An alternative approach to controlling dental caries and preventing the associated pain, called atraumatic restorative technique (ART), is described for populations in need, where dental hygienists restore decayed teeth with glass ionomer restorations without prior removal of all decayed tooth structure. There are populations whose decay needs are not adequately being met within the current oral health care delivery system. These include those in poverty conditions, vulnerable children, and the elderly who are often in long-term care facilities without adequate resources or opportunities for traditional dentistry. ART provides a viable option for controlling caries and relieving the pain of untreated decay. The purpose of this article is to suggest that the evidence surrounding ART be viewed objectively and that dental hygienists, with additional education in this approach, can contribute to relieving the pain of untreated dental decay. Evidence suggests that teeth can be effectively restored with ART. Dental hygienists represent an appropriate workforce to provide ART with their current background and education combined plus a brief training program; it is suggested that dental hygiene educational programs include ART within the curriculum. Along with dental sealants and fluoride varnish application, ART can be an important component of a comprehensive preventive program to address the unmet needs of vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A microbiological study of primary root-caries lesions with different treatment needs.

    PubMed

    Beighton, D; Lynch, E; Heath, M R

    1993-03-01

    Samples of altered or carious dentin for microbiological culture were obtained from 301 primary root-caries lesions in 59 patients by means of a standardized sampling procedure. This involved the cleansing of each root surface of extraneous supragingival plaque by means of a hand-held toothbrush and distilled water and the collection of the sample with a sterile dental excavator passed through the entire vertical dimension of each lesion. The total number of colony-forming units (cfu) in each sample and the numbers of mutans streptococci (primarily Streptococcus mutans), lactobacilli, yeasts, and Gram-positive pleomorphic rods (GPPR) were determined. Individual bacterial counts were expressed as log10 (cfu per sample), as a percentage of the total number of bacteria per sample, and as a frequency of isolation from lesions with different clinical diagnostic criteria. Clinical measurements of each lesion were made for color, texture, position relative to the gingival margin, and treatment need. Lesions classified as soft yielded significantly more bacteria, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and GPPR than leathery lesions, which yielded more bacteria than hard lesions. Lesions were classified into 5 treatment categories: soft and restore, leathery and restore, leathery and debride of caries; leathery and treat therapeutically; and hard no treatment. The total numbers of bacteria, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, GPPR, and yeasts decreased significantly with decreasing treatment need. The frequency of isolation of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and yeasts was significantly greater from lesions requiring restoration and from lesions situated within 1 mm of the gingival margin. We suggest that the majority of root caries is initiated adjacent to the gingival margin.

  3. Dose-response effects of zinc and fluoride on caries lesion remineralization.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F

    2012-01-01

    The present mechanistic in vitro study aimed to investigate dose-response effects of zinc and fluoride on caries lesion remineralization and subsequent protection from demineralization. Artificial caries lesions were created using a methylcellulose acid gel system. Lesions were remineralized for 2 weeks using citrate-containing artificial saliva which was supplemented with zinc (0-153 μmol/l) and fluoride (1.1 or 52.6 μmol/l) in a 7 × 2 factorial design. Lesions were also remineralized in the absence of zinc and citrate, but in the presence of fluoride. After remineralization, all lesions were demineralized for 1 day under identical conditions. Changes in mineral distribution characteristics of caries lesions after remineralization and secondary demineralization were studied using transverse microradiography. At 1.1 μmol/l fluoride, zinc exhibited detrimental effects on remineralization in a dose-response manner and mainly by preventing remineralization near the lesion surface. At 52.6 μmol/l fluoride, zinc retarded remineralization only at the highest concentration tested. Zinc enhanced overall remineralization at 3.8-15.3 μmol/l. At 76.5 and less so at 153 μmol/l, zinc showed extensive remineralization of deeper parts within the lesions at the expense of remineralization near the surface. Citrate did not interfere with remineralization at 1.1 μmol/l fluoride, but enhanced remineralization at 52.6 μmol/l fluoride. Lesions exhibiting preferential remineralization in deeper parts showed higher mineral loss after secondary demineralization, suggesting the formation of more soluble mineral phases during remineralization. In summary, zinc and fluoride showed synergistic effects in enhancing lesion remineralization, however only at elevated fluoride concentrations.

  4. In situ fluoride response of caries lesions with different mineral distributions at baseline.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F; Lynch, R J M; Eckert, G J; Kelly, S A; Hara, A T; Zero, D T

    2011-01-01

    The present in situ study investigated the fluoride response of caries lesions with similar mineral loss but two distinct mineral distributions (low- and high-'R', calculated as the ratio of mineral loss to lesion depth). Sixteen subjects wore eight gauze-covered enamel specimens with preformed lesions placed buccally on their mandibular partial dentures for periods up to 4 weeks. The participants brushed twice daily for 1 min with an 1,100 ppm F (as NaF) dentifrice. After 3 and 4 weeks, specimens were retrieved and analyzed microradiographically (TMR) and by quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). TMR results revealed that low- and high-R lesions showed opposite behaviors - low-R lesions further demineralized, whereas high-R lesions exhibited some remineralization. In comparison, lesion depth increased in low-R, but remained unchanged in high-R lesions; R decreased in both, but more in high-R lesions; mineral density at the lesion surface remained unchanged in low-R, but increased in high-R lesions. Differences in mineral loss between lesion types increased further between 3 and 4 weeks. QLF did not mirror TMR results as low-R lesions were found to remineralize, whereas high-R lesions remained unchanged. It is likely that low-R lesions differ from high-R lesions chemically and microstructurally; therefore rendering low-R lesion more susceptible to further dissolution. During lesion formation, low-R in contrast to high-R lesions may not lose all of the solubility-determining impurities such as magnesium and carbonate, which can reprecipitate again in different mineral phases within the lesion. In conclusion, mineral distribution at baseline directly impacts in situ lesion response to fluoride. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Surface Roughness of Initial Enamel Caries Lesions in Human Teeth After Resin Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Meyer, Ann-Kathrin; Naumova, Ella A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low viscosity resin infiltration of initial caries lesions is a modern microinvasive method to treat initial cries lesions. However, only scarce information is available about the long-term surface alterations of infiltrated lesions. Methods: Twenty-eight premolar teeth exhibiting non-cavitated initial caries lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS code 1&2)) were divided into two groups, one of which was infiltrated with resin, and the other remained untreated. The teeth underwent two thermocycling procedures. The surface roughness was determined quantitatively, and the results were evaluated statistically. In addition, the surfaces of the lesions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface was analyzed visually with respect to surface irregularities. Results: The results showed a reduction in the surface roughness that was significant after 2500 thermocycles compared to the untreated surface. In the control specimens, no change in the surface roughness was found. The qualitative SEM data also showed a smooth surface after thermocycling, which supported the statistical findings. Conclusion: After thermocycling, resin-infiltrated enamel surfaces become smoother and had no additional risk for plaque accumulation. PMID:27733877

  6. Surface Roughness of Initial Enamel Caries Lesions in Human Teeth After Resin Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Meyer, Ann-Kathrin; Naumova, Ella A

    2016-01-01

    Low viscosity resin infiltration of initial caries lesions is a modern microinvasive method to treat initial cries lesions. However, only scarce information is available about the long-term surface alterations of infiltrated lesions. Twenty-eight premolar teeth exhibiting non-cavitated initial caries lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS code 1&2)) were divided into two groups, one of which was infiltrated with resin, and the other remained untreated. The teeth underwent two thermocycling procedures. The surface roughness was determined quantitatively, and the results were evaluated statistically. In addition, the surfaces of the lesions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface was analyzed visually with respect to surface irregularities. The results showed a reduction in the surface roughness that was significant after 2500 thermocycles compared to the untreated surface. In the control specimens, no change in the surface roughness was found. The qualitative SEM data also showed a smooth surface after thermocycling, which supported the statistical findings. After thermocycling, resin-infiltrated enamel surfaces become smoother and had no additional risk for plaque accumulation.

  7. Imaging natural occlusal caries lesions with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Shane M.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively measure the severity of demineralization in the important occlusal surfaces. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of PS-OCT and OCT methods for the measurement of the depth of natural occlusal carious lesions. Teeth were screened for potential occlusal lesions using near infrared imaging (NIR). A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of the area of interest on the occlusal surface. The teeth were serial sectioned to 200 μm thickness and examined with polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Transverse Microradiography (TMR) for comparison. The lesion depth measured nondestructively with PS-OCT was compared to the lesion depth measured with PLM and TMR to assess the performance of these methods and determine if polarization sensitivity is required. The lesion depth measured using OCT correlated well with the lesion depths measured with TMR and PLM. Although polarization sensitivity provided better contrast it was not necessary to have polarization sensitivity to identify deep occlusal lesions.

  8. In vitro performance of different methods in detecting occlusal caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J; Zakian, C; Salsone, S; Pinto, S C S; Taylor, A; Pretty, I A; Ellwood, R

    2013-02-01

    Early caries detection is essential for the implementation of preventive, therapeutic and intervention strategies within general dental practice. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro performance of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), digital photographs scored with ICDAS (ICDAS photographs), fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), SoproLife(®) camera and two implementations of quantitative light-induced fluorescence a commercial (QLF-Inspektor Research systems) and a custom (QLF-Custom) system, to detect early and intermediate occlusal lesions. One hundred and twelve permanent extracted teeth were selected and assessed with each detection method. Histological validation was used as a gold standard. The detection methods were compared by means of sensitivity, specificity, areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves for enamel and dentine levels and with the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient against histology. For any enamel or dentine caries detection, the AUROC curves ranged from 0.86 (OCT) to 0.98 (ICDAS and ICDAS photographs, SoproLife(®) camera) and at the dentine level from 0.83 (OCT) to 0.96 for FOTI. The correlations with histology ranged between 0.65 (OCT) and 0.88 (ICDAS and FOTI). Under in vitro conditions, the assessed detection methods showed excellent intra-examiner reproducibility. All the methods were strongly correlated with histology (p<0.01) except OCT which showed a moderate correlation (0.65). Even though all methods present similar performance in detecting occlusal caries lesions, visual inspection seems to be sufficient to be used in clinical practice for detection and assessment of lesion depth. Other methods may be useful in monitoring caries lesion behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of ozone and sodium hypochlorite on caries-like lesions in dentin.

    PubMed

    Zaura, E; Buijs, M J; ten Cate, J M

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that ozone promotes remineralization of dentinal lesions was tested in vitro. Artificial caries-like lesions in dentin were treated with ozone gas, with another potent oxidizer (sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, 10%) or with water. The specimens were then remineralized and subsequently demineralized again. Mineral content was assessed by transverse microradiography. NaOCl-treated samples showed damaged surface and, after being remineralized, demineralized significantly more than water- or ozone-treated groups. No difference was found between ozone and water groups. The exposure to ozone had thus no effect on remineralization and subsequent demineralization of remineralized dentinal lesions.

  10. Randomised Clinical Trial on Resin Infiltration and Fluoride Varnish vs Fluoride Varnish Treatment Only of Smooth-surface Early Caries Lesions in Deciduous Teeth.

    PubMed

    Turska-Szybka, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    To clinically evaluate the effectiveness of resin infiltration in conjunction with fluoride varnish treatment vs fluoride varnish treatment alone on facial smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth. This randomised clinical trial was conducted in 419 children aged 18-71 months with at least two active smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth (ICDAS II score 2). Eighty-one participants met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups: resin infiltration and fluoride varnish (RI+FV) (n = 41) and fluoride varnish only (FV) (n = 40). The prevalence of treated white spot lesions (WSL) was scored. Fluoride varnish was applied in both groups every 3 months for a year. The mean baseline age of children was 3.8 ± 1.3 years. The effectiveness of resin infiltration measured as the percentage of children who did not present any progression of the treated lesions amounted to 43.1%. After one year, 92.1% of the infiltrated lesions (RI+FV) and 70.6% of the FV lesions had not progressed (p < 0.001). Resin infiltration in conjunction with fluoride varnish treatment of early facial smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth is superior to fluoride varnish treatment alone for reducing lesion progression.

  11. Effects of XeCl excimer lasers and fluoride application on artificial caries-like lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Phan, T.; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Berns, Michael W.

    1994-09-01

    In this study the affects of a pulsed excimer laser emitting at 308 nm (XeCl) on enamel susceptibility to artificial caries-like lesions were investigated. Additional effects of fluoride (F) application were also studied and SEC examinations performed. Sixty-four extracted human molar teeth were coated with acid resistant varnish leaving four windows, then sectioned, leaving one window on each tooth quarter. The windows were treated in one of the following ways: untreated (control), or lased, or exposed to 4 min. APF (1.23% F) before lasing, or exposed to 4 min. APF (1.23% F) after lasing. After lasing, microhardness profiles were obtained and SEM was performed. Caries resistance was generally increased at moderate fluences. F application combined with lasing enhanced caries resistance at some parameters. SEM showed effects ranging from minimal to localized effects to extended glazing. Pulsed excimer laser irradiation, especially combined with topical F application can inhibit development of artificial caries-like lesions.

  12. Detecting Secondary Caries Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, F; Askar, H; Paris, S; Schwendicke, F

    2016-02-01

    Secondary caries lesions are the main late complication of dental restorations, limiting their life span and generating costs by repeated reinterventions. Accurate detection of secondary lesions is crucial for estimating the true burden of the disease and allocating appropriate treatments. We aimed to assess the accuracy of detection methods for secondary caries lesions. Clinical or in vitro studies were included that investigated the accuracy of 5 detection methods--visual, tactile, radiography, laser fluorescence, quantitative light-induced fluorescence--of natural or artificially induced secondary lesions, as verified against an established reference test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, as well as diagnostic odds ratios were calculated and publication bias assessed. From 1,179 screened studies, 23 were included. Most studies were performed in vitro, on permanent posterior teeth, and had high risk of bias or applicability concerns. Lesions were on proximal (14 studies) or other surfaces and adjacent to amalgam (16 studies) or tooth-colored materials. Visual (n = 11), radiographic (n = 13), and laser fluorescence detection (n = 8) had similar sensitivities (0.50 to 0.59) and specificities (0.78 to 0.83), with visual and laser fluorescence assessment being more accurate on nonproximal surfaces and adjacent to composites, respectively. Tactile assessment (n = 7) had low accuracy. Light-induced fluorescence (n = 3) was sensitive on nonproximal surfaces but had low specificities. Most analyses seemed to suffer from publication bias. Despite being a significant clinical and dental public health problem, detection of secondary caries lesions has been assessed by only a few studies with limited validity and applicability. Visual, radiographic and laser-fluorescence detection might be useful to detect secondary lesions. The validity of tactile assessment and quantitative light-induced fluorescence remains unclear at present.

  13. Children's discomfort may vary among different treatments for initial approximal caries lesions: preliminary findings of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mattos-Silveira, Juliana; Floriano, Isabela; Ferreira, Fernanda R; Viganó, Maria Eduarda F; Mendes, Fausto M; Braga, Mariana M

    2015-07-01

    Longer and more complex dental procedures could negatively affect patient's acceptability of minimal invasive techniques. Therefore, this short communication aims to show the preliminary findings regarding children's discomfort reported after some minimal invasive treatments in treating initial caries lesions on approximal surfaces: flossing instruction, silver diamine fluoride (SDF) application and caries resin infiltration. Children allocated in the infiltration group showed higher levels of discomfort than those in the SDF and control groups. These findings suggest that the simplest interventions for approximal initial caries lesions cause less discomfort for children and should be applied where possible. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Assessment of enamel-dentin caries lesions detection using bitewing PSP digital images

    PubMed Central

    TORRES, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; SANTOS, Aline da Silva; NEVES, Frederico Sampaio; ARRIAGA, Marcel Lautenschlager; CAMPOS, Paulo Sérgio Flores; CRUSOÉ-REBELLO, Iêda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of enamel-dentin occlusal caries using photostimulable phosphor plates. Material and Methods The ability to detect enamel-dentin occlusal caries in 607 premolars and molars from 47 patients between 10 and 18 years old, referred to the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations, using the criteria proposed in a previous study. A total of 156 bitewing digital images were obtained using Digora® (Soredex Medical Systems, Helsinki, Finland) phosphor plates. The plates were scanned and the images were captured and displayed on a computer screen. Image evaluation was done using Digora® for Windows 2.1 software, Soredex®. The radiologists were allowed to use enhancement tools to obtain better visibility during scoring of the teeth based on the radiographic criteria proposed in a previous study. Descriptive analysis and chi-squared proportion tests were done at 5% significance level. Results The results of clinical examination showed a higher prevalence of teeth with a straight dark line or demineralization of the occlusal fissure (score 1) and a lower prevalence of sealed teeth (score 5). In the bitewing digital images, 47 teeth presented visible radiolucency, circumscribed, in dentin under occlusal enamel (enamel-dentin caries lesions). Conclusions Correlating the clinical and radiographic findings, it was found that in the majority of teeth diagnosed by radiographic images as having enamel-dentin caries, no caries could be detected by clinical examination. PMID:21986650

  15. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  16. Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Ning, Kang; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lo, Chien-Chi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Ranran; Chang, Xingzhi; Chain, Patrick S; Xie, Gary; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries remains elusive because of our limited understanding of the complex oral microbiomes. The current methodologies have been limited by insufficient depth and breadth of microbial sampling, paucity of data for diseased hosts particularly at the population level, inconsistency of sampled sites and the inability to distinguish the underlying microbial factors. By cross-validating 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based and whole-genome-based deep-sequencing technologies, we report the most in-depth, comprehensive and collaborated view to date of the adult saliva microbiomes in pilot populations of 19 caries-active and 26 healthy human hosts. We found that: first, saliva microbiomes in human population were featured by a vast phylogenetic diversity yet a minimal organismal core; second, caries microbiomes were significantly more variable in community structure whereas the healthy ones were relatively conserved; third, abundance changes of certain taxa such as overabundance of Prevotella Genus distinguished caries microbiota from healthy ones, and furthermore, caries-active and normal individuals carried different arrays of Prevotella species; and finally, no ‘caries-specific' operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, yet 147 OTUs were ‘caries associated', that is, differentially distributed yet present in both healthy and caries-active populations. These findings underscored the necessity of species- and strain-level resolution for caries prognosis, and were consistent with the ecological hypothesis where the shifts in community structure, instead of the presence or absence of particular groups of microbes, underlie the cariogenesis. PMID:21716312

  17. Clinical evaluation of an enhanced white light and fluorescence device for early detection of caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, B T; Chedjieu, I; Lozano-Pineda, Juanita

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity of a device based on Fluorescence Imaging with Reflectance Enhancement (FIRE) in detecting a potential incipient lesion (PIL) was compared with visual examination to demonstrate non-inferiority to it. Visual examination (VE) and an investigational device (ID) were used to detect PIL (actual incipient caries [AIC] and hypomineralization). Seventeen subjects satisfied data analysis criteria. Two-hundred and seventy-seven AIC and 367 hypomineralizations reached VE consensus. Ground truth was generated from consensus VE results and image information from enhanced white light (eWL) and FIRE images. Data from VE and ID in Still Image (IDSM) and Video (IDVM) modes were evaluated against ground truth. Overall sensitivity of VE, IDSM, and IDVM evaluated against ground truth were 0.94, 0.884, and 0.848, respectively, for Actual Incipient Caries (AIC) detection, and 0.95, 0.916, and 0.883, respectively, for PIL detection. Sensitivity of ID in both modes was > 90% that of VE, thus demonstrating non-inferiority of IDSM and IDVM to VE. The investigated eWL and fluorescence device is clinically effective and at least as good as expert VE in detecting PIL. An enhanced white light device with FIRE technology can be used, in Video or Still Image Detection modes, as an aid to caries diagnosis.

  18. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries lesions: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bader, James D; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Bauer, Michael; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically-suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To our knowledge, its prevalence has not been quantified; this was the objective of this study. Methods A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from “The Dental Practice-Based Research Network” (DPBRN) participated. When patients presented with at least one unrestored occlusal surface, their number of unrestored occlusal surfaces and QOC were quantified. Information also was recorded about patient characteristics on consented patients who had QOC. Data analysis adjusted for patient clustering within practices. Results Overall, 6,910 patients had at least one unrestored occlusal surface, with a total of 50,445 unrestored surfaces. Thirty-four percent of all patients and 11% of unrestored surfaces among all patients had QOC. Patient- and surface-level QOC prevalence varied significantly by region (p<0.001; p<0.03). The highest percent for patient-and surface-level prevalence was in Florida/Georgia (42%; 16%). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the prevalence of QOC in routine clinical practice. These results document a high prevalence overall, with wide variation in prevalence among DPBRN’s five main regions. Clinical Implications QOC lesions are common in routine practice and warrant further investigation regarding how best to manage them. PMID:23204090

  19. Effects of dentifrices on artificial caries like lesions: an in vitro pH cycling study.

    PubMed

    Rana, R; Itthagarun, A; King, N M

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate remineralising effects of three dentifrices, Vicco by Vicco Labs, India, Perioe Cavity Care by LG Care, Korea and Colgate Total by Colgate-Palmolive, Thailand on artificial caries like lesions. In vitro single-section and pH cycling model. Extracted third molars were painted with nail varnish, leaving 1 mm wide windows before placing demineralising solution for 96h to produce artificial carious lesions 150-200 miocrom deep. Teeth were then cut longitudinally into 100-150 microm thick sections and randomly assigned to three groups. Polarised light microscopy and microradiography were used to evaluate lesion depth, before and after the 10 day pH cycle. Sections in Group A were treated with Vicco by Vicco Labs, India (-ve control), Group B were treated with Perioe Cavity Care by LG Care, Korea and Group C were treated with Colgate Total by Colgate-Palmolive, Thailand. Mean lesion depths in Groups B and C reduced by 7% and 12% respectively, whereas lesion depth increased by 13% in Group A. Comparisons made among groups using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests showed that three groups were significantly different from each other (p < 0.05). Perioe Cavity Care and Colgate Total remineralised initial carious lesions. However, the remineralising potential of Colgate Total was higher than that of Perioe Cavity Care.

  20. Is the morphology and activity of the occlusal carious lesion related to the lesion progression stage?

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline Almeida; Vargas, Daniel Otero Amaral; Santos, Thais Maria Pires; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between degree of dentin demineralization with both lesion activity and morphology of the occlusal carious cavity. Occlusal sites (n=138) were identified by visual examination (Nyvad's scores 0-6) in 67 extracted teeth which were scanned in a high energy micro-CT. After 3D reconstruction, each stack was resliced in the mesio-distal direction and tooth mineral density (MD) was measured along a path from enamel to the deepest part of dentin in the slice showing the most severe carious involvement. Each site was classified in "open" or "closed" (if cavitated) depending on the morphology of the surrounding enamel walls as measured using micro-CT and as active or inactive in enamel or dentin by a clinical scoring system. Lesions showing dentin cavitation presented higher demineralization degree compared to non-cavitated, or enamel cavitated lesions. Inactive lesions presented lower demineralization degree compared to active lesions, although with a low effect size. According to the morphological aspect of the carious cavity, open enamel lesions showed lower dentin demineralization degree than closed lesion environments. Active lesions showed higher dentin demineralization degree than inactive ones, while lesions showing closed cavitation resulted in higher dentin demineralization degree only for enamel lesions. Including those parameters in treatment decisions may help to improve prognosis and increase effectiveness of the caries diagnostic systems in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiome of Deep Dentinal Caries Lesions in Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.; Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Lima, Kenio C.; Assunção, Isauremi V.; Gomes, Patrícia N.; Siqueira, José F.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in the advanced front of caries biofilms associated with pulp exposure and irreversible pulpitis. Samples were taken from the deepest layer of dentinal caries lesions associated with pulp exposure in 10 teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. DNA was extracted and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 14 phyla and 101 genera composed by 706 different OTUs. Three phyla accounted for approximately 98% of the sequences: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. These phyla were also the ones with most representatives at the species level. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in 9/10 samples. As for genera, Lactobacillus accounted for 42.3% of the sequences, followed by Olsenella (13.7%), Pseudoramibacter (10.7%) and Streptococcus (5.5%). Half of the samples were heavily dominated by Lactobacillus, while in the other half lactobacilli were in very low abundance and the most dominant genera were Pseudoramibacter, Olsenella, Streptococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. High bacterial diversity occurred in deep dentinal caries lesions associated with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The microbiome could be classified according to the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Except for Lactobacillus species, most of the highly prevalent and abundant bacterial taxa identified in this study have been commonly detected in infected root canals. The detected taxa can be regarded as candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and possibly the pioneers in pulp invasion to initiate endodontic infection. PMID:27135405

  2. Microbiome of Deep Dentinal Caries Lesions in Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Rachid, Caio T C C; Lima, Kenio C; Assunção, Isauremi V; Gomes, Patrícia N; Siqueira, José F

    2016-01-01

    This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in the advanced front of caries biofilms associated with pulp exposure and irreversible pulpitis. Samples were taken from the deepest layer of dentinal caries lesions associated with pulp exposure in 10 teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. DNA was extracted and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 14 phyla and 101 genera composed by 706 different OTUs. Three phyla accounted for approximately 98% of the sequences: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. These phyla were also the ones with most representatives at the species level. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in 9/10 samples. As for genera, Lactobacillus accounted for 42.3% of the sequences, followed by Olsenella (13.7%), Pseudoramibacter (10.7%) and Streptococcus (5.5%). Half of the samples were heavily dominated by Lactobacillus, while in the other half lactobacilli were in very low abundance and the most dominant genera were Pseudoramibacter, Olsenella, Streptococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. High bacterial diversity occurred in deep dentinal caries lesions associated with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The microbiome could be classified according to the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Except for Lactobacillus species, most of the highly prevalent and abundant bacterial taxa identified in this study have been commonly detected in infected root canals. The detected taxa can be regarded as candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and possibly the pioneers in pulp invasion to initiate endodontic infection.

  3. Effect of monitor display on detection of approximal caries lesions in digital radiographs.

    PubMed

    Isidor, S; Faaborg-Andersen, M; Hintze, H; Kirkevang, L-L; Frydenberg, M; Haiter-Neto, F; Wenzel, A

    2009-12-01

    The aim was to compare the accuracy of five flat panel monitors for detection of approximal caries lesions. Five flat panel monitors, Mermaid Ventura (15 inch, colour flat panel, 1024 x 768, 32 bit, analogue), Olórin VistaLine (19 inch, colour, 1280 x 1024, 32 bit, digital), Samsung SyncMaster 203B (20 inch, colour, 1024 x 768, 32 bit, analogue), Totoku ME251i (21 inch, greyscale, 1400 x 1024, 32 bit, digital) and Eizo FlexScan MX190 (19 inch, colour, 1280 x 1024, 32 bit, digital), were assessed. 160 approximal surfaces of human teeth were examined with a storage phosphor plate system (Digora FMX, Soredex) and assessed by seven observers for the presence of caries lesions. Microscopy of the teeth served as validation for the presence/absence of a lesion. The sensitivities varied between observers (range 7-25%) but the variation between the monitors was not large. The Samsung monitor obtained a significantly higher sensitivity than the Mermaid and Olórin monitors (P<0.02) and a lower specificity than the Eizo and Totoku monitors (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between any other monitors. The percentage of correct scores was highest for the Eizo monitor and significantly higher than for the Mermaid and Olórin monitors (P<0.03). There was no clear relationship between the diagnostic accuracy and the resolution or price of the monitor. The Eizo monitor was associated with the overall highest percentage of correct scores. The standard analogue flat panel monitor, Samsung, had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than some of the other monitors, but did not differ in overall accuracy for detection of carious lesions.

  4. Salivary Urease and ADS Enzymatic Activity as Endogenous Protection against Dental Caries in Children.

    PubMed

    Moncada, G; Maureira, J; Neira, M; Reyes, E; Oliveira Junior, O B; Faleiros, S; Palma, P; Corsini, G; Ugalde, C; Gordan, V V; Yevenes, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the ureolytic and arginolytic activities of saliva in children and associate them with their caries status. 65, 8 year old children, were randomly selected. The ureolytic and arginolytic activity of non stimulated saliva was studied and associated with DMFT and dmft index. Saliva of children were sampled under fasting conditions; Children refrained from any oral hygiene procedures during the 12 hours that preceded the sample collection. Caries activity was scored and divided in 3 groups: Group A: Index zero: without lesions; Group B: Moderate Index: 1 to 3 enamel caries lesions; and Group C: High Index: more than 4 dentin caries lesions. DMFT scores were moderate: 0.4(±0.79) and dmft: 2.78(±2.45). Results expressed in μmol/min/mg/protein, for urease activity were statistically significant (p=0.048): Group A= 0.69 (±0.7); Group B= 0.45 (±0.43); and Group C= 0.39 (±0.55). The arginine deiminase activity was not statistically significant (p=0.16): Group A= 2.53 (±1.42), Group B= 2.31 (±1.57) and Group C= 1.97 (±2.0). Higher levels of ureolytic (statistically significant) and arginolytic activity (trend) in saliva were associated with lower DMFT/dmft scores in 8 year old children. There was a higher production of ammonia from the arginine deiminase system than the urease enzyme in saliva (p>0.05).

  5. A longitudinal study of occlusal caries in Newark New Jersey school children: relationship between initial dental finding and the development of new lesions.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Fine, Daniel H

    2012-11-01

    Dental caries is a significant public health problem especially amongst children from low-income backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the development of new occlusal caries in 227 Newark, NJ children ages 10-18. The role of previous caries experience and the presence of occlusal white and dark lesions in predicting the development of new lesions were examined. At each visit, the patient's teeth were given a visual-tactile examination and the subject's decayed, missing and filled (DMFS) score was determined. Next, molars lacking probeable caries or restorations were examined using transillumination for occlusal white and dark spots. This examination was repeated periodically. A Cox proportional hazard was used to analyse data concerning the development of new occusal caries in molars. The longitudinal data indicates that patients who were caries free at visit-1 developed significantly fewer occlusal caries during the longitudinal study. The hazard ratio for subjects who had first-visit caries was 2.27 compared to caries free subjects. Intact molars with occlusal white or dark lesions had caries hazard ratios of 0.78 and 1.49 respectively, compared to molars lacking initial colour changes. Having a prior caries history places the subject at increased risk of developing future caries. Teeth with dark lesions but not white lesions are at significantly increased risk for developing decay. White lesions may represent remineralizing or slowly progressing lesions. The results of this study can help identify patients and tooth surfaces at risk for future occlusal decay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A longitudinal study of occlusal caries in Newark New Jersey school children: relationship between initial dental finding and the development of new lesions

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dental caries is a significant public health problem especially amongst children from low-income backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the development of new occlusal caries in 227 Newark, NJ children ages 10–18. The role of previous caries experience and the presence of occlusal white and dark lesions in predicting the development of new lesions were examined. Design At each visit, the patient’s teeth were given a visual-tactile examination and the subject’s decayed; missing and filled (DMFS) score was determined. Next, molars lacking probeable caries or restorations were examined using transillumination for occlusal white and dark spots. This examination was repeated periodically. A Cox proportional hazard was used to analyze data concerning the development of new occusal caries in molars. Results The longitudinal data indicates that patients who were caries free at visit-1 developed significantly fewer occlusal caries during the longitudinal study. The hazard ratio for subjects who had first-visit caries was 2.27 compared to caries free subjects. Intact molars with occlusal white or dark lesions had caries hazard ratios of 0.78 and 1.49 respectively, compared to molars lacking initial color changes. Conclusion Having a prior caries history places the subject at increased risk of developing future caries. Teeth with dark lesions but not white lesions are at significantly increased risk for developing decay. White lesions may represent remineralizing or slowly progressing lesions. The results of this study can help identify patients and tooth surfaces at risk for future occlusal decay. PMID:22841633

  7. Silver diamine fluoride and glass ionomer differentially remineralize early caries lesions, in situ.

    PubMed

    Nantanee, Ratichanok; Santiwong, Busayarat; Trairatvorakul, Chutima; Hamba, Hidenori; Tagami, Junji

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the percent mean mineral density (MD) change of early caries lesions after the application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). This double-blind, crossover study involved two experimental phases of 28 days each. Thirty-two pairs of enamel slabs were created from the proximal surfaces of 16 premolars. Each pair of artificial carious slabs was randomly divided into the control or test group (38 % SDF or GIC). The slabs were attached to orthodontic brackets and bonded to the maxillary first permanent molars of 16 subjects for 28 days. After a 7-day washout period between phases, the subjects received the other material for the second phase. The mean MD of the lesions was measured by microcomputed tomography. SDF yielded a percent mean MD increase at a depth of 0-84 μm, although increase in the GIC group was observed at a depth of 24-108 μm. The percent mean MD changes of the SDF and GIC groups were similar (p = 0.100) and significantly higher than in control (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively). The two materials increased the percent mean MD change of early proximal caries lesions to a similar extent, but with different spatial patterns. Due to deeper level of GIC remineralization, the refractive index of the GIC applied enamel might be closer to sound enamel. Hence, GIC is recommended for remineralization of anterior teeth. SDF staining makes it unsuitable for use in anterior teeth; thus, it is reserved for use in posterior teeth.

  8. Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchley, David; Lynch, Richard J. M.; Lippert, Frank; O'Bryan Eder, Jennifer Susan; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos

    2011-02-01

    We compare terahertz-pulsed imaging (TPI) with transverse microradiography (TMR) and microindentation to measure remineralization of artificial caries lesions. Lesions are formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid/0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite adjusted to pH 5.0. The 20-day experimental protocol consists of four 1 min treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385, and 2700 ppm fluoride, a 4-h/day acid challenge, and, for the remaining time, specimens are stored in a 50:50 pooled human/artificial saliva mixture. Each specimen is imaged at the focal point of the terahertz beam (data-point spacing = 50 μm). The time-domain data are used to calculate the refractive index volume percent profile throughout the lesion, and the differences in the integrated areas between the baseline and post-treatment profiles are used to calculate ΔΔZ(THz). In addition, the change from baseline in both the lesion depth and the intensity of the reflected pulse from the air/enamel interface is determined. Statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients are observed between TPI and TMR/microindentation (P < 0.05). We demonstrate that TPI has potential as a research tool for hard tissue imaging.

  9. Fluoride dose-response of human and bovine enamel artificial caries lesions under pH-cycling conditions.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Frank; Juthani, Kalp

    2015-11-01

    This laboratory study aimed to (a) compare the fluoride dose-response of different caries lesions created in human and bovine enamel (HE/BE) under pH-cycling conditions and (b) investigate the suitability of Knoop and Vickers surface microhardness (K-SMH/V-SMH) in comparison to transverse microradiography (TMR) to investigate lesion de- and remineralization. Caries lesions were formed using three different protocols (Carbopol, hydroxyethylcellulose-HEC, methylcellulose-MeC) and assigned to 24 groups using V-SMH, based on a 2 (enamel types) × 3 (lesion types) × 4 (fluoride concentrations used during pH-cycling-simulating 0/250/1100/2800 ppm F as sodium fluoride dentifrices) factorial design. Changes in mineral content and structural integrity of lesions were determined before and after pH-cycling. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA. BE was more prone to demineralization than HE. Both enamel types showed similar responses to fluoride with BE showing more remineralization (as change in integrated mineral loss and lesion depth reduction), although differences between tissues were already present at lesion baseline. Carbopol and MeC lesions responded well to fluoride, whereas HEC lesions were almost inert. K- and V-SMH correlated well with each other and with the integrated mineral loss data, although better correlations were found for HE than for BE and for MeC than for Carbopol lesions. Hardness data for HEC lesions correlated only with surface zone mineral density data. BE is a suitable surrogate for HE under pH-cycling conditions. The in vitro modeling of dental caries is complex and requires knowledge of lesion behavior, analytical techniques, and employed hard tissues.

  10. Nondestructive assessment of the severity of occlusal caries lesions with near-infrared imaging at 1310 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Lee, Dustin; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    The high transparency of dental enamel in the near-infrared (NIR) at 1310 nm can be exploited for imaging dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation. The objective of this study is to determine whether the lesion contrast derived from NIR imaging in both transmission and reflectance can be used to estimate lesion severity. Two NIR imaging detector technologies are investigated: a new Ge-enhanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based NIR imaging camera, and an InGaAs focal plane array (FPA). Natural occlusal caries lesions are imaged with both cameras at 1310 nm, and the image contrast between sound and carious regions is calculated. After NIR imaging, teeth are sectioned and examined using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR) to determine lesion severity. Lesions are then classified into four categories according to lesion severity. Lesion contrast increases significantly with lesion severity for both cameras (p<0.05). The Ge-enhanced CMOS camera equipped with the larger array and smaller pixels yields higher contrast values compared with the smaller InGaAs FPA (p<0.01). Results demonstrate that NIR lesion contrast can be used to estimate lesion severity.

  11. Nondestructive assessment of the severity of occlusal caries lesions with near-infrared imaging at 1310 nm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulsung; Lee, Dustin; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The high transparency of dental enamel in the near-infrared (NIR) at 1310 nm can be exploited for imaging dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation. The objective of this study is to determine whether the lesion contrast derived from NIR imaging in both transmission and reflectance can be used to estimate lesion severity. Two NIR imaging detector technologies are investigated: a new Ge-enhanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based NIR imaging camera, and an InGaAs focal plane array (FPA). Natural occlusal caries lesions are imaged with both cameras at 1310 nm, and the image contrast between sound and carious regions is calculated. After NIR imaging, teeth are sectioned and examined using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR) to determine lesion severity. Lesions are then classified into four categories according to lesion severity. Lesion contrast increases significantly with lesion severity for both cameras (p<0.05). The Ge-enhanced CMOS camera equipped with the larger array and smaller pixels yields higher contrast values compared with the smaller InGaAs FPA (p<0.01). Results demonstrate that NIR lesion contrast can be used to estimate lesion severity. PMID:20799842

  12. Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals for nondestructive repair of early caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Kazuo; Yamagishi, Kazue; Oyane, Ayako

    2005-08-01

    Characterization of synthetic enamel formed by newly developed dental paste for repairing early caries lesions was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and atomic force microscopy, with the chemical composition analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals seamlessly grew in the interface between the paste and tooth enamel, and arranged their (0 0 0 1) face parallel to the tooth surface same as enamel apatite. The rapid growth of high crystalline large hydroxyapatite crystals by applying the paste is attributed to the dissociation of calcium phosphate clusters, Ca 9(PO 4) 6, which is the main growth unit of hydroxyapatite when it grows under physiological conditions, to ionic species in the concentrated and low pH phosphate solution.

  13. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S; Imparato, J C P; Ricketts, D N J; Mendes, F M

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity assessment (ICDAS-LAA)--were compared using 763 primary molars of 139 children aged 3-12 years. The examinations were performed by 2 calibrated examiners. A subsample (n = 50) was collected after extraction and histology with 0.1% red methyl dye was performed to validate lesion depth and activity. The reproducibility of the indices was calculated (kappa test) and ROC analysis was performed to assess their validity and related parameters were compared using McNemar's test. The association between the indices and with the histological examination was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r(s)). Visual criteria showed excellent reproducibility both regarding severity (NY: 0.94; ICDAS-II: 0.91) and activity (NY: 0.90; LAA: 0.91). The NY and LAA showed good association in caries activity assessment (r(s) = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.89; p < 0.001). Nevertheless, considering only cavitated lesions, this association was not significant (p > 0.05). Concerning the severity, both indices presented similar validity parameters. At D2 threshold, the sensitivity was higher for NY (NY = 0.87; ICDAS = 0.61, p < 0.05). Regarding activity status, NY showed higher specificities and accuracies. In conclusion, NY and ICDAS-II criteria are comparable and present good reproducibility and validity to detect caries lesions and estimate their severities, but the LAA seems to overestimate the caries activity assessment of cavitated lesions compared to NY. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Systematic review of noninvasive treatments to arrest dentin non-cavitated caries lesions

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção, Isauremi Vieira; da Costa, Giovanna de Fátima Alves; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review the literature on the efficacy of noninvasive methods of arresting the progression of non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions in dentin. METHODS: The Medline/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant publications through to November 2013. Only clinical trials evaluating the ability of noninvasive methods to arrest the progression of occlusal non-cavitated carious lesions in dentin were included. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. RESULTS: Of 167 citations identified, nine full text articles were screened and five were included in the analysis. All papers reported on occlusal fissure sealing using a self-curing glass ionomer (n = 1) or resin-based (n = 4) sealant. Only the use of resin-based sealant to obliterate occlusal fissures arrested the progression of non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions in dentin. CONCLUSION: Occlusal fissure sealing with a resin-based sealant may arrest the progression of non-cavitated occlusal dentinal caries. Further clinical trials with longer follow-up times should be performed to increase scientific evidence. PMID:24868513

  15. Light diffuse reflectance for detection and differentiation of teeth caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Uzunov, Tz.; Valkanov, S.; Avramov, L.

    2007-05-01

    One of the goals of the contemporary dentistry is differentiation between carious stages that must be fast, non-invasive procedure, which will allow to the dentists to make reliable judgments. One suitable candidate for such method is reflectance spectroscopy. The objectives of current study are to determine the feasibility of applying the light reflectance spectroscopy technique for detection of different carious stages; therefore reflectance spectra of teeth illuminated at 450- 900 nm light were recorded. There are obtained reflectance signals from the healthy enamel, dentine and different lesion stages of the investigated teeth. These spectra are compared to that, obtained by non-carious tooth lesions - fluorosa and odontolithiasis, resembling on initial carious stages. There is observed a significant decrease of the intensity of the reflected light in blue region in the case of caries. Reflectance signals, obtained from non-carious lesions also have significantly different character and could be used for differentiation between them and initial carious stages. An algorithm for differentiation between carious stages is proposed with diagnostic accuracy achieved up to 86,1% between precarious stage and sound tooth and 100% for determination of deep cavitation. Some comments about role of teeth enamel structure and anisotropy factor of dental layers on the results obtained are also made.

  16. Remineralizing efficacy of a CPP-ACP cream on enamel caries lesions in situ.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Wierichs, Richard J; Schellwien, Timo; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this double-blind, randomized, cross-over in situ study was to compare the remineralizing effects induced by the application of casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate complexes (CPP-ACP)-containing cream (without fluoride) after the use of fluoride toothpaste with the prolonged use of fluoride toothpaste on enamel caries lesions in situ. During each of three experimental legs of 4 weeks, 13 participants wore intra-oral mandibular appliances with 8 pre-demineralized bovine enamel specimens in the vestibular flanges mimicking either 'easily cleanable' or 'proximal' surfaces (n = 312). The three randomly allocated treatments were as follows: (1) application of CPP-ACP-containing cream (GC Tooth Mouse, non-fluoride) after the use of fluoride toothpaste (1,400 ppm NaF; TM), (2) prolonged application of fluoride toothpaste (1,400 ppm NaF; positive control, PC) and (3) prolonged application of fluoride-free toothpaste (negative control, NC). Additionally, one of each of the two flanges was brushed twice daily with the respective toothpaste. The differences in integrated mineral loss as assessed by transversal microradiography were calculated between values before and after the in situ period. Changes in mineral loss were analysed for those pairs of subgroups differing in only one of the three factors (intervention, brushing and position). The PC treatment induced a significantly higher mineral gain compared with the TM and NC treatments. No significant differences between TM and NC for both positions were observed. In conclusion, the additional use of a CPP-ACP-containing cream seems to be less efficacious in remineralizing caries lesions than the prolonged application of fluoride toothpaste.

  17. Detecting and treating occlusal caries lesions: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2015-02-01

    The health gains and costs resulting from using different caries detection strategies might not only depend on the accuracy of the used method but also the treatment emanating from its use in different populations. We compared combinations of visual-tactile, radiographic, or laser-fluorescence-based detection methods with 1 of 3 treatments (non-, micro-, and invasive treatment) initiated at different cutoffs (treating all or only dentinal lesions) in populations with low or high caries prevalence. A Markov model was constructed to follow an occlusal surface in a permanent molar in an initially 12-y-old male German patient over his lifetime. Prevalence data and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature, while validity parameters of different methods were synthesized or obtained from systematic reviews. Microsimulations were performed to analyze the model, assuming a German health care setting and a mixed public-private payer perspective. Radiographic and fluorescence-based methods led to more overtreatments, especially in populations with low prevalence. For the latter, combining visual-tactile or radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment retained teeth longest (mean 66 y) at lowest costs (329 and 332 Euro, respectively), while combining radiographic or fluorescence-based detections with invasive treatment was the least cost-effective (<60 y, >700 Euro). In populations with high prevalence, combining radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment was most cost-effective (63 y, 528 Euro), while sensitive detection methods combined with invasive treatments were again the least cost-effective (<59 y, >690 Euro). The suitability of detection methods differed significantly between populations, and the cost-effectiveness was greatly influenced by the treatment initiated after lesion detection. The accuracy of a detection method relative to a "gold standard" did not automatically convey into better health or reduced costs. Detection methods

  18. A Study of the Potential to Detect Caries Lesions at the White-Spot Stage Using V(Z) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    Current wide-spread methods of non-destructive methods of caries diagnostics, such as X-ray techniques, do not provide the possibility to efficiently detect enamel caries lesions at the beginning ("white-spot") stage, when the tooth tissue is only slightly altered and no loss of the tissue occurs. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop new, more sensitive methods of caries diagnostics. In this paper, certain aspects of the ultrasonic approach to the problem are discussed - in particular, detection of the enamel's surface caries at the white-spot stage with a focused ultrasonic sensor positioned in front of the caries lesion (without cross-sectioning the tooth). Theoretical model using V(z) approach for layered media was applied to perform computer simulations resulting in V(z) curves for the different parameters of carious tissue and the degree of degradation. The curves were analyzed and it was shown that, comparing to a short-pulse/echo technique, V(z) approach provides much better distinction between sound and carious enamel and even makes possible to evaluate the degree of demineralization.

  19. Fluorescence-Based Methods for Detecting Caries Lesions: Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Sources of Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Thais; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Raggio, Daniela Procida; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David N.; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Background Fluorescence-based methods have been proposed to aid caries lesion detection. Summarizing and analysing findings of studies about fluorescence-based methods could clarify their real benefits. Objective We aimed to perform a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of fluorescence-based methods in detecting caries lesions. Data Source Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus through June 2012 to identify papers/articles published. Other sources were checked to identify non-published literature. Study Eligibility Criteria, Participants and Diagnostic Methods The eligibility criteria were studies that: (1) have assessed the accuracy of fluorescence-based methods of detecting caries lesions on occlusal, approximal or smooth surfaces, in both primary or permanent human teeth, in the laboratory or clinical setting; (2) have used a reference standard; and (3) have reported sufficient data relating to the sample size and the accuracy of methods. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods A diagnostic 2×2 table was extracted from included studies to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy parameters (Diagnostic Odds Ratio and Summary Receiver-Operating curve). The analyses were performed separately for each method and different characteristics of the studies. The quality of the studies and heterogeneity were also evaluated. Results Seventy five studies met the inclusion criteria from the 434 articles initially identified. The search of the grey or non-published literature did not identify any further studies. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the fluorescence-based method tend to have similar accuracy for all types of teeth, dental surfaces or settings. There was a trend of better performance of fluorescence methods in detecting more advanced caries lesions. We also observed moderate to high heterogeneity and evidenced publication bias. Conclusions Fluorescence-based devices

  20. The anti-caries activity and toxicity of an experimental propolis-containing varnish.

    PubMed

    DE Luca, Mariana Passos; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Gala-García, Alfonso; Santos, Vagner Rodrigues; Vale, Miriam Pimenta; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2017-06-05

    We investigated the anti-caries effects of an experimental propolis varnish in vivo, and further tested its toxicity against fibroblasts. Fifty-six SPF female Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus mutans UA159 (SM) and allocated into four groups (n = 14/group): G1, propolis varnish (15%/PV); G2, chitosan varnish (CV/vehicle); G3, gold standard (GS/Duraphat®); and G4, untreated. The animals received a single varnish application on their molars and were submitted to a high cariogenic challenge (Diet-2000, 56% sucrose, and 5% sucrose-added water, ad libitum) for 4 weeks. Total cultivable microbiota and SM were counted, and smooth-surface and sulcal caries were scored. PV, CV and GS cytotoxic effects were tested against fibroblasts. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with the Tukey-Kramer test (p ≤ 0.05). Total microbiota and SM counts did not differ among the treatments (p = 0.78), or in relation to the untreated group (p = 0.52). PV reduced development of smooth-surface enamel caries compared with the untreated group (p = 0.0018), with no significant difference from GS (p = 0.92); however, the PV effects were no longer observed when the dentin was affected. Neither PV nor GS prevented enamel sulcal lesion onset, but GS significantly reduced the severity of dentinal sulcal lesions (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed in fibroblast viability between PV and GS (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, PV prevented smooth-surface enamel caries and showed low cell toxicity. Nevertheless, due to the high cariogenic challenge, its effects were not sustained throughout the experiment. Further studies are encouraged to establish a protocol to sustain the long-term anti-caries activity of PV in the oral cavity.

  1. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  2. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenneth H; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-24

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  3. Light- and electronmicroscopic study of infiltration of resin into initial caries lesions--a new methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Gaengler, P

    2012-01-01

    It was the purpose of this pilot study to investigate resin infiltration into various types of initial subsurface caries lesions using a combined microscopic technique with polarized light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy and subsequent scanning microscopy with EDX-element analysis. Six extracted premolars with initial caries lesions were used. Five were infiltrated with resin after imbibition of the subsurface carious pore volume of enamel with sodium fluorescein solution. After light curing the unbound dye was removed by washing out in water. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarized light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and simultaneously with both microscopic techniques. The same sections were then studied with scanning electron microscopy and EDX-element analysis to prove the infiltration of the resin into the lesions. The results showed, that the combination technique adds further morphologic information to infiltration behaviour of the resin. The individual volume of early acute lesions versus chronic lesions involving dentin, and the fluorescein bound by resin was well documented in serial sections. The EDX calcium and phosphorus signals correlate negatively with the lesion extension, and the carbon signal correlates positively, thus labelling the resin infiltration. It could be demonstrated that resin infiltration is dependent from the pore volume of the lesion. It can be concluded that the combined polarized light microscopy with fluorescence microscopy is an advantageous tool for studying infiltration of resin into hard tissues. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Methods Dentists Use to Diagnose Primary Caries Lesions Prior to Restorative Treatment: Findings from The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Rindal, D. Brad; Gordan, Valeria V.; Litaker, Mark S.; Bader, James D.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Wallace-Dawson, Martha C.; Anderson, Mary L.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) quantify the diagnostic techniques used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists before they decide to treat primary caries lesions surgically and (2) examine whether certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics are associated with their use. Methods A total of 228 DPBRN dentists recorded information on 5,676 consecutive restorations inserted due to primary caries lesions on 3,751 patients. Practitioner-investigators placed a mean of 24.9 (SD=12.4) restorations. Lesions were categorized as posterior proximal, anterior proximal, posterior occlusal, posterior smooth, or anterior smooth. Techniques used to diagnose the lesion were categorized as clinical assessment, radiographs, and/or optical. Statistical analysis utilized generalized mixed-model ANOVA to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. Results By lesion category, the diagnostic technique combinations used most frequently were clinical assessment plus radiographs for posterior proximal (47%), clinical assessment for anterior proximal (51%), clinical assessment for posterior occlusal (46%), clinical assessment for posterior smooth (77%), and clinical assessment for anterior smooth (80%). Diagnostic technique was significantly associated with lesion category after adjusting for clustering in dentists (p<0.0001). Conclusion These results — obtained during actual clinical procedures rather than from questionnaire-based hypothetical scenarios — quantified the diagnostic techniques most commonly used during the actual delivery of routine restorative care. Diagnostic technique varied by lesion category and with certain practice and patient characteristics. PMID:20884316

  5. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  6. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric

  7. Biomagnetic activity in ovarian lesions.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, P; Anninos, P; Kotini, A; Limberis, B; Galazios, G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND-MATERIALS: This study aimed to investigate biomagnetic activity in benign and malignant ovarian diseases using the biomagnetometer SQUID. Magnetic recordings were obtained from 40 patients with palpable ovarian lesions. 19 of these were invasive carcinomas, and 21 were benign ovarian lesions. We used a one channel biomagnetometer SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), in order to measure the magnetic field from benign and malignant ovarian diseases. Interestingly, the ovarian lesion waveforms and the corresponding spectral densities were of high amplitude in most (96%) malignant ovarian lesions, and of low amplitude in most (95%) benign ovarian diseases. These findings were of statistical significance (students t-test p < 0.005). It is suggested that biomagnetic measurement of benign and malignant ovarian diseases, which is an entirely new application of SQUID technology, is a promising procedure for assessing ovarian tumors.

  8. Impact of a Tutored Theoretical-Practical Training to Develop Undergraduate Students’ Skills for the Detection of Caries Lesions: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Controlled Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernanda Rosche; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Imparato, José Carlos; Bonecker, Marcelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wang, Linda; Rios, Daniela; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Duque, Cristiane; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Alves Filho, Ary Oliveira; Lima, Marina De Deus Moura; Moura, Marcoeli Silva; De Carli, Alessandro Diogo; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio; Oliveira, Elenara Ferreira; Correa, Marcos Britto; Rocha, Rachel Oliveira; Zenkner, Julio Eduardo; Murisí, Pedroza Uribe; Martignon, Stefania; Lara, Juan Sebastian; Aquino, Fatima Gabriela; Carrillo, Alfredo; Chu, Chun Hung; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David; Melo, Paulo; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2017-01-01

    Background Tutored laboratorial activities could be a manner of improving the competency development of students. However, its impact over conventional theoretical classes has not yet been tested. Additionally, different university contexts could influence this issue and should be explored. Objective To assess the impact of a tutored theoretical-practical training for teaching undergraduate students to detect caries lesions as compared with theoretical teaching activities. The impact of these teaching/learning activities will be assessed in terms of efficacy, cost/benefit, retention of knowledge/acquired competences, and student acceptability. Methods Sixteen centers (7 centers from Brazil and 9 centers from other countries throughout the world) are involved in the inclusion of subjects for this protocol. A randomized controlled study with parallel groups will be conducted. One group (control) will be exposed to a 60- to 90-minute conventional theoretical class and the other group (test) will be exposed to the same theoretical class and also a 90-minute laboratory class, including exercises and discussions based on the evaluation of a pool of images and extracted teeth. The mentioned outcomes will be evaluated immediately after the teaching activities and also in medium- and long-term analyses. To compare the long-term outcomes, students who enrolled in the university before the participating students will be interviewed for data collection and these data will be used as a control and compared with the trained group. This stage will be a nonrandomized phase of this study, nested in the main study. Appropriate statistical analysis will be performed according to the aims of this study. Variables related to the centers will also be analyzed and used to model adjustment as possible sources of variability among results. Results This ongoing study is funded by a Brazilian national funding agency (CNPq- 400736/2014-4). We expect that the tutored theoretical

  9. Dye-enhanced laser fluorescence detection of caries lesions around brackets.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Cássio José Fornazari; Braga, Mariana Minatel; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; Nicolau, José; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of DIAGNOdent [laser fluorescence(LF) and LFpen] devices enhanced by fluorescent dye in detecting mineral loss around brackets and comparing the inhibitory effect of bonding material on artificial demineralization, and to verify whether LF methods show the same trends of mineral loss. Brackets were bonded to premolar halves with Fuji Ortho LC, Transbond XT, and Ortho Glass LC cements (n = 15). The teeth were soaked in demineralizing solution (pH = 4.8) for 16 days. Mineral loss was calculated by atomic emission spectrometry, and lesions were measured with LF devices with dye [tetrakis N-methylpyridyl porphyrin (TMPyP)]. Groups were compared with regard to LF readings and mineral loss, and performance of caries detection was calculated. Higher mineral loss and LF-TMPyP values occurred in the resin group. LFpen-TMPyP readings were significantly higher in the demineralized groups. Correlation was observed between mineral loss and LF measurements. LF methods are capable of identifying lower demineralization around brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

  10. Effects of dentifrices differing in fluoride compounds on artificial enamel caries lesions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wierichs, R J; Zelck, H; Doerfer, C E; Appel, P; Paris, S; Esteves-Oliveira, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the caries-preventive effect of a stabilized stannous fluoride/sodium fluoride dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate with those of a regular, solely sodium fluoride-containing and amine fluoride-containing dentifrice on pre-demineralized bovine enamel specimens using a pH-cycling model. Bovine enamel specimens with two artificial lesions each were prepared. Baseline mineral loss of both lesions was analyzed using transversal microradiography (TMR). Eighty-five specimens with a mean (SD) baseline mineral loss of 3393 (683) vol% × µm were selected and randomly allocated to five groups (n = 13/15). Treatments during pH-cycling (28 days and 2 × 20 min demineralization/day) were: brushing twice daily with slurries of AmF (1400 ppm F(-)), NaF (1450 ppm F(-)), SnF2/NaF (1100 ppm F(-)/350 ppm F(-)), and fluoride-free (FF) dentifrices or they were immersed in distilled water and remained unbrushed (NB). Subsequently, from each specimen one lesion was covered with acid-resistant varnish, while the remaining lesion was demineralized for another 14 days. Differences in integrated mineral loss (∆∆Z) were calculated between values before and after pH-cycling (∆∆Z E1) as well as before pH-cycling and after second demineralization (∆∆Z E2) using TMR. Treatments AmF and NaF induced a significantly higher mineral gain (∆∆Z E1/∆∆Z E2) compared to treatments FF and NB (p < 0.05; ANOVA test). Except for treatments AmF and NaF no significant differences in mineral loss between before and after pH-cycling could be observed (p < 0.05; t test) [∆∆Z E1: AmF:1563 (767); NaF:1222 (1246); SnF2/NaF:258 (1259); FF:-52 (1223); NB:-151 (834)]. Both dentifrices with either AmF or NaF promoted remineralization, whereas SnF2/NaF dentifrice did not promote remineralization in a biofilm-free pH-cycling model.

  11. Minimal intervention dentistry II: part 3. Management of non-cavitated (initial) occlusal caries lesions--non-invasive approaches through remineralisation and therapeutic sealants.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, C; Gaucher, C; Decerle, N; Doméjean, S

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological data on dental caries show that prevention and treatment needs have evolved significantly over the past two decades. In younger patients the distribution of caries lesions is mainly found on the occlusal surfaces. The treatment approaches utilised by dentists must evolve to integrate preventive and treatment solutions tailored to the care needs, which are straightforward to implement in the dental office and whose effectiveness is underpinned by scientific evidence. This article aims to describe the principles of non-invasive management of non-cavitated (initial) occlusal caries lesions, based on evidence from recent studies published in the international literature.

  12. Bond Strength of Experimental Low-viscosity Resin Materials to Early Enamel Caries Lesions: Effect of Diluent/Solvent Addition.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Tatiany Gabrielle Freire; Sfalcin, Ravana Angelini; de Araújo, Giovana Spagnolo Albamonte; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Brusch; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of monomers and solvents/diluents on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) bond strength of experimental low-viscosity resins (infiltrants) to enamel caries-like lesions (ECLL). Flat enamel blocks obtained from sound human third molars were submitted to ECLL formation and randomly distributed into 9 groups (n = 10): G1: TEG-DMA 100%; G2: TEG-DMA 80%, ethanol 20%; G3; TEG-DMA 80%, HEMA 20%; G4: TEG-DMA 75%, UDMA 25%; G5: TEG-DMA 60%, UDMA 20%, ethanol 20%; G6: TEG-DMA 60%, UDMA 20%, HEMA 20%; G7: TEG-DMA 75%, bis-EMA 25%; G8: TEG-DMA 60%, bis-EMA 20%, ethanol 20%; G9: TEG-DMA 60%, bis-EMA 20%, HEMA 20%. After etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s, experimental infiltrants were actively applied and photocured for 60 s, then stored in 100% humidity (24 h, 37°C). Hourglass-shaped specimens were obtained and the μTBS test performed (MPa). The fracture patterns were assessed by SEM. Data were submitted to two way-ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The highest μTBS value was observed for G4 (TEG-DMA/UDMA, 19.18 MPa) and the lowest for G5 (TEG-DMA/UDMA/ethanol, 9.00 MPa). A significant decrease in μTBS was observed for all groups containing ethanol (G2, G5, and G8). The addition of HEMA did not affect μTBS values. Most groups showed a high frequency of mixed failure between infiltrant and enamel. The addition of bis-EMA or UDMA to TEG-DMA-based infiltrants did not improve bond strength to carious enamel. The ethanol addition negatively affected the bonding strength of infiltrants to enamel caries-like lesions, regardless of the resin matrix composition of the infiltrant.

  13. Salivary SIgA and dental caries activity.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Jyoti G; Chaduvula, Nandini; Patel, Hemali R; Jain, Shikha S; Lala, Arti K

    2011-09-01

    This case-control study was conducted to determine the protective role of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of dental caries active (Group I and II) and caries free children (Group III). Thirty children aged 4-8 years were selected. Their DMFT (Decayed Missing Filled teeth for permanent teeth) and/or df-t (decayed, filled teeth for deciduous teeth) scores were determined and the salivary SIgA levels were measured using Immunoturbidometry. SIgA levels of all three groups were in the the normal range of 4-30 mg/dL. The SIgA levels for both Group I and II were less than that in Group III (P=0.018 and P=0.0013, respectively).

  14. In vitro Induction of residual caries lesions in dentin: comparative mineral loss and nano-hardness analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, Falk; Eggers, Kerrin; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Dörfer, Christof; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Artificially inducing dentinal lesions mimicking those remaining after selective excavation should allow to investigate the effects and limits of such selective excavation, for example regarding the mechanical properties of treated teeth or the remineralisation of sealed residual lesions. Such analyses might otherwise be limited by the variability of natural lesions or ethical and practical concerns. This study compared different demineralisation protocols for their suitability to induce lesions similar to natural residual caries. Twelve natural deep lesions were excavated until leathery dentin remained, and analysed for their mineral loss (ΔZ), lesion depth (LD), mineral loss ratio (R), the slope of the mineral gradient and their nano-hardness profile. Artificial lesions were induced using four different demineralisation protocols (acetic acid pH = 4.95; 0.1 M lactic acid gel pH = 5.0; 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid pH = 7.2; Streptococcus mutans biofilms) and their depths monitored over different demineralisation times. Lesions with depths most according to those of natural lesions were analysed using transversal microradiography. Lesions induced by acetic acid solution did not significantly differ with regards to LD, ΔZ, R and mineral profile. Seven dentin specimens were subsequently submitted to a moderately acidic (pH = 5.3) methylhydroxydiphosphonate-buffered acetate solution for 12 weeks. Natural and artificial residual lesions were similarly deep (mean ± SD: LD = 626 ± 212 and 563 ± 88 µm), demineralised (R = 19.5 ± 4.7 and 29.8 ± 4.1%), showed a flat and continuous mineral gradient (slope = 0.10 ± 0.05 and 0.13 ± 0.06 vol%/µm) and did not significantly differ regarding their nano-hardness profile. The described protocol induces lesions with mineral content and mechanical properties similar to natural residual lesions.

  15. Retention of dental sealants placed on sound teeth and incipient caries lesions as part of a service-learning programme in rural areas in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Pérez-Ferrera, Gloriana; Guido, Joseph A; Mantilla-Rodriguez, Andres A; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A

    2012-11-01

    Dental sealants are an effective treatment for the prevention and management of caries. To determine the retention of sealants placed in a rural setting in Mexico as part of an international service-learning (ISL) programme and to determine associations between dental sealant's retention and caries diagnosis at the time of sealant placement. Children aged 6-15 were examined for dental caries, received sealants by dental students as part of an ISL programme, and were re-examined 4, 2, or 1 years after placement to assess sealant survival. Sealants were placed on permanent sound surfaces and enamel caries lesions [International Caries Assessment and Detection System (ICDAS) criteria]. Sealant survival was explored using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests and multivariate prediction models. 219 (46%) of 478 (mean age = 10.53 SD = 5.11) children who had received sealants returned for a recall examination (mean age = 10.89 SD = 3.11). After 1-4 years, 96.4% to 60.6% of the sealants placed on sound teeth had survived, and for sealants placed on surfaces with enamel caries lesions (ICDAS 1-3), 94.2% to 55.6% had survived. Differences were not statistically significant. Sealants had survival rates comparable to those previously reported in the literature. Sealants placed on sound and enamel caries lesions had similar survival rates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Effectiveness of varnish with CPP-ACP in prevention of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus M; Dos Santos, Mariana J; Andrade, Camilla S S; Leão Filho, Jorge César B; Braz, Ana Karla S; de Araujo, Renato E; Tanaka, Orlando M; Fidalgo, Tatiana K S; Dos Santos, Adrielle M; Maia, Lucianne C

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficiency of applying varnish containing casein phosphopeptide (CPP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in prevention of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets. For this purpose, brackets were bonded to the vestibular surface of bovine incisors, and eight groups were formed (n = 15) according to exposure of oral hygiene substances and enamel varnish: 1 (control) brushing only performed, 2 (control) brushing + use of mouth wash with fluoride, 3 Duraphat varnish application only (Colgate-Palmolive Ind. E Com. Ltda, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), 4 Duraphat + brushing, 5 Duraphat + brushing + mouth wash, 6 MI Varnish application (GC America, USA), 7 MI + brushing, and 8 MI + brushing + mouth wash. The experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described and were kept in an oven at temperature of 37°C. Both brushing and immersion in solutions was performed in a time interval of 1 minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days of experimentation. Afterwards, evaluation by optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the special type (Ganymede OCT/Thorlabs, Newton, USA) was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the region where brackets were bonded) and depth measurement of caries lesions were performed. Groups 1 and 3 were shown to differ statistically from groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 (p = 0.000). MI Varnish was shown to be more effective in diminishing caries lesion depth, compared with Duraphat, irrespective of being associated with brushing and mouth wash, or not. The major limitation of this study is that it is a study in which demineralization was obtained with the use of chemical products, and did not occur due to the presence of Streptococcus mutans and its acid byproducts. Application CPP-ACP-containing varnish irrespective of being associated with brushing and mouthwash, or not, reduced depth of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets. © The

  17. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; Nicolau, José

    2006-01-01

    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions.

  18. Physical, chemical, and histologic changes in dentin caries lesions of primary teeth induced by regular use of polyol chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K; Chiego, D J; Allen, P; Bennett, C; Isotupa, K P; Tiekso, J; Mäkinen, P L

    1998-06-01

    A previous clinical trial showed that long-term use of saliva-stimulating polyol (xylitol and sorbitol) chewing gums was associated with arrest of dental caries in young subjects. After a 20-22-month intervention (when the subjects were 8 years old), a total of 23 primary teeth with extensive dentin caries lesions whose surface in clinical examination was found to be totally rehardened (remineralized) could be removed because the teeth were near their physiologic exfoliation time. These teeth were subjected to histologic, microhardness, and electron microscopic tests. The majority of the specimens had been remineralized from the surface by a non-cellular-mediated process within the remaining collapsed, organic extracellular matrix associated with the remaining dentinal surface. Many of the underlying dentinal tubules were filled with a matrix that had been subsequently mineralized. Dental microanalyses showed that the topmost (outer) 20-microm-thick rehardened layer of the lesions exhibited the highest Ca:P ratio, which leveled off at a depth of approximately 150 microm. The rehardened surface layer (normally <0.1 mm in thickness) was significantly (P < 0.001) harder than sound dentin and nearly as hard as sound enamel. Although the main source of the mineral present in the rehardened layer was most likely of salivary origin, some extracellular remineralization was probably mediated by odontoblasts. The results complete the dinical diagnoses of the original trial and suggest that regular use of polyol chewing gums may induce changes in dentin caries lesions, which in histologic and physiochemical studies show typical characteristics of rehardening and mineralization.

  19. Technological advances in caries diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rochlen, Glenn K; Wolff, Mark S

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the nature of the caries lesion, disease activity, and the patient's caries risk are all used in determining the nature of dental care to be delivered. An examination should include a health and social history and clinical examination using appropriate technologies. This allows proper assessment and suggests a logical management intervention. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept based on an assessment of a patient's caries risk and the application of the current therapies to prevent, control, and treat the disease. The history of the dental examination and the variety of current technologies are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical sensor based system to monitor caries activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A.; Tahir, R.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ability of a visible light based spectroscopic sensor system to monitor caries activity in saliva. In this study an optical sensor is utilized to monitor the bacterial-mediated acidogenic profile of stimulated saliva using a photosensitive pH indicator. Microbiological assessment of the saliva samples were carried out using the conventional culture methods. In addition, the shifts in the pH of saliva-sucrose samples were recorded using a pH meter. The absorption spectra obtained from the optical sensor showed peak maxima at 595nm, which decreased as a function of time. The microbiological assessment showed increase in the bacterial count as a function of time. A strong positive correlation was also observed between the rates of decrease in the absorption intensity measured using the optical sensor and the decrease in pH measured using the pH meter. This study highlights the potential advantages of using the optical sensor as a sensitive and rapid chairside system for monitoring caries activity by quantification of the acidogenic profile of saliva.

  1. In-vivo quantification of natural incipient caries lesions using the quantitative light-induced fluoroscence method: a reproducibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranaeus, Sofia; Shi, Xie-Qi; Trollsas, Karin; Lindgren, Lars-Erik; Angmar-Mansson, Birgit

    2000-03-01

    A new method for detection and quantification of natural incipient caries lesions, the Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence method (QLF), has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical part of the method. In vivo captured images (CCD-video camera, Panasonic WV-KS 152, with an argon ion laser as light source) of 15 different incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces were analyzed by three analysts. The images were analyzed three times in a randomized order, twice for the first reconstructed area (P1A1 and P1A2), and then once for a second one (P2A1). Three parameters were measured, lesion area (mm2), average change in fluorescence (%), and maximum change in fluorescence (%) in the lesion. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to calculate the intra-, and inter-examiner reliability. Intra-examiner reliability for all three analysts showed an intra-class correlation coefficient, R, between 0.93 and 0.99 (for the analyses with the first patch, P1A1 and P1A2, as well as between the first and the second patch, P1A1 and P2A1). Inter-examiner reliability showed an inter-class correlation coefficient, R, between 0.95 and 0.99 (for analyses P1A1, P1A2 and P2A1). It was concluded that the Quantitative Light- induced fluorescence method showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility concerning the analytical part of the method.

  2. Caries arresting effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesion with S. mutans and L. acidophilus dual-species cariogenic biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Mei, May L.; Low, Kan H.; Che, Ching M.; Lo, Edward CM.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study investigated the effects of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on dentine carious lesion with cariogenic biofilm. Study Design: Thirty human dentine blocks were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus dual-species biofilm to create carious lesion. They were equally divided into test and control group to receive topical application of SDF and water. After incubation anaerobically using micro-well plate at 37oC for 7 days, the biofilms were evaluated for kinetics, morphology and viability by colony forming units (CFU), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CLSM), respectively. The carious lesion underwent crystal characteristics analysis, evaluation of the changes in chemical structure and density of collagen fibrils using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and immune-labeling. Results: The log CFU of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in the test group was significantly lower than control group. SEM and CLSM showed confluent biofilm in control group, but not in test group. XRD showed the loss of crystallinity of dentine due to the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystal structure in test group was less than control group. FTIR showed that log [Amide I: HPO42-] for test vs. control group was 0.31±0.10 vs. 0.57±0.13 (p<0.05). The gold-labeling density in test vs. control group was 8.54±2.44/µm2 vs. 12.91±4.24/µm2 (p=0.04). Conclusions: SDF had antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic biofilms and reduced demineralization of dentine. Key words:Caries, caries arrest, dentine, silver, silver diamine fluoride, fluoride, biofilm,cariogenic. PMID:23722131

  3. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP versus fluoride varnish in remineralisation of early caries lesions. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Llena, C; Leyda, A M; Forner, L

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of novel casein phosphopeptide (CPP) formulations CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate (CCP- ACP) and CPP-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) versus fluoride varnish on the remineralisation of enamel white spot lesions (WSLs) over a 12-week follow-up period. Double-blind prospective study. Eligibility criteria were patients between 6 and 14 years old and have WSLs on their permanent teeth. We evaluated 786 WSLs. Participants were divided randomly into three groups. Groups A and B were instructed to daily topical application of GC Tooth Mouse (CPP-ACP) or Mi Paste Plus (CPP-ACFP), Group C received a monthly professional application of Duraphat fluoride varnish. WSLs were categorised according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II; grades 0-3) and assessed by laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Changes in mineralisation before and after treatment were analysed using two-way analysis of variance, with post hoc Bonferroni's non-parametric tests for multiple comparisons. DIAGNOdent values were significantly reduced in Group B at 4 weeks, and in Groups A and C at 8 weeks. Mean values in Group B were lower than in Groups A and C at 4 weeks, and lower than Group C at 8 weeks. CPP-ACFP appeared to have a specific effect on smooth-surface caries, but no significant effect on caries in pits and fissures. At 4 weeks, CPP-ACFP is superior to fluoride varnish at remineralising smooth-surface WSLs. CPP-ACP is not superior to fluoride varnish by any of the measures studied.

  4. Association between the number of early carious lesions and diet in children with a high prevalence of caries.

    PubMed

    Llena, C; Leyda, A; Forner, L; Garcet, S

    2015-03-01

    An investigation was conducted in a population of paediatric patients with a high risk of caries in order to assess the association between caries history (CH) and the number of early carious lesions (ECLs) and the frequency and timing of cariogenic food and beverage intake, sugar-containing medication, the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing, and the use of topical fluorides. Study design: descriptive study. One hundred children aged 6-15 years with≥ ECL of a permanent tooth and not enrolled in any dental health educational or preventive programme were selected. For diagnosis it was used an explorer according to the ICDAS II criteria. The participants completed a closed-list questionnaire on the frequency and timing of cariogenic food intake. There was a nonsignificant tendency to present more ECLs and a greater CH among patients who consumed cariogenic foods and beverages. A significant relationship (p<0.05) was observed between cariogenic beverages and the number of ECL or CH. Using the number of ECLs as dependent variable, regular fluoridated rinses (p=0.003), frequent sugar-containing medication (p=0.007), and cariogenic beverage consumption (p=0.024) were identified as explanatory parameters in the linear regression model. The Student t-test was used to compare ECL and CH with dietetic factors, fluoridated rinses, sugar- containing medicines, and the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing. Linear regression analysis correlated the number of ECLs to the mentioned explanatory variables. The frequent consumption of sugary beverages and medications, and failure to regularly use fluoridated rinses, were positively correlated to an increased number of ECLs in patients with a high prevalence of caries.

  5. Plaque pH in caries-free and caries-active young individuals before and after frequent rinses with sucrose and urea solution.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Haidar; Lingström, Peter; Carlén, Anette

    2015-01-01

    To examine pH in the approximal dental biofilm after acid and alkali formation from sucrose and urea, after an adaptation period to these substances, in caries-free (CF) and caries-active (CA) individuals. Saliva flow and buffer capacity, and aciduric bacteria in saliva and plaque were also examined. Twenty adolescents and young adults (15-21 years) with no caries (n = 10, D(m + i)MFS = 0) or ≥1 new manifest lesions/year (n = 10, DmMFS = 3.4 ± 1.8) participated. After plaque sampling, interproximal plaque pH was measured using the strip method before (baseline) and up to 30 min (final pH) after random distribution of a 1-min rinse with 10 ml of 10% sucrose or 0.25% urea. This procedure was repeated after a 1-week adaptation period of rinsing 5 times/day with 10 ml of the selected solution. After a 2-week washout period the second solution was similarly tested. Mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and pH 5.2-tolerant bacteria were analyzed by culturing. In the CF group, acid adaptation resulted in lowering of baseline and final plaque pH values after a sugar challenge, and in increased numbers of bacteria growing at pH 5.2, which was increased also after alkali adaptation. In the CA group, the final pH was decreased after acid adaptation. No clear effects of alkali adaptation were seen in this group. One-week daily rinses with sucrose and urea had the most pronounced effect on the CF group, resulting in increased plaque acidogenicity from the sugar rinses and increased number of acid-tolerant plaque bacteria from both rinses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The association between loading of restorations and secondary caries lesions is moderated by the restoration material elasticity.

    PubMed

    Askar, Haitham; Brouwer, Fredrik; Lehmensiek, Michel; Paris, Sebastian; Schwendicke, Falk

    2017-03-01

    Secondary caries limits the longevity of restorations and is thought to be associated with faulty restorations, e.g. dentin-restoration interfacial gaps. Recent evidence indicates that loading of restorations might aggravate the effects of gaps on interfacial mineral loss. It is unclear if this effect of loading is dose-dependent or not, and if restoration material properties like elasticity moderate the association between load and mineral loss. We hypothesized that mineral loss of secondary lesions increases with increasing load, and that this association is moderated by the elastic modulus of the placed restoration material. Dentin-restoration specimens with simulated interfacial gaps were submitted to cariogenic Lactobacillus-rhamnosus-biofilms for 10days, and concurrently loaded with different loads (0/42/84/126g per specimen, n=12/group). Two different composites (LEC: low elastic-modulus composite, HEC: high elastic-modulus composite) were employed. Transversal microradiography was used to evaluate the superficial and interfacial (wall) lesion mineral loss. Generalized linear modeling (GLM) was used to evaluate the association between loading, material and their interaction on mineral loss. Surface mineral loss was not significantly associated with loading, material, or their interaction (p-values ranged between p=0.062 and 0.526). For deep interfacial (wall) lesions, the applied load (p=0.023) but not the material (p=0.382) showed a significant effect. The interaction between both significantly affected mineral loss (p=0.01). Loads of ≥84g per specimens were associated with higher wall lesion mineral loss. Loads above a certain threshold significantly increased interfacial (wall) lesion mineral loss. This association was moderated by the elasticity of the placed restoration materials. The clinical relevance of our findings remains unclear, as future studies are needed to understand how exactly both load and material elasticity affect secondary lesion

  7. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  8. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-µm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination.

    PubMed

    Chung, Leon C; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Simon, Jacob C; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L

    2015-02-24

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-µm with a pulse duration of 10-15-µs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  9. Quantitative assessment of IgA levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of caries-free and caries-active children.

    PubMed

    Shifa, S; Muthu, M S; Amarlal, D; Rathna Prabhu, V

    2008-12-01

    Saliva is commonly referred to as the blood stream of the oral cavity. It has many functions, one of the major functions being protection of teeth against dental caries. There are many components in saliva, each one having a specific role in the prevention of dental caries. The composition of saliva varies from individual to individual and in the same individual it varies between the glands. The composition of whole saliva, especially when unstimulated, has gained much interest, because it is this which constantly bathes the teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the IgA levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of caries-free and caries-active children aged 3-6 years and to correlate its role in protection of the tooth against dental caries.

  10. Treatment of deep caries lesions in adults: randomized clinical trials comparing stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, and direct pulp capping vs. partial pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars; Reit, Claes; Bruun, Gitte; Markvart, Merete; Kjaeldgaard, Marianne; Näsman, Peggy; Thordrup, Marianne; Dige, Irene; Nyvad, Bente; Fransson, Helena; Lager, Anders; Ericson, Dan; Petersson, Kerstin; Olsson, Jadranka; Santimano, Eva M; Wennström, Anette; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Less invasive excavation methods have been suggested for deep caries lesions. We tested the effects of stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, 1 yr after the procedure had been carried out, in 314 adults (from six centres) who had received treatment of a tooth with deep caries. The teeth had caries lesions involving 75% or more of the dentin and were centrally randomized to stepwise or direct complete excavation. Stepwise excavation resulted in fewer pulp exposures compared with direct complete excavation [difference: 11.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.2; 21.3)]. At 1 yr of follow-up, there was a statistically significantly higher success rate with stepwise excavation, with success being defined as an unexposed pulp with sustained pulp vitality without apical radiolucency [difference: 11.7%, 95% CI (0.5; 22.5)]. In a subsequent nested trial, 58 patients with exposed pulps were randomized to direct capping or partial pulpotomy. We found no significant difference in pulp vitality without apical radiolucency between the two capping procedures after more than 1 yr [31.8% and 34.5%; difference: 2.7%, 95% CI (-22.7; 26.6)]. In conclusion, stepwise excavation decreases the risk of pulp exposure compared with direct complete excavation. In view of the poor prognosis of vital pulp treatment, a stepwise excavation approach for managing deep caries lesions is recommended.

  11. Selective removal of natural caries lesions from dentin and tooth occlusal surfaces using a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jew, Jamison; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Selective removal of caries lesions with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates utilizing small spot sizes. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are poorly suited for this purpose, but new diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) Er:YAG lasers have become available operating at high pulse repetition rates. Microradiography was used to determine the mineral content of the demineralized dentin of 200-μm thick sections with natural caries lesions prior to laser ablation. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a DPSS Er:YAG laser for the selective removal of demineralized dentin and natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth.

  12. Enhancing the detection of hidden occlusal caries lesions with OCT using high index liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hobin; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the influence of several high refractive index fluids on the performance of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). That study showed that these liquids can increase the effective imaging depth and lesion contrast. Other in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that OCT can be used to show whether occlusal lesions have penetrated to the dentinal-enamel junction (DEJ) and spread laterally under the enamel. The purpose of this study was to determine if high index fluids can enhance the ability of OCT to detect hidden occlusal lesions and show if these lesions have penetrated through the enamel into the underlying dentin. Ten extracted teeth with occlusal lesions were imaged using OCT after the application of water, glycerol, BABB (33% Benzyl Alcohol + 67% Benzyl Benzoate) and a Cargille Liquid (Cedar Grove, NJ) (hydrogenated terphenyl 1- bromo-naphthalene) with a refractive index of 1.61. The intensity of the reflectance from the underlying lesion area for each sample was compared with the reflectance of the sound tooth surface for each fluid. The use of high index fluids significantly (P< 0.0001) increased the reflectivity of subsurface occlusal lesions under the surrounding sound enamel.

  13. Salivary peptidome profiling analysis for occurrence of new carious lesions in patients with severe early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang; Sun, Xiangyu; Liu, Xiaochen; Huang, Xin; Chen, Feng; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify differences of peptide profiles in stimulated whole saliva among children with and without occurrence of new carious lesions, and to provide a simple way for early diagnosis and prevention of the relapse of severe early childhood caries (s-ECC). Overall, 26 children aged 3-4 years were selected out from all the children in the kindergarten to be involved in the present study, among them 13 were diagnosed as s-ECC and underwent dental treatment, whilst the other 13 were matched by age and sex as control. Stimulated whole saliva samples were collected before treatment, and at 10 days and 4 months after treatment. During follow-up, 7 of the 13 children with s-ECC showed a relapse, and the new carious lesions were then treated. Salivary peptides were detected using the technique of magnetic beads combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifteen peptides showed significant differences in the group without occurrence of new carious lesions (CH group). On comparing the CH group and the other group with occurrence of new carious lesions (CR group), no significant differences were observed before treatment, whereas certain peptides showed significant differences at both 10 days and 4 months after treatment. Two peptides (experimental m/z values: 3162.0 Da and 3290.4 Da) exhibited a consistent tendency in cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons among these groups; these may be associated with recurrence of s-ECC. Based on our findings, it is concluded that different saliva peptide peaks can be detected in s-ECC using MALDI-TOF MS combined with magnetic beads. Moreover, 2 specific peptides with m/z values 3162.0 Da and 3290.4 Da could be promising salivary protein biomarkers for diagnosis of recurrence of s-ECC.

  14. Near-IR and CP-OCT imaging of suspected occlusal caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Kang, Hobin; Staninec, Michal; Jang, Andrew T; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Lee, Robert C; Fried, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Radiographic methods have poor sensitivity for occlusal lesions and by the time the lesions are radiolucent they have typically progressed deep into the dentin. New more sensitive imaging methods are needed to detect occlusal lesions. In this study, cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) and near-IR imaging were used to image questionable occlusal lesions (QOC's) that were not visible on radiographs but had been scheduled for restoration on 30 test subjects. Near-IR reflectance and transillumination probes incorporating a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources were used to acquire images of the lesions before restoration. The reflectance probe utilized cross-polarization and operated at wavelengths from 1,500 to 1,700 nm where there is an increase in water absorption for higher contrast. The transillumination probe was operated at 1,300 nm where the transparency of enamel is highest. Tomographic images (6 × 6 × 7 mm(3) ) of the lesions were acquired using a high-speed swept-source CP-OCT system operating at 1,300 nm before and after removal of the suspected lesion. Near-IR reflectance imaging at 1,500-1,700 nm yielded significantly higher contrast (P < 0.05) of the demineralization in the occlusal grooves compared with visible reflectance imaging. Stains in the occlusal grooves greatly reduced the lesion contrast in the visible range yielding negative values. Only half of the 26 lesions analyzed showed the characteristic surface demineralization and increased reflectivity below the dentinal-enamel junction (DEJ) in 3D OCT images indicative of penetration of the lesion into the dentin. This study demonstrates that near-IR imaging methods have great potential for improving the early diagnosis of occlusal lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:215-224, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Presence and distribution of dental enamel defects, recurrent aphthous lesions and dental caries in children with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Cantekin, Kenan; Arslan, Duran; Delikan, Ebru

    2015-01-01

    To determine presence and distribution of enamel defects, recurrent oral aphthous lesions (RAS) and dental caries in children with Celiac Disease (CD) and compare the results with a healthy control group. Twenty- five CD patients age between 4- 16 years with no other systemic disease, were examined in Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic of Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine (Kayseri, Turkey) and then referred to Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry for dental examination and treatment. The control group (25 patients) consisted healthy patients referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University for restorative treatment. Both the CD group and control group was examined by the same investigator for the following; (1) enamel defects, (2) recurrent aphthous stomatitis, (3) dental caries. The mean dmft values for the CD group and control group were 3.25±3.25 and 4.56±2.87 respectively. The difference was not statistically significant.(P>0.05). The mean DMFT values for the CD and the control group were 3.75±2.62 and 1.83±1.7, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). The prevalence of enamel defects and recurrent apthous stomatitis (RAS) was greater in celiac patients than in the control group. Enamel defects (in at least one permanent tooth) were observed in 12 out of 25 (48%) children in the CD group and four out of 25 children (16%).(P =0.01). Recurrent apthous stomatitis was found in 11/25 (44%) CD group, while no RAS was detected in the control group. Celiac Disease (CD) has adverse effects on oral health in term of enamel defect, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and caries score. Pediatricians and dentists especially pediatric dentists should be knowledgeable about oral symptoms of CD. Increased awareness can provide an early diagnosis and prevent long- term complications of this disease. On the other hand, further comprehensive investigations of CD patients can

  16. First Detection and Characterization of Streptococcus dentapri from Caries Active Subject.

    PubMed

    Salman, Hamzah Abdulrahman; Kumar, R Senthil; Babu, N Chaitanya; Imran, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are a group of oral bacteria generally regarded as the principal agents in the pathogenesis of dental caries. The study aimed was characterize S. dentapri based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic methods from Caries Active Subject. While sequencing MS species which were isolated from 65 caries active subjects, one strain of S. dentapri was detected. Dental plaque samples were processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. S. dentapri was characterized using phylogenetic analysis, colony morphology characterization and biotyping. Among the study population, one strain designated as H14 was identified as S. dentapri by 16S rDNA sequencing. Morphologically, S. dentapri could not differentiate from other species of MS. S. dentapri H14 demonstrated biotype II biochemical characteristics of MS. The phylogenetic analysis showed S. dentapri is closely related to S. macacae. The study concludes that S. dentapri can inhabit the human oral cavity and therefore further investigations are warranted to determine its role in caries.

  17. Determination of residual dentine caries after conventional mechanical and chemomechanical caries removal with Carisolv.

    PubMed

    Splieth, C; Rosin, M; Gellissen, B

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of removing dentine caries chemomechanically with Carisolv and with round burs. In 24 extracted permanent teeth each, caries removal with Carisolv or rotating round burs was monitored by checking the hardness of the dentine with a dental explorer and stopped at 12 teeth in each group when either (a) a leather-hard texture was reached or (b) a sharp scratching sound was heard. After embedding and sectioning (400 microm), caries activity of the remaining dentine was assessed using methyl red dye. In microscope images (7x) of the samples, the mean depth of the pink (caries-active, pH<5.5) and yellow (pH>5.5) staining of each carious lesion was calculated. Using a round bur, the depth of caries-active and -inactive lesions was significantly greater when a leather-hard texture (51-58 microm) was reached than when a sharp scratching sound was reached (19-25 microm, t-test, P<0.05). For teeth treated with Carisolv, only the depth of the caries-inactive dentine differed significantly. Regardless of the clinical criterion for caries removal, Carisolv treatment resulted in higher mean depths of caries-active dentine (71-78 microm) than conventional caries removal using the round bur (19-51 microm), while the mean depths of the caries-inactive dentine differed minimally. Thus, caries removal with Carisolv leaves up to a mean of 50 microm more carious dentine than round burs.

  18. Serotype diversity of Streptococcus mutans and caries activity in children in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carletto-Körber, F P; González-Ittig, R E; Jimenez, M G; Cornejo, L S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the serotype distribution of S. mutans and their association with caries activity in school children from Córdoba, Argentina. Clinical examination was performed in 133 children. The dmft+DMFT and Significant Caries (SiC) indices were calculated to identify individuals with high caries activity. After DNA extractions of S. mutans strains, serotypes were determined by PCR amplifications. The median caries activity of each serotype group was compared using a non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test. We obtained S. mutans strains from stimulated saliva of 94 children. The mean dmft+DMFT was 4.14 and the mean SiC index was 8.65. Serotype c was the most frequent (53.2%), followed by e (31.9%), f (8.5%) and k (6.4%). The comparison between the SiC and Non-Sic groups showed significant differences in the frequency of serotypes c and k. The median caries activity was non-significant in the different serotypes. The difference between the serotype frequencies detected in Argentina compared to those of other countries could be related with contrasting dietary habits. The results obtained in the present study would increase the knowledge about the epidemiology of dental caries in children from Argentina.

  19. A follow-up study on three caries activity tests.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sizhen; Deng, Qing; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Yakushiji, Masashi; Machida, Yukio; Liang, Qin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the efficacy of three CAT's (Dentocult SM, Dentocult LB and Dentobuff Strip) in revealing caries condition and predicting caries progress, and provide a reference for application by comparing the three tests. Oral condition and results of the three CAT's of 82 children aged 3 to 4 were recorded and followed up. The examination was checked again two years later. The caries incidence, dft and CSI data from the two examinations were analyzed statistically. The results were that each Dentocult SM degree showed significant variances in incidence rate, as did the dft and CSI results in the second examination. The dft and CSI of both examinations exhibited a high degree of statistical significance. The same may be said of the Dentocult LB findings for the two years. No noticeable variances in caries incidence rate, dft and CSI from the Dentobuff Strip test were observed in both years' study, nor was there any statistical significance drawn from the findings, except for those of the second exam. No gender differences were observed in the distribution by degree with the three CATs The conclusion is that Dentocult SM is the best of the three tests for the diagnosis of the presence of caries and prognosis of its progress, Dentocult LB is second best whereas the Dentobuff Strip shows no detection capability. The findings serve as an application reference.

  20. Influence of dental materials used for sealing caries lesions on laser fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Celiberti, Paula; Carvalho, Thiago S; Raggio, Daniela P; Mendes, Fausto M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of thickness and aging on the intrinsic fluorescence of sealing materials and their ability to block fluorescence from the underlying surface as assessed using a laser fluorescence device. Cavities of 0.5 mm and 1 mm depth were drilled into acrylic boards which were placed over two surfaces with different fluorescence properties: a low-fluorescence surface, to assess the intrinsic fluorescence of the sealing materials, and a high-fluorescence surface, to assess the fluorescence-blocking ability of the sealing materials. Ten cavities of each depth were filled with different sealing materials: Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Adper Single Bond 2, FluroShield, Conseal f and UltraSeal XT Plus. Fluorescence was measured with a DIAGNOdent pen at five different time points: empty cavity, after polymerization, and 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after filling. The individual values after polymerization, as well as the area under the curve for the different periods were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05). At 0.5 mm, Scotchbond, FluroShield and UltraSeal showed insignificant changes in intrinsic fluorescence with aging and lower fluorescence after polymerization than Single Bond and Conseal. At 1 mm, Scotchbond and FluroShield showed the lowest intrinsic fluorescence, but only Scotchbond showed no chagnes in fluorescence with aging. At both depths, Scotchbond blocked significantly less fluorescence. All sealing materials blocked more fluorescence when applied to a depth of 1 mm. At 0.5 mm, fissure sealants blocked more fluorescence than adhesives, and did not show significant changes with aging. Scotchbond had the least affect on the fluorescence from the underlying surface and would probably have the least affect on the monitoring of sealed dental caries by laser fluorescence.

  1. Effects of carbamide peroxide whitening agents on enamel surfaces and caries-like lesion formation: an SEM and polarized light microscopic in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Flaitz, C M; Hicks, M J

    1996-01-01

    Whitening enamel with carbamide peroxide (CP) to remove cosmetically displeasing stains has become common-place in dental practice. This in vitro study evaluated CP treatment effects on enamel surface morphology and caries-like lesion susceptibility. Tooth quarters were prepared from 10 caries-free human molars following a fluoride-free prophylaxis. The tooth quarters were assigned to the following treatment groups: 1) Distobuccal-10 percent NW gel (Nite White, Discus Dental); 2) Distolingual-10 percent PL paste (Platinum, Colgate); 3) Mesiobuccal-16 percent NW gel; and 4) Mesiolingual-Control. Following the manufacturers' recommended treatment, each quarter was sectioned with one portion prepared for SEM and the other portion for caries-like lesion formation. Intact enamel surfaces were present with all treatments. Enamel prism markings with exaggerated prism peripheries and mild to moderate prism core loss were seen with both 10 percent NW and 16 percent NW gels, but was more prominent with 16 percent NW gel. Amorphous surface layers with occasional exposure of indistinct prism markings occurred with 10 percent PL paste. Body of lesion mean depths were 135 microns control, 159 microns 16 percent NW, 144 microns 10 percent NW, and 122 microns 10 percent PL. Lesion depths were significantly different (p < 0.05 DMR paired design) between 10 percent PL and 16 percent NW, and between control and 16 percent NW. Whitening enamel surfaces in vitro with 10 percent carbamide peroxide paste containing dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (Colgate-Platinum) produced an amorphous surface layer and reduced caries susceptibility when compared with 16 percent carbamide peroxide gel (Nite White).

  2. Influence of the mineral content and morphological pattern of artificial root caries lesion on composite resin bond strength.

    PubMed

    Hara, Anderson T; Queiroz, Celso S; Giannini, Marcelo; Cury, Jaime A; Serra, Mônica C

    2004-02-01

    Dentine substrates with different mineral contents and morphological patterns were created by submitting root slabs to the following treatments: (A) immersion in artificial saliva during the experimental period (control), (B) demineralization for 32 h to induce caries lesion (demineralized group), and (C) demineralization for 32 h followed by remineralization for 8 d (remineralized group). The slabs were longitudinally sectioned, the mineral content was determined by cross-sectional microhardness, and the bond strength of an adhesive system/composite resin was assessed using a microtensile bond strength test. The dentine morphology after the treatments as well as the failure pattern of the debonded specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Statistically significant differences were found in mineral content. Morphological analysis showed marked differences between the patterns of demineralized and remineralized substrates. The bond strength mean value of the control A did not differ from the group B, but was statistically higher than the group C. Since no linear relationship was found between dentine mineral content and bond strength values, it could be suggested that the morphological pattern may be more relevant than the mineral content to explain the bond strength of composite resin to dentine.

  3. Remineralization of early enamel caries lesions using different bioactive elements containing toothpastes: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Li; Gong, Lin; Li, Jialing; He, Shaowei; Ji, Yan; Sun, Weibin

    2016-09-14

    Demineralization can be arrested or reversed when remineralization agents are applied to incipient carious or non-cavitated carious lesions. A large number of therapeutic agents including non-fluoridated products have been developed to promote enamel remineralization. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of different bioactive elements containing toothpastes in remineralization of artificial enamel lesions. Artificial carious lesions were created on 40 human enamel slabs, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (no treatment), (2) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate group (CPP-ACP, GC Tooth Mousse), (3) 8% arginine and calcium carbonate group (ACC, Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief), (4) calcium sodium phosphosilicate group (CSP, NovaMin®). All samples were subjected to 15 days of pH-cycling. Subsequently, a one-hour acid resistance test was carried out. Surface hardness of the samples was assessed using the Knoop hardness test, and surface morphology and roughness were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and paired t test. The three tested toothpastes exhibited a significantly higher remineralization efficacy compared with the control group (P< 0.05 for all). After pH-cycling, the specimens treated with Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief and NovaMin® showed a significant higher surface hardness (P< 0.001 and P= 0.03, respectively) and lower surface roughness (P< 0.05 for both) compared those treated with GC Tooth Mousse. While after the acid resistance test, all groups showed a significant loss of surface hardness (P< 0.001 for all) and significant increase of surface roughness (P< 0.05). The specimens treated with Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief and NovaMin® still showed a significant higher surface hardness and lower surface roughness in comparison with those treated with GC Tooth Mousse (P< 0.05 for all). No significant difference was

  4. Evaluation of laser fluorescence in monitoring non-cavitated caries lesion progression on smooth surfaces in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J A; Sarti, C S; Assunção, C M; Arthur, R A; Lussi, A; Diniz, M B

    2017-07-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LF) device (LFpen: DIAGNOdent pen) to detect and monitor the progression of caries-like lesions on smooth surfaces. Fifty-two bovine enamel blocks were submitted to three different demineralisation cycles for caries-like lesion induction using Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces naeslundii. At baseline and after each cycle, the enamel blocks were analysed under Knoop surface micro-hardness (SMH) and an LFpen. One enamel block after each cycle was randomly chosen for Raman spectroscopy analysis. Cross-sectional micro-hardness (CSMH) was performed at different depths (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μm) in 26 enamel blocks after the second cycle and 26 enamel blocks after the third cycle. Average values of SMH (± standard deviation (SD)) were 319.3 (± 21.5), 80.5 (± 31.9), 39.8 (± 12.7), and 29.77 (± 10.34) at baseline and after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Statistical significant difference was found among all periods (p < 0.01). The LFpen values were 4.3 (± 1.5), 7.5 (± 9.4), 7.1 (± 7.1) and 5.10 (± 3.58) at baseline and after the first, second, and third cycles, respectively, among all periods (p < 0.05). The CSMH values after the second and third cycles at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μm were 182.8 (± 69.8), 226.1 (± 79.6), 247.20 (± 69.36), 262.35 (± 66.36) and 268.45 (± 65.49), and for the third cycle were 193.7 (± 73.4), 239.5 (± 81.5), 262.64 (± 82.46), 287.10 (± 78.44) and 284.79 (± 72.63) (n = 24 and 23), respectively. No correlation was observed between the LFpen and SMH values (p > 0.05). One sample of each cycle was characterised through Raman spectroscopy analysis. It can be concluded that LF was effective in detecting the first demineralisation on enamel; however, the method did not show any effect in monitoring lesion progression after three cycles of in vitro demineralisation.

  5. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Charone, Senda; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Martins, Karol de Oliveira; Soares, Rosangela Maria; Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

  6. Suitability of ART approach for managing caries lesions in people with disability-Experts' opinion.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gustavo F; Faulks, Denise; Frencken, Jo E

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to obtain the opinions of experts in Special Care Dentistry (SCD) regarding the suitability of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach for the treatment of carious lesions in persons with disability. Thirty expert participants from around the world, joining the SCD Task Force meeting, Education Committee of the International Association of Disability and Oral Health (Antalya, Turkey, 2011), completed a questionnaire survey. Frequency distributions of variables were analysed using Chi-Square test for differences between variables. All respondents reported having full or moderate knowledge of ART (23.3% and 63.3%, respectively) and 66.7% indicated that they felt the technique was useful for this population. However, only 50% of respondents used the technique regularly in their practice and five (16.7%) replied that they would never use it, even if a favourable evidence base for ART use in this population became available. The barriers to the introduction of ART to SCD are discussed and the need for training and further research highlighted. Barriers to the implementation of ART in practice were placement of the restoration under difficult conditions and the dentist's pre-conception of the technique as being 'lower quality dentistry'. Experts suggested that some of these barriers might be overcome by improving the evidence base in favour of the technique, specifically in the population with disability.

  7. Clinical Assessment of a New Caries Activity Test Using Dental Plaque Acidogenicity in Children under Three Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Seol; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; Lee, Jae-Ho; Choi, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Baek-Il

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a new caries activity test that uses dental plaque acidogenicity in children with deciduous dentition. Ninety-two children under the age of three years old underwent clinical examination using the dft index and examinations with two caries activity tests. Plaque samples for the new Cariview(®) test and the saliva sample for the conventional Dentocult SM(®) test were collected, incubated, and scored according to each manufacturers' instruction. The data were analysed using ANOVA and Spearman correlation analyses to evaluate the relationships between the test results and the caries experience. The mean dft index of all of the subjects was 4.73, and 17.4% of the subjects were caries-free. The levels of caries risk based on the new Cariview test score significantly increased with the caries experience (p < 0.01). The test results revealed a stronger correlation with caries indices (dft and dt index) than the conventional SM colony counting method (r = 0.43, r = 0.39, p < 0.01). The new caries activity test to analyse the acidogenic potential of whole microorganisms from dental plaques can be used to evaluate caries risk in children with deciduous teeth.

  8. Practitioner, patient, and caries lesion characteristics associated with type of material used to restore carious teeth: findings from The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gordan, Valeria V.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Litaker, Mark S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Background The authors conducted a study to identify factors associated with material use by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) when placing the first restoration on permanent tooth surfaces. Methods A total of 182 DPBRN practitioner-investigators provided data on 5,599 posterior teeth with caries. Practitioner-investigators completed an enrollment questionnaire that included the dentist’s age, gender, practice workload, practice type, and years since graduation. When a consented patient presented with a previously un-restored carious surface, practitioner-investigators recorded patient and tooth characteristics. Results Amalgam was used more often than direct resin-based composite (RBC) for posterior carious lesions. Practitioner/practice characteristics (years since graduation and type of practice); patient characteristics (gender, race, age, and dental insurance); and lesion characteristics (tooth location and surface, pre-and post-operative depth) were associated with the type of restorative material used. Conclusions There are several practitioner/practice, patient, and lesion characteristics significantly associated with use of amalgam and RBC: region, years since graduation, dental insurance, tooth location and surface, and pre-and post-operative depth. Clinical implications Amalgam remains a material commonly used by United States dentists to restore posterior caries lesions. PMID:21628683

  9. Resin infiltrant for non-cavitated caries lesions: evaluation of color stability

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Rattalino, Davide; Viola, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Colombo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the over time color stability of one resin infiltrant (Icon) upon exposure to staining solutions (coffee and wine) compared with one nano-hybrid sealant (Grandio Seal), one transparent fissure sealant with fluoride (Control Seal) and one nanofilled composite (Filtek Supreme XTE). Material and Methods All materials were polymerized according to manufacturers’ instructions into silicon rings (height 1 mm; internal diameter 6 mm; external diameter 8 mm) to obtain specimens identical in size. The specimens were immersed in staining solutions at room temperature over a 28-day test period. The control samples have not been subjected to the staining process. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. Shapiro Wilk test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among different materials. Means were compared with Scheffe’s multiple-comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results In the case of all materials, immersion in solutions resulted in clinically perceivable color changes after 1 week (∆E < 3.3). Lowest CIE L* variation was registered for Control Seal and Grandio Seal both after 1 week and after 1 month, while Icon showed significantly higher variation (P < 0.05). Color coordinate CIE a* varied significantly more for Icon samples (P > 0.05). Color coordinate CIE b* varied similarly for all materials tested (P > 0.05). Conclusions Immersion in coffee or red wine resulted in clinically perceivable color changes for all materials tested. Icon showed the highest color variations both after 1 week and 1 month. Icon can fix the initial esthetic problem associated with white spot lesions, but the resin may become more discolored than other materials over time. Key words:CIE Lab, color stability, resin infiltrant. PMID:28210441

  10. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    CHARONE, Senda; PORTELA, Maristela Barbosa; MARTINS, Karol de Oliveira; SOARES, Rosangela Maria; CASTRO, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro. PMID:28198976

  11. Deep carious lesions and other consequences of caries among 18-year-olds at Public Dental Health Service in Northern Norway: A cross-sectional age cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stangvaltaite, Lina; Kundzina, Rita; Bolstad, Napat Limchaichana; Eriksen, Harald M; Kerosuo, Eero

    2015-08-01

    To document deep carious lesions and other consequences of caries (DCL-CC) in molars of 18-year olds leaving the free-of-charge Public Dental Health Service (PDHS). To explore the association between background factors and DCL-CC. The final study sample (n=1876) comprised 95% of individuals born in 1993 and registered in the PDHS in Troms County, Northern Norway. The most recent digital bitewing radiographs of each subject were examined for DCL-CC (deep untreated carious lesions, deep restorations, root canal obturations or extractions due to caries). Inter- and intra-observer kappa scores were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively. Information on background factors (gender, clinic location, history of medical problems, bitewing examination interval, DMFT score and planned recalls) were retrieved from dental records. About one-quarter of subjects (488) had at least one molar with DCL-CC. There were 848 molars in total with DCL-CC; the majority were deep restorations (70%), but 4% were deep untreated carious lesions. More than a quarter of DCL-CC were either root canal obturations (14%) or extractions (12%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that a 1-unit increase in DMFT score was associated with deep untreated carious lesions and extractions due to caries. There was no association between urban/rural clinic location, which indicated socio-economic status, and either DMFT score or DCL-CC. Despite the existence of a free-of-charge dental service, more than one-quarter of the subjects in the present study had at least one molar with DCL-CC.

  12. Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, Buffering Capacity, Calcium, Total Proteins and Total Antioxidant Capacity Levels of Saliva in Caries Free and Caries Active Children: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Preethi, B P; Reshma, Dodawad; Anand, Pyati

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups; group I and group II comprising of age groups 7-10 and 11-14 years, respectively. Both the groups were then sub-divided equally according to gender. They were further divided into caries free and caries active with 15 children in each group. Unstimulated saliva was collected by suction method and flow rates were determined. The samples were then analyzed for pH, buffering capacity, total protein, calcium and total antioxidant capacity. The data was statistically analyzed using student t test (unpaired). The results revealed that when all these parameters were compared among the caries free and caries active children, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity were slightly reduced in caries active children, but total protein and total antioxidant capacity of saliva increased significantly in caries active children and the total calcium decreased significantly in caries active children. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that, the physicochemical properties of saliva play a major role in the development of caries.

  13. Formation of caries-like lesions in vitro on the root surfaces of human teeth in solutions simulating plaque fluid.

    PubMed

    Shellis, R P

    2010-01-01

    Lesion formation on root surfaces of human posterior teeth was studied in acetate/lactate buffers with a background electrolyte composition based on plaque fluid analyses. Lesion depth after 28 days at 37 degrees C was measured in relation to: the presence or absence of cementum; the concentration of undissociated buffer; the presence or absence of magnesium ions at plaque fluid concentration. Each factor was evaluated at several values of -log(ion activity product for hydroxyapatite): pI(HA). Solutions were formulated to minimize variation in pH, which varied by < or =0.03 for a given comparison (individual pI(HA)) and by 0.42-0.82 over the range of pI(HA) within experiments. Lesions on surfaces from which cementum had been ground were significantly deeper than on intact surfaces, but this is considered to be due to subsurface mechanical damage and not to a solubility difference. Neither the concentration of undissociated buffer nor the presence of magnesium ions significantly affected lesion depth. Lesion depth was strongly influenced by the correlated variations in pI(HA) and pH. At pI(HA) 54 and 55, only extremely shallow lesions formed. From pI(HA) 56, lesion depth increased with increasing pI(HA). The results confirm that the solubility of the mineral of root tissues is higher than that of hydroxyapatite, but indicate that it is probably lower than suggested by Hoppenbrouwers et al. [Arch Oral Biol 1987;32:319-322]. For calcium concentrations of 3-12 mM, the critical pH for root tissue mineral was calculated as 5.22-5.66 assuming solubility equivalent to pI(HA) 54 and 5.08-5.51 assuming pI(HA) 55.

  14. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    PubMed

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p < 0.05). The salivary pH was 4.6 (6.06 for ISLE and 3.9 for ASLE). The DNA copies of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were high; all variables mentioned above show a significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) between groups. SLE patients had high DMFT and IDCI scores that were associated with a decrease in salivary flow, pH, and buffer capacity. There were high counts of S. sobrinus and S. mutans species, and IDCI is a useful tool to provide more detail about dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Salivary Iron (Fe) Ion Levels, Serum Markers of Anemia and Caries Activity in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elisa Miranda; Azevedo, Juliana Aires Paiva de; Martins, Rafiza Félix Marão; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pereira; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Anemia is a very frequent event among pregnant women. There are evidences of differences in the incidence of dental caries between pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the relationship between salivary iron (Fe) and serum markers of anemia and caries development has not been investigated. Objective To evaluate the correlation between salivary (Fe) and serum iron (Fe, ferritin and hemoglobin) parameters in pregnant women with the development of dental caries. Methods A prospective cohort was conducted with 59 women. The outcome of interest was represented by new dental caries lesions during pregnancy, using the Nyvad criteria. Pregnant women were evaluated at three clinical times: up to the 16th week of gestational age (GA) (T1), in the last trimester of pregnancy (T2), and postpartum (T3), at the Mother and Child Unit of University Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Maranhão. A stimulated saliva sample was collected for biochemical analysis of salivary Fe, and a blood sample was collected early in the morning. The correlation between salivary and serum Fe was evaluated through the Pearson correlation test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the means of anemia parameters at different times. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the anemia parameters between the groups of pregnant women (with and without new caries lesions). Results Serum Fe concentrations were higher in the first trimester of pregnancy and lower after delivery (p = 0.036). It was also observed that the ferritin concentrations were higher in the first trimester and lower at the end of gestation (p = 0.011). There was no association between the expositions of salivary iron and anemia, and the development of dental caries. There was a positive correlation between serum Fe in T1 and salivary Fe in T2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion The serum markers of anemia were more prevalent in the last trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  17. Streptococcus mutans strains recovered from caries-active or caries-free individuals differ in sensitivity to host anti-microbial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Phattarataratip, Ekarat; Olson, Bonny; Broffitt, Barbara; Qian, Fang; Brogden, Kim A.; Drake, David R.; Levy, Steven M.; Banas, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are among the repertoire of host innate immune defenses. In the oral cavity, several AMPs are present in saliva and have antimicrobial activities against oral bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiologic agent of dental caries. In this study, we hypothesized that unique S. mutans strains as determined by DNA fingerprinting from sixty 13 year-old subjects with or without caries experience would have different susceptibilities to α-defensins-1-3 (HNP-1-3), β-defensins-2-3 (HBD-2-3) and LL-37. The salivary levels of these peptides in subjects also were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We found that S. mutans strains from caries-active subjects showed greater resistance to salivary HNP-1-2, HBD-2-3 and LL-37 at varying concentrations than those from caries-free subjects. In addition, combinations of these peptides increased their antimicrobial activity against S. mutans either additively or synergistically. The salivary levels of these peptides were highly variable among subjects with no correlation to host caries experience. However, the levels of a number of these peptides in saliva appeared to be positively correlated within an individual. Our findings suggest that the relative ability of S. mutans to resist host salivary AMPs may be considered a potential virulence factor for this species such that S. mutans strains that are more resistant to these peptides may have an ecological advantage to preferentially colonize within dental plaque and increase the risk of dental caries. PMID:21545696

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Two Chemomechanical Caries Removal Gels on Carious Dentin of Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Shabnam; Arora, Ruchi; Shah, Altaf H; Bhardwaj, Bhupendra; Abusalim, Ghadah; Khalil, Hesham S; Wyne, Amjad H

    2016-12-01

    Chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) is an effective method of caries removal especially for primary teeth as they cause less discomfort when compared with conventional caries removal. The most significant thing about caries removal is the elimination of cariogenic bacteria. This study compares the antibacterial activity of two CMCR gels. A total of 40 primary molar teeth with carious dentin were split along the long axis in a laboratory. Total viable count (TVC) was taken for the teeth before splitting as a measure of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL). Each half was treated with either Carisolv or Carie-Care CMCR gels. Clean dentin samples were evaluated for Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LB) after removal of carious tissue using the caries removal gels using serial dilutions and incubating on specific agar plates. The results showed significant reduction in mean TVC after use of both the CMCR gels. Both gels reduced the CFU/mL of SM and LB to a significant level (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the antibacterial activities of the two CMCR gels. The CMCR gels (Carisolv and Carie-Care) significantly reduced the residual TVC as well as SM and LB in carious primary dentin. Both CMCR gels had a similar antibacterial activity on the carious dentin of primary teeth. The CMCR gels tested have a significant antibacterial activity and can be effectively used for elimination of caries-causing bacteria in primary teeth.

  19. Natural prevalence of antibody titers to glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans in serum in high and low caries active children.

    PubMed

    Kirtaniya, B C; Chawla, H S; Tiwari, A; Ganguly, N K; Sachdev, V

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers, as well as total immunoglobulin concentration (IgG + IgA + IgM), were found to be raised with the increase in the number of dental caries. Only the total serum antibody titer in high dental caries (HDC) group was found to be significantly raised as compared to no dental carries (NDC) group. Although the IgG and IgA titers were raised in blood with the increased number of caries, the results were not statistically significant. However, we could not find any correlation between serum antibodies and dental caries except that there was an increased trend of serum antibodies to GTF with the increased number of carious lesions.

  20. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P < 0.001). The optimal cut-off values for detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth were >16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P < 0.001). The LFpen's diagnostic performance was accurate and significantly better than digital bitewing radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  1. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests Using Information Theory for Multi-Class Diagnostic Problems and its Application for the Detection of Occlusal Caries Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Umut; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Özkan, Gökhan; Kanlı, Aydan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. Aims: To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC) and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU), can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and pre-molar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11), enamel caries (n=22) and dentin caries (n=27). Diagnostic performance of i) visual inspection, ii) radiography, iii) laser fluorescence (LF) and iv) micro-computed tomography (M-CT) caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Results: Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; p<0.05), (PRDU: 70.5%) and second evaluation (IC: 1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU: 73.8%) for the first examiner. M-CT examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the second examiner in both the first (IC:1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU:73.8%) and second evaluation (IC:1.061; p<0.05), (PRDU:70.8%). IC and PRDU were

  2. First Detection and Characterization of Streptococcus dentapri from Caries Active Subject

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Hamzah Abdulrahman; Kumar, R. Senthil; Babu, N. Chaitanya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mutans streptococci (MS) are a group of oral bacteria generally regarded as the principal agents in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Aim The study aimed was characterize S. dentapri based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic methods from Caries Active Subject. Materials and Methods While sequencing MS species which were isolated from 65 caries active subjects, one strain of S. dentapri was detected. Dental plaque samples were processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. S. dentapri was characterized using phylogenetic analysis, colony morphology characterization and biotyping. Results Among the study population, one strain designated as H14 was identified as S. dentapri by 16S rDNA sequencing. Morphologically, S. dentapri could not differentiate from other species of MS. S. dentapri H14 demonstrated biotype II biochemical characteristics of MS. The phylogenetic analysis showed S. dentapri is closely related to S. macacae. Conclusion The study concludes that S. dentapri can inhabit the human oral cavity and therefore further investigations are warranted to determine its role in caries.

  3. SEM Analysis of Residual Dentin Surface in Primary Teeth Using Different Chemomechanical Caries Removal Agents.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rachna; Patil, Sandya Devi S; Kush, Anil; Madhu, K

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the residual dentinal surfaces following caries removal using two chemomechanical methods (Papacarie Duo and Carie Care), by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty extracted primary molars with active occlusal carious lesions were randomly assigned two groups depending on the CMCR agent used for the caries excavation - Group 1 - with Papacarie Duo and Group - 2 with Carie Care. After the caries excavation, the specimens were subjected to SEM analysis. Though both the agents showed the minimal smear layer with the patent dentinal tubules, Carie care showed patent dentinal tubules with a clearly exposed peritubular and intertubular collagen network. Carie Care treated surface exhibited better surface morphology of residual dentin.

  4. Microindentation hardness and calcium/phosphorus ratio of dentin following excavation of dental caries lesions with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Katirci, Gunseli; Ermis, R Banu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microindentation hardness and chemical composition of residual dentin left at the cavity bottom following removal of carious dentin using the Carisolv chemomechanical and Er:YAG laser caries excavation methods in comparison with the conventional tungsten-carbide bur excavation. Sixty-nine extracted permanent teeth with occlusal dentin caries were assigned into three groups according to caries removal technique. Carious dentin excavation was guided by tactile method and a caries-staining dye. In stereomicroscope images (100×) of the samples, the presence or absence of residual caries was defined. The Knoop hardness value of the cavity floor was determined and atomic analysis of treated cavities was performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Knoop hardness value of residual dentin left at the cavity bottom was lower (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett-C, p < 0.05) and the percentage of samples with remaining carious dentin was higher after Carisolv excavation than those obtained after conventional and laser excavations (Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the quantities of calcium content (Ca wt%), phosphorus content (P wt%) and calcium/phosphorus ratio of the cavities treated by three techniques (Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, p > 0.05). The results indicated that Er:YAG laser was more comparable to conventional bur excavation than chemomechanical method in the efficacy of caries removal with regard to microindentation hardness of remaining dentin and both Carisolv gel and Er:YAG laser did not alter chemical composition of residual dentin in the treated cavities.

  5. Depth and activity of carious lesions as indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp after intervention.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars; Demant, Sune; Dabelsteen, Sally

    2014-04-01

    Studies on dental regeneration involving interventions for pulp therapy such as regeneration and revascularization procedures are promising for the injured tooth; however, a complete replication of the original pulp tissue does not seem to take place. In cases in which we wish to preserve or maintain parts of the pulp during treatment, it is apparent that the effectiveness of healing or biological regeneration is dependent on the degree of inflammation of the pulp tissue. Thus, the control or prevention of a pulp infection is still a major issue for the clinicians. Data indicate that the typical reason for performing endodontic treatment is deep caries. The biological concept of vital pulp therapy associated with deep caries takes the treatment and evaluation of the unexposed as well as the exposed pulp into account. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis is typically the same. Deep caries with reversible pulpitis may receive differing treatments such as excavation procedures aiming to avoid pulp exposure or more pulp invasive treatments such as pulp capping or pulpotomy. This should not be the case. Consequently, huge treatment variation is noted among clinicians based on the same caries diagnosis. Which treatment should be selected? High-quality trials are needed, and it is important to obtain information on the actual lesion depth and an estimate of the lesion activity before treatment. These may be basic indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp. Recent clinical trials dealing with the treatment of deep caries lesion are discussed, including pulp invasive and noninvasive concepts, to attempt to solve the task of getting the best clinical outcome for adult patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural prevalence of antibody titres to GTF of S. mutans in saliva in high and low caries active children.

    PubMed

    Kirtaniya, B C; Chawla, H S; Tiwari, A; Ganguly, N K; Sachdev, V

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find out the role of natural immunity against dental caries. Whole stimulated saliva of various caries from active children was collected. Antigen glucosyltransferase (GTF) was prepared from Streptococcus mutans serotype C and the antibody titre was estimated using ELISA. Salivary IgG, s-IgA and total immunoglobulins (IgG + s-IgA+ IgM) concentration were assayed. The result showed an increased level of salivary IgG concentration with the increased number of dental caries, which was not statistically significant. But there were significant decrease of s-IgA titre as well as total immunoglobulin concentration in saliva with the increased number of dental caries. This study showed that because of lack of local immunity the children are more prone to dental caries.

  7. Caries experience and quantification of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in saliva of Sudanese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nurelhuda, Nazik M; Al-Haroni, M; Trovik, T A; Bakken, V

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are among the most commonly isolated bacterial species implicated as etiological agents of dental caries. Details of the composition of the oral microflora related to dental caries should aid in assessing the prevalence and risk of disease at an individual level. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence and relative amounts of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the saliva samples obtained from schoolchildren in Khartoum State, the Sudan, and to study the association of the amounts of S. mutans and S. sobrinus with caries experience, socioeconomic status and sugar-sweetened snacks in this population. 140 samples, 30 of which were from individuals with caries experience, were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with specific oligonucleotide primers. The mean ratio of fold differences of S. mutans to S. sobrinus was 0.77 (SD 5.4) and 2.29 (SD 6.0) for samples obtained from caries-free and caries-active individuals, respectively. This suggested that the proportion of S. sobrinus was higher than S.mutans in the caries-active group when compared to the caries-free group. An association was found between children with caries-active lesions and the frequent consumption of sticky desserts and higher socioeconomic status. S. sobrinus seems to be associated with caries experience in the studied population. A proposal of caries screening programs designed to test for S. sobrinus in this population may be developed.

  8. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and glass ionomer show distinct effects in the remineralization of proximal artificial caries lesion in situ.

    PubMed

    Thepyou, Rathapong; Chanmitkul, Wanvipa; Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Hamba, Hidenori; Chob-Isara, Wanwalai; Trairatvorakul, Chutima; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the ability of casein-phosphopeptide amorphous-calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP) and glass-ionomer (GI) in remineralizing proximal artificial caries lesions (ACLs). Molar enamel-slabs were divided into: original-lesion control, intra-oral controls, and experimental (CPP-ACP or GI) groups. Specimens received ACLs and were bonded on subject maxillary first molars. After 4-weeks, mineral density (MD) was analyzed by μCT. Compared to control, CPP-ACP increased MD at 0-38/68-84 microns and the GI group had an increase at 0-68 microns, with a greater increase in MD compared to the CPP-ACP group from 0-53 microns. The mean percent remineralization (%R) showed differences between the GI, CPP-ACP groups and their paired controls. GI tended to increase remineralization more than CPP-ACP. In conclusion, CPP-ACP and GI demonstrated distinct remineralizing ability. GI induced greater remineralization in the superficial lesion, while CPP-ACP remineralized the lesion body. Their effects on percent remineralization and reducing lesion depth of proximal ACLs were similar.

  9. [Early childhood caries--facts and prevention].

    PubMed

    Menghini, Giorgio; Steiner, Marcel; Imfeld, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    In 2003, 771 randomly selected two-year-old children from the town of Zurich were examined. Teeth with carious cavities were observed in 12.6% of the children. Caries including initial (not yet cavitated) lesions was seen in 25.3% of children. Caries prevalence was strongly associated with immigrant background. Caries was found in 7.5% of Swiss children and in 38.5% of children from ex-Jugoslavia. 5% of children of mothers born in Switzerland, and 17.4% of children of mothers not born in Switzerland showed caries. The average number of teeth with carious lesions in children with caries was 4.3 irrespective of immigrant or Swiss background. This finding suggests that all kids with caries had similar risk behaviours. Multivariate logistic regressions elucidated the behavioural components associated with caries. The presence of plaque and the use of a night-time bottle proved to be the strongest predictor variables for caries. Frequent drinking of sugared non-milk drinks, age and no pacifier use were further risk indicators in children of foreign-born mothers. A significant improvement of oral health of small children can be achieved by a concerted action of child welfare consultants, paediatricians and carers of day-nurseries. The primary goal is to convince parents to actively participate in preserving dental health of their offsprings. The following recommendations should be adhered to: 1. Parents should brush the teeth of the children daily, using a fluoridated children-toothpaste starting the very day of the appearance of the first milk tooth. 2. At the age of 12 months, the bottle should be replaced by a cup and the continuous use of a nursing bottle while falling asleep and during the night should absolutely be avoided. 3. Children should primarily be offered water and milk as a beverage. A first dental inspection is due at the age of two years.

  10. Relationship between Pyruvate Kinase Activity and Cariogenic Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus mutans Biotypes in Caries Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzyściak, Wirginia; Papież, Monika; Jurczak, Anna; Kościelniak, Dorota; Vyhouskaya, Palina; Zagórska-Świeży, Katarzyna; Skalniak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (MS) and its biotype I are the strains most frequently found in dental plaque of young children. Our results indicate that in children pyruvate kinase (PK) activity increases significantly in dental plaque, and this corresponds with caries progression. The MS strains isolated in this study or their main glycolytic metabolism connected with PK enzymes might be useful risk factors for studying the pathogenesis and target points of novel therapies for dental caries. The relationship between PK activity, cariogenic biofilm formation and selected biotypes occurrence was studied. S. mutans dental plaque samples were collected from supragingival plaque of individual deciduous molars in 143 subjects. PK activity was measured at different time points during biofilm formation. Patients were divided into two groups: initial stage decay, and extensive decay. Non-parametric analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were used to determine the connections between S. mutans levels, PK activity and dental caries biotypes. A total of 143 strains were derived from subjects with caries. Biotyping data showed that 62, 23, 50, and 8 strains were classified as biotypes I, II, III, IV, respectively. PK activity in biotypes I, II, and IV was significantly higher in comparison to that in biotype III. The correlation between the level of S. mutans in dental plaque and PK activity was both statistically significant (p < 0.05) and positive. The greater the level of S. mutans in the biofilm (colony count and total biomass), the higher the PK activity; similarly, a low bacterial count correlated with low PK activity. PMID:28559883

  11. Cariology for the 21st Century: current caries management concepts for dental practice.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Margherita; Cabezas, Carlos Gonzalez; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide an overview of currently accepted, evidence-based and/or expert opinion recommendations for the prevention and management of dental caries in dental practice. Discussions are centered on current concepts for caries lesion detection (e.g., cavitated and non-cavitated lesions) and diagnosis (e.g., active vs. arrested lesions), including thresholds for non-surgical (e.g., fluorides, sealant) and surgical (i.e., restorative) interventions, risk assessment, and a review of caries management interventions for caries disease management. The goal is to prevent and manage the caries disease process using patient-centered, risk-based interventions supported by the best available evidence, taking into account the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences, in order to maintain or re-establish health and preserve tooth structure.

  12. The implications of the new paradigm of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina

    2011-12-01

    The caries process is the ubiquitous, natural metabolism in the biofilm that causes numerous fluctuations in pH. The interaction of this biofilm with the dental tissues may result in a caries lesion. However, lesion formation and progression can be controlled, particularly by disturbing plaque regularly with a fluoride containing toothpaste. This paradigm implies that everyone with teeth is at risk to lesion development. Treatment of caries is principally non-operative, involving plaque control, fluoride and a sensible diet. Operative dentistry repairs un-cleansable cavities and is part of plaque control. A diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. The relevant diagnostic features with respect to caries are lesion activity (active lesions require active management) and un-cleansable cavities. When teaching undergraduates, it is important that they are credited for the non-operative treatment of caries as well as for operative dentistry. This is equally important in dental practice where an appropriate skills mix of the dental team is required to deliver dental health cost-effectively. Training more dentists may be an expensive mistake as far as disease control is concerned. It is ironic that dentists make most money from operative care and specialist treatment when disease control could be delivered relatively cheaply. The key to dental health is regular and effective plaque control with a fluoride containing toothpaste, from cradle to grave. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The inhibitory effect of MI paste, fluoride and a combination of both on the progression of artificial caries-like lesions in enamel.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Maria Teresa; Wefel, James S; Hernandez, Maria Marcela; Denehy, Gerald E; Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra; Chalmers, Jane M; Qian, Fang

    2008-01-01

    This in-vitro study evaluated the inhibition of demineralization in enamel sections produced by MI paste, fluoride and a combination of both, compared to artificial saliva and NaF 5000 ppm in a caries progression pH-cycling model. Twenty-one teeth were demineralized to create subsurface enamel lesions (approximately 200 microns in depth). The teeth were sectioned and characterized using polarized-light-microscopy (PLM). A single section from each lesion was assigned to a treatment group: Artificial saliva, NaF 5000 ppm (Prevident, Colgate), MI paste (Recaldent, GC America Inc), NaF 1100 ppm (Crest, Procter & Gamble) and NaF 1100 ppm plus MI paste. The sections were covered with varnish except for an exposed window on the external surface of the lesion and placed in a six-day pH-cycling model with two daily treatment applications of two minutes each. The sections were characterized by PLM, and the lesion areas were measured using a digital image analysis system. Based on a paired-sample t-test, significant differences (p < .05) in percentage of change in lesion size were found between the high fluoride group and all the other groups. No significant difference was found between the artificial saliva and MI paste group, neither was there any significant difference between the NaF 1100 ppm, the combined application group or the MI paste group alone. In conclusion, the higher concentration of NaF (5000 ppm) reduced lesion progression to the greatest extent. The MI paste group did not show any effect on the inhibition of lesion progression. Further studies on the preventive effect and longer treatment applications are recommended.

  14. Formulation of microemulsion propolis fluoride (PF) as varnish topical agent to stop activity of teeth caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Prakoso, Chandra Dwi; Darwita, Risqa Rina; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-02-01

    Topical fluoride is proven to have higher efficacy in preventing dental caries with low production cost and easy to apply. The objective of this research is to formulate alternative agent topical fluoride NH4F 5% mixed with extract ethanol propolis (EEP) in the micro-emulsion system that has high stability, antimicrobial activity, and remineralization capability to arrest teeth caries activity. By using total plate count (TPC) analysis, formulation 2.7% EEP; 6,3% surfactant; and 90,9% NH4F shows good perform to inhibit cariogenic bacteria development around 78-80%. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) result also showed that sample successfully remineralized enamel surface. In addition, sample showed good pH, flavonoid, and polyphenol stability for 40 days.

  15. EDX-Element Analysis of the In Vitro Effect of Fluoride Oral Hygiene Tablets on Artificial Caries Lesion Formation and Remineralization in Human Enamel.

    PubMed

    Eggerath, J; Kremniczky, T; Gaengler, P; Arnold, W H

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this in-vitro-study was to assess the remineralization potential of a tooth cleaning tablet with different fluoride content quantitatively using EDX analysis.Twenty three caries free impacted third molars were examined; enamel surfaces were wax coated leaving two 3x4mm windows for exposure to demineralization/remineralization cycles. The teeth were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 control and 6 experimental teeth each. Demineralization by standardized HEC-gel, pH 4.7 at 37°C for 72h, was alternated by rinsing in remineralization solution, pH 7.0 at 37°C for 72h, total challenge time 432h. The negative control group N was treated during remineralization cycles with saline; positive control group P was treated with remineralization solution; experimental group D1 was exposed to remineralization solution containing Denttabs(®)-tablets with 1450 ppm F; experimental group D2 was exposed to remineralization solution and Denttabs(®)-tablets with 4350 ppm F. Each tooth was cut into serial sections and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with EDX element analysis for assessment of the different zones of the lesions in 3 representative sections. Statistical analysis was based on the AVOVA test for repeated measurements and post hoc Bonferroni adjustment. The results showed a significantly higher Ca and P content in the body of the lesion in both fluoride treated groups compared to the controls. It can be concluded that higher concentrations of NaF may be more effective in remineralization of early advanced caries lesions.

  16. Histopathology of the pulp of primary molars with active and arrested dentinal caries.

    PubMed

    Di Nicolo, R; Guedes-Pinto, A C; Carvalho, Y R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the histological appearance of the pulp of human primary molars with active and arrested lesions. The sample consisted of 36 primary molars (18 with active lesions and 18 with arrested lesions) extracted from 35 children between 5 to 9 years of age. The histological diagnosis was classified in normal pulp, transitional stage, partial pulpitis, total pulpitis and total necrosis, and then subdivided in three subgroups: treatable, untreatable and questionable. Results showed that normal pulp or transitional stage (treatable category) was diagnosed in 50% of teeth with arrested lesions, compared to 11.1% of teeth with active lesions. Partial pulpitis (questionable category) was present in 38.8% with arrested lesions compared to 22.2% with active lesions. Total pulpitis and total necrosis (untreatable category) was diagnosed in 11.2% with arrested lesions compared to 66.7% with active lesions. The observed frequencies of histological categories between both groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Histologically, pulp reaction under active and arrested lesions in primary molars revealed the formation of a basophilic calcio-traumatic line at the junction of the primary and reparative dentin, formation of reparative dentin and a regular odontoblastic layer in 60% of the cases. Results indicated that the type of lesion (active or arrested) is a good indicator of the histological status of the pulp.

  17. [Caries treatment strategy. 'Tip the balance'--drilling or not drilling].

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, J P; van Loveren, C

    1997-02-01

    Traditionally caries treatment strategy has been based on the detection of caries lesions, and directed to a restorative procedure whereby the detected defects were filled. However, the detection of lesions is not synonymous to caries diagnosis. The main purpose of caries diagnosis should be the determination of the caries activity. The diagnosis is based on several parameters, which are evaluated by an intellectual process in a dentally trained mind. The treatment should be confined, in the first instance, to stopping the caries process, and to tipping the balance in the right direction, so that the caries can cure or anyway is prevented from extending. The treatment philosophy has to be pointed to a general approach of the disease caries in the patient who it concerns on the one side, and to a local approach of individual lesions on the other hand. In the second case a lesion can be treated in a symptomatic, invasive manner or, even better, by causal, not-invasive treatment.

  18. The caries balance: the basis for caries management by risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, John D B

    2004-01-01

    Dental caries progression or reversal depends upon the balance between demineralization and remineralization. The 'Caries Balance' is determined by the relative weight of the sums of pathological factors and protective factors. Minimally invasive dentistry aims at the least possible removal of enamel or dentin, including reducing pathological factors and enhancing remineralization to avoid any removal of hard tissues. A structured caries risk assessment should be carried out based upon the concept of the caries balance. Following the risk assessment a treatment plan is devised which leads to the control of dental caries for the patient. The balance between pathological and preventive factors can be swung in the direction of caries intervention and prevention by the active role of the dentist and his/her auxiliary staff. Much is now understood about the mechanism of dental caries. We have known for a long time that demineralization of enamel, dentin or cementum is caused by organic acids that are generated by so-called acidogenic bacteria in the plaque when these bacteria feed upon fermentable carbohydrates (Silverstone, 1973; Featherstone, 2000; Loesche, 1986). The natural repair process is remineralization, which occurs when the pH rises again and calcium and phosphate from saliva together with fluoride enter the subsurface region of the lesion and form a new veneer on the existing crystal remnants in the lesion (Ten Cate and Featherstone, 1991). This veneer is less soluble than the original mineral and resists further acid attacks. The key to improved dental health for all is now for the dental profession to embrace this knowledge and put it into practice in the real world, to inhibit caries formation and progression, and to enhance the natural repair process.

  19. DENTINE CARIES: ACID-TOLERANT MICROORGANISMS AND ASPECTS ON COLLAGEN DEGRADATION.

    PubMed

    Lager, Anders Hedenbjörk

    2014-01-01

    . Key findings: Each investigated lesion harbored a unique microbiota in terms of both species composition and numbers of microorganisms. This indicates that various combinations of aciduric microorganisms can colonize, survive in and probably also propagate dentine carious lesions. We also found that solid pH-selective agars can be used successfully to select acid-tolerant microorganisms in caries lesions. This would preserve their phenotypic traits for further study. In Paper III, the relation between salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), salivary levels of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1), and the presence of manifest caries lesions in a large number of subjects was investigated. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein using immunofluorometric assays, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and Bradford assays, respectively. Key findings: Subjects with manifest caries lesions had significantly elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 compared to subjects without caries lesions. TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. In Paper IV, a new method for generating bioactive demineralized dentine matrix substrate (DDM) was developed using a dialysis system and two different demineralization approaches (acetic acid or EDTA). The generated DDM was subsequently analyzed for the presence of type 1 collagen, active MMP-8 and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels using SDS-PAGE, ELISA or immunofluorescence assay. Key findings: Both demineralization methods produced a substrate rich in collagen and with preserved MMP-8 activity. This report presents new knowledge on the composition of the acid tolerant dentine caries microbiota from three levels in dentine carious lesions and on the efficacy of operative caries removal on the numbers of viable microorganisms in the caries free cavity using two operative methods. Moreover, the basic mechanisms behind collagen degradation in the dentine caries process are studied from both a

  20. Estimation of lesion progress in artificial root caries by swept source optical coherence tomography in comparison to transverse microradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, Yuko; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) could estimate the lesion depth and mineral loss quantitatively without the use of polarization sensitivity, and to examine a relationship between OCT data and transverse microradiography (TMR) lesion parameters. Twenty-four bovine root dentin specimens were allocated to three groups of 4-, 7-, and 14-day demineralization. Cross-sectional images of the specimens before and after the demineralization were captured by OCT at 1319 nm center wavelength. Following the demineralization, these specimens were cut into sections for TMR analysis. Correlations between the OCT data and TMR lesion parameters were examined. TMR images of the specimens showed cavitated lesions (lesion depth or LDTMR: 200 to 500 μm, ΔZ or mineral loss: 10,000 to 30,000 vol % μm). The OCT images showed ``boundaries,'' suggesting the lesion front. Integrated dB values before and after the demineralization and their difference (RD, RS, and ΔR, respectively) were calculated from the lesion surface to the corrected depth of boundary (LDOCT). A statistically significant correlation was found between LDOCT and LDTMR (p < 0.05, r = 0.68). Similarly, statistically significant correlations were found between ΔZ and RD or ΔR. The OCT showed a potential for quantitative estimation of lesion depth and mineral loss with cavitated dentin lesions in vitro.

  1. CO2 laser and topical fluoride therapy in the control of caries lesions on demineralized primary enamel.

    PubMed

    Valério, R A; Rocha, C T; Galo, R; Borsatto, M C; Saraiva, M C P; Corona, S A M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation and topical fluoride therapy in the control of caries progression on primary teeth enamel. 30 fragments (3 × 3 × 2 mm) from primary canines were submitted to an initial cariogenic challenge that consisted of immersion on demineralizing solution for 3 hours and remineralizing solution for 21 hours for 5 days. Fragments were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10): L: CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm), APF: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, and C: no treatment (control). CO2 laser was applied with 0.5 W power and 0.44 J/cm(2) energy density. Fluoride application was performed with 0.1 g for 1 minute. Cariogenic challenge was conducted for 5 days following protocol previously described. Subsurface Knoop microhardness was measured at 30 μm from the edge. Obtained data were subjected to analysis the variance (ANOVA) and Duncan test with significance of 5%. It was found that the L group showed greater control of deciduous enamel demineralization and were similar to those of APF group, while being statistically different from C group (P ≤ 0.05) that showed the lowest microhardness values. It was concluded that CO2 laser can be an additional resource in caries control progression on primary teeth enamel.

  2. CO2 Laser and Topical Fluoride Therapy in the Control of Caries Lesions on Demineralized Primary Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Valério, R. A.; Saraiva, M. C. P.; Corona, S. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation and topical fluoride therapy in the control of caries progression on primary teeth enamel. 30 fragments (3 × 3 × 2 mm) from primary canines were submitted to an initial cariogenic challenge that consisted of immersion on demineralizing solution for 3 hours and remineralizing solution for 21 hours for 5 days. Fragments were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10): L: CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm), APF: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, and C: no treatment (control). CO2 laser was applied with 0.5 W power and 0.44 J/cm2 energy density. Fluoride application was performed with 0.1 g for 1 minute. Cariogenic challenge was conducted for 5 days following protocol previously described. Subsurface Knoop microhardness was measured at 30 μm from the edge. Obtained data were subjected to analysis the variance (ANOVA) and Duncan test with significance of 5%. It was found that the L group showed greater control of deciduous enamel demineralization and were similar to those of APF group, while being statistically different from C group (P ≤ 0.05) that showed the lowest microhardness values. It was concluded that CO2 laser can be an additional resource in caries control progression on primary teeth enamel. PMID:25874248

  3. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)-Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient. PMID:20543914

  4. Association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Adriana R; Aznar, Fábio D C; Tinós, Adriana M F G; Yamashita, Joselene M; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Sales-Peres, Silvia H C

    2014-12-01

    The impact of oral conditions on quality of life in overweight/obesity needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents. This study was conducted at public schools in Brazil, on a sample of 202 adolescents, 12 years of age. For anthropometric evaluation, the body mass index (BMI)-for-age was used. In oral examinations, the Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth (DMFT), significant caries (SiC) and dental caries activity (DCA) indices were used (κ > 0.94). The Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) index was applied. The sample was divided into two groups: O (overweight/obese; n = 101) and N (normal weight; n = 101). For data analysis, chi-square, odds ratio (OR), Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation tests were used (P < 0.05). The DMFT scores were 1.67 and 2.12 and the SiC scores were 3.85 and 4.26 for groups O and N, respectively. BMI-for-age was significantly related to DCA (OR = 0.579; P < 0.000) and to SiC (OR = 0.649; P = 0.024). There were differences between the groups in eating, cleaning mouth, emotional status, smiling, studying and the overall Child-OIDP (P < 0.05). Positive associations between the impacts on eating, cleaning mouth and smiling were found (P < 0.05). DMFT values showed significant correlation with the emotional status performance in group O and the DCA was positively correlated with performance at school in group O (P < 0.05). Obesity, dental caries and quality of life were not correlated. Adolescents with normal weight presented a low perception of the impact of oral conditions on quality of life; however, it seemed to affect psychological aspects in their daily performances. Providing adolescents with nutritional assistance may prevent obesity and dental caries, and improve their quality of life. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Effect of the Biofilm Age and Starvation on Acid Tolerance of Biofilm Formed by Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries-Active and Caries-Free Adults.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Chengfei; Zhao, Xingfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2017-03-30

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is considered a leading cause of dental caries. The capability of S. mutans to tolerate low pH is essential for its cariogenicity. Aciduricity of S. mutans is linked to its adaptation to environmental stress in oral cavity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofilm age and starvation condition on acid tolerance of biofilm formed by S. mutans clinical isolates. S. mutans clinical strains isolated from caries-active (SM593) and caries-free (SM18) adults and a reference strain (ATCC25175) were used for biofilm formation. (1) Both young and mature biofilms were formed and then exposed to pH 3.0 for 30 min with (acid-adapted group) or without (non-adapted group) pre-exposure to pH 5.5 for three hours. (2) The mature biofilms were cultured with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (starved group) or TPY (polypeptone-yeast extract) medium (non-starved group) at pH 7.0 for 24 h and then immersed in medium of pH 3.0 for 30 min. Biofilms were analyzed through viability staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In all three strains, mature, acid-adapted and starved biofilms showed significantly less destructive structure and more viable bacteria after acid shock than young, non-adapted and non-starved biofilms, respectively (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, in each condition, SM593 biofilm was denser, with a significantly larger number of viable bacteria than that of SM18 and ATCC25175 (all p < 0.05). Findings demonstrated that mature, acid-adapted and starvation might protect biofilms of all three S. mutans strains against acid shock. Additionally, SM593 exhibited greater aciduricity compared to SM18 and ATCC25175, which indicated that the colonization of high cariogenicity of clinical strains may lead to high caries risk in individuals.

  6. Acidogenicity and acidurance of dental plaque and saliva sediment from adults in relation to caries activity and chlorhexidine exposure.

    PubMed

    Georgios, Andreadis; Vassiliki, Topitsoglou; Sotirios, Kalfas

    2015-01-01

    The ecological plaque hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of caries implies a microbial shift towards a more aciduric dental plaque microbiota, due to a frequent carbohydrate intake. Acid tolerance has been suggested as an important property of the caries-associated bacteria and several in vitro studies with mixed cultures indicated that a low pH rather than the carbohydrate availability is responsible for microbiota shifts associated with the development of dental caries. To examine 1) the acidogenic potential (amount lactate produced per mg plaque and minute, at pH 7.0 or pH 5.5) and the aciduric potential (acidogenic potential at pH 5.5/acidogenic potential at pH 7.0) of dental plaque and salivary sediment taken from caries-active or caries-free adults, and 2) the effect of a short-term chlorhexidine treatment on these potentials. Dental plaque and saliva sediment samples were taken from caries-free and caries-active subjects and suspended in Ringer's solution containing 1% sucrose and buffered with 0.5 M 3-[N-morpholino]propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), pH 7.0, or 3-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES), pH 5.5. After incubation at 37°C for 10-20 min, the concentration of lactic acid in the suspension was determined by an enzymatic assay. The acid production of dental plaque was also determined after a period of mouth rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine. Both dental plaque and salivary sediment from caries-free subjects exhibited significantly lower acidogenic potentials at both pHs compared to caries-active volunteers. The opposite was observed with the aciduric potential. Chlorhexidine treatment significantly reduced all three potentials but had no effect on the relative proportion of bacteria grown on acidic agar. Caries-active adults have an oral microbiota characterised by an increased catabolic velocity for sugar. The increase is more pronounced at neutral than acidic pH. Exposure to chlorhexidine, through mouthwash, temporarily decreases the acidogenicity of

  7. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  8. In vitro effects of several surface preparation methods on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to caries-like lesions of enamel.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, M; Moosavi, H; Gholami, A; Ahrari, F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of several surface preparation methods for improving shear bond strength of brackets to demineralised enamel. in vitro study. Eighty premolars were selected and divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as the control, while the remaining 4 groups were immersed in a demineralising solution (pH 4.8) for 12 weeks. In groups 1 (control) and 2 (demineralised/control) conventional acid etching was used. In group 3, a solution of 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was applied on enamel surface for one minute after acid etching. The brackets in group 4 were bonded with Transbond Plus self-etching primer, and group 5 underwent treatment with a 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) gel, which was applied on the enamel surface for 4 minutes before etching. Shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) were determined in all groups, and surface morphology was examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean SBS of acid-etched demineralised enamel was significantly lower than that of acid-etched sound enamel (p<0.05). Treatment of caries-like lesions with 5% NaOCl or self-etching primer failed to improve the bond strength. After NaF treatment and acid etching of demineralised enamel, both type 1 and type 2 etching patterns were observed and the resulting SBS was comparable to that of sound enamel (p>0.05). The application of 2% NaF on enamel caries before bracket bonding is an effective way for enhancing the bond strength.

  9. The American Dental Association Caries Classification System for clinical practice: a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas A; Nový, Brian B; Zeller, Gregory G; Hale, Robert; Hart, Thomas C; Truelove, Edmond L

    2015-02-01

    The caries lesion, the most commonly observed sign of dental caries disease, is the cumulative result of an imbalance in the dynamic demineralization and remineralization process that causes a net mineral loss over time. A classification system to categorize the location, site of origin, extent, and when possible, activity level of caries lesions consistently over time is necessary to determine which clinical treatments and therapeutic interventions are appropriate to control and treat these lesions. In 2008, the American Dental Association (ADA) convened a group of experts to develop an easy-to-implement caries classification system. The ADA Council on Scientific Affairs subsequently compiled information from these discussions to create the ADA Caries Classification System (CCS) presented in this article. The ADA CCS offers clinicians the capability to capture the spectrum of caries disease presentations ranging from clinically unaffected (sound) tooth structure to noncavitated initial lesions to extensively cavitated advanced lesions. The ADA CCS supports a broad range of clinical management options necessary to treat both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions. The ADA CCS is available for implementation in clinical practice to evaluate its usability, reliability, and validity. Feedback from clinical practitioners and researchers will allow system improvement. Use of the ADA CCS will offer standardized data that can be used to improve the scientific rationale for the treatment of all stages of caries disease. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiomes of Site-Specific Dental Plaques from Children with Different Caries Status.

    PubMed

    Richards, Vincent P; Alvarez, Andres J; Luce, Amy R; Bedenbaugh, Molly; Mitchell, Mary Lyn; Burne, Robert A; Nascimento, Marcelle M

    2017-08-01

    The oral microbiota associated with the initiation and progression of dental caries has yet to be fully characterized. The Human Oral Microbe Identification Using Next-Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) approach was used to analyze the microbiomes of site-specific supragingival dental plaques from children with different caries status. Fifty-five children (2 to 7 years of age) were assessed at baseline and at 12 months and grouped as caries free (CF), caries active with enamel lesions (CAE), and caries active with dentin carious lesions (CA). Plaque samples from caries-free tooth surfaces (PF) and from enamel carious lesions (PE) and dentin carious lesions (PD) were collected. 16S community profiles were obtained by HOMINGS, and 408 bacterial species and 84 genus probes were assigned. Plaque bacterial communities showed temporal stability, as there was no significant difference in beta diversity values between the baseline and 12-month samples. Irrespective of collection time points, the microbiomes of healthy tooth surfaces differed substantially from those found during caries activity. All pairwise comparisons of beta diversity values between groups were significantly different (P < 0.05), except for comparisons between the CA-PF, CAE-PE, and CA-PE groups. Streptococcus genus probe 4 and Neisseria genus probe 2 were the most frequently detected taxa across the plaque groups, followed by Streptococcus sanguinis, which was highly abundant in CF-PF. Well-known acidogenic/aciduric species such as Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Parascardovia denticolens, and Lactobacillus salivarius were found almost exclusively in CA-PD. The microbiomes of supragingival dental plaque differ substantially among tooth surfaces and children of different caries activities. In support of the ecological nature of caries etiology, a steady transition in community species composition was observed with disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  12. Effect of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on microorganism reduction in deep caries lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornellas, Pâmela Oliveira; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Fontes, Karla Bianca Fernandes da Costa; Póvoa, Helvécio Cardoso Corrêa; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Iorio, Natalia Lopes Pontes; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to perform a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the reduction of microorganisms in deep carious lesions. An electronic search was conducted in Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library, followed by a manual search. The MeSH terms, MeSH synonyms, related terms, and free terms were used in the search. As eligibility criteria, only clinical studies were included. Initially, 227 articles were identified in the electronic search, and 152 studies remained after analysis and exclusion of the duplicated studies; 6 remained after application of the eligibility criteria; and 3 additional studies were found in the manual search. After access to the full articles, three were excluded, leaving six for evaluation by the criteria of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Of these, five had some risk of punctuated bias. All results from the selected studies showed a significant reduction of microorganisms in deep carious lesions for both primary and permanent teeth. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in microorganism counts in all analyses (p<0.00001). Based on these findings, there is scientific evidence emphasizing the effectiveness of aPDT in reducing microorganisms in deep carious lesions.

  13. Effect of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on microorganism reduction in deep caries lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ornellas, Pâmela Oliveira; Antunes, Leonardo Dos Santos; Fontes, Karla Bianca Fernandes da Costa; Póvoa, Helvécio Cardoso Corrêa; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Iorio, Natalia Lopes Pontes; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to perform a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the reduction of microorganisms in deep carious lesions. An electronic search was conducted in Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library, followed by a manual search. The MeSH terms, MeSH synonyms, related terms, and free terms were used in the search. As eligibility criteria, only clinical studies were included. Initially, 227 articles were identified in the electronic search, and 152 studies remained after analysis and exclusion of the duplicated studies; 6 remained after application of the eligibility criteria; and 3 additional studies were found in the manual search. After access to the full articles, three were excluded, leaving six for evaluation by the criteria of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Of these, five had some risk of punctuated bias. All results from the selected studies showed a significant reduction of microorganisms in deep carious lesions for both primary and permanent teeth. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in microorganism counts in all analyses (p<0.00001). Based on these findings, there is scientific evidence emphasizing the effectiveness of aPDT in reducing microorganisms in deep carious lesions.

  14. Comparison of CPP-ACP, Tri-Calcium Phosphate and Hydroxyapatite on Remineralization of Artificial Caries Like Lesions on Primary Enamel -An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Meghna; Poornima, P; Praveen, S; Nagaveni, N B; Roopa, K B; Neena, I E; Bharath, K P

    To compare CPP-ACP, Tri-calcium phosphate and Hydroxyapatite on remineralization of artificial caries like lesions on primary enamel. Ten extracted Primary molars coated with nail varnish, leaving a window of 2×4 mm on buccal and lingual surface were immersed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours and sectioned longitudinally to obtain 40 sections (4 sections per tooth) and were randomly divided into 4 groups (A to D) n=10; Group A: negative control, Group B: CPP-ACP, Group C: Tri-calcium phosphate, Group D: Hydroxyapatite. Sections were subjected to pH cycling for 10 days and were evaluated by polarized light microscope before and after treatment. Intra group comparison of demineralization and remineralization was done by paired t-test. One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons followed by post HOC TUKEY'S Test for group wise comparisons. Remineralization was found more with Group D followed by Group B, C and A. Hydroxyapatite showed better remineralization when compared to CPP-ACP and Tri-calcium phosphate.

  15. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (cpp-acp) on caries-like lesions in terms of time and nano-hardness: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mettu, Shanthan; Srinivas, Namineni; Reddy Sampath, C H; Srinivas, Nallanchakrava

    2015-01-01

    Time bound increase in the nanohardness of the enamel after remineralization with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in a regular interval of 1 h has not been explored in the literature to a greater extent. To determine and compare the maximum hardness of the remineralized caries-like lesions, in terms of nanohardness and the rate of achieving maximum hardness at 1-h interval, after treatment with artificial saliva and CPP-ACP, over 12 h. Fifty longitudinal sections of extracted sound permanent maxillary central, lateral incisors were immersed in demineralizing solution for 4 days. The samples were then randomly divided into three groups, consisting of 12 sections each for soaking them in three different media-isotonic saline, artificial saliva, and CPP-ACP for 12 h. The nanohardness was measured on the labial surface, at baseline, after erosion, and after remineralization at 1-h interval. The data was analyzed with paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc analysis. CPP-ACP increased the enamel hardness significantly (P < 0.001), at an increased rate, than artificial saliva. This study has provided an insight into the frequency of use of CPP-ACP, once per day, as the nanohardness of enamel samples increased within 1 h of application and remained within the normal limits after 12 h.

  16. Is Atraumatic restorative treatment an option for restoring occlusoproximal caries lesions in primary teeth? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Raggio, Daniela P; Hesse, Daniela; Lenzi, Tathiane L; Guglielmi, Camila A B; Braga, Mariana M

    2013-11-01

    Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) has demonstrated good longevity when used for single-surface restorations, but lower success rates are reported for occlusoproximal surfaces. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to verify the pooled success rate of occlusoproximal ART restorations in primary teeth considering the outcomes: longevity, pulp damage, or caries lesion progression. Literature searching was carried out on the studies reporting clinical trials indexed in PubMed and in English language, comprising the outcomes. A meta-analysis was undertaken considering the results from reviewed studies. An initial search resulted in 126 articles, and three of them were finally selected. The main reasons for excluding articles were the absence of control group, as amalgam, composite resin, or compomer restorations to be compared with ART (hand excavation + high-viscous GIC). The pooled estimate (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) for ART approach success was 1.04 (0.65-1.66). Atraumatic restorative treatment restorations performed with high-viscous GIC present similar survival/success rates to conventional approach using composite resin or amalgam for occlusoproximal restorations in primary teeth and can be suggested as a good option for occlusoproximal cavities in primary molars. In addition, further randomized controlled clinical investigations concerning occlusoproximal restorations in primary teeth are still necessary. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  17. Mineral distribution of artificial dentinal caries lesions after treatment with fluoride agents in combination with saliva substitutes.

    PubMed

    Tschoppe, Peter; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

    2011-08-01

    Some saliva substitutes have been shown to demineralize dentine in vitro. This effect is counteracted by the application of various fluorides. In contrast, remineralizing saliva substitutes might be supported by these treatments, depending on the dynamics during remineralization. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of fluoride mouthrinses or gels in combination with de-/remineralizing saliva substitutes on dentinal subsurface lesions. Demineralized bovine dentine specimens were stored either in mineral water [saturation with respect to octacalcium phosphate (S(OCP)): 0.7], Glandosane (G, S(OCP): 0.3) or in a modified saliva substitute Saliva natura (SN, S(OCP): 1.9) for five weeks (37°C). Fluoride agents were applied twice daily for 10 min (n = 15/group): no treatment, Meridol mouthrinse, Elmex sensitive solution, ProSchmelz fluoride gel, Elmex gelée. After storage thin sections were prepared and mineral losses before and after storage were evaluated from microradiographs. Specimens stored in G alone showed significantly higher mineral loss compared to those stored in water, SN or G in combination with any additional treatment (p < 0.05). Storage in SN and treatment with ProSchmelz fluoride gel led to significantly higher remineralization compared to all other groups (p < 0.05) and resulted in distinct mineral gain within the lesion body. Under the in vitro conditions chosen, use of fluoride agents in combination with a demineralizing saliva substitute resulted in reduced mineral loss. Storage in modified Saliva natura in combination with the application of ProSchmelz fluoride gel induced the most pronounced remineralization also of deeper lesion areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick; Zobrist, Katja; Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    To assess the re-hardening potential of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and self-assembling peptides in vitro, hypothesizing that these materials may increase the mineralization of artificial carious lesions and improve hardness profiles. Forty-eight enamel samples were prepared from extracted bovine lower central incisors. After embedding and polishing, nail varnish was applied, leaving a defined test area. One third of this area was covered with a flowable composite (non-demineralized control). The remaining area was demineralized in an acidic buffer solution for 18 d to simulate a carious lesion. Half the demineralized area was then covered with composite (demineralized control), while the last third was left open for three test and one control treatments: (A) Application of enamel-matrix proteins (EMD - lyophilized protein fractions dissolved in acetic acid, Straumann), (B) self-assembling peptides (SAP, Curodont), or (C) amine fluoride solution (Am-F, GABA) for 5 min each. Untreated samples (D) served as control. After treatment, samples were immersed in artificial saliva for four weeks (remineralization phase) and microhardness (Knoop) depth profiles (25-300 µm) were obtained at sections. Two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine differences between the areas (re-hardening or softening). Decalcification resulted in significant softening of the subsurface enamel in all groups (A-D). A significant re-hardening up to 125 µm was observed in the EMD and SAP groups. This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect.

  19. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Patrick; Zobrist, Katja; Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the re-hardening potential of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and self-assembling peptides in vitro, hypothesizing that these materials may increase the mineralization of artificial carious lesions and improve hardness profiles. Material and Methods Forty-eight enamel samples were prepared from extracted bovine lower central incisors. After embedding and polishing, nail varnish was applied, leaving a defined test area. One third of this area was covered with a flowable composite (non-demineralized control). The remaining area was demineralized in an acidic buffer solution for 18 d to simulate a carious lesion. Half the demineralized area was then covered with composite (demineralized control), while the last third was left open for three test and one control treatments: (A) Application of enamel-matrix proteins (EMD - lyophilized protein fractions dissolved in acetic acid, Straumann), (B) self-assembling peptides (SAP, Curodont), or (C) amine fluoride solution (Am-F, GABA) for 5 min each. Untreated samples (D) served as control. After treatment, samples were immersed in artificial saliva for four weeks (remineralization phase) and microhardness (Knoop) depth profiles (25-300 µm) were obtained at sections. Two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine differences between the areas (re-hardening or softening). Results Decalcification resulted in significant softening of the subsurface enamel in all groups (A-D). A significant re-hardening up to 125 µm was observed in the EMD and SAP groups. Conclusions This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect. PMID:27008255

  20. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  1. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacilli on the Growth of Streptococcus Mutans and Multispecies Biofilms Isolated from Children with Active Caries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaolong; Chen, Xi; Tu, Yan; Wang, Sa; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on Streptococcus mutans (MS) and multispecies biofilms isolated from children with severe caries. Material/Methods Twenty children with active caries (DMFS ≥6) were selected as the experimental group and Streptococcus mutans (MS) were isolated from their saliva. After identification the MS strains were mixed with lactobacilli at 37°C, following which viable MS colonies were counted. At the same time dental plaques from the children were mixed with lactobacilli in vitro to form biofilms, and the population of nine common strains in the biofilms was enumerated after 24 hours of growth. Results Lactobacillus casei Shirota, L. casei LC01, L. plantarum ST-III and L. paracasei LPC37 all had strong inhibitory effects on the majority the MS isolated from children with active caries, with the inhibition rate reaching approximately 70–90% (p<0.05). L. casei Shirota, L. casei LC01, L. plantarum ST-III, L. paracasei LPC37 also significantly reduced the numbers of MS, Streptococcus spp., S. sanguinis and total bacteria in mixed biofilms compared with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions The four strains of lactobacilli were able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans and had effects on the composition of bacterial biofilms in vitro. Ingestion of probiotics may be a promising method of caries prevention. PMID:28851857

  2. Caries prevention during orthodontic treatment: In-vivo assessment of high-fluoride varnish to prevent white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Perrini, Federico; Lombardo, Luca; Arreghini, Angela; Medori, Silvia; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a fluoridated varnish in preventing white spot lesions in patients with fixed appliances. A laser-induced fluorescence device was used to determine any correlations between the degree of demineralization and the length of the observation period, the arch sector, the frequency of varnish application, and the specific tooth site. A split-mouth study design was used for 24 orthodontic patients, allocated randomly to 2 subgroups with differing frequencies of Duraphat varnish (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) application. Repeated measures of the degree of demineralization were taken on the vestibular surfaces of 12 teeth (6 varnished and 6 unvarnished controls). Measurements were taken at 4 sites using a DIAGNOdent Pen 2190 laser (KaVo, Biberach an der Riss, Germany) and then subjected to statistical analysis. Generalized linear model and coefficient model analysis showed differences in the degrees of demineralization between treated and untreated teeth, but this was not statistically significant in terms of time point, frequency of application, or specific tooth site. However, when we analyzed the position of the teeth, the varnished anterior teeth showed a statistically significant reduction in demineralization compared with their unvarnished counterparts. Periodic application of fluoride varnish can offer some protection against white spots, but not to a statistically significant degree if the patients have excellent oral hygiene. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized clinical trial on arresting dental root caries through silver diammine fluoride applications in community-dwelling elders.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Lo, E C M; Liu, B Y; Wong, M C M; Chu, C H

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) solution application in arresting dental root caries and to assess the color of arrested caries lesions. This study was conducted in elderly centers in Hong Kong. A total of 83 elders with 157 root surfaces with active caries lesion were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Gp1 (placebo control)-annual application of soda water; Gp2-annual application of SDF solution; Gp3-annual application of SDF solution immediately followed by potassium iodide (KI) solution. Color of the arrested root caries lesion was assessed with reference to PANTONE color plates and classified into one of the followings: yellow (7401U); light brown (1245U); dark brown (4635U); and black (Black U). Status of root surfaces was assessed every 6 months by the same independent examiner. After 30 months, 100 (64%) of the included root caries lesions were reviewed. The arrest rates of root caries were 45%, 90%, and 93% in Gp1 (control), Gp2 (SDF) and Gp3 (SDF/KI), respectively (χ(2) test, p<0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed elders in the control group had a lower proportion of the active root caries changed to arrested (p<0.001) and the proportions of root caries being arrested in the SDF and SDF/KI groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). The distributions of arrested caries lesions by color were not significantly different between the SDF and SDF/KI groups (χ(2) test, p>0.05). Application of SDF solution, with or without application of KI afterwards, is effective in arresting root caries among elders in a water fluoridated area. In the long term, blackening of arrested root caries is not reduced by immediate application of KI after the application of SDF. In a water fluoridated area, annual application of SDF solution or SDF/KI solution can arrest dental root caries in elders. In the long term, application of KI does not reduce the blackening of arrested caries lesions caused by SDF. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  4. Comparing the reliability of a new fluorescence camera with conventional laser fluorescence devices in detecting caries lesions in occlusal and smooth surfaces of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; Morais, Caroline Carvalho; Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; de Almeida Rodrigues, Jonas; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were (1) to compare the reliability of a new fluorescence camera (FC; VistaProof) with that of two other laser fluorescence devices (DIAGNOdent and DIAGNOdent pen) in assessing smooth and occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth and (2) to determine the influence of the spacer, the protective cover and air drying on the FC readings. We selected 129 primary molars which were divided into two groups: smooth surfaces (n=68) and occlusal surfaces (n=61). Two trained examiners performed the evaluations using the FC and the other laser fluorescence devices separately. One examiner repeated all assessments after 1 week. Inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility was calculated from the absolute values derived from the devices using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Pearson correlation was performed among the values obtained with the different devices. For aim 2, only teeth from the occlusal surface group were used. Another examiner performed measurements with the FC, varying the size of the spacer, the use of the plastic protective cover and the drying time (0, 3 and 15 s). Wilcoxon's test was used to compare these measurements. High values of interexaminer ICC were observed with the FC in both experiments. However, the highest intraexaminer ICC for smooth surfaces was found for the DIAGNOdent (ICC 0.918). A positive correlation between all methods was observed in both studies. Only drying for 15 s significantly increased the FC readings. In conclusion, the FC showed high reliability for occlusal and smooth surfaces, similar to the other fluorescence methods tested. Additionally, prolonged air drying increased the FC measurements.

  5. Remineralisation and arresting caries in children with topical fluorides.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, Neeraj; Gugnani, Shalini

    2017-06-23

    Data sourcesThe Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase and the ISI Web of Science.Study selectionEnglish language clinical trials in children with outcome measures including the remineralisation or arresting effect of caries by professional fluoride treatment were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers screened the studies and assessed risk of bias. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted.ResultsSeventeen studies were included, ten focused on remineralisation, seven on arresting carious lesions. Meta-analysis of four studies using 5% fluoride varnish found a 63.6% (95% CI; 36.0% - 91.2%) remineralisation of early enamel caries. For five studies using 38% silver diamine fluoride solution meta-analysis found 65.9% (95% CI; 41.2% - 90.7%) of caries arrested.ConclusionsProfessionally applied 5% sodium fluoride varnish shows the capability to remineralise early enamel caries in children. Silver diamine fluoride solution at 38% is effective in arresting active dentine caries. Because the number of clinical trials that studied the arresting effect of dental caries is limited, more clinical trials should be performed.

  6. Prognosis of caries increment with past caries experience variables.

    PubMed

    van Palenstein Helderman, W H; van't Hof, M A; van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to select past caries experience variables as caries predictors and to compare their prognostic accuracy with the variables used in a method of caries prognosis developed in a Swiss child population. The data used for the analyses originated from an 8-year longitudinal study starting in 1980 on caries of 7.5-year-old Dutch children. Stepwise logistic regression analyses provided predictor variables. The newly introduced variables D23fi, D(123)i and D23pifi were interchangeable and the most powerful caries predictors. For the sake of uniformity and ease of application, D23fi (number of fissures of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries lesions) was chosen as the first variable in the logistic regression equations. The gain in accuracy of the second and third predictor variables (number of sound primary molars and the number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries) in the regression equations was limited. The D1 condition of surfaces could be omitted from the prediction models. The present forced three-predictor-regression equations for 7.5-, 9.5- and 11.5-year-old children were evaluated to assess their prognostic performance by using the area under the ROC curve as a measure of prognostic quality. For the present regression equations, the area under the ROC curve was 81-87%, which was higher compared to the Swiss regression equations for caries prognosis.

  7. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  8. Rampant Caries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  9. Rampant Caries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  10. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Paola Correa da; Castilho, Adriana Lígia de; Saraceni, Cíntia Helena Couri; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLactive extracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries.

  11. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  12. Pathologic Heterogeneity Persists in Early Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Weigand, Stephen D; Popescu, Bogdan F G; Frischer, Josa M; Parisi, Joseph E; Guo, Yong; Lassmann, Hans; Brück, Wolfgang; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions demonstrate immunopathological heterogeneity in patterns of demyelination. Previous cross-sectional studies reported immunopatterns of demyelination were identical among multiple active demyelinating lesions from the same individual, but differed between individuals, leading to the hypothesis of intraindividual pathological homogeneity and interindividual heterogeneity. Other groups suggested a time-dependent heterogeneity of lesions. The objective of our present study was to analyze tissue samples collected longitudinally to determine whether patterns of demyelination persist over time within a given patient. Methods Archival tissue samples derived from patients with pathologically confirmed CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease who had undergone either diagnostic serial biopsy or biopsy followed by autopsy, were analyzed immunohistochemically. Inclusion criteria was the presence of early active demyelinating lesions - required for immunopattern classification - obtained from the same patient at two or more time points. Results Among 1321 surgical biopsies consistent with MS, 22 cases met study inclusion criteria. Twenty-one patients (95%) showed a persistence of immunopathological patterns in tissue sampled from different time points. This persistence was demonstrated for all major patterns of demyelination. A single patient showed features suggestive of both pattern II and pattern III on biopsy, but only pattern II among all active lesions examined at autopsy. Interpretation These findings continue to support the concept of patient-dependent immunopathological heterogeneity in early MS and suggest that the mechanisms and targets of tissue injury may differ among patient subgroups. These observations have potentially significant implications for individualized therapeutic approaches. PMID:24771535

  13. Dental caries.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  14. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  15. Effectiveness of chemomechanical caries removal agents Papacarie(®) and Carie-Care™ in primary molars: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Suzan; Vasa, Aron Arun Kumar; Geddam, Divya; Reddy, Vamsi Krishna; Nalluri, Sowjanya; Velagapudi, Nagajyothi

    2016-04-01

    The chemomechanical caries removal system is made presently available containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for ease in the excavation of infected dentin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of caries removal using Papacarie(®) and Carie-Care™. A total of 30 extracted deciduous molars with proximal caries were collected, and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in the center of the carious lesion so that the two halves (buccal and lingual or palatal) have similar carious lesions, thus 30 teeth yielded 60 specimens. The specimens from each tooth were divided alternatively into two groups for caries excavation either using Papacarie(®) or Carie-Care™ so as to avoid selection bias. Paired t-test was used to compare mean time taken for caries removal and Fischer's exact test was done for comparing bacterial remnants after caries excavation. Mean time taken for caries removal was significantly higher for Carie-Care™ (427.13 s) when compared to Papacarie(®) (385.8 s). Papacarie(®) was found to be significantly more efficient in caries removal with marked reduction in the bacterial remnants following excavation. However, both gels were found to be conservative as dentinal tubule destruction was not evident in either of them. Both Papacarie(®) and Carie-Care™ were found to be conservative in caries removal. Papacarie(®) was more efficient in removing bacteria in lesser time from the infected carious lesion.

  16. Ontogenetic noradrenergic lesion alters histaminergic activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Jochem, Jerzy; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Josko, Jadwiga; Noras, Lukasz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether noradrenergic nerves might have a modulatory role on the sensitivity or reactivity of histaminergic receptor systems in brain, behavioral effects of the respective histamine H1, H2 and H3 antagonists S(+)chlorpheniramine, cimetidine and thioperimide in control adult rats were compared to the effects in adult rats that had been lesioned as neonates with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4. On the 1st and 3rd days after birth rat pups were treated with either saline or DSP-4 (50 mg/kg sc), then returned to their home cages with the dam. At 8 weeks when rats were tested, S(+)chlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg ip) was found to increase locomotor activity in intact and DSP-4 lesioned rats, while cimetidine (5 mg/kg, ip) and thioperimide (5 mg/kg, ip) increased activity several-fold solely in the DSP-4 group. Exploratory activity, nociceptive activity, and irritability were little altered by the histamine antagonists, although oral activity was increased by thioperimide in intact and lesioned rats, and by cimetidine or S(+)chlorpheniramine in DSP-4 rats. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine that DSP-4 produced a 90% reduction in frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, with a 90% elevation of NE in cerebellum--reflecting reactive sprouting of noradrenergic fibers consequent to lesion of noradrenergic tracts projecting to proximal brain regions. These findings indicate that perinatal noradrenergic fiber lesioning in rat brain is associated with an altered behavioral spectrum by histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, thereby implicating histaminergic systems as modulators of noradrenergic systems in brain.

  17. Changes in Caries Risk and Activity of a 9-Year-Old Patient with Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis; De Rossi, Andiara; Freitas, Aldevina Campos; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This case report describes the changes in caries risk and activity and dental treatment of a 9-year-old patient who presented with signs and symptoms of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Treatment. The preventive dental treatment included instructions to caregivers for oral hygiene and diet. A calcium hydroxide pulpotomy and restorative dental treatments were performed in a dental office with desensitization techniques and behavioral management. The patient was attended every 3 months for the control of dental plaque biofilm, for topical fluoride application, and for observing the pulpotomized tooth. Results. The bacterial plaque biofilm was being adequately controlled by the caregiver. After 2 years, the clinical and radiographic examination of the pulpotomized tooth showed the absence of internal root resorption and bone rarefaction, and clinical examination showed tooth sensitivity, dental pain, and gingival swelling. Conclusion. The pulpotomy prevented clinical and radiographic success. Dentists must be aware of and be able to identify systemic and local aspects associated with caries risk of children with NPC disease. Furthermore, dentists must employ stringent preventive measures and provide instructions to caregivers to reduce caries risk. PMID:25685563

  18. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentine caries in preschool children by topical fluorides--18 month results.

    PubMed

    Duangthip, D; Chu, C H; Lo, E C M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application protocols in arresting dentine caries in primary teeth of preschool children in a fluoridated area. Children aged 3-4 years who had at least one active dentine caries lesion were randomly allocated into three intervention groups: Group 1-application of 30% silver diammine fluoride (SDF) solution every 12 months; Group 2-three applications of 30% SDF solution at weekly interval at baseline; and Group 3-three applications of 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish at weekly interval at baseline. A masked examiner carried out follow-up examinations every 6 months to assess whether the treated lesions had become arrested. A total of 304 children with 1670 tooth surfaces with dentine caries received treatment at baseline. After 18 months, 275 children (91%) remained in the study. The caries arrest rates at tooth surface level were 40%, 35% and 27% for Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p<0.001). Result of the multi-level survival analysis showed that the two SDF application protocols could shorten the time to arrest of dentine caries compared with the NaF application protocol. Presence of plaque on lesion surface, tooth type and tooth surface all had significant effects on caries arrest rates. Annual or three consecutive weekly applications of SDF solution is more effective in arresting dentine caries in primary teeth than three consecutive weekly applications of NaF varnish. In a water fluoridated area, application of SDF solution, either three weekly applications at baseline or annually, can arrest active dentine caries lesions in primary teeth faster than three weekly applications of NaF varnish at baseline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Juliana Paola Corrêa; de CASTILHO, Adriana Lígia; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Couri; DÍAZ, Ingrit Elida Collantes; PACIÊNCIA, Mateus Luís Barradas; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLactive extracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries. PMID:24676578

  1. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  2. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puranik, Manjunath P; K R, Sowmya

    2015-05-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries.

  3. Caries arresting effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesion with S. mutans and L. acidophilus dual-species cariogenic biofilm.

    PubMed

    Mei, May-Lei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Low, Kan-Hung; Che, Ching-Ming; Lo, Edward-Chin-Man

    2013-11-01

    This in vitro study investigated the effects of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on dentine carious lesion with cariogenic biofilm. Thirty human dentine blocks were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus dual-species biofilm to create carious lesion. They were equally divided into test and control group to receive topical application of SDF and water. After incubation anaerobically using micro-well plate at 37oC for 7 days, the biofilms were evaluated for kinetics, morphology and viability by colony forming units (CFU), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CLSM), respectively. The carious lesion underwent crystal characteristics analysis, evaluation of the changes in chemical structure and density of collagen fibrils using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and immune-labeling. The log CFU of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in the test group was significantly lower than control group. SEM and CLSM showed confluent biofilm in control group, but not in test group. XRD showed the loss of crystallinity of dentine due to the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystal structure in test group was less than control group. FTIR showed that log [Amide I: HPO42-] for test vs. control group was 0.31±0.10 vs. 0.57±0.13 (p<0.05). The gold-labeling density in test vs. control group was 8.54±2.44/µm2 vs. 12.91±4.24/µm2 (p=0.04). SDF had antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic biofilms and reduced demineralization of dentine.

  4. Association and comparison between visual inspection and bitewing radiography for the detection of recurrent dental caries under restorations.

    PubMed

    Lino, José R; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Coelho, Valéria Silveira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Moysés, Marcos R; Ribeiro, José C R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, in posterior teeth, the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration visually inspected and the presence, under restorations, of recurrent or residual dental caries detected by radiographic examination. Furthermore, the agreement between visual inspection and radiographs to detect dental caries was assessed. Eighty-five permanent molars and premolars with resin restorations on the interproximal and/or occlusal faces, from 18 patients, were submitted for visual inspection and radiographic examination. The visual inspection involved the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Bitewing radiographs were used for the radiographic examination. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration assessed by visual inspection (absence of dental caries, or early, established, inactive and active lesions) and the presence of recurrent caries detected by radiographs. Kappa coefficients were calculated for determining agreement between the two methods. The Kappa coefficient for agreement between visual inspection and radiographic examination was 0.19. Established lesions [odds ratio (OR) = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.94-33.25; P < 0.05] and lesion activity (OR = 2.57; 95% CI: 0.91-7.27; P < 0.05) detected by visual inspection, were associated with recurrent or residual dental caries detected by radiographs. Restorations with established and active lesions at the margins had a greater chance of exhibiting recurrent or residual lesions in the radiographic examination. The present findings demonstrate that restorations with established and active lesions at the margins when visually inspected often require removal and retreatment. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Effect and acceptance of silver diamine fluoride treatment on dental caries in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Jennifer; Gold, Jaana; Chaffin, Jeffrey

    2017-07-27

    Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment has been identified as a potential solution to address the dental public health issues of untreated dental caries and insufficient access to care. The current study assessed the effectiveness of 38 percent SDF in arresting active dental caries lesions and in reducing or preventing associated dental pain and infections in young, at-risk children. We enrolled 32 children aged 2-5 years with 118 active caries lesions in primary teeth from a community dental clinic in Oregon. After baseline examinations, carious lesions were treated with 1-2 applications of 38 percent SDF. Children were re-evaluated at 3-week and 3-month recalls to assess color and consistency changes in lesions (soft/hard). Parents were interviewed regarding symptoms of pain or infection and were surveyed regarding subjective feelings about SDF. Of 102 lesions (16 excluded from analyses), 100 were found to be arrested at first recall and all at second recall. The duration of SDF application was not associated with arrest of decay (P = 0.68). No incidence of pain or infection of an SDF-treated tooth was recorded. Parental impression of ease of application, taste, and esthetics was favorable. Our results suggested SDF was effective in arresting active caries lesions in primary teeth in young children and was well accepted by parents. SDF offers an easy and highly efficient nonsurgical alternative treatment to traditional restorative dental treatment in young children, and it has great potential to aid the dental public health community to address dental caries in at-risk populations. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Markers of Aberrantly Activated Innate Immunity in Vitiligo Lesional and Non-Lesional Skin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanshen; Wang, Yang; Yu, Jie; Gao, Min; Levings, Megan; Wei, Shencai; Zhang, Shengquan; Xu, Aie; Su, Mingwan; Dutz, Jan; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Youwen

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is characterized by the death of melanocytes in the skin. This is associated with the presence of T cell infiltrates in the lesional borders. However, at present, there is no detailed and systematic characterization on whether additional cellular or molecular changes are present inside vitiligo lesions. Further, it is unknown if the normal appearing non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients is in fact normal. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the molecular and cellular characteristics of the lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Methods and Materials Paired lesional and non-lesional skin biopsies from twenty-three vitiligo patients and normal skin biopsies from sixteen healthy volunteers were obtained with informed consent. The following aspects were analyzed: (1) transcriptome changes present in vitiligo skin using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR; (2) abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin explant cultures using flow cytometry; and (3) distribution of the abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Compared with normal skin, vitiligo lesional skin contained 17 genes (mostly melanocyte-specific genes) whose expression was decreased or absent. In contrast, the relative expression of 13 genes was up-regulated. The up-regulated genes point to aberrant activity of the innate immune system, especially natural killer cells in vitiligo. Strikingly, the markers of heightened innate immune responses were also found to be up-regulated in the non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Conclusions and Clinical Implications As the first systematic transcriptome characterization of the skin in vitiligo patients, this study revealed previously unknown molecular markers that strongly suggest aberrant innate immune activation in the microenvironment of vitiligo skin. Since these changes involve both lesional and non-lesional skin, our results suggest that therapies targeting

  7. Blue-laser-diode-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of natural carious lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girkin, John M.; Rousseau, Christel; Hall, Andrew F.; Strang, Ronnie; Whitters, C. John; Creanor, Steve L.; Cribeiro, Adriana

    2004-05-01

    We report on the use of a blue laser diode to excite natural fluorescence from a range of dental samples. Sixty teeth with naturally occurring lesions were examined. The lesions were classified on visual inspection as falling into three classes as shiny lesions, dull lesions and brown lesions. The resulting fluorescence was then examined using a fibre optically coupled spectrometer in a series of wavelength bands. By examining the intensity ratios in the two wavelength bands 480-500nm and 620 to 640nm we were able to classify the lesion types and thus provide a quantifiable measurement of lesion types. This method has application for detection of dental caries as well as demonstrating potential application to evaluate lesions which may represent different degrees of caries activity.

  8. DENTAL CARIES

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, George O.

    1951-01-01

    The most generally accepted theory as to the cause of dental caries is that certain bacteria in the mouth, in the presence of fermentable sugars, cause the formation of acids which in turn decalcify teeth. Physicians may help reduce the incidence of caries by recommending elimination of refined sugars from the diet, or at least control of the amount consumed. Cleaning the teeth with a well designed tooth brush after each meal will to a certain extent mechanically remove the fermentable sugar and debris from the teeth. One step further in oral hygiene that may be beneficial is to use a dentifrice with 5 per cent dibasic ammonium phosphate and 3 per cent urea to reduce the formation of acid. Anything that will increase salivation will aid in buffering any acids that may be present. A 2 per cent solution of sodium fluoride applied to the thoroughly dried “intact” enamel surface may prevent caries. Sodium fluoride added to drinking water to a concentration of 1 part per million is utilized by the body in formation of an enamel that is particularly resistant to caries. PMID:14801729

  9. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  10. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Alm, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  11. Randomized clinical trial on effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and glass ionomer in arresting dentine caries in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Qing Hui; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Lin, Huan Cai

    2012-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of annual topical application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution, semi-annual topical application of SDF solution, and annual application of a flowable high fluoride-releasing glass ionomer in arresting active dentine caries in primary teeth. A total of 212 children, aged 3-4 years, were randomly allocated to one of three groups for treatment of carious dentine cavities in their primary teeth: Gp1-annual application of SDF, Gp2-semi-annual application of SDF, and Gp3-annual application of glass ionomer. Follow-up examinations were carried out every six months to assess whether the treated caries lesions had become arrested. After 24 months, 181 (85%) children remained in the study. The caries arrest rates were 79%, 91% and 82% for Gp1, Gp2 and Gp3, respectively (p=0.007). In the logistic regression model using GEE to adjust for clustering effect, higher caries arrest rates were found in lesions treated in Gp2 (OR=2.98, p=0.007), those in anterior teeth (OR=5.55, p<0.001), and those in buccal/lingual smooth surfaces (OR=15.6, p=0.004). Annual application of either SDF solution or high fluoride-releasing glass ionomer can arrest active dentine caries. Increasing the frequency of application to every 6 months can increase the caries arrest rate of SDF application. Arrest of active dentine caries in primary teeth by topical application of SDF solution can be enhanced by increasing the frequency of application from annually to every 6 months, whereas annual paint-on of a flowable glass ionomer can also arrest active dentine caries and may provide a more aesthetic outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dental assistants' ability to select caries risk-children and to prevent caries.

    PubMed

    Holst, A; Braune, K

    1994-01-01

    A new model for dental care in children has been used since 1987 in a small-town clinic in the county of Blekinge in southern Sweden. The model is based on early screening of caries risk, performed by dental assistants. The purpose is to obtain an individual assessment of the need of preventive dental care among pre-school children, in order to prevent dental caries and gingivitis. The aim was to 1) evaluate the dental assistants' selection of caries risk children up to the age of three by comparing dental health variables in 4 yr olds in the test clinic with those for the whole county and 2) compare the time spent by the dentists and the dental assistants in the test clinic and in the whole county per child up to the age of four. 102 children participated. Specially trained dental assistants screened children likely to develop caries lesions using background factors combined with clinical examinations at ages 1, 2 and 3. A systematized form for questioning the parents was used. Individual caries prevention was given. Dental health and time spent were analyzed. The proportion of children with caries lesions at four years and a caries risk assessment up to the age of three was 11/19 = 0.58 (sensitivity). The proportion of children with no caries lesions at four years and no caries risk assessment up to the age of three was 82/83 = 0.99 (specificity). The proportion of children with no caries lesions at 4 yr of age in the test clinic was 81.4% compared to a county mean of 77.2%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    PubMed

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children.

  14. Investigation of the effects of aluminum mouthrinses on rat dental caries and plaque.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of topically applied mouthrinses containing AlCl3, or AlK(SO4)2 on dental caries and plaque were investigated in a rat model. For comparison, NaF and a two-step treatment of AlCl3 and NaF were also tested. Six groups of 20 weanling rats were inoculated with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and provided a caries-inducing diet and distilled water ad libitum. Test agents were topically applied twice daily 5 days per week at a concentration of 0.037 mol/l in a mouthrinse vehicle and were compared with a vehicle control rinse and a distilled water control. After 10 weeks none of the treatments reduced plaque amounts relative to the controls. The AlCl3 and AlK(SO4)2 rinses significantly reduced both smooth-surface and sulcal caries by approximately 40%. The cariostatic activity of the aluminum rinses was equivalent to an equimolar NaF mouthrinse on smooth surface lesions, but was statistically less than NaF on sulcal caries. The two-step treatment with AlCl3 and NaF indicated numerically additive effects, but the results were not statistically better than with NaF alone. Dentine caries progression paralleled the enamel caries prevalence results. No deaths, toxicologic effects, or inhibition of growth rates were observed in any treatment group. This study confirmed that topically applied solutions of aluminum salts inhibited caries formation in the rat caries model and showed that the cariostatic activity of aluminum was maintained in a compatible mouthrinse vehicle.

  15. Ontogenetic serotoninergic lesioning alters histaminergic activity in rats in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jośko, Jadwiga; Drab, Jacek; Jochem, Jerzy; Nowak, Przemysław; Szkilnik, Ryszard; Korossy-Mruk, Eva; Boroń, Dariusz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Halina; Brus, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine histamine content in the brain and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists on behavior of adult rats lesioned as neonates with the serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT). At 3 days after birth Wistar rats were pretreated with desipramine (20 mg/kg ip) before bilateral icv administration of 5,7-DHT (37.5 μg base on each side) or saline-ascorbic (0.1%) vehicle (control). At 10 week levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus by an HPLC/ED technique. In the hypothalamus, frontal cortex, hippocampus and medulla oblongata, the level of histamine was analyzed by an immunoenzymatic method. Behavioral observations (locomotion, exploratory-, oral-, and stereotyped activity) were performed, and effects of DA receptor agonists (SKF 38393, apomorphine) and histamine receptor antagonists S(+)chlorpheniramine (H(1)), cimetidine (H(2)), and thioperamide (H(3)) were determined. We confirmed that 5,7-DHT profoundly reduced contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the brain in adulthood. Histamine content was also reduced in all examined brain regions. Moreover, in 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats the locomotor and oral activity responses to thioperamide were altered, and apomorphine-induced stereotype was intensified. From the above, we conclude that an intact central serotoninergic system modulates histamine H(3) receptor antagonist effects on the dopaminergic neurons in rats.

  16. Cytosolic DNA triggers inflammasome activation in keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Yvonne; Peric, Mark; Koglin, Sarah; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Göss, Christine; Anz, David; Simanski, Maren; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen; Hornung, Veit; Gallo, Richard L; Ruzicka, Thomas; Besch, Robert; Schauber, Jürgen

    2011-05-11

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in the pathogenesis and the course of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis. Posttranscriptional activation of IL-1β is mediated by inflammasomes; however, the mechanisms triggering IL-1β processing remain unknown. Recently, cytosolic DNA has been identified as a danger signal that activates inflammasomes containing the DNA sensor AIM2. In this study, we detected abundant cytosolic DNA and increased AIM2 expression in keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions but not in healthy skin. In cultured keratinocytes, interferon-γ induced AIM2, and cytosolic DNA triggered the release of IL-1β via the AIM2 inflammasome. Moreover, the antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide LL-37, which can interact with DNA in psoriatic skin, neutralized cytosolic DNA in keratinocytes and blocked AIM2 inflammasome activation. Together, these data suggest that cytosolic DNA is an important disease-associated molecular pattern that can trigger AIM2 inflammasome and IL-1β activation in psoriasis. Furthermore, cathelicidin LL-37 interfered with DNA-sensing inflammasomes, which thereby suggests an anti-inflammatory function for this peptide. Thus, our data reveal a link between the AIM2 inflammasome, cathelicidin LL-37, and autoinflammation in psoriasis, providing new potential targets for the treatment of this chronic skin disease.

  17. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  18. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries. PMID:21819682

  19. Effect of Triphala mouthwash on the caries status

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Shobha; Gupta, Kunal; Rao, Sugandhi; Malagi, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 60–70% of the child Indian population suffers from dental caries. Mouth rinsing is the most cost effective method of preventing dental caries. 'Triphala' has been a classic Ayurveda remedy, probably the best known among all Ayurvedic compounds. This study was conducted on 1501 students in the age group of 8-12 years with the aim of determining the effect of Triphala mouthwash on prevention of dental caries (manifest caries) as well as incipient carious lesions, and also comparing the effect of Triphala and chlorhexidine mouthwashes. The incipient caries was recorded at 3, 6, 9 months intervals and manifest caries at 9 months interval. No significant increase in the DMFS scores was found at the end of 9 months. Also, there was no significant increase in the incipient caries score towards the conclusion of the study. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the Triphala and the chlorhexidine mouthwashes. PMID:20814522

  20. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies. PMID:26538870

  1. Postreplication gaps at UV lesions are signals for checkpoint activation

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, A. John; Clark, Emily; Pneuman, Amanda; Kelly, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of eukaryotic cells to UV light induces a checkpoint response that delays cell-cycle progression after cells enter S phase. It has been hypothesized that this checkpoint response provides time for repair by signaling the presence of structures generated when the replication fork encounters UV-induced DNA damage. To gain insight into the nature of the signaling structures, we used time-lapse microscopy to determine the effects of deficiencies in translesion DNA polymerases on the checkpoint response of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We found that disruption of the genes encoding translesion DNA polymerases Polκ and Polη significantly prolonged the checkpoint response, indicating that the substrates of these enzymes are signals for checkpoint activation. Surprisingly, we found no evidence that the translesion polymerases Rev1 and Polζ repair structures that are recognized by the checkpoint despite their role in maintaining viability after UV irradiation. Quantitative flow cytometry revealed that cells lacking translesion polymerases replicate UV-damaged DNA at the same rate at WT cells, indicating that the enhanced checkpoint response of cells lacking Polκ and Polη is not the result of stalled replication forks. These observations support a model in which postreplication DNA gaps with unrepaired UV lesions in the template strand act both as substrates for translesion polymerases and as signals for checkpoint activation. PMID:20404181

  2. Effectiveness of chemomechanical caries removal agents Papacarie® and Carie-Care™ in primary molars: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sahana, Suzan; Vasa, Aron Arun Kumar; Geddam, Divya; Reddy, Vamsi Krishna; Nalluri, Sowjanya; Velagapudi, Nagajyothi

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The chemomechanical caries removal system is made presently available containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for ease in the excavation of infected dentin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of caries removal using Papacarie® and Carie-Care™. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 extracted deciduous molars with proximal caries were collected, and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in the center of the carious lesion so that the two halves (buccal and lingual or palatal) have similar carious lesions, thus 30 teeth yielded 60 specimens. The specimens from each tooth were divided alternatively into two groups for caries excavation either using Papacarie® or Carie-Care™ so as to avoid selection bias. Paired t-test was used to compare mean time taken for caries removal and Fischer's exact test was done for comparing bacterial remnants after caries excavation. Results: Mean time taken for caries removal was significantly higher for Carie-Care™ (427.13 s) when compared to Papacarie® (385.8 s). Papacarie® was found to be significantly more efficient in caries removal with marked reduction in the bacterial remnants following excavation. However, both gels were found to be conservative as dentinal tubule destruction was not evident in either of them. Conclusion: Both Papacarie® and Carie-Care™ were found to be conservative in caries removal. Papacarie® was more efficient in removing bacteria in lesser time from the infected carious lesion. PMID:27195222

  3. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Animireddy, Dwitha; Reddy Bekkem, Venkata Thimma; Vallala, Pranitha; Kotha, Sunil Babu; Ankireddy, Swetha; Mohammad, Noorjahan

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  4. Diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies: practical and scientific considerations.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana Christina; Mestrinho, Heliana Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies involving large numbers of preschool children, schoolchildren and young adults. In this context, assessment of lesions characteristics indicating whether or not there is ongoing mineral loss is also considered relevant. The reasoning sustained by these studies is that diagnosis of the caries process limited to the cavitated level is no longer in accordance with current state-of-the-art knowledge in cariology. This paper highlights one topic of the lecture entitled "Caries Process: Evolving Evidence and Understanding," presented at the 18th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (Associação Brasileira de Odontologia de Promoção de Saúde - ABOPREV) in April 2013. In the framework of epidemiological studies, the interest in diagnosing active and inactive non-cavitated lesions was elucidated. However, relevant questions associated with the diagnosis of non-cavitated lesions that might raise concerns among researchers and health administrators were not addressed. The present paper aims to bring these questions into discussion. The contribution of this discussion in terms of developing the understanding of caries decline is analyzed by using data from a caries trends study of Brazilian preschool children residing in the Federal District of Brazil as an example. The inclusion of active and inactive non-cavitated lesions in the diagnosis of the caries process allowed us to demonstrate that, in Brazilian 1- to 5-year-old children, caries prevalence decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006, simultaneously with a reduction in the rate of caries progression.

  5. Prevention policies in the light of the changed distribution of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Burt, B A

    1998-06-01

    Changes in the distribution of caries in economically developed nations over the last 15-20 years include 1) an overall decline in prevalence and severity in child populations; 2) an increasingly skewed distribution, with most disease now found in a small number of children; and 3) concentration of caries in pit and fissure lesions. Exposure to fluoride is usually seen as the principal reason for the caries decline, with little change in intraoral levels of cariogenic organisms or the annual consumption of sugars. Prevention activities are still most often conducted under policies that were established at a time when caries was a more widespread public health problem, so these policies should be critically examined in the light of modern conditions. While prevention should remain the prime activity of public health agencies, despite the reduced severity of caries, the relative economic efficiency of various procedures should be constantly evaluated. Despite the attractions of targeting, cost-effective prevention should be aimed first at the whole population, with more expensive activities targeted to all children in a chosen geographic area rather than to individually selected children. In the Scandinavian countries the prime population strategies are the regular use of fluoride toothpaste and public education that emphasizes oral hygiene. In selected areas where caries levels are still relatively high (that is, targeted geographic areas), fluoride rinse and tablet programs, provided for a whole classroom at a time, can enhance intraoral fluoride levels where necessary. Fluoride varnish and sealants, though effective, are expensive and need careful selection of locality and teeth to be efficient. Individual children with a persistent caries problem, now relatively small in number, can receive individualized preventive treatment in the clinics of the school dental service.

  6. Influence of selected fatty acids upon plaque formation and caries in the rat.

    PubMed

    Williams, K A; Schemehorn, B R; McDonald, J L; Stookey, G K; Katz, S

    1982-01-01

    Weanling rats were given high-sucrose cariogenic diets containing 2 per cent lauric acid, linoleic acid, nonanoic acid or monolaurin. Plaque accumulation was determined on the incisors of half the animals during only the last 3 days of the study and on the remaining animals at the conclusion of a 21-day test period when both sulcal and smooth-surface caries were assessed. No significant differences between the test groups in food consumption were observed nor were there any differences in body weight gain. The least amount of plaque was observed in the animals given monolaurin; the other fatty acids exerted no significant effect upon plaque accumulation. The smooth-surface caries data indicated that the least number of lesions occurred in the animals on the diet containing monolaurin. Nonanoic acid was significantly more effective in limiting sulcal caries than any of the other fatty acids studied. Thus both monolaurin and nonanoic acid have significant cariostatic activity in the rat.

  7. Impact of dental caries on preschool children's quality of life: an update.

    PubMed

    Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Tello, Gustavo; Oliveira, Luciana Butini

    2012-01-01

    The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life.

  8. Microglial cell activation in demyelinating canine distemper lesions.

    PubMed

    Stein, Veronika M; Czub, Markus; Schreiner, Nicole; Moore, Peter F; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Tipold, Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Microglia cells are the principal immune effector elements of the brain responding to any pathological event. To elucidate the possible role of microglia in initial non-inflammatory demyelination in canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, microglia from experimentally CDV infected dogs were isolated ex vivo by density gradient centrifugation and characterized immunophenotypically and functionally using flow cytometry. Results from dogs with demyelinating lesions were compared to results from recovered dogs and two healthy controls. CDV antigen could be detected in microglia of dogs with histopathologically confirmed demyelination. Microglia of these dogs showed marked upregulation of the surface molecules CD18, CD11b, CD11c, CD1c, MHC class I and MHC class II and a tendency for increased expression intensity of ICAM-1 (CD54), B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), whereas no increased expression was found for CD44 and CD45. Functionally, microglia exhibited distinctly enhanced phagocytosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was concluded that in CDV infection, there is a clear association between microglial activation and demyelination. This strongly suggests that microglia contribute to acute myelin destruction in distemper.

  9. Performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence device and conventional methods in detecting approximal caries lesions in primary teeth--in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Novaes, T F; Matos, R; Braga, M M; Imparato, J C P; Raggio, D P; Mendes, F M

    2009-01-01

    This in vivo study aimed to compare the performance of different methods of approximal caries detection in primary molars. Fifty children (aged 5-12 years) were selected, and 2 examiners evaluated 621 approximal surfaces of primary molars using: (a) visual inspection, (b) the radiographic method and (c) a pen-type laser fluorescence device (LFpen). As reference standard method, the teeth were separated using orthodontic rubbers during 7 days, and the surfaces were evaluated by 2 examiners for the presence of white spots or cavitations. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (A(z)) as well as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (percentage of correct diagnosis) were calculated and compared with the McNemar test at both thresholds. The interexaminer reproducibility was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC-absolute values) and the kappa test (dichotomizing for both thresholds). The ICC value of the reference standard procedure was 0.94. At white-spot threshold, no methods tested presented good performance (sensitivity: visual 0.20-0.21; radiographic 0.16-0.23; LFpen 0.16; specificity: visual 0.95; radiographic 0.99-1.00; LFpen 0.94-0.96). At cavitation threshold, both LFpen and radiographic methods demonstrated higher sensitivity (0.55-0.65 and 0.65-0.70, respectively) and A(z) (0.92 and 0.88-0.89, respectively) than visual inspection sensitivity (0.30) and A(z) (0.69-0.76). All methods presented high specificities (around 0.99) and similar ICCs, but the kappa value for LFpen at white-spot threshold was lower (0.44). In conclusion, both LFpen and radiographic methods present similar performance in detecting the presence of cavitations on approximal surfaces of primary molars. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Urease activity in dental plaque and saliva of children during a three-year study period and its relationship with other caries risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Morou-Bermudez, E; Elias-Boneta, A; Billings, RJ; Burne, RA; Garcia-Rivas, V; Brignoni-Nazario, V; Suarez-Perez, E

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial urease activity in dental plaque and in saliva generates ammonia, which can increase the plaque pH and can protect acid-sensitive oral bacteria. Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate ammonia from urea in dental plaque can be an important caries risk factor. In spite of this proposed important clinical role, there is currently no information available regarding important clinical aspects of oral ureolysis in children. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and pattern of urease activity in the dental plaque and in the saliva of children during a three-year period, and to examine the relationship of urease with some important caries risk factors. METHODS A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measures over a three-year period on a panel of 80 children, ages three to six years at recruitment. The dynamics of change in urease activity were described and associated with clinical, biological, and behavioral caries risk factors. RESULTS Urease activity in plaque showed a trend to remain stable during the study period and was negatively associated with sugar consumption (P<0.05). Urease activity in unstimulated saliva increased with age, and it was positively associated with the levels of mutans streptococci in saliva and with the educational level of the parents (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The results of this study reveal interesting and complex interactions between oral urease activity and some important caries risk factors. Urease activity in saliva could be an indicator of mutans infection in children. PMID:21616477

  11. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management.

    PubMed

    Jurić, Hrvoje

    2013-11-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. Present and future approaches for the control of caries.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2005-05-01

    This article summarizes current and potential future approaches for the management of caries. Current surveys suggest that traditional "drill, fill, and bill" dentistry is still widely practiced in the United States in spite of considerable evidence that supports a minimally invasive treatment approach. Because there is a wide variability in treatment decisions on when and how to prevent new lesions, on how to arrest the progression of existing lesions, and on when and how to place initial and replacement restorations, the findings from some studies differ significantly from the results of other studies. While fluoride treatments are known to prevent a percentage of new lesions, they do not have the ability to prevent all caries lesions. Modern management of caries entails treating patients according to risk and monitoring early lesions in tooth surfaces that are not cavitated. Although we know that the dmfs score for children is a powerful predictor of caries increment in permanent teeth of these children a few years later, this score is rarely used in private practice as a measure of risk or as a measure of treatment success. Although these modern methods for caries management offer great promise for controlling the disease, they may take decades to apply in a standardized way so that the variability in treatment is reduced. However, during the next two decades, an alternative approach to caries prevention such as replacement therapy and a caries vaccine may become available as a more consistent method of controlling this disease.

  13. Deciduous teeth occlusal caries detection with 655-nm diode laser confirmed by surface scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Danilo; Fonseca, Yara P. C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    The morphological complexity of the occlusal surface of deciduous molar teeth is considered as a factor to increase vulnerability to caries lesion. Occlusal surface of these teeth shows sulcus, pits and fissures which allow retention of both micro-organisms and food debris which make them more susceptible to caries. In the last decades there was a significant reduction on caries of smooth surface but not on the occlusal surface where dentinal caries develops under fissures which are apparently caries-free under eye observation. This is known as a hidden caries. The occlusal surface of sound extracted deciduous molar teeth were examined using a 655 nm diode laser (DIAGNOdent - KaVo) in order to detect hidden caries. When there was indication of a hidden caries, the area was examined using SEM and confirm or not the diagnosis. The authors concludes that the diagnosis of caries using 655 diode laser is reliable and precise method.

  14. Microbiologic effects of SnF2 and NaF mouthrinses in subjects with high caries activity: results after one year.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, N; Klock, B; Camosci, D A; Manwell, M A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-two adults, considered to have high caries activity, rinsed for one yr with either SnF2 or acidulated NaF mouthrinses. Total colony-forming units and numbers of S. mutans and lactobacilli were estimated from saliva samples. Large reductions were found in the number of recoverable S. mutans in subjects rinsing with SnF2 but not in the NaF group.

  15. Association between staining by caries detector dye and the corresponding mineral density in dentin caries.

    PubMed

    Sunago, Miho; Nakashima, Syozi; Tagami, Junji

    2009-02-01

    To examine an association between coloration (red, pink) resulting from staining with Caries Detector Dye (CDD) and the corresponding mineral density in dentin caries lesions determined by transverse microradiography (TMR). CDD coloration of the lesion sections (approx. 190 microm) prepared from extracted caries teeth was photographed, and the corresponding relative mineral densities (RMD: relative values to the sound dentin) were obtained by TMR. A parallel study was performed using artificially demineralized and then remineralized dentin lesions. The mean RMD values in the naturally black-pigmented, red- and pink-stained portions were 46 +/- 26.7%, 64 +/- 24.5%, and 80 +/- 15.1%, respectively. There were statistical differences in the RMD values among the three portions, as well as a wider range of RMD value distributions in the red and black-pigmented portions than in the pink portion.Even among the black-pigmented and red portions, much higher RMD values more than 90% were observed in several lesions, which were close to the mineral density of the sound (unaffected) dentin tissue. On the other hand, the remineralized surface layer of artificially demineralized lesions did not show the red coloration, and there seemed a threshold value of mineral density (approx. 21%), beyond which the red coloration was not observed. Similar threshold value was noted in the remineralized lesion body. This study showed a remarkable discrepancy regarding the RMD value for the red staining behavior between the naturally occurring caries and artificial carious lesion.

  16. Maternal separation and lesion of adtn alters anxiety and adrenal activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Bárbara Bárcena; Levin, Gloria; Rivarola, María Angélica; Suárez, Marta Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of early maternal separation on anxiety and hypophyso-adrenal system activity to anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADTN) lesion in male rats as adults in order to compare this with previous results with female rats. During the first 3 weeks of life, male rats were isolated 4.5 hr daily and tested as adults. Thirty days after ADTN lesion we found that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plasma levels were affected neither by maternal separation nor by ADTN lesion. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration was increased with lesion of the ADTN in maternally separated rats. A significant increase in plasma catecholamine concentration was induced by early maternal separation. In ADTN-lesioned rats, plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration was significantly lower than in the respective sham-lesioned groups. In terms of anxiety, there were no significant effects of early experience. However, the ADTN lesion tended to decrease anxiety-related behavior.

  17. Sex differentials in caries frequencies in Medieval London.

    PubMed

    Walter, Brittany S; DeWitte, Sharon N; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-03-01

    Tooth decay is one of the most common oral infections observed in skeletal assemblages. Sex differentials in caries frequency are commonly examined, with most studies finding that females tend to have a higher frequency of carious lesions (caries) compared to males. Less research has examined differences in caries between males and females with respect to age in past populations. Findings from living populations indicate that caries frequencies are higher in females, at least in part, because of the effects of estrogen and pregnancy. We are interested in the interaction of age, sex, and caries in medieval London, during a period of repeated famines, which might have exacerbated underlying biological causes of caries sex differentials. We examined caries in adults from two medieval London cemeteries dating to c. 1120-1539 AD: St. Mary Spital (n=291) and St. Mary Graces (n=80) to test the hypothesis that males and females have different caries frequencies irrespective of age. The association between maxillary molar caries and sex was tested using hierarchical log-linear analysis to control for the effects of age on caries frequencies. The results indicate a higher frequency of maxillary molar caries in females (P<0.00), and that the age distribution of caries differs between the sexes (P=0.01), with a consistent increase in frequency with age for females until late adulthood, but not males. The difference in caries frequencies is not explained by differences in the age distributions of the sexes. Differences in the age patterns of caries for males and females could be the result of biological factors that present during reproductive age, differences in diet, or differential access to resources during famine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Active nonsurgical decompression of large periapical lesions--3 case reports.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Jose L; Donado, Jaime E; Basrani, Bettina

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a new nonsurgical approach for treating large periapical lesions which involves using a modified vacuum system within the root canal space. This new technique produces a vacuum effect in the periapical zone, which facilitates evacuation of large amounts of inflammatory fluids. This technique was used in 3 clinical cases, in which the patients presented with copious amounts of exudate draining from within the root canals. Clinical and radiographic results showed long-term resolution of the endodontic lesions. This treatment of the periapical pathology was consistent with the principles of conservative, nonsurgical endodontic procedures.

  19. Salivary protein characteristics from saliva of carious lesionfree and high caries adults.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ramiro J; Herrera, Raúl; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

    2016-09-01

    It has been argued that specific salivary proteins could have a protective effect against caries, but data from the many available studies are rather contradictory. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether there is a relationship between protein concentration, electrophoretic profile and concentration of salivary IgA and the presence or absence of caries in adults. Adults with high caries activity (HC) and without caries lesions (CF), assessed by ICDAS criteria, were asked to provide unstimulated saliva samples. Protein concentration (μg/mL) was determined using the Bradford method. Western blotting was used to detect IgA. Data were compared using Student's t test at p<0.05. Total protein concentration in CF was higher (50.65±7.5 μg/mL) than in HC individuals (26.80±2.5 μg/mL) (p=0.001). More protein bands were visualized in the gels from CF than the HC group (p=0.001). CF subjects showed higher salivary IgA concentration (11.27±0.5 μg) than HC individuals (1.71±0.2μg) (p=0.001).Salivary composition in high caries experience and cariesfree young adults seems to differ in terms of the type and amount of proteins. Further research is needed to expand these findings.

  20. Behavior and progression of early carious lesions in early childhood: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; Santos, Marinês Nobre dos; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Costa, Luciana Scarlazzari

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this 1-year follow-up study was to evaluate the behavior/progression of early carious lesions (active noncavitated carious lesions) by surface and type of tooth in early childhood. A total of 179 3-and 4-year-old preschoolers took part in this study. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner using a mirror, ball-ended probe, gauze for cleaning and drying of teeth, and artificial light. The World Health Organization criteria, with an added measurement of early carious lesions (ECLs), were employed for the caries examinations. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. After a 1-year follow-up, the study population developed 1.60 ± 1.64 new carious lesions. Children with caries activity at baseline showed much higher risks of developing new lesions than caries-free children (odds ratio=17.3 for ECL development, OR=24.5 for cavitations/fillings). Most ECLs remained active/unchanged after 1 year, whereas approximately 36% were arrested. Approximately 10% of the ECLs became cavitated, were filled, or were missing due to caries at follow-up. ECLs turned into cavities or fillings more frequently in the posterior region. This study's findings support the conservative management of ECLs since, after 1 year, the majority of lesions were active/unchanged or were arrested on the smooth surfaces of primary teeth.

  1. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  2. Genetic Variation in MMP20 Contributes to Higher Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Kuchler, Erika Calvano; Lips, Andrea; de Castro Costa, Marcelo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Granjeiro, Jose Mauro; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Summary Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role during the initial process of enamel development and therefore may play a role in caries. Objectives To evaluate the association between MMP20 and caries experience in Brazilian children. Methods Eligible unrelated children with or without caries were evaluated using a cohort design. Demographic data and oral health habits were obtained though a questionnaire. Caries data was collected by clinical examination. Genotyping of the selected polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR from genomic DNA. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between groups with distinct caries experience and oral health habits. Results Of 388 subjects, 161 were caries free children. There were no differences between caries levels and genotype distribution in the total cohort. When ethnic background was considered, differences in genotype distribution were observed in caries free children versus children with caries in Caucasians (p=0.03). Differences could also be seen when poor oral hygiene was used to stratify the analysis (p=0.02). Regression analysis, adjusted for genotype and ethnicity, confirmed that ingestion of sweets between meals increases the risk of presenting carious lesions (p=0.00001; OR=2.33; 95%CI 1.53–3.54). Conclusion Variation in MMP20 may be associated with caries experience mainly in Caucasian subjects with poor oral health habits. PMID:22330321

  3. Identification of caries risk children and prevention of caries in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Holst, A; Mårtensson, I; Laurin, M

    1997-01-01

    A special model for dental care in pre-school children was used in a small clinic in the county of Blekinge in southern Sweden. The model is based on screening of caries risk performed by a dental assistant before the caries attack. Any single risk factor or risk behavior in pre-school children was considered. The aim was to 1) evaluate the dental assistant's selection of caries risk children up to the age of three years, 2) compare dental health variables in 4 yr olds in the test clinic with those for the whole county in 1994 and 3) compare time spent by the dentist and the dental assistant in the test clinic and in the whole county per child up to the age of four. 102 children participated. One specially trained dental assistant screened all children using background factors combined with clinical examinations at ages 1, 2 and 3. Eighty-two children participated each year from one year. A systematized form for questioning the parents was used. Individual caries prevention was given including fluoride and antimicrobial treatments as well as fissure sealants in primary molars at caries risk. The proportion of children with caries lesions at four years and a caries risk assessment up to the age of two was 1.0 (sensitivity). The proportion of children with no caries lesions at four years and no caries risk assessment at year two was 0.7 (specificity). The most frequent risk factors found at 2 yrs were frequency order: lack of oral hygiene (visible plaque), deep fissures in molars and frequent intakes of sweet drinks. The proportion of children with no caries lesions at 4 yrs of age in the test clinic was 92.9% compared to a county mean of 76.4%. In the group of children where a risk assessment was made each year from one year the proportion of caries free children was 96.3%. The total time spent per child in the test clinic was 22 minutes more than the county mean. However, dentist's time, excluding assistance, was 28 minutes less in the test clinic. The results

  4. Effect of fluoride varnish on caries prevention of partially erupted of permanent molar in high caries risk.

    PubMed

    Suwansingha, Orawan; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effectiveness of fluoride varnish as a public health intervention to prevent caries on partially erupted first and second permanent molars among 6-11 year old children at high risk for caries. In a six-month clinical trial, 105 children were randomly divided into a fluoride varnish (Duraphat) group (117 molars) or a control group (117 molars). The chi-square test used to compare caries occurrence in each group with a 95% level of confidence (p<0.05) at the intervals of 3 months. Compared to control, fluoride varnish resulted in 79% and 77.5% caries reduction in partially erupted permanent molars at 3 and 6 months, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in caries progression between the groups at 3 and 6 months. Fluoride varnish significantly reduced carious lesions in partially erupted molars at six months among high caries risk children.

  5. Caries-removal effectiveness of a papain-based chemo-mechanical agent: A quantitative micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline A; Lourenço, Roseane A; Alves, Haimon D; Lopes, Ricardo T; Primo, Laura G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to access the effectiveness and specificity of a papain-based chemo-mechanical caries-removal agent in providing minimum residual caries after cavity preparation. In order to do it, extracted carious molars were selected and scanned in a micro-CT before and after caries-removal procedures with the papain-based gel. Similar parameters for acquisition and reconstruction of the image stacks were used between the scans. After classification of the dentin substrate based on mineral density intervals and establishment of a carious tissue threshold, volumetric parameters related to effectiveness (mineral density of removed dentin volume and residual dentin tissue) and specificity (relation between carious dentin in removed volume and initial caries) of this caries-removal agent were obtained. In general, removed dentin volume was similar or higher than the initial carious volume, indicating that the method was able to effectively remove dentin tissue. Samples with an almost perfect accuracy in carious dentin removal also showed an increased removal of caries-affected tissue. On the contrary, less or no affected dentin was removed in samples where some carious tissue was left in residual dentin. Mineral density values in residual dentin were always higher or similar to the threshold for mineral density values in carious dentin. In conclusion, the papain-based gel was effective in removing carious dentin up to a conservative in vitro threshold. Lesion characteristics, such as activity and morphology of enamel lesion, may also influence caries-removal properties of the method. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An ex vivo study of arrested primary teeth caries with silver diamine fluoride therapy.

    PubMed

    Mei, May L; Ito, L; Cao, Y; Lo, Edward C M; Li, Q L; Chu, C H

    2014-04-01

    This ex vivo study compared the physico-chemical structural differences between primary carious teeth biannually treated with silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and carious teeth without such treatment. Twelve carious primary upper-central incisors were collected from 6-year-old children. Six teeth had arrested caries after 24-month biannual SDF applications and 6 had active caries when there was no topical fluoride treatment. The mineral density, elemental contents, surface morphology, and crystal characteristics were assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Micro-CT examination revealed a superficial opaque band approximately 150μm on the arrested cavitated dentinal lesion. This band was limited in the active carious lesion. EDX examination detected a higher intensity of calcium and phosphate of 150μm in the surface zone than in the inner zone, but this zone was restricted in the active cavitated dentinal lesion. SEM examination indicated that the collagens were protected from being exposed in the arrested cavitated dentinal lesion, but were exposed in the active cavitated dentinal lesion. TEM examination suggested that remineralised hydroxyapatites were well aligned in the arrested cavitated dentinal lesion, while those in the active cavitated dentinal lesion indicated a random apatite arrangement. A highly remineralised zone rich in calcium and phosphate was found on the arrested cavitated dentinal lesion of primary teeth with an SDF application. The collagens were protected from being exposed in the arrested cavitated dentinal lesion. Clinical SDF application positively influences dentine remineralisation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased Activity and Number of Epidermal Melanocytes in Lesional Psoriatic Skin.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Elewa, Rana; Hippe, Sabine; Knolle, Jürgen; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-01-01

    Psoriatic lesions may resolve with hypo- or hyperpigmentation. The involvement of melanocytes in this dichotomous clinical outcome is not fully investigated. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of melanocytes in untreated lesional and non-lesional psoriatic skin (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 10). Skin biopsies were labelled immunohistochemically (APAAP technique) with the antimelanocyte monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) HMB45, Melan A, tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). The labelled melanocytes were evaluated by an independent investigator with a digital image analyser. Lesional melanocytes, in contrast to those in non-lesional and healthy skin, exhibited features of activation in the form of dilatation, prominent and long dendrites and intense labelling. The number of melanocytes was significantly increased in psoriatic lesions in comparison with non-lesional psoriatic and healthy skin as shown by counts of cells labelled with the MoAbs HMB45 (3-fold; p < 0.001), Melan A (1.6-fold; p < 0.01) and tyrosinase (1.5-fold; p < 0.01). In contrast, labelling with MITF revealed no significant difference (1.2-fold increase; p > 0.05). Likewise, no significant difference between non-lesional psoriatic and healthy skin control was found (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no positively labelled dermal cells were detected, apart from few only detected with Melan A. Epidermal melanocyte activity and numbers are increased in the epidermal compartment of psoriatic lesions providing an explanation for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  9. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  10. Diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life.

    PubMed

    sealants were reconfirmed and clinical studies to identify more conservative but more effective nonsurgical and surgical approaches are to be applauded. However, it was evident that current diagnostic practices are inadequate to achieve the next level of caries management in which noncavitated lesions are identified early so that they can be managed by nonsurgical methods. Some new and sensitive diagnostic approaches were presented to the panel, but concern was raised about the use of histological confirmation of caries presence as an appropriate gold standard. The resolution of these issues requires that surrogate markers, validated by histological confirmation, be developed. Once these surrogate markers of dental caries activity are validated, rapid advances in our understanding of the caries. In spite of optimism about the future, the panel was disappointed in the overall quality of the clinical data set that it reviewed. Far too many studies used weak research designs or were small or poorly described, and consequently had questionable validity. There was a clear impression that clinical caries research is underfunded, if not undervalued. Moreover, incomplete information on the natural history of dental caries, the inability to accurately identify early lesions and/or lesions that are actively progressing, and the absence of objective diagnostic methods are troubling. Several systematic reviews of the literature presented at the Consensus Development Conference concluded that the majority of the studies were inadequate, and it is clear that a major investment of research and training funds is required to seize the current opportunities. This is not to say that the diagnostic, preventive, and treatment techniques currently used do not work, but rather that earlier studies to support their efficacy do not meet current scientific standards. Indeed, given the dramatic improvements in reducing dental caries prevalence in the past 30 years, both consumers and health

  11. Dental caries patterns in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, D C

    1984-01-01

    Management of dental caries as a disease requires the same level of skill and broad perspective as managing many other diseases. Dental caries has several variations, four of which were presented here. Long-term outlook for children with two of the caries patterns (those secondary to fissure defects or hypoplastic defects) is good if the teeth are restored. Management of children with nursing caries often involves dealing with well-intentioned but overindulgent parents. Prevention of nursing caries goes beyond simply informing the parents of potential dangers from excessive feeding with the bottle. Hypoplastic defects can resemble nursing caries; the differentiation is important in treating the child. The child with extensive proximal molar lesions may be the most difficult to manage on a long-term basis. A successful prevention program will mean a change in life style for the parent and child. The child with a cleft lip and/or palate has the disadvantages of enamel defects and a significant medical condition inviting overindulgence.

  12. Efficacy of sealing proximal early active lesions: an 18-month clinical study evaluated by conventional and subtraction radiography.

    PubMed

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Ellwood, R

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of sealing proximal lesions on adult patients using a split-mouth design. Eighty-two 15- to 39-year-olds from the Dental Faculties in Copenhagen and Bogotá participated, each having 2 or more proximal lesions in the following radiographic stages: (1) lesion restricted to the outer half of enamel; (2) lesion from the inner half of enamel including the enamel dentine junction, and (3) lesion restricted to the outer third of dentine. Standardized geometrically aligned baseline and follow-up radiographs were obtained. One randomly selected lesion (test) in each patient was sealed with 1 of 2 resins. The patients were instructed to floss all the proximal lesions 3 times per week. The baseline to 18 months difference in caries lesion progression status was assessed using 3 methods: (1) radiographs were independently assessed visually; (2) radiographs were read in pairs, and (3) using subtraction radiography of digitized images. A total of 72 subjects finished the study (12.2% dropout). The compliance concerning flossing was poor (15%). For the repeated examinations kappa was 0.84 for the visual examination, 0.44 for the paired readings and 0.84 for the subtraction examination. Two test lesions and 1 control lesion were restored. For the independent radiograph assessment method 10 and 26% progressed in the test and control group, respectively (p > 0.05); with the paired radiograph method the corresponding data were 22% in the test and 47% in the control groups (p < 0.01). By subtraction radiography 44% of the test group and 84% of the control were judged to have progressed (p < 0.001). The sealing technique was superior to instructing patients to floss, and subtraction radiography appeared to be the most sensitive method for assessing lesion progression. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Quantitative MRI for Analysis of Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions without Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Blystad, I; Håkansson, I; Tisell, A; Ernerudh, J; Smedby, Ö; Lundberg, P; Larsson, E-M

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhancing MS lesions are important markers of active inflammation in the diagnostic work-up of MS and in disease monitoring with MR imaging. Because intravenous contrast agents involve an expense and a potential risk of adverse events, it would be desirable to identify active lesions without using a contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether pre-contrast injection tissue-relaxation rates and proton density of MS lesions, by using a new quantitative MR imaging sequence, can identify active lesions. Forty-four patients with a clinical suspicion of MS were studied. MR imaging with a standard clinical MS protocol and a quantitative MR imaging sequence was performed at inclusion (baseline) and after 1 year. ROIs were placed in MS lesions, classified as nonenhancing or enhancing. Longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates, as well as proton density were obtained from the quantitative MR imaging sequence. Statistical analyses of ROI values were performed by using a mixed linear model, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Enhancing lesions had a significantly (P < .001) higher mean longitudinal relaxation rate (1.22 ± 0.36 versus 0.89 ± 0.24), a higher mean transverse relaxation rate (9.8 ± 2.6 versus 7.4 ± 1.9), and a lower mean proton density (77 ± 11.2 versus 90 ± 8.4) than nonenhancing lesions. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.832 was obtained. Contrast-enhancing MS lesions often have proton density and relaxation times that differ from those in nonenhancing lesions, with lower proton density and shorter relaxation times in enhancing lesions compared with nonenhancing lesions. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. A comparative clinical study on the Carisolv caries removal method.

    PubMed

    Kakaboura, Afrodite; Masouras, Costas; Staikou, Olga; Vougiouklakis, George

    2003-04-01

    Carisolv is a relatively new chemomechanical method for caries removal. The aim of this clinical study was to compare Carisolv with the conventional drilling technique. Forty-five volunteers, ages 18 to 55 years, each with two contralateral primary coronal mesio-occlusal or disto-occlusal carious lesions, similar in extent, participated in the study. Two calibrated operators treated all lesions. One operator treated both lesions in one visit (one lesion with Carisolv and the other with conventional drilling). Following the filling procedure, the opinion of each patient regarding each caries removal method was recorded. The need for drilling in addition to the Carisolv application, the time required for caries removal, the need for anesthesia, and the gingival reaction to the Carisolv gel were recorded by each operator for each case. The patients found Carisolv treatment more pleasant (82%) and preferable (88%) to drilling. Of the patients treated with drilling, 40% required anesthesia compared to the 8% treated with Carisolv. Additional drilling for complete caries removal was needed in 10% of Carisolv-treated lesions. Carisolv induced no gingival reaction. Significantly longer times were required for caries removal with Carisolv (12.2 +/- 4.1 minutes) compared to drilling (6.8 +/- 2.8 minutes). The Carisolv technique was: (a) accepted by the majority of patients, (b) efficient for caries removal, (c) considered a time-consuming technique for the dentists, and (d) considered less dependent on local anesthesia.

  15. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  16. Caries Management Strategies for Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, R.M.; Innes, N.P.T.; Machiulskiene, V.; Evans, D.J.P.; Splieth, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. There is also increasing interest in techniques where no caries is removed. We present the 1-yr results of clinical efficacy for 3 caries management options for occlusoproximal cavitated lesions in primary molars: conventional restorations (CR; complete caries removal and compomer restoration), Hall technique (HT; no caries removal, sealing in with stainless steel crowns), and nonrestorative caries treatment (NRCT; no caries removal, opening up the cavity, teaching brushing and fluoride application). In sum, 169 children (3-8 yr old; mean, 5.56 ± 1.45 yr) were enrolled in this secondary care–based, 3-arm, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Treatments were carried out by specialist pediatric dentists or postgraduate trainees. One lesion per child received CR, HT, or NRCT. Outcome measures were clinical failure rates, grouped as minor failure (restoration loss/need for replacement, reversible pulpitis, caries progression, etc.) and major failure (irreversible pulpitis, abscess, etc.). There were 148 children (87.6%) with a minimum follow-up of 11 mo (mean, 12.23 ± 0.98 mo). Twenty teeth were recorded as having at least 1 minor failure: NRCT, n = 8 (5%); CR, n = 11 (7%); HT, n = 1 (1%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Only the comparison between NRCT and CR showed no significant difference (p = .79, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.80). Nine (6%) experienced at least 1 major failure: NRCT, n = 4 (2%); CR, n = 5 (3%); HT, n = 0 (0%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Individual comparison of NRCT and CR showed no statistically significant difference in major failures (p = .75, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.76). Success and failure rates were not significantly affected by pediatric dentists’ level of experience (p = .13, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.14). The HT was significantly more successful

  17. Poor oral health including active caries in 187 UK professional male football players: clinical dental examination performed by dentists.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Meehan, Lyndon; Petrie, Aviva; Weiler, Richard; McNally, Steve; Ayer, Chris; Hanna, Rob; Hunt, Ian; Kell, Steven; Ridgewell, Paul; Taylor, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The few studies that have assessed oral health in professional/elite football suggest poor oral health with minimal data on impact on performance. The aim of this research was to determine oral health in a representative sample of professional footballers in the UK and investigate possible determinants of oral health and self-reported impact on well-being, training and performance. Clinical oral health examination of senior squad players using standard methods and outcomes carried out at club training facilities. Questionnaire data were also collected. 8 teams were included, 5 Premier League, 2 Championship and 1 League One. 6 dentists examined 187 players who represented >90% of each senior squad. Oral health was poor: 37% players had active dental caries, 53% dental erosion and 5% moderate-severe irreversible periodontal disease. 45% were bothered by their oral health, 20% reported an impact on their quality of life and 7% on training or performance. Despite attendance for dental check-ups, oral health deteriorated with age. This is the first large, representative sample study in professional football. Oral health of professional footballers is poor, and this impacts on well-being and performance. Successful strategies to promote oral health within professional football are urgently needed, and research should investigate models based on best evidence for behaviour change and implementation science. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence to support oral health screening within professional football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    PubMed

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  19. Early thalamic lesions in patients with sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Fernández, I.; Takeoka, M.; Tas, E.; Peters, J.M.; Prabhu, S.P.; Stannard, K.M.; Gregas, M.; Eksioglu, Y.; Rotenberg, A.; Riviello, J.J.; Kothare, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence and type of early developmental lesions in patients with a clinical presentation consistent with electrical status epilepticus in sleep either with or without prominent sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity (PSPEA). Methods: We performed a case-control study and enrolled patients with 1) clinical features consistent with electrical status epilepticus in sleep, 2) ≥1 brain MRI scan, and 3) ≥1 overnight EEG recording. We quantified epileptiform activity using spike percentage, the percentage of 1-second bins in the EEG tracing containing at least 1 spike. PSPEA was present when spike percentage during non-REM sleep was ≥50% than spike percentage during wakefulness. Results: One hundred patients with PSPEA (cases) and 47 patients without PSPEA (controls) met the inclusion criteria during a 14-year period. Both groups were comparable in terms of clinical and epidemiologic features. Early developmental lesions were more frequent in cases (48% vs 19.2%, p = 0.002). Thalamic lesions were more frequent in cases (14% vs 2.1%, p = 0.037). The main types of early developmental lesions found in cases were vascular lesions (14%), periventricular leukomalacia (9%), and malformation of cortical development (5%). Vascular lesions were the only type of early developmental lesions that were more frequent in cases (14% vs 0%, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Patients with PSPEA have a higher frequency of early developmental lesions and thalamic lesions than a comparable population of patients without PSPEA. Vascular lesions were the type of early developmental lesions most related to PSPEA. PMID:22539569

  20. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Occlusal Primary Caries by Dentists in “The Dental Practice-Based Research Network”

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V; Bader, James D; Garvan, Cynthia W; Richman, Joshua S; Qvist, Vibeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Rindal, D. Brad; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives (1) Quantify at which carious lesion depths dentists intervene surgically for cases of varying caries penetration and caries risk; (2) Identify characteristics that are associated with surgical intervention. Methods Dentists in a practice-based research network who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry were surveyed. Dentists were asked to indicate whether they would surgically intervene in a series of cases depicting occlusal caries. Each case included a photograph of an occlusal surface displaying typical characteristics of caries penetration, and a written description of a patient at a specific level of caries risk. Using logistic regression, we analyzed associations of surgical treatment with dentist and practice characteristics, and patient caries risk levels. Results 519 DPBRN practitioner-investigators responded, of whom 63% indicated that they would surgically restore lesions located on inner enamel surfaces, and 90% of lesions located in outer dentin surfaces in a low caries risk individual. Regarding individuals at high caries risk, 77% reported that they would surgically restore inner enamel lesions and 94% reported restoring lesions located on the outer dentin surface. Dentists who did not assess caries risk were more likely to intervene on dentin lesions (p=.004). Practitioner-investigators who were in private practice were significantly more likely to intervene surgically on enamel lesions, compared to dentists from large group practices (p<.001). Conclusion Most dentists chose to provide some treatment to lesions that were within the enamel surface. Decisions to intervene surgically in the caries process differ by caries lesion depth, patient caries risk, assessment of caries risk, type of practice model, and percent of patients who self-pay. PMID:20123876

  1. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  2. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seok; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Results Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. Conclusion The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future. PMID:21977474

  3. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice.

  4. Need for new caries detection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  5. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

  6. Fish biomarkers for environmental monitoring: An integrated model supporting enzyme activity and histopathological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo

    2014-10-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the association between glutathione-S-transferase activity and brachial lesions in the catfish, Sciades herzbergii (Ariidae) from a polluted port. The catfish were sampled from a port known to be contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds and from a natural reserve in São Marcos Bay, Brazil. Two biomarkers, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and histopathological lesions, in gills tissue were measured. The values for GST activity were modeled with the occurrence of branchial lesions by fitting a third order polynomial. Results from the mathematical model indicate that GST activity has a strong polynomial relationship with the occurrence of branchial lesions in both the wet and the dry seasons, but only at the polluted port site. The model developed in this study indicates that branchial and hepatic lesions are initiated when GST activity reaches 2.15 μmol min-1 mg protein-1. Beyond this limit, GST activity decreased to very low levels and irreversible histopathological lesions occurred. This mathematical model provides a realistic approach to analyze predictive biomarkers of environmental health status.

  7. Treatment modalities for caries management, including a new resin infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Gerard; Arsenault, Peter; Papas, Athena

    2009-10-01

    Seemingly against all odds, dental caries still affects most people in the US. While fluoridated products, school-based screening and cleaning programs, better patient education, and professional and chemotherapeutic interventions have all impacted certain populations, caries is still the most prevalent chronic childhood disease and continues to affect a high percentage of adolescents, young and middle-aged adults, and seniors. Much research has proven that dental caries is not just an occasional cycle of cavitation but a complex and infectious disease process. Historically, addressing the caries challenge has relied on prevention and restoration, with no intermediary means to stop lesion progression. Recently, a technique called caries infiltration was introduced that fills the noncavitated pores of an incipient lesion with a low-viscosity resin by capillary action, creating a barrier that blocks further bacterial diffusion and lesion development. This microinvasive method for stabilizing early lesions requires no drilling or anesthesia and does not alter the tooth's anatomic shape. In cases of white spot lesions in the esthetic zone, it also eliminates opaqueness and blends with surrounding natural teeth. This article presents an overview of caries prevention initiatives and a case demonstrating the new caries infiltration technique. Combined with shifting the focus to caries risk assessment, this promising technology may prove to be a significant addition to the profession's caries treatment armamentarium.

  8. Update on early childhood caries since the Surgeon General's Report.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, Norman; Reisine, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The 2000 Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health included a limited discussion of the condition known as early childhood caries. Because of its high prevalence, its impact on young children's quality of life and potential for increasing their risk of caries in the permanent dentition, early childhood caries is arguably one of the most serious and costly health conditions among young children. A necessary first step in preventing dental caries in preschool children is understanding and evaluating the child's caries risk factors. Previous caries experience and white spot lesions should automatically classify a preschool child as high risk for caries. Microbial factors, such as presence of visible plaque and tests that identify a child as having high levels of mutans streptococci, also predict caries in young children. Frequency of sugar consumption, enamel developmental defects, social factors such as socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, and being an ethnic minority also have shown to be relevant in determining caries risk. On the basis of this knowledge of specific risk factors for an individual, different preventive strategies and different intensities of preventive therapies can be implemented. Caries preventive strategies in preschool children include fluoride therapy, such as supervised tooth brushing with a fluoridated dentifrice, systemic fluoride supplement to children who live in a nonfluoridated area and who are at risk for caries, and professional topical fluoride with fluoride varnish. There is emerging evidence that intensive patient counseling or motivational interviews with parents to change specific behaviors may reduce caries prevalence in their children. Findings regarding antimicrobial interventions, efforts to modify diets, and traditional dental health education are less consistent.

  9. Loss of circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, M. A.; Haro, P. J.; Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on male and female ambulatory rats, the effect of bilateral suprachiasmatic lesions on deep body temperature and locomotor activity circadian rhythms was investigated. A L/D:12/12 cycle and 23 C ambient temperature were maintained. One-half of the rats received radiofrequency lesions in the suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) while the second group were sham operated by lowering the radiofrequency electrode to the SCN without producing electrolytic lesions. Four weeks were allowed for recuperation. Autopsies were conducted to make sure that the lesions were restricted to SCN. The results show the complete disappearance of circadian rhythm in the SCN lesioned rats and only a slight diminution for the sham operated rats.

  10. Loss of circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, M. A.; Haro, P. J.; Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on male and female ambulatory rats, the effect of bilateral suprachiasmatic lesions on deep body temperature and locomotor activity circadian rhythms was investigated. A L/D:12/12 cycle and 23 C ambient temperature were maintained. One-half of the rats received radiofrequency lesions in the suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) while the second group were sham operated by lowering the radiofrequency electrode to the SCN without producing electrolytic lesions. Four weeks were allowed for recuperation. Autopsies were conducted to make sure that the lesions were restricted to SCN. The results show the complete disappearance of circadian rhythm in the SCN lesioned rats and only a slight diminution for the sham operated rats.

  11. DENTAL CARIES IN CHILDREN THAT PARTICIPATED IN A DENTAL PROGRAM PROVIDING MOTHER AND CHILD CARE*

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries in children that participate in a dental program attending mothers and children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. A selection was made of 343 children of both genders, from 3 to 6 years of age. The mothers answered questionnaires and children were examined at the Infant Dental Clinic of the Federal University of Piauí. The epidemiological index dmft was applied and active white spot lesions were included. The SPSS for Windows program, version 11.1 was used and non-parametric tests carried out (Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis). An alpha error of 5% (0.05) was considered for the null hypothesis of false rejection, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed that 57.5% (197) of the children were breast-fed for a period longer than 12 months. The mean dmft index and percentages of caries-free children at the age of 3 was 1.86 (58.82%); at 4 years of age 1.94 (57.60%); at 5 years of age 1.98 (56.86%) and at 6 years of age 2.42 (42.55%). The decay component (d) was prevalent at all ages. When active white spot lesions were added to the dmft index, there was an increase of 7.2% for children who had caries activity and/or previous caries experience and 2.61% for those with dmft equal to zero. The daily consumption of fermentable carbohydrates and free demand breast-feeding were factors increasing caries activity. Dental follow-up after the program and the number of daily brushings were shown to be factors providing protection against caries . Based on the results, the authors were able to conclude that the program caused a positive impact on caries disease control, as the number of dental appointments kept influenced the dmft index values in a statistically significant manner. PMID:19089031

  12. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  13. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    PubMed

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  14. The activity of dental caries in students of the Faculty of Stomatology examined by using microbiological and biochemical tests--Dentocult LB.

    PubMed

    Klichowska-Palonka, Małgorzata; Kiernicka, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between the value of Dentocult LB and numbers of DMF, DMFs and Ds in the 20-25 age group. Sixty-six randomly chosen students of the Faculty of Stomatology, Medical University of Lublin were included in the study. In all of them, their dental state was assessed by using average numbers of DMF, DMFs and Ds. In the microbiological examinations, a ready-made medium from the Dentocult LB set was used. Statistically significant, directly proportional dependence of the number of surfaces with Ds active caries and the LB number was found.

  15. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Antimicrobial efficacy of an indigenously prepared caries removing gel.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gilhotra, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-microbial efficacy of an indigenously prepared caries removing gel, in primary molars. Twenty teeth with broad occlusal cavitated lesions that fulfilled the clinical and radiographic criteria formed the study group. These teeth were subjected to chemomechanical method of caries removal, using an indigenously prepared caries removing gel. Prior to and following caries removal, the dentin samples were analyzed for total viable count and lactobacilli count. The percentage of reduction in the total viable count was 92.4% and in the lactobacilli count it was 94.1%, which was statistically highly significant. Removal of carious tissue with a caries removing gel, a natural plant extract, proved to be efficient, easy to perform, and comfortable for the patient.

  17. Activation of calpain-1 in human carotid artery atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Isabel; Nitulescu, Mihaela; Saido, Takaomi C; Dias, Nuno; Pedro, Luis M; e Fernandes, José Fernandes; Ares, Mikko PS; Pörn-Ares, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we observed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced death of endothelial cells was calpain-1-dependent. The purpose of the present paper was to study the possible activation of calpain in human carotid plaques, and to compare calpain activity in the plaques from symptomatic patients with those obtained from patients without symptoms. Methods Human atherosclerotic carotid plaques (n = 29, 12 associated with symptoms) were removed by endarterectomy. Calpain activity and apoptosis were detected by performing immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL assay on human carotid plaque sections. An antibody specific for calpain-proteolyzed α-fodrin was used on western blots. Results We found that calpain was activated in all the plaques and calpain activity colocalized with apoptotic cell death. Our observation of autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of calpain-1 provided further evidence for enzyme activity in the plaque samples. When calpain activity was quantified, we found that plaques from symptomatic patients displayed significantly lower calpain activity compared with asymptomatic plaques. Conclusion These novel results suggest that calpain-1 is commonly active in carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, and that calpain activity is colocalized with cell death and inversely associated with symptoms. PMID:19538725

  18. Th17 Cells and Activated Dendritic Cells Are Increased in Vitiligo Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Moussai, Dariush; Gulati, Nicholas; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Cohen, Jules A.; Krueger, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by progressive skin de-pigmentation due to the loss of cutaneous melanocytes. The exact cause of melanocyte loss remains unclear, but a large number of observations have pointed to the important role of cellular immunity in vitiligo pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized T cell and inflammation-related dermal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in pigmented non-lesional, leading edge and depigmented lesional vitiligo skin. By immunohistochemistry staining, we observed enhanced populations of CD11c+ myeloid dermal DCs and CD207+ Langerhans cells in leading edge vitiligo biopsies. DC-LAMP+ and CD1c+ sub-populations of dermal DCs expanded significantly in leading edge and lesional vitiligo skin. We also detected elevated tissue mRNA levels of IL-17A in leading edge skin biopsies of vitiligo patients, as well as IL-17A positive T cells by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Langerhans cells with activated inflammasomes were also noted in lesional vitiligo skin, along with increased IL-1ß mRNA, which suggest the potential of Langerhans cells to drive Th17 activation in vitiligo. Conclusions/Significance These studies provided direct tissue evidence that implicates active Th17 cells in vitiligo skin lesions. We characterized new cellular immune elements, in the active margins of vitiligo lesions (e.g. populations of epidermal and dermal dendritic cells subsets), which could potentially drive the inflammatory responses. PMID:21541348

  19. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  20. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  1. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a complement-activating lipid extracted from human atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The major characteristics of human atherosclerotic lesions are similar to those of a chronic inflammatory reaction, namely fibrosis, mesenchymal cell proliferation, the presence of resident macrophages, and cell necrosis. Atherosclerosis exhibits in addition the feature of lipid (mainly cholesterol) accumulation. The results of the present report demonstrate that a specific cholesterol-containing lipid particle present in human atherosclerotic lesions activates the complement system to completion. Thus, lipid could represent a stimulatory factor for the inflammatory reaction, whose underlying mechanistic basis may be, at least in part, complement activation. The complement-activating lipid was purified from saline extracts of aortic atherosclerotic lesions by sucrose density gradient centrifugation followed by molecular sieve chromatography on Sepharose 2B. It contained little protein other than albumin, was 100-500 nm in size, exhibited an unesterified to total cholesterol ratio of 0.58 and an unesterified cholesterol to phospholipid ratio of 1.2. The lipid, termed lesion lipid complement (LCA), activated the alternative pathway of complement in a dose-dependent manner. Lesion-extracted low density lipoprotein (LDL) obtained during the purification procedure failed to activate complement. Specific generation of C3a desArg and C5b-9 by LCA indicated C3/C5 convertase formation with activation proceeding to completion. Biochemical and electron microscopic evaluations revealed that much of the C5b-9 present in atherosclerotic lesions is membraneous, rather than fluid phase SC5b-9. The observations reported herein establish a link between lipid insudation and inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions via the mechanism of complement activation. PMID:2373993

  3. Inequality in dental caries distribution at noncavitated and cavitated thresholds in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Del Fabro, Joana; Buzzati, Bruna Cássia Schmidt; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the inequality in dental caries distribution according to different thresholds assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and to investigate the associations of socioeconomic factors with caries lesions at both noncavitated and cavitated thresholds. Study subjects were recruited in Santa Maria, Brazil, during the National Day of Children's Vaccination, and 639 children aged 12-59 months were included. Fifteen calibrated examiners performed the examinations using ICDAS criteria. Inequality in dental caries distribution was measured using the Gini coefficient, and the Significant Caries Index was calculated for several thresholds of ICDAS. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with the highest caries scores. The inequality in the distribution of dental caries was lower when precavitated caries were included; the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.77 to 0.60 when noncavitated caries lesions were included in the analyses. Moreover, the inequalities were higher in the younger than in the older children for all thresholds. Socioeconomic factors were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with caries when an ICDAS score of 3 was considered as the cut-off point. Children whose mothers did not complete primary education (P < 0.001) and those with low household income (P < 0.001) were more likely to have increased dental caries. Caries lesions were more equally distributed when noncavitated lesions were included in the dental survey. Socioeconomic factors are found to be associated with the inequalities in caries distribution in this age group. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Automated detection of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized transparent surface zone of caries lesions. There are structural differences between active lesions and arrested lesions, and the surface layer thickness may correlate with activity of the lesion. The purpose of this study was to develop a method that can be used to automatically detect and measure the thickness of the transparent surface layer in PS-OCT images. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the thickness of the transparent layer and the depth of the bovine enamel lesions produced using simulated caries models that emulate demineralization in the mouth. The transparent layer thickness measured with PS-OCT correlated well with polarization light microscopy (PLM) measurements of all regions (r2=0.9213). This study demonstrates that PS-OCT can automatically detect and measure thickness of the transparent layer formed due to remineralization in simulated caries lesions.

  5. Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana, P. A.; Bachmann, L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether laser irradiation is able to reduce caries incidence. For this purpose, the effects of laser on enamel and on fluoride uptake were discussed. Current literature regarding the preventive effect of laser irradiation on dental hard tissue has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of anticaries and induced changes on enamel by laser irradiation were also performed. Articles were selected using the Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases, and the results of these studies were described. The most common lasers employed for caries prevention on enamel are Nd:YAG; CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; and argon. The percentage of inhibition of dental caries varied from 30 to 97.2%, and the association with fluoride has demonstrated the best results on inhibition of caries development. Laser irradiation under specific conditions can change the crystallographic properties of apatite crystals, increasing the acid resistance of lased enamel. The combined treatment of laser irradiation with fluoride propitiates an expressive fluoride uptake, reducing the progression of carieslike lesions, and this treatment is more effective than laser or fluoride alone. Available data suggest that lasers combined with fluoride is a promising treatment in caries prevention.

  6. Differential diagnosis of breast lesions by use of biomagnetic activity and non-linear analysis.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Kotini, A; Koutlaki, N; Adamopoulos, A; Galazios, G; Anastasiadis, P

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates have not changed during the past 60 years despite significant advances in screening methods. It is tempting therefore to use novel technology in order to better understand breast oncology. In this study we investigated the biomagnetic activity obtained in benign and malignant breast lesions using a single channel biomagnetometer SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) in order to assess the method's efficacy in the differential diagnosis of these two types of lesions and its establishment as a screening technique. Magnetic recordings were obtained from 21 patients with palpable breast lumps. Of these 11 were invasive carcinomas and 10 were benign breast lesions. We used non-linear analysis to investigate whether there is any biological differentiation in the dynamics in these two types of lesions. High amplitudes characterized the waveform of a malignant breast lesion whereas in benign breast lesions the corresponding amplitudes were low. Using the application of non-linear analysis we observed a clear saturation value for the dimension of malignant breast lesions and no saturation for benign ones. Biomagnetic measurements with the SQUID and the application of non-linear analysis are promising procedures in assessing and differentiating breast tumors.

  7. New method to detect caries via fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart, J.; Frentzen, M.; Thoms, M.

    2007-07-01

    Caries, a common and widespread infectious disease, has to be detected as early as possible. Based on the need for an easy and handy tool for preventing invasive treatment a new fluorescence camera system has been developed. Using this camera the so-called porphyrins, metabolic products of oral pathogenic bacteria can be visualized. Thereby fluorophores are excited at a wavelength of 405nm by the built-in GaN-LEDs. Healthy and diseased dental hard tissues fluoresce in the green and in the red spectral range, respectively, thus allowing differentiation by coulor. To prove the reliability of this fluorescence camera system, freshly extracted teeth were examined. Three different methods of analysis were verified and compared to give information about the lesions (sensitivity & selectivity): The extent of the fluorescence area, the integral of the red/green ratio of the lesion and the maximum red/green ratio in the area of interest. Histological sections of the teeth served as reference. In addition, the camera was compared to a tip probe sensor already available on the market. In total, our results show that regarding the three different algorithms of analysis, the maximum of the red/green ratio is a preferential method to evaluate carious lesions. Sound tissue, enamel caries and dentin caries can be clearly distinguished. The new fluorescence camera is a handy, efficient and fast device in order to detect lesions and seems to be superior to the tip probe sensor regarding the positioning. Further studies are required.

  8. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  9. Effect of chlorhexidine gel on approximal caries increment in adolescents with high caries risk using professional flossing compared to individual trays.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Birgitta; Gisselsson, Hans; Wennerholm, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine gel treatment on approximal caries development during a three year-study in children with expected high risk of caries. New caries of this group was compared to the caries development in two groups with assumed moderate or low caries risk. One hundred and sixty-nine of 201 twelve-year-old children fulfilled the trial. A group of 77 children showed no caries experience and was expected to be a low caries risk group (R1). Ninety-two children had at least one approximal lesion and their salivary numbers of mutans streptococci (ms) were quantified. Forty-six of those showed less than 3 x 10(5) ms per ml saliva and were supposed to have a moderate caries risk (R2). Forty-six children, with high levels of ms, were expected to have a high caries risk (R3). Both R1 and R3 were treated with fluoride varnish every 18th month and R2 every 6th month. The R3 group was supplementary treated with 1% chlorhexidine gel (Corsodyl) by using either flossing combined with polishing (Flossing group), or gel in individual trays (Tray group) every third month, in two subsequent days. The mean caries development during three years was for R1 and R2, 1.5 and 3.0, respectively. For R3, the corresponding caries incidence was 2.9 in the Tray group and 2.8 in the Flossing group. Significantly less new caries was found in the R1 compared to R2 and R3, but no significant difference was found between R2 and R3 or between the two groups of R3. In conclusion both methods of professional chlorhexidine gel treatments showed a caries development corresponding to the group with moderate caries risk and could both be used for caries prevention.

  10. Migration background: a risk factor for caries development during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Julihn, Annika; Ekbom, Anders; Modéer, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The influence of child and parental migration background on the risk of approximal caries increment in Swedish adolescents was investigated. This retrospective longitudinal register-based cohort study included all 13-yr-old adolescents (n = 18,142) who were resident in the County of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, and followed them up to 19 yr of age. At follow-up, 15,538 subjects were examined. Caries data [decayed, missing, and filled teeth/surfaces (DMFT/S)], were collected from a dental database. Socio-demographic determinants were collected from Swedish National Registers. After adjustments for socio-demographic confounders, logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescents with foreign-born parents, irrespective of whether the child was born in Sweden or abroad, exhibited a significantly elevated risk for approximal caries increment (DMFSa > 0), and developed, on average, 0.53 and 1.14 more approximal caries lesions, respectively, compared with their counterparts with Swedish-born parents. Furthermore, adolescents born in eastern Europe exhibited an increased risk for approximal caries increment (DMFSa > 0) and developed, on average, 1.06 more approximal caries lesions compared with Swedish-born adolescents. In conclusion, parental migration background must be considered as a risk factor for caries development during adolescence, irrespective of whether or not the adolescent was born in Sweden.

  11. Circadian distribution of motor-activity in unilaterally 6-hydroxy-dopamine lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Baier, Paul Christian; Branisa, Pablo; Koch, Reinhard; Schindehütte, Jan; Paulus, Walter; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2006-02-01

    Sleep abnormalities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently consist in a reduction of total sleep time and efficacy and subsequent excessive daytime sleepiness. As it remains unclear whether these phenomena are part of the disease itself or result from pharmacological treatment, animal models for investigating the pathophysiology of sleep alterations in PD may add knowledge to this research area. In the present study, we investigate whether changes in circadian motor activity occur in 6-OHDA-lesioning model for PD, and allow a screening for disturbed sleep-waking behaviour. Activity measurements of six male Wistar rats with 6-OHDA-lesions in the medial forebrain bundle and six controls were carried out in two consecutive 12:12 h light-dark (LD) cycles. A computer-based video-analysis system, recording the animals' movement tracks was used. Distance travelled and number of transitions between movement periods and resting periods were determined. Although 6-OHDA-lesioned animals show a reduced locomotor activity compared to non-lesioned rats, the circadian distribution basically remained intact. However, some lesioning effects were more pronounced in the resting phase than in the activity phase, possibly paralleling nocturnal akinesia in PD. In order to further elucidate the described phenomena, it will be necessary to perform studies combining sleep recordings with locomotor activity measurements.

  12. BIRDSHOT CHORIORETINITIS LESIONS ON INDOCYANINE GREEN ANGIOGRAPHY AS AN INDICATOR OF DISEASE ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jennifer H; Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether classical indocyanine green angiography lesions in patients with birdshot chorioretinitis can be used to monitor disease activity. A retrospective case series was performed on 26 eyes in 26 consecutive patients with birdshot chorioretinitis who had at least one indocyanine green angiography performed during disease activity and another during disease quiescence. Using Photoshop, the mean number, area, and area per spot on indocyanine green angiography were compared between disease activity and quiescence using a paired ratio test. The mean total lesion number, area, and area per spot during disease activity were 75.27 spots, 24,525 pixels, and 364 pixels/spots, respectively. The mean total lesion number, area, and area per spot size during disease quiescence were 28.35 spots (P < 0.01), 7,411 pixels (P < 0.01), and 279 pixels/spot (P = 0.12), respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean total area and number of lesions between the time of disease activity and disease quiescence (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that indocyanine green angiography has a role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring treatment effectiveness; lesions can be reversible with treatment and their reappearance may be an indicator of disease relapse.

  13. Update on Early Childhood Caries since the Surgeon General's Report

    PubMed Central

    Tinanoff, Norman; Reisine, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The 2000 Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health (SGROH) included a limited discussion of the condition known as Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Because of its high prevalence, its impact on young children's quality of life and potential for increasing their risk of caries in the permanent dentition, ECC is arguably one of the most serious and costly health conditions among young children. A necessary first step in preventing dental caries in preschool children is understanding and evaluating the child's caries risk factors. Previous caries experience and white spot lesions should automatically classify a preschool child as high risk for caries. Microbial factors, such as presence of visible plaque and tests that identify a child as having high levels of mutans streptococci also predict caries in young children. Frequency of sugar consumption, enamel developmental defects, social factors such as socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, and being an ethnic minority also have shown to be relevant in determining caries risk. Based on this knowledge of specific risk factors for an individual, different preventive strategies as well as different intensities of preventive therapies can be employed. Caries preventive strategies in preschool children include fluoride therapy, such as supervised tooth brushing with fluoridated dentifrice, systemic fluoride supplement to children living in a non-fluoridated area that are at risk for caries, and professional topical fluoride with fluoride varnish. There is emerging evidence that intensive patient counseling or motivational interviews with parents to change specific behaviors may reduce caries prevalence in their children. Findings regarding antimicrobial interventions, efforts to modify diets, and traditional dental health education are less consistent. PMID:19945074

  14. The effect of CPP-ACP-propolis chewing gum on calcium and phosphate ion release on caries-active subjects’ saliva and the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnamudhia, F.; Bachtiar, E. W.; Sahlan, M.; Soekanto, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of CPP-APP and propolis wax if they are combined in a chewing gum formulation, observed from the calcium and phosphate ion level released by CPP-ACP and the emphasis of Streptococcus mutans mass in the biofilm by propolis wax on caries-active subjects’ saliva. Chewing gum simulation was done in vitro on 25 caries-active subjects’ saliva using five concentrations of chewing gum (0% propolis + 0% CPP-ACP, 0% propolis + CPP-ACP, 2% propolis + CPP-ACP, 4% propolis + CPP-ACP, and 6% propolis + CPP-ACP) and was then tested using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer to analyze calcium ion levels, an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer to analyze phosphate ion levels, and a biofilm assay using crystal violet to analyze the decline in biofilm mass. After the chewing simulation, calcium ion levels on saliva+gum eluent increased significantly compared to the saliva control, with the highest calcium level released by CPP-ACP + 2% propolis chewing gum. There was an insignificant phosphate level change between the saliva control and saliva+gum eluent. There was also a significant decline of S. mutans biofilm mass in the saliva+gum eluent, mostly by the CPP-ACP chewing gum and CPP-ACP + 6% propolis. The CPP-ACP-propolis chewing gum simulation generated the largest increase in calcium and phosphate ion level and the largest decline in S. mutans biofilm mass.

  15. Caries risks and appropriate intervals between bitewing x-ray examinations in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Marcel; Bühlmann, Saskia; Menghini, Giorgio; Imfeld, Carola; Imfeld, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Short intervals between bitewing examinations favor the timely detection of lesions on approximal surfaces. Long intervals reduce the exposure to radiation. Thus, the question arises which intervals between bite-wing examinations are appropriate. The length of intervals between bitewing examinations should be adapted to the caries risk on approximal surfaces of molars and premolars. In order to estimate the caries risk in the Swiss school population, longitudinal data of 591 schoolchildren from the Canton (County) of Zurich were analyzed. These schoolchildren had been examined at 4-year intervals. The proportion of 7-year-olds with caries increment on approximal surfaces within 4 years was 7.1%, i.e., the caries risk in the population was 7.1%. In the 11-year-olds, the caries risk was 17.60%. Seven-year-olds without caries experience on selected approximal surfaces had a low caries risk of 2.2%. However, 7-year-olds with caries experience on selected approximal surfaces had a high risk of 24.2%. The same applied to 11-year-olds: those without caries experience had a low risk (7.5%), and those with caries experience had a high risk (38.5%). For the 7-year-old schoolchildren without any caries experience, an x-ray interval of 8 years is proposed. For the 7-year-old schoolchildren with caries experience, an x-ray interval of 1 year is proposed.

  16. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARα,...

  17. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  18. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  19. The systemic theory of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Southward, Ken

    2011-01-01

    There is growing awareness of oral/systemic links, especially with regard to periodontal disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, among others. The process of dental caries has similar links. Bacterial and other acids in the oral environment can erode enamel and potentially initiate an inflammatory response in the dentin. The body's own matrix metalloproteinases, mostly from within the dentin, become activated, resulting in the caries process. A simplified explanation of the oxidative stress causing inflammation is developed from three equations, namely Health, Disease, and Disease. The healthy tooth is nourished by a centrifugal dentinal fluid flow. This flow is controlled by signals from the hypothalamus that are relayed to the endocrine portion of the parotid gland. The first step in the caries process is the reversal of the dentinal fluid flow, rather than the acid attack from the oral environment. A systemic understanding of the actual cause and progression of dental caries creates opportunities for more effective approaches to preventive care.

  20. Hippocampus and two-way active avoidance conditioning: Contrasting effects of cytotoxic lesion and temporary inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Bast, Tobias; Wang, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Hippocampal lesions tend to facilitate two-way active avoidance (2WAA) conditioning, where rats learn to cross to the opposite side of a conditioning chamber to avoid a tone-signaled footshock. This classical finding has been suggested to reflect that hippocampus-dependent place/context memory inhibits 2WAA (a crossing response to the opposite side is inhibited by the memory that this is the place where a shock was received on the previous trial). However, more recent research suggests other aspects of hippocampal function that may support 2WAA learning. More specifically, the ventral hippocampus has been shown to contribute to behavioral responses to aversive stimuli and to positively modulate the meso-accumbens dopamine system, whose activation has been implicated in 2WAA learning. Permanent hippocampal lesions may not reveal these contributions because, following complete and permanent loss of hippocampal output, other brain regions may mediate these processes or because deficits could be masked by lesion-induced extra-hippocampal changes, including an upregulation of accumbal dopamine transmission. Here, we re-examined the hippocampal role in 2WAA learning in Wistar rats, using permanent NMDA-induced neurotoxic lesions and temporary functional inhibition by muscimol or tetrodotoxin (TTX) infusion. Complete hippocampal lesions tended to facilitate 2WAA learning, whereas ventral (VH) or dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions had no effect. In contrast, VH or DH muscimol or TTX infusions impaired 2WAA learning. Ventral infusions caused an immediate impairment, whereas after dorsal infusions rats showed intact 2WAA learning for 40-50 min, before a marked deficit emerged. These data show that functional inhibition of ventral hippocampus disrupts 2WAA learning, while the delayed impairment following dorsal infusions may reflect the time required for drug diffusion to ventral hippocampus. Overall, using temporary functional inhibition, our study shows that the ventral

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Binita; Bhatia, Hind Pal; Aggarwal, Archana; Kumar Singh, Ashish; Gupta, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Candida albicans in extensive carious lesions before and after treatment of the carious lesions and to evaluate the carriage of Candida albicans in children with and without caries. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 60 childrens who were divided into two groups: Experimental group (group 1) and controlled group (group 2). Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups according to the dentition as: Group A (Deciduous), group B (Mixed) and group C (Permanent). Swab samples for mycological studies were collected from the dorsum of the tongue, vestibular sulcus and peak of the palatal vault. All samples were cultured directly on SDA plate (Sabouraud's dextrose agar). Number of Candida colonies was determined by counting colony forming unit on SDA plates. Further identification of Candida albicans was done by germ-tube test and corn-meal agar. Result: Overall prevalence of Candida albicans carriage was significantly higher and mean value of Candida albicans CFU (colony forming unit) was remarkably higher in group 1 (experimental group) as compare to group 2 (control group). Significant reduction in the frequency and mean value of Candida albicans CFU/plate was seen in children after treatment of carious lesions. Conclusion: This study supports the active role of Candida species in dental caries. Hence, Candida albicans may play an important role as a risk factor for dental caries. It was also seen that the oral environment stabilization procedures were able to reduce Candida albicans counts. Thus, these procedures can be considered efficient in the reduction of caries risk. How to cite this article: Srivastava B, Bhatia HP, Chaudhary V, Aggarwal A, Singh AK, Gupta N. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):108-112. PMID:25206148

  2. The natural course of active choroidal lesions in the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, F A

    1979-01-01

    Eighty-two patients and 106 eyes with the POHS have been followed for one year or longer. Untreated active choroidal lesions were divided into groupings based on the distance from the center of the CFZ and the reltionship to the border of the CFZ. Twenty-three percent of untreated active choroidal lesions that were located inside the CFZ achieved 20/20 to 20/40 vision. Sixty-three percent of untreated active choroidal lesions that were located outside of the CFZ achieved a vision of 20/20 to 20/40. The active choroidal lesions with the best visual prognosis were 0.25 to 0.5 disc diamterers, demonstrated no growth, and had little or no associated choroidal bleeding. Activation of choroidal lesions in the fellow eye at the site of preexisting atrophic scars was documented in 21% of the eyes. One fellow eye developed a de novo active choroidal lesion. Eighteen percent of the cases had structurally congested nerve heads characterized by slight elevation of the disc and no physiologic depression; 3% of the eyes had drusen of the optic nerve. A relationship may exist between peripapillary scarring in the POHS and these nerve head changes. Images FIGURE 4 E FIGURE 4 F FIGURE 4 G FIGURE 4 H FIGURE 4 I FIGURE 4 J FIGURE 4 K FIGURE 4 L FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 6 C FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 8 D FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 10 D PMID:397662

  3. Biochemical indicators of dental caries in saliva: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Hegde, M N; Hegde, N D; Ashok, A; Shetty, S

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, copper and zinc levels in saliva of caries-active and caries-free individuals. Eighty healthy adults were divided according to WHO criteria: caries-free (DMFT = 0) and caries-active (DMFT >10). Saliva collected was estimated for SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels using the atomic nitro blue tetrazolium chloride reduction method and absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The Student t test was applied. In conclusion, SOD activity as well as copper and zinc levels increased in the caries-active group and showed statistically significant results.

  4. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series.

  5. Children's oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs as predictors of success in caries control during a 3.4-year randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hietasalo, Pauliina; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Niinimaa, Ahti; Seppä, Liisa; Hausen, Hannu

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of the participants in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) were associated with D(3)MFS increment. Additionally, the aim was to study whether the association was mediated by the two baseline behaviors, i.e. brushing teeth and eating candies. Children in Pori, Finland (n = 493) aged 11-12 years, with active initial caries lesion(s) at baseline, were studied. The data were based on clinical examinations in 2001 and 2005 and on a questionnaire administered in 2001. Associations between success in caries control and baseline oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and the belief in keeping one's own teeth throughout life were evaluated using negative binomial regression analyses while considering the effects of the two baseline oral health behaviors. The degree of concern about getting decay in one's own teeth was associated with caries increment. The less concerned the child was about new caries lesions, the more likely he/she was to develop new cavities. This association was not mediated by the two behaviors. Those children who did not know whether or not their mother had cavities were more likely to fail in caries control than were children who knew about their mother's cavities. It is important to determine child's level of concern about getting cavities because children who are concerned about developing cavities are likely to succeed in caries control while the opposite is true for those children who do not share this concern.

  6. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level.

  7. Abnormal endothelial tight junctions in active lesions and normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Jonnie; McQuaid, Stephen; Mirakhur, Meenakshi; Kirk, John

    2002-04-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, demonstrable in vivo by enhanced MRI is characteristic of new and expanding inflammatory lesions in relapsing-remitting and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtle leakage may also occur in primary progressive MS. However, the anatomical route(s) of BBB leakage have not been demonstrated. We investigated the possible involvement of interendothelial tight junctions (TJ) by examining the expression of TJ proteins (occludin and ZO-1 ) in blood vessels in active MS lesions from 8 cases of MS and in normal-appearing white (NAWM) matter from 6 cases. Blood vessels (10-50 per frozen section) were scanned using confocal laser scanning microscopy to acquire datasets for analysis. TJ abnormalities manifested as beading, interruption, absence or diffuse cytoplasmic localization of fluorescence, or separation of junctions (putative opening) were frequent (affecting 40% of vessels) in oil-red-O-positive active plaques but less frequent in NAWM (15%), and in normal (< 2%) and neurological controls (6%). Putatively "open" junctions were seen in vessels in active lesions and in microscopically inflamed vessels in NAWM. Dual fluorescence revealed abnormal TJs in vessels with pre-mortem serum protein leakage. Abnormal or open TJs, associated with inflammation may contribute to BBB leakage in enhancing MRI lesions and may also be involved in subtle leakage in non-enhancing focal and diffuse lesions in NAWM. BBB disruption due to tight junctional pathology should be regarded as a significant form of tissue injury in MS, alongside demyelination and axonopathy.

  8. Pediatric caries worldwide: implications for oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2005-05-01

    International data on pediatric caries epidemiology confirms that tooth decay remains a significant and consequential disease of childhood that is increasingly localized in a subset of at-risk children in both developing and developed countries. A conceptual schema is presented to characterize the occurrence of caries in child populations, and observations are made regarding the countervailing impact of simple sugars and fluoride in these populations. Temporal changes in caries distribution suggest that targeted dental caries management protocols are increasingly indicated to more effectively manage the particular risk and caries activity of individual children. Criteria for successful protocols are discussed in light of both caries pathogenesis and international recommendations to improve children's oral health.

  9. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    PubMed Central

    CABRAL, Renata Nunes; HILGERT, Leandro Augusto; FABER, Jorge; LEAL, Soraya Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001), showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk. PMID:25466473

  10. Approximal caries increment in relation to baseline approximal caries prevalence among adolescents in Sweden with and without a school-based fluoride varnish programme.

    PubMed

    Sköld, U M

    2016-12-01

    Approximal surfaces are a focal point for caries prevention among adolescents in Sweden and the aims of this study were therefore to evaluate approximal caries incidence and caries progression among adolescents with and without a three-year school-based fluoride varnish programme in relation to approximal caries prevalence at baseline. In all, 758 (89%) 13-year-olds completed the three-year randomised controlled trial. They all used fluoride toothpaste at home and had regular dental check-ups at the public dental clinics. The mean approximal caries incidence for the adolescents who were caries free on these surfaces at baseline was 0.13 (SD 0.54) in the fluoride varnish group and 0.79 (1.93) in the control group. The corresponding values for those who had caries at baseline in these groups were 1.29 (2.21) and 2.62 (3.22) respectively. The latter two groups also had 0.34 (1.00) and 0.70 (1.13) approximal enamel lesions that progressed. All differences were statistically significant (p⟨0.001). Among those individuals who had approximal caries at baseline, double the number of early approximal enamel lesions in the control group progressed compared with the fluoride varnish group. The school-based fluoride varnish programme inhibited new approximal lesions to a great extent and effectively kept approximal enamel lesions within the enamel among 13-16-year-olds. It is therefore recommended that such a programme is warranted when the approximal surfaces are still caries free in order to keep these surfaces free from caries and keep upcoming approximal enamel lesions within the enamel.

  11. Scanning ablation of root caries with acoustic feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kenneth; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that short λ=355-nm laser pulses can be used for the selective removal of caries lesions and composite restorative materials from occlusal surfaces with minimal damage to the peripheral sound tooth structure. One advantage of laser-systems is they can be integrated with acoustic and optical feedback systems for the automated discrimination of dental caries and restorative materials. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root caries could be selectively removed from tooth surfaces using a computer controlled laserscanning system coupled with an acoustic feedback system. Dental root caries surfaces on extracted teeth were scanned with λ=355-nm laser pulses at irradiation intensities ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 J/cm2. Acoustic feedback signals were acquired and used to control the laser output and scanning stages were used to position the laser over carious dentin until all the caries were removed to a fixed depth. Polarization optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) was used to acquire images of the root caries lesions before and after removal by the laser in order to assess if ablation was selective. The amplitude of the acoustic waves generated during the ablation of carious dentin was higher than for sound dentin allowing the acoustic feedback system to discriminate between sound and carious dentin. PS-OCT showed that caries were removed to a depth of up to 1.5-mm with minimal peripheral damage to peripheral sound dentin. The acoustic feedback was successfully used to distinguish between root caries and sound dentin, enabling the selective removal of caries from dentin surfaces using a λ=355-nm, Nd:YAG Q-switched laser system.

  12. A tissue-dependent hypothesis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, A; Belda-Ferre, P; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Alcaraz, L D; Mira, A

    2013-01-01

    Current understanding of dental caries considers this disease a demineralization of the tooth tissues due to the acid produced by sugar-fermenting microorganisms. Thus, caries is considered a diet- and pH-dependent process. We present here the first metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities present at different stages of caries development, with the aim of determining whether the bacterial composition and biochemical profile are specific to the tissue affected. The data show that microbial composition at the initial, enamel-affecting stage of caries is significantly different from that found at subsequent stages, as well as from dental plaque of sound tooth surfaces. Although the relative proportion of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.12% in dental plaque to 0.72% in enamel caries, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis were the dominant streptococci in these lesions. The functional profile of caries-associated bacterial communities indicates that genes involved in acid stress tolerance and dietary sugar fermentation are overrepresented only at the initial stage (enamel caries), whereas other genes coding for osmotic stress tolerance as well as collagenases and other proteases enabling dentin degradation are significantly overrepresented in dentin cavities. The results support a scenario in which pH and diet are determinants of the disease during the degradation of enamel, but in dentin caries lesions not only acidogenic but also proteolytic bacteria are involved. We propose that caries disease is a process of varying etiology, in which acid-producing bacteria are the vehicle to penetrate enamel and allow dentin degrading microorganisms to expand the cavity. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Capacity of a hydroxyapatite–lysozyme combination against Streptococcus mutans for the treatment of dentinal caries

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; da Rocha, Nathany Nunes; Peres, Mariane de Lourdes Hernandes Martins

    2016-01-01

    Background: One current strategy for the treatment of carious lesions is the use of biomaterials with antimicrobial activity. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate a combination of hydroxyapatite and lysozyme for the treatment of dentinal caries by measuring Streptococcus mutans counts before carious tissue sealing, and 24 h, 1 month, and 6 months after treatment. Materials and Methods: Forty permanent third molars were selected, and flat dentin surfaces were prepared. The teeth were exposed to a cariogenic challenge with S. mutans. After challenge, the dentinal caries were collected from five specimens. The remaining specimens were treated with a mixture of hydroxyapatite and lysozyme in sodium laureth sulfate and sealed with composite resin. S. mutans counts were obtained 24 h, 1 month, and 6 months after sealing. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: a significant reduction in S. mutans (CFU/mL) was observed in dentinal lesions 1 month after treatment with hydroxyapatite/lysozyme in sodium laureth sulfate (P = 0.0254). Comparison of S. mutans counts obtained 24 h, 1 month, and 6 months after treatment revealed reductions only at the 1-month time point (P = 0.0318). Conclusions: the combination of hydroxyapatite and lysozyme may be an alternative for reducing the S. mutans burden in dentinal caries. PMID:27656068

  14. [Telomerase activity in esophageal carcinoma and lesions unstained with Lugol's solution].

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, K; Aoyama, N; Koizumi, H; Tamai, S

    1998-05-01

    Telomerase is a specific enzyme required for the replication of telomeres. Its activity is detected in almost human cancers. We examined in esophageal carcinoma and lesions unstained with Lugol's solution telomerase activity by using telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Telomerase activity was detected in all 22 esophageal carcinomas, regardless of histopathological findings. In unstained lesions, telomerase activity was detected in 15 of 22; 10 squamous cell carcinomas, four dysplasia, one regenerative epithelium, no telomerase activity was found in seven; four normal esophageal epithelia, two Barrett's esophagi, one regenerative epithelium. These results suggest that telomerase activity may be a useful molecular marker for the diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma and of the early esophageal carcinoma in area unstained with Lugol's solution.

  15. Premalignant Oral Lesion Cells Elicit Increased Cytokine Production and Activation of T-cells

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, SARA D.; LEVINGSTON, CORINNE; YOUNG, M. RITA I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are known to evade the host immune response. How premalignant oral lesions modulate the immune response, however, has yet to be elucidated. Materials and Methods A mouse model of oral carcinogenesis was used to determine how mediators from premalignant oral lesion cells vs. HNSCC cells impact on immune cytokine production and activation. Results Media conditioned by premalignant lesion cells elicited an increased production of T cell-associated cytokines and proinflammatory mediators from cervical lymph node cells compared to media conditioned by HNSCC cells or media alone. In the presence of premalignant lesion cell-conditioned media, CD4+ T cell expression of the IL-2 receptor CD25 and CD8+ T cell expression of the activation marker CD69 was greater, compared to what was induced in HNSCC cell-conditioned media or media alone. Conclusion Premalignant lesion cells promote a proinflammatory environment and induce immune changes before HNSCC tumors are established. PMID:27354582

  16. New proposal of silver diamine fluoride use in arresting approximal caries: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mattos-Silveira, Juliana; Floriano, Isabela; Ferreira, Fernanda R; Viganó, Maria E F; Frizzo, M A; Reyes, Alessandra; Novaes, Tatiane F; Moriyama, Caroline M; Raggio, Daniela P; Imparato, José C P; Mendes, Fausto M; Braga, Mariana M

    2014-11-19

    Approximal surfaces are a challenge to caries lesions control. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a simple,low-cost and promisor intervention for arresting caries lesions, but it has never been tested on approximal surfaces. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy and cost-efficacy of SDF in arresting initial lesions compared to resin infiltration and exclusively flossing (control group). Our second aim is to assess discomfort and satisfaction regarding interventions. This is a randomized clinical trial, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Children/adolescents presenting at least one approximal initial caries lesion in primary molars/permanent premolars and molars will be included. Surfaces with advanced dentine lesions identified by radiography and participants who refuse to participate or present negative behaviors will be excluded. A minimum sample size of 504 surfaces will be required for each subgroup. Individuals will be randomly allocated in three groups of interventions: SDF, resin infiltration, and control group. Depending on the allocation, the patients will receive the active treatment and respective placebo therapies. All patients will be oriented to daily flossing the included surfaces. Our primary outcome will be caries progression by clinical and radiographic examinations. Appointments will be timed and costs of materials will be considered to calculate cost-efficacy. Patient discomfort will be assessed after interventions. Parent and patient satisfaction with the treatment will be collected after treatment and in the last follow-up visit. Individuals will be assessed at 1 and 3 months after treatment to evaluate dental biofilm and at 6, 12, and 24 months to assess caries progression by visual examination and/or radiography. Multilevel analyses will be used to verify if the type of treatment influenced on the tested outcomes. Costs will be compared and analyses of cost-efficacy will be performed. Poisson analysis will test the association between

  17. Clinical randomized controlled trial of chemomechanical caries removal (Carisolv).

    PubMed

    Lozano-Chourio, M A; Zambrano, O; González, H; Quero, M

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the chemomechanical caries-removal system (Carisolv) with high-speed excavation in cavitated occlusal caries of primary molars. Design and setting. The study was a randomized controlled, clinical trial in which the two techniques were compared in each subject. Participants were chosen from public schools, in Maracaibo County, Zulia State, Venezuela. The sample consisted of 80 primary molars selected from 40 children (mean age 7.7+/-0.7 years). Each patient had at least two contralateral primary molars with cavitated occlusal caries and approximately equal-size access to lesions. The outcome variables were: clinically complete caries removal, size of the opening of the cavity, volume of carious tissue removed, pain during caries removal, anaesthesia requested by the patient, caries-removal time, and behaviour and preference of patients. All treated molars were clinically caries free whichever caries-removal procedure was used. When Carisolv' was used the final cavity entrance sizes were smaller (P<0.001) and the estimated volume of tissue removed was less (P<0.001). The time taken for caries removal was three times longer (7.51+/-1.83 min, P<0.001). Some pain was reported by seven (17.5%) participants when Carisolv was used, compared with 16 (40%) when high-speed excavation was used (P<0.05). Using the Carisolv method there was a higher proportion of patients with positive behaviour (P<0.01), and 71.0% (P<0.05) preferred this treatment. Carisolv is an effective clinical alternative treatment for the removal of occlusal dentinal caries in cavitated primary molars; it is more conservative of dental tissue and appeared to be more comfortable for most patients, although the clinical time spent is longer than when using high-speed excavation.

  18. Limited evidence for existing caries assessment systems.

    PubMed

    Carson, Susan J

    2013-03-01

    Data were sourced from the Cochrane Oral Health Groups Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails, Medline, bibliographic references of identified systematic reviews, prospective cohort studies and clinical trials, textbooks and review articles. The studies included presented validating criteria for caries incidence/ increment and were limited to those with human subjects and natural carious lesions. Only studies published in peer reviewed journals were included. Excluded were studies which gave an incomplete description of sample selection, or of outcome, or had a small sample size. Studies which did not meet the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine prognosis category criteria for best evidence were also excluded. Data were extracted by the first review author and were independently checked by a second author. The criteria reported in the ADA Clinical Recommendations Handbook(1) were used to assess the quality of the studies. Adjustments made for potential confounders were considered as a means to evaluate the internal validity of each study. One hundred and thirty-seven study reports remained for review following systematic strategic search and title review. Of these, six studies of existing caries risk assessment models were selected for inclusion. Of the six studies reviewed four were deemed 'fair' by the ADA criteria and two 'poor'. The authors found variation in the parameters used for caries risk assessment and the population groups studied. No study found the risk assessment systems to have reliable prediction utility in children. One prospective study found Cariogram to give good to moderate caries prediction in elderly adults and one retrospective study found the CAMBRA assessment to provide prediction for cavitated lesions, but only between low risk and extreme risk individuals over the age of six. This systematic review suggests that evidence available on the validity of a number of existing systems for caries risk

  19. Activation status of human microglia is dependent on lesion formation stage and remyelination in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Ummenthum, Kimberley; Breur, Marjolein; Heijnen, Priscilla D A M; Gerritsen, Wouter H; Peferoen-Baert, Regina M B; van der Valk, Paul; Dijkstra, Christine D; Amor, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Similar to macrophages, microglia adopt diverse activation states and contribute to repair and tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we show that in vitro M1-polarized (proinflammatory) human adult microglia express the distinctive markers CD74, CD40, CD86, and CCR7, whereas M2 (anti-inflammatory) microglia express mannose receptor and the anti-inflammatory cytokine CCL22. The expression of these markers was assessed in clusters of activated microglia in normal-appearing white matter (preactive lesions) and areas of remyelination, representing reparative multiple sclerosis lesions. We show that activated microglia in preactive and remyelinating lesions express CD74, CD40, CD86, and the M2 markers CCL22 and CD209, but not mannose receptor. To examine whether this intermediate microglia profile is static or dynamic and thus susceptible to changes in the microenvironment, we polarized microglia into M1 or M2 phenotype in vitro and then subsequently treated them with the opposing polarization regimen. These studies revealed that expression of CD40, CXCL10, and mannose receptor is dynamic and that microglia, like macrophages, can switch between M1 and M2 phenotypic profiles. Taken together, our data define the differential activation states of microglia during lesion development in multiple sclerosis-affected CNS tissues and underscore the plasticity of human adult microglia in vitro.

  20. Increasing extracellular potassium results in subthalamic neuron activity resembling that seen in a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ulf; Zhou, Fu-Wen; Henning, Jeannette; Battefeld, Arne; Wree, Andreas; Köhling, Rüdiger; Haas, Stefan Jean-Pierre; Benecke, Reiner; Rolfs, Arndt; Gimsa, Ulrike

    2008-06-01

    Abnormal neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although altered extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) and sensitivity to [K+]o modulates neuronal activity, little is known about the potassium balance in the healthy and diseased STN. In vivo measurements of [K+]o using ion-selective electrodes demonstrated a twofold increase in the decay time constant of lesion-induced [K+]o transients in the STN of adult Wistar rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) median forebrain bundle lesion, employed as a model of PD, compared with nonlesioned rats. Various [K+]o concentrations (1.5-12.5 mM) were applied to in vitro slice preparations of three experimental groups of STN slices from nonlesioned control rats, ipsilateral hemispheres, and contralateral hemispheres of lesioned rats. The majority of STN neurons of nonlesioned rats and in slices contralateral to the lesion fired spontaneously, predominantly in a regular pattern, whereas those in slices ipsilateral to the lesion fired more irregularly or even in bursts. Experimentally increased [K+]o led to an increase in the number of spontaneously firing neurons and action potential firing rates in all groups. This was accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of post spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and the amplitude and duration of the posttrain AHP. Lesion effects in ipsilateral neurons at physiological [K+]o resembled the effects of elevated [K+]o in nonlesioned rats. Our data suggest that changed potassium sensitivity due to conductivity alterations and delayed clearance may be critical for shaping STN activity in parkinsonian states.

  1. Evaluation of silver diamine fluoride application in children and factors associated with arrested caries survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, L.; Rahardjo, A.; Adiatman, M.; Darwita, R.; Maharani, D. A.; Callea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in children in Indonesia. Therefore, a solution to overcome caries is needed. Evaluate Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) application for overcoming caries in children and determine factors related to the percentage of arrested caries after SDF application. Cohort study for evaluation and a cross-sectional study; 115 children aged 3-5 years who had active dentin caries were the subjects. Caries risk factors were measured by questionnaires filled out by subjects’ parents. Active caries treated with SDF had odds ratios of 9.9 and 6.8 of being arrested after 3 and 10 months, respectively, when compared with those not treated. Conclusion: SDF is effective in arresting caries and decreasing toothaches suffered by children, thus potentially increasing children’s quality of life.

  2. A longitudinal study of caries onset in initially caries-free children and baseline salivary mutans streptococci levels: a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T; Billings, Ronald J

    2004-06-01

    To apply survival analysis to a longitudinal study of the relationship between salivary mutans streptococci (MS) levels at baseline in initially caries-free children and caries onset in deciduous, mixed, and permanent dentition. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis method was used to compare survival times to caries onset for initially caries-free children with low levels of MS at baseline with survival times to caries onset for initially caries-free children with high levels of MS at baseline. Data from a 6-year longitudinal study of caries risk in initially caries-free children in Rochester and the Finger Lakes Region of western New York were utilized for this study. Of 464 children analyzed, 327 had a low level of MS and 137 had a high level of MS at baseline. Survival analyses showed that children with a low level of MS at baseline remained caries-free for a longer period than children with a high level of MS at baseline. Statistically significant relationships [hazard ratios (HR)] with onset of caries in deciduous, mixed and permanent teeth were found with high and low levels of salivary MS. Based on our analysis, we concluded that children who were caries-free at baseline and who had high salivary MS levels at baseline would be at greater risk, i.e. more susceptible to caries onset, at any given time than caries-free children who had low salivary MS levels at baseline. Survival functions for deciduous, mixed and permanent dentitions with their 95% confidence limits have been calculated. Survival analysis for the exploration of longitudinal caries studies has an advantage over traditional statistical methods, as it takes into account censored observations and incorporates the concept of risk over time. Hence, survival analysis is well suited for studying transitions from one health state to another, in this case, from a caries-free state to a caries-active state. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  3. Lesion-specific DNA-binding and repair activities of human O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Binding experiments with alkyl-transfer-active and -inactive mutants of human O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) show that it forms an O6-methylguanine (6mG)-specific complex on duplex DNA that is distinct from non-specific assemblies previously studied. Specific complexes with duplex DNA have a 2:1 stoichiometry that is formed without accumulation of a 1:1 intermediate. This establishes a role for cooperative interactions in lesion binding. Similar specific complexes could not be detected with single-stranded DNA. The small difference between specific and non-specific binding affinities strongly limits the roles that specific binding can play in the lesion search process. Alkyl-transfer kinetics with a single-stranded substrate indicate that two or more AGT monomers participate in the rate-limiting step, showing for the first time a functional link between cooperative binding and the repair reaction. Alkyl-transfer kinetics with a duplex substrate suggest that two pathways contribute to the formation of the specific 6mG-complex; one at least first order in AGT, we interpret as direct lesion binding. The second, independent of [AGT], is likely to include AGT transfer from distal sites to the lesion in a relatively slow unimolecular step. We propose that transfer between distal and lesion sites is a critical step in the repair process. PMID:22810209

  4. The association between sterilizing activity and drug distribution into tuberculosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Brendan; Via, Laura E.; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Eum, Seokyong; Sarathy, Jansy; O’Brien, Paul; Chen, Chao; Kaya, Firat; Weiner, Danielle M.; Chen, Pei-Yu; Song, Taeksun; Lee, Myungsun; Shim, TaeSun; Cho, Jeong Su; Kim, Wooshik; Cho, Sang Nae; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Barry, Clifton E.; Dartois, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Finding new treatment-shortening antibiotics to improve cure rates and curb the alarming emergence of drug resistance is the major objective of tuberculosis (TB) drug development. Using a MALDI mass spectrometry imaging suite in a biosafety containment facility, we show that the key sterilizing drugs rifampicin and pyrazinamide efficiently penetrate the sites of TB infection in lung lesions. Rifampicin even accumulates in necrotic caseum, a critical lesion site where persisting tubercle bacilli reside1. In contrast, moxifloxacin which is active in vitro against persisters, a sub-population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that persists in specific niches under drug pressure, and achieved treatment shortening in mice2, does not diffuse well in caseum, concordant with its failure to shorten therapy in recent clinical trials. We also suggest that such differential spatial distribution and kinetics of accumulation in lesions may create temporal and spatial windows of monotherapy in specific niches, allowing the gradual development of multidrug resistant TB. We propose an alternative working model to prioritize new antibiotic regimens based on quantitative and spatial distribution of TB drugs in the major lesion types found in human lungs. The finding that lesion penetration contributes to treatment outcome has wide implications for TB. PMID:26343800

  5. Good Manufacturing Practices production and analysis of a DNA vaccine against dental caries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-ping; Li, Yu-hong; Zhang, Ai-hua; Bi, Lan; Fan, Ming-wen

    2009-11-01

    To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge. A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted according to authoritative guidelines. Mice and gnotobiotic rats were intranasally immunized with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with chitosan. Antibody levels of serum IgG and salivary SIgA were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and caries activity was evaluated by the Keyes method. pGJA-P/VAX and pVAX1 prepared by a laboratory-scale commercial kit were used as controls. The production process proved to be scalable and reproducible. Impurities including host protein, residual RNA, genomic DNA and endotoxin in the purified plasmid were all under the limits of set specifications. Intranasal vaccination with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX induced higher serum IgG and salivary SIgA in both mice and gnotobiotic rats. While in the experimental caries model, the enamel (E), dentinal slight (Ds), and dentinal moderate (Dm) caries lesions were reduced by 21.1%, 33.0%, and 40.9%, respectively. The production process under GMP was efficient in preparing clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with high purity and intended effectiveness, thus facilitating future clinical trials for the anti-caries DNA vaccine.

  6. Good Manufacturing Practices production and analysis of a DNA vaccine against dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-ping; Li, Yu-hong; Zhang, Ai-hua; Bi, Lan; Fan, Ming-wen

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge. Methods: A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted according to authoritative guidelines. Mice and gnotobiotic rats were intranasally immunized with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with chitosan. Antibody levels of serum IgG and salivary SIgA were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and caries activity was evaluated by the Keyes method. pGJA-P/VAX and pVAX1 prepared by a laboratory-scale commercial kit were used as controls. Results: The production process proved to be scalable and reproducible. Impurities including host protein, residual RNA, genomic DNA and endotoxin in the purified plasmid were all under the limits of set specifications. Intranasal vaccination with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX induced higher serum IgG and salivary SIgA in both mice and gnotobiotic rats. While in the experimental caries model, the enamel (E), dentinal slight (Ds), and dentinal moderate (Dm) caries lesions were reduced by 21.1%, 33.0%, and 40.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The production process under GMP was efficient in preparing clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with high purity and intended effectiveness, thus facilitating future clinical trials for the anti-caries DNA vaccine. PMID:19890359

  7. Typing of Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from caries free and susceptible subjects by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Nabinejad, Abdolreza; Shirian, Hannaneh; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Tahmourespour, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    This study was evaluated the clonal diversity of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active subjects using MLEE. Strains from caries-free subjects were grouped in a single taxon. Unrooted dendrogram showed that different strains clustered in four different clades, also showed that more than one clonal type can be found in a same individual.

  8. Comparing the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride to a dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride alone in the management of primary root caries.

    PubMed

    Souza, M L R; Cury, J A; Tenuta, L M A; Zhang, Y P; Mateo, L R; Cummins, D; Ellwood, R P

    2013-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride to a positive control dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride alone in arresting and reversing primary root caries lesions in adults. A total of 3779 subjects from Piracicaba, Säo Paulo, Brazil were screened; 284 had at least one leathery primary root caries lesion and were eligible for the study. The new dentifrice contained 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate; the matched positive control dentifrice contained 1450 ppm fluoride. One lesion for each subject was selected for inclusion in the study and was examined at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A total of 253 subjects completed the study with 129 of 144 subjects included in the final statistical analysis for the test dentifrice and 124 of 140 for the positive control. The mean age of subjects was 45.7 (±9.19) years and 56.5% were female. After 6 months product use, 70.5% of root caries lesions improved for subjects using the arginine-containing dentifrice compared to 58.1% for subjects using the positive control. The difference in the number of root caries lesions becoming hard in the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.038). A new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate, provided statistically significantly superior efficacy in arresting and reversing active root caries lesions in adults compared to a matched positive control dentifrice containing fluoride alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can prevention eliminate caries?

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D

    1995-07-01

    There are four main factors involved in the carious process: at-risk tooth structure, plaque flora, fermentable carbohydrates, and time. Based on our knowledge of the carious process, four main preventive strategies have been developed over the years, namely, fluorides, fissure sealing, dietary choice, and plaque control. Fluorides are having a major impact on smooth-surface caries; hence, strategies combining fluorides and fissure sealing are very effective. However, use of fissure sealing is still problematic. Changing dietary practices with a view to reducing dental caries seems to be having little impact on a global scale. Plaque control, as practiced routinely by the majority of people, is not sufficient to result in caries reductions. Deprivation and poverty are strongly associated with high caries levels. Although the preventive strategies currently available are likely to result in lower caries levels for many, for logistical reasons and because of factors associated with deprivation and poverty, caries is likely to remain a major public health problem in most communities for the foreseeable future.

  10. Bacterial biofilm composition in caries and caries-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Wolff, D; Frese, C; Maier-Kraus, T; Krueger, T; Wolff, B

    2013-01-01

    Certain major pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp. and others have been reported to be involved in caries initiation and progression. Yet, in addition to those leading pathogens, microbial communities seem to be much more diverse and individually differing. The aim of this study, therefore, was to analyze the bacterial composition of carious dentin and the plaque of caries-free patients by using a custom-made, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (RQ-PCR). The study included 26 patients with caries and 28 caries-free controls. Decayed tooth substance and plaque samples were harvested. Bacterial DNA was extracted and tested for the presence of 43 bacterial species or species groups using RQ-PCR. Relative quantification revealed that Propionibacterium acidifaciens was significantly more abundant in caries samples than were other microorganisms (fold change 169.12, p = 0.023). In the caries-free samples, typical health-associated species were significantly more prevalent. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis showed a high abundance of P. acidifaciens in caries subjects and distinct but individually differing bacterial clusters in the caries-free subjects. The distribution of 11 bacteria allowed full discrimination between caries and caries-free subjects. Within the investigated cohort, P. acidifaciens was the only pathogen significantly more abundant in caries subjects. Cluster analysis yielded a diverse flora in caries-free subjects, whereas it was narrowed down to a small range of a few outcompeting members in caries subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Chemomechanical Caries Removal: A Review & Study of an Indigen-ously Developed Agent (Carie Care (TM) Gel) In Children.

    PubMed

    Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Kush, Anil; Lakshminarayana, Cs; Diwakar, Latha; Ravikumar, Puja; Patil, Shankargouda; Karthik, Sandhya

    2013-08-01

    The invention and application of engine driven or rotary instruments in operative treatment of carious lesions has resulted in removal of considerable toothe structure. However, with the introduction of adhesive materials for restorations, and the advent of minimal cavity design this principle has been challenged and is now considered to be too destructive to the tooth structure during caries removal. A number of techniques are available for cutting tooth tissue. The chemo mechanical method of caries removal/treatment is considered to be less painful when compared to the traditional treatment method (use of drill). The present study was carried to study the effect of an indigenously developed caries removal agent viz. Carie Care (TM) & its effectiveness as a chemo mechanical caries removal agent. How to cite this article: Venkataraghavan K, Kush A, Lakshminarayana CS, Diwakar L, Ravikumar P, Patil S, Karthik S. Chemomechanical Caries Removal: A Review & Study of an Indigenously Developed Agent (Carie Care (TM) Gel) In Children. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):84-90.

  12. Chemomechanical Caries Removal: A Review & Study of an Indigen-ously Developed Agent (Carie Care TM Gel) In Children

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Kush, Anil; Lakshminarayana, CS; Diwakar, Latha; Ravikumar, Puja; Patil, Shankargouda; Karthik, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    The invention and application of engine driven or rotary instruments in operative treatment of carious lesions has resulted in removal of considerable toothe structure. However, with the introduction of adhesive materials for restorations, and the advent of minimal cavity design this principle has been challenged and is now considered to be too destructive to the tooth structure during caries removal. A number of techniques are available for cutting tooth tissue. The chemo mechanical method of caries removal/treatment is considered to be less painful when compared to the traditional treatment method (use of drill). The present study was carried to study the effect of an indigenously developed caries removal agent viz. Carie Care TM & its effectiveness as a chemo mechanical caries removal agent. How to cite this article: Venkataraghavan K, Kush A, Lakshminarayana CS, Diwakar L, Ravikumar P, Patil S, Karthik S. Chemomechanical Caries Removal: A Review & Study of an Indigenously Developed Agent (Carie Care TM Gel) In Children. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):84-90. PMID:24155626

  13. Segmentation of lung lesions on CT scans using watershed, active contours, and Markov random field

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yongqiang; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Lung lesions vary considerably in size, density, and shape, and can attach to surrounding anatomic structures such as chest wall or mediastinum. Automatic segmentation of the lesions poses a challenge. This work communicates a new three-dimensional algorithm for the segmentation of a wide variety of lesions, ranging from tumors found in patients with advanced lung cancer to small nodules detected in lung cancer screening programs. Methods: The authors’ algorithm uniquely combines the image processing techniques of marker-controlled watershed, geometric active contours as well as Markov random field (MRF). The user of the algorithm manually selects a region of interest encompassing the lesion on a single slice and then the watershed method generates an initial surface of the lesion in three dimensions, which is refined by the active geometric contours. MRF improves the segmentation of ground glass opacity portions of part-solid lesions. The algorithm was tested on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom dataset and two publicly accessible clinical lung datasets. These clinical studies included a same-day repeat CT (prewalk and postwalk scans were performed within 15 min) dataset containing 32 lung lesions with one radiologist's delineated contours, and the first release of the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset containing 23 lung nodules with 6 radiologists’ delineated contours. The phantom dataset contained 22 phantom nodules of known volumes that were inserted in a phantom thorax. Results: For the prewalk scans of the same-day repeat CT dataset and the LIDC dataset, the mean overlap ratios of lesion volumes generated by the computer algorithm and the radiologist(s) were 69% and 65%, respectively. For the two repeat CT scans, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.998, indicating high reliability of the algorithm. The mean relative difference was −3% for the phantom dataset. Conclusions: The performance of this new segmentation

  14. Effect of electrolytic lesion of the dorsomedial striatum on sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Pulido, R; Hernández-Briones, Z S; Tamariz-Rodríguez, A; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E; Coria-Avila, G A; Manzo, J; García, L I

    2017-06-01

    Cortical motor areas are influenced not only by peripheral sensory afferents and prefrontal association areas, but also by the basal ganglia, specifically the striatum. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum are involved in both spatial and stimulus-response learning; however, each of these areas may mediate different components of learning. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of electrolytic lesion to the DMS on the learning and performance of sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in male rats. Once the subjects had learned to perform motor tests of balance, maze navigation, ramp ascent, and sexual behaviour, they underwent electrolytic lesion to the DMS. Five days later, the tests were repeated on 2 occasions and researchers compared performance latencies for each test. Average latency values for performance on the maze and balance tests were higher after the lesion. However, the average values for the ramp test and for sexual behaviour did not differ between groups. Electrolytic lesion of the DMS modifies the performance of locomotor activity (maze test and balance), but not of sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. RAG-induced DNA lesions activate proapoptotic BIM to suppress lymphomagenesis in p53-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Marco J.

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic transformation is driven by oncogenic lesions that facilitate unrestrained cell expansion and resistance to antiproliferative signals. These oncogenic DNA lesions, acquired through errors in DNA replication, gene recombination, or extrinsically imposed damage, are thought to activate multiple tumor suppressive pathways, particularly apoptotic cell death. DNA damage induces apoptosis through well-described p53-mediated induction of PUMA and NOXA. However, loss of both these mediators (even together with defects in p53-mediated induction of cell cycle arrest and cell senescence) does not recapitulate the tumor susceptibility observed in p53−/− mice. Thus, potentially oncogenic DNA lesions are likely to also trigger apoptosis through additional, p53-independent processes. We found that loss of the BH3-only protein BIM accelerated lymphoma development in p53-deficient mice. This process was negated by concomitant loss of RAG1/2-mediated antigen receptor gene rearrangement. This demonstrates that BIM is critical for the induction of apoptosis caused by potentially oncogenic DNA lesions elicited by RAG1/2-induced gene rearrangement. Furthermore, this highlights the role of a BIM-mediated tumor suppressor pathway that acts in parallel to the p53 pathway and remains active even in the absence of wild-type p53 function, suggesting this may be exploited in the treatment of p53-deficient cancers. PMID:27621418

  16. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A F; Innes, N P T

    2016-05-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth tissue and retaining teeth long-term. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  17. Complement is activated in progressive multiple sclerosis cortical grey matter lesions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Lewis M; Neal, James W; Loveless, Sam; Michailidou, Iliana; Ramaglia, Valeria; Rees, Mark I; Reynolds, Richard; Robertson, Neil P; Morgan, B Paul; Howell, Owain W

    2016-06-22

    The symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are caused by damage to myelin and nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Inflammation is tightly linked with neurodegeneration, and it is the accumulation of neurodegeneration that underlies increasing neurological disability in progressive MS. Determining pathological mechanisms at play in MS grey matter is therefore a key to our understanding of disease progression. We analysed complement expression and activation by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation in frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded post-mortem tissue blocks from 22 progressive MS cases and made comparisons to inflammatory central nervous system disease and non-neurological disease controls. Expression of the transcript for C1qA was noted in neurons and the activation fragment and opsonin C3b-labelled neurons and glia in the MS cortical and deep grey matter. The density of immunostained cells positive for the classical complement pathway protein C1q and the alternative complement pathway activation fragment Bb was significantly increased in cortical grey matter lesions in comparison to control grey matter. The number of cells immunostained for the membrane attack complex was elevated in cortical lesions, indicating complement activation to completion. The numbers of classical (C1-inhibitor) and alternative (factor H) pathway regulator-positive cells were unchanged between MS and controls, whilst complement anaphylatoxin receptor-bearing microglia in the MS cortex were found closely apposed to cortical neurons. Complement immunopositive neurons displayed an altered nuclear morphology, indicative of cell stress/damage, supporting our finding of significant neurodegeneration in cortical grey matter lesions. Complement is activated in the MS cortical grey matter lesions in areas of elevated numbers of complement receptor-positive microglia and suggests that complement over-activation may contribute to the worsening pathology that underlies the

  18. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-02-01

    As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and Embase. The key words used were (fluoride) AND (remineralisation OR remineralization OR arresting) AND (children caries OR early childhood caries). The title and abstract of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials about home-use fluorides, laboratory studies, case reports, reviews, non-English articles and irrelevant studies were excluded. The full texts of the remaining papers were retrieved. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of the remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 2177 papers were found, and 17 randomised clinical trials were included in this review. Ten studies investigated the remineralising effect on early enamel caries using silicon tetrafluoride, fluoride gel, silver diamine fluoride or sodium fluoride. Seven studies reported an arresting effect on dentine caries using silver diamine fluoride or nano-silver fluoride. Meta-analysis was performed on four papers using 5 % sodium fluoride varnish to remineralise early enamel caries, and the overall percentage of remineralised enamel caries was 63.6 % (95 % CI: 36.0 % - 91.2 %; p < 0.001). Meta-analysis was also performed on five papers using 38 % silver diamine fluoride to arrest dentine caries and the overall proportion of arrested dentine caries was 65.9 % (95 % CI: 41.2 % - 90.7 %; p < 0.001). Professionally applied 5 % sodium fluoride varnish can remineralise early enamel caries and 38 % silver diamine fluoride is

  19. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  20. Comparison of the caries-preventive effect of a glass ionomer sealant and fluoride varnish on newly erupted first permanent molars of children with and without dental caries experience.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniela Cristina; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal clinic study evaluated the effect of a glass ionomer sealant (GIS) and a fluoride varnish (FV) in the prevention of dental decay on newly erupted permanent molars of children with and without caries experience. Eighty children, aged 6-8 years, with all four newly erupted first permanent molars, were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 53 children without caries experience and group 2 consisted of 27 children with dental caries experience. Permanent molars of the right side were sealed with GIS and the fluoride varnish was applied on the other two permanent first molars. Evaluation of GIS retention and the effectiveness of both materials in the prevention of dental caries were performed after 6, 12 and 18 months. After 18 months, of the 299 teeth, 271 (91%) showed no caries lesions and 28 presented caries lesions (9%). Teeth sealed with GIS had more carious lesions (15) than teeth with fluoride varnish (13). Most of the teeth (70%) that presented carious lesions were in group 2. Of the 138 sealed teeth, only one showed GIS to be totally present, 95 were partially present and 42 teeth were absent. The caries-preventive effect was very similar between both treatments. The presence of dental caries prevailed in the children with caries experience.

  1. Tomographic imaging of incipient dental-caries using optical coherence tomography and comparison with various modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Changsu; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2009-07-01

    We present the optical coherence tomography (OCT) made to investigate the early dental caries in human teeth and compare its results with those taken by conventional imaging modalities including light illuminating examination (LIE), digital intra-oral radiography (DIOR), and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Morphological features and caries-involved areas of the dental structure were mainly investigated by LIE, DIOR, and OCT to study the infection of the caries lesion in pits and fissures. The biochemical information acquired with EPMA and the morphological features taken with OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present an objective and practical index for the degree of caries. The experimental results allow us to conclude that OCT could be used to provide quantitative analysis of caries based on the reflectivity difference in the specimen.

  2. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  3. GLENOHUMERAL MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING PROVOCATIVE TESTS DESIGNED TO DIAGNOSE SUPERIOR LABRUM ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Vanessa J.C.; Sabick, Michelle B.; Pfeiffer, Ron P.; Kuhlman, Seth M.; Christensen, Jason H.; Curtin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite considerable medical advances, arthroscopy remains the only definitive means of Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior (SLAP) lesion diagnosis. Natural shoulder anatomic variants limit the reliability of radiographic findings and clinical evaluations are not consistent. Accurate clinical diagnostic techniques would be advantageous due to the invasiveness, patient risk, and financial cost associated with arthroscopy. Purpose The purpose was to examine the behavior of the joint stabilizing muscles in provocative tests for SLAP lesions. Electromyography was used to characterize the muscle behavior, with particular interest in the long head biceps brachii (LHBB), as activation of the long head and subsequent tension in the biceps tendon should, based on related research, elicit labral symptoms in SLAP lesion patients. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study Methods Volunteers (N=21) without a history of shoulder pathology were recruited. The tests analyzed were Active Compression, Speed's, Pronated Load, Biceps I, Biceps II, Resisted Supination External Rotation, and Yergason's. Tests were performed with a dynamometer to improve reproducibility. Muscle activity was recorded for the long and short heads of the biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus. Muscle behavior for each test was characterized by peak activation and proportion of muscle activity. Results Speed's, Active Compression Palm-Up, Bicep I and Bicep II, produced higher long head activations. Resisted Supination External Rotation, Bicep I, Bicep II, and Yergason's, produced a higher LHBB proportion. Conclusion Bicep I, and Bicep II elicited promising long head behavior (high activation and selectivity). Speed's and Active Compression Palm-Up elicited higher activation of the LHBB , and Resisted Supination and Yergason's elicited selective LHBB activity. These top performing tests utilize a unique range of test variables that may

  4. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, K.; Kumar, L. Sathish; Rajendran, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Bhaskar, K.; Sajit Khan, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  5. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, K; Kumar, L Sathish; Rajendran, S; Chandrasekaran, M; Bhaskar, K; Sajit Khan, A K

    2008-11-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii.

  6. Reusable ultrasonic tissue mimicking hydrogels containing nonionic surface-active agents for visualizing thermal lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Keun; Guntur, S R Anjaneya Reddy; Lee, Kang Il; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Choi, Min Joo

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to identify a new recipe for reusable tissue mimicking phantoms that allows the optical visualization of thermal lesions produced in various applications of therapeutic ultrasound where thermal mechanisms are important. The phantom was made of polyacrylamide hydrogel containing a nonionic surface-active agent (NiSAA) as a temperature-sensitive indicator. Threshold temperature above which a thermal lesion is regarded to be formed in the phantom is controlled by selecting an NiSAA. In the present study, three NiSAAs of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether series with nominal clouding points of 66 ( degrees )C, 70 ( degrees )C, and 80 ( degrees ) C were chosen. Test phantoms were prepared with polyacrylamide hydrogel, corn syrup and NiSAAs [5% (w/v)]. Key acoustic properties of the three NiSAA hydrogels were found to be similar to those of human liver. The phantoms were optically transparent at room temperature (25 ( degrees ) C) and became opaque after exceeding the clouding points. The transparency was recovered on cooling, although the system demonstrated hysteresis. The phantoms were tested both in their ability to provide visualization of thermal lesions produced by high-intensity focused ultrasound and also to examine any characteristic differences in the shape of the lesions formed at different threshold temperatures. The present study suggests that the NiSAA polyacrylamide hydrogel will be of a practical use in quality assurance in various applications of therapeutic ultrasound where thermal mechanisms are important.

  7. Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-04-01

    For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ≥50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9.

  8. The effect of retrosplenial cortex lesions in rats on incidental and active spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A J D; Hindley, E L; Pearce, J M; Vann, S D; Aggleton, J P

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the importance of the retrosplenial cortex for the incidental learning of the spatial arrangement of distinctive features within a scene. In a modified Morris water-maze, rats spontaneously learnt the location of an escape platform prior to swimming to that location. For this, rats were repeatedly placed on a submerged platform in one corner of either a rectangular (Experiment 1) or square (Experiments 2, 3) pool with walls of different appearance. The rats were then released in the center of the pool for their first test trial. In Experiment 1, the correct corner and its diagonally opposite partner (also correct) were specified by the geometric properties of the pool. Rats with retrosplenial lesions took longer to first reach a correct corner, subsequently showing an attenuated preference for the correct corners. A reduced preference for the correct corner was also found in Experiment 2, when platform location was determined by the juxtaposition of highly salient visual cues (black vs. white walls). In Experiment 3, less salient visual cues (striped vs. white walls) led to a robust lesion impairment, as the retrosplenial lesioned rats showed no preference for the correct corner. When subsequently trained actively to swim to the correct corner over successive trials, retrosplenial lesions spared performance on all three discriminations. The findings not only reveal the importance of the retrosplenial cortex for processing various classes of visuospatial information but also highlight a broader role in the incidental learning of the features of a spatial array, consistent with the translation of scene information.

  9. Effect of fluoride, lesion baseline severity and mineral distribution on lesion progression.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F; Butler, A; Lynch, R J M; Hara, A T

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of fluoride (F) concentration, lesion baseline severity (ΔZ(base)) and mineral distribution on lesion progression. Artificial caries lesions were created using three protocols [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC), hydroxyethylcellulose acid gel (HEC), carboxymethylcellulose acid solution (CMC)] and with low and high ΔZ(base) groups by varying demineralization times within protocols. Subsequently, lesions were immersed in a demineralizing solution for 24 h in the presence of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ppm F. Changes in mineral distribution characteristics of caries lesions were studied using transverse microradiography. At baseline, the protocols yielded lesions with three distinctly different mineral distributions. Secondary demineralization revealed differences in F response between and within lesion types. In general, lowΔZ lesions were more responsive to F than highΔZ lesions. LowΔZ MeC lesions showed the greatest range of response among all lesions, whereas highΔZ HEC lesions were almost unaffected by F. Laminations were observed in the presence of F in all but highΔZ HEC and CMC lesions. Changes in mineral distribution effected by F were most pronounced in MeC lesions, with remineralization/mineral redeposition in the original lesion body at the expense of sound enamel beyond the original lesion in a dose-response manner. Both ΔZ(base) and lesion mineral distribution directly impact the F response and the extent of secondary demineralization of caries lesions. Further studies - in situ and on natural white spot lesions - are required to better mimic in vivo caries under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Could Alkali Production Be Considered an Approach for Caries Control?

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, V.V.; Garvan, C.W.; Ottenga, M.E.; Schulte, R.; Harris, P.A.; McEdward, D.; Magnusson, I.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of arginine deiminase (ADS) and urease activities with dental caries through a case-control study. ADS and urease activities were measured in dental smooth-surface supragingival plaque and whole saliva samples from 93 subjects, who were in three different groups: caries-free (n = 31), caries-active (n = 30), and caries-experienced (n = 32). ADS activity was measured by quantification of the ammonia generated from the incubation of plaque and saliva samples in a mixture containing 50 mM arginine-HCl and 50 mM Tris-maleate buffer, pH 6.0. ADS-specific activity was defined as nanomoles of ammonia generated per minute per milligram of protein. Urease activity was determined by quantification of ammonia produced from 50 mM urea. For bacterial identification and enumeration real-time qPCR analysis was used. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Spearman correlations were used to analyze plaque metabolic activity and bacterial relationships. The results revealed significantly higher ammonia production from arginine in saliva (1.06 vs. 0.18; p < 0.0001) and plaque samples (1.74 vs. 0.58; p < 0.0001) from caries-free subjects compared to caries-active subjects. Urease levels were about 3-fold higher in the plaque of caries-free subjects (p < 0.0001). Although higher urease activity in saliva of caries-experienced and caries-free subjects was evident, no significant difference was found between the groups. PMID:21071940

  11. Proteasome activity is required for the initiation of precancerous pancreatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Takaki; Tanaka, Shinji; Shimada, Shu; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Matsumura, Satoshi; Mitsunori, Yusuke; Aihara, Arihiro; Ban, Daisuke; Ochiai, Takanori; Kudo, Atsushi; Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Arii, Shigeki; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Tanabe, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome activity is significantly increased in advanced cancers, but its role in cancer initiation is not clear, due to difficulties in monitoring this process in vivo. We established a line of transgenic mice that carried the ZsGreen-degronODC (Gdeg) proteasome reporter to monitor the proteasome activity. In combination with Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D model, proteasome activity was investigated in the initiation of precancerous pancreatic lesions (PanINs). Normal pancreatic acini in Gdeg mice had low proteasome activity. By contrast, proteasome activity was increased in the PanIN lesions that developed in Gdeg;Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mice. Caerulein administration to Gdeg;Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mice induced constitutive elevation of proteasome activity in pancreatic tissues and accelerated PanIN formation. The proteasome inhibitor markedly reduced PanIN formation in Gdeg;Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mice (P = 0.001), whereas it had no effect on PanIN lesions that had already formed. These observations indicated the significance of proteasome activity in the initiation of PanIN but not the maintenance per se. In addition, the expressions of pERK and its downstream factors including cyclin D1, NF-κB, and Cox2 were decreased after proteasome inhibition in PanINs. Our studies showed activation of proteasome is required specifically for the initiation of PanIN. The roles of proteasome in the early stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis warrant further investigation. PMID:27244456

  12. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.

  13. Intra-lesional stereo-EEG activity in Taylor 's focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Francione, Stefano; Nobili, Lino; Cardinale, Francesco; Citterio, Alberto; Galli, Carlo; Tassi, Laura

    2003-09-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia are a frequent histological finding in epilepsy surgery series. Among the different types of focal cortical dysplasia, distinctive anatomical, electrical and clinical details have been identified for Taylor's focal cortical dysplasia, and in a recent article we reported a better post-surgical outcome in Taylor's focal cortical dysplasia than in other histological subtypes of cortical dysplasias. In the present study, we analysed the intra-lesional electrical activity directly recorded inside Taylor's focal cortical dysplasia during a stereo-EEG diagnostic procedure in 21 patients selected from among the 27 cases in which post-operative neuropathological examination demonstrated this kind of lesion. Our data show the existence of a peculiar interictal pattern characterised by the presence of repetitive and rhythmic spike and poly-spike and wave, frequently associated with short bursts of fusiform micro poly-spikes. Moreover, an almost pathognomonic ictal pattern (mid-amplitude 14-18 Hz rhythmic activity followed by a low voltage recruiting fast activity) is present in 12 of these 21 patients. These electrical peculiarities suggest a high level of epileptogenicity of Taylor's focal cortical dysplasia and could possibly explain the high percentage of post-surgical success among patients with this kind of lesion. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  14. Semantic strategy training increases memory performance and brain activity in patients with prefrontal cortex lesions.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Eliane C; Savage, Cary R; Evans, Jonathan J; Wilson, Barbara A; Martin, Maria G M; Balardin, Joana B; Barros, Fabio G; Garrido, Griselda; Teixeira, Manoel J; Amaro Junior, Edson

    2013-03-01

    Memory deficit is a frequent cognitive disorder following acquired prefrontal cortex lesions. In the present study, we investigated the brain correlates of a short semantic strategy training and memory performance of patients with distinct prefrontal cortex lesions using fMRI and cognitive tests. Twenty-one adult patients with post-acute prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesions, twelve with left dorsolateral PFC (LPFC) and nine with bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (BOFC) were assessed before and after a short cognitive semantic training using a verbal memory encoding paradigm during scanning and neuropsychological tests outside the scanner. After the semantic strategy training both groups of patients showed significant behavioral improvement in verbal memory recall and use of semantic strategies. In the LPFC group, greater activity in left inferior and medial frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus and insula was found after training. For the BOFC group, a greater activation was found in the left parietal cortex, right cingulated and precuneus after training. The activation of these specific areas in the memory and executive networks following cognitive training was associated to compensatory brain mechanisms and application of the semantic strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is treatment under general anaesthesia associated with dental neglect and dental disability among caries active preschool children?

    PubMed

    Kvist, T; Zedrén-Sunemo, J; Graca, E; Dahllöf, G

    2014-10-01

    To study if treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is associated with dental neglect or dental disability. This was a retrospective study. Dental records of all children in the age 0-6 years who underwent GA at a specialist paediatric dentistry clinic during 2006-2011 were studied with regard to decayed-missed-filled teeth, traumatic injuries, emergency visits, behaviour management problems and the history of attendance. The final sample consisted of 134 children. Matched controls were selected among recall patients who had not received treatment under GA. Fishers exact test or Pearson Chi-square test analysed response distribution and comparisons between groups, and for multivariate analyses, logistic regression was used. The results show that children treated under GA had significantly higher caries prevalence, apical periodontitis and infections due to pulpal necrosis. Dental neglect as well as dental disability was significantly more prevalent in the GA group compared to the control group. In a multivariate analysis with dental neglect as independent factor, dental disability was the only significant factor (p = 0.006). Children treated under general anaesthesia were significantly more often diagnosed with both dental neglect and dental disability. Dental disability was the only factor significantly related to dental neglect. There is a need for improved documentation in the dental records to better identify dental neglect and dental disability, and also a continued training of dentists regarding child protection.

  16. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group. PMID:26681848

  17. Genes and Their Effects on Dental Caries May Differ between Primary and Permanent Dentitions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Shaffer, J.R.; Weyant, R.J.; Cuenco, K.T.; DeSensi, R.H.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in the genesis of dental caries of both primary and permanent dentitions is well established; however, the degree to which genes contribute to the development of dental caries, and whether these genes differ between primary and permanent dentitions, is largely unknown. Using family-based likelihood methods, we assessed the heritability of caries-related phenotypes for both children and adults in 2,600 participants from 740 families. We found that caries phenotypes in the primary dentition were highly heritable, with genes accounting for 54–70% of variation in caries scores. The heritability of caries scores in the permanent dentition was also substantial (35–55%, all p < 0.01), although this was lower than analogous phenotypes in the primary dentition. Assessment of the genetic correlation between primary and permanent caries scores indicated that 18% of the covariation in these traits was due to common genetic factors (p < 0.01). Therefore, dental caries in primary and permanent teeth may be partly attributable to different suites of genes or genes with differential effects. Sex and age explained much of the phenotypic variation in permanent, but not primary, dentition. Further, including pre-cavitated white-spot lesions in the phenotype definition substantially increased the heritability estimates for dental caries. In conclusion, our results show that dental caries are heritable, and suggest that genes affecting susceptibility to caries in the primary dentition may differ from those in permanent teeth. Moreover, metrics for quantifying caries that incorporate white-spot lesions may serve as better phenotypes in genetic studies of the causes of tooth decay. PMID:20516689

  18. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries: A Model for Niche Adaptation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Caufield, P W; Schön, C N; Saraithong, P; Li, Y; Argimón, S

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  19. Preventing Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Albino, J.; Tiwari, T.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries reflects a complex interplay of biochemical, microbial, genetic, social and physical environmental, and health-influencing behavioral factors. This review updates the literature on the efficacy of behavioral approaches to caries prevention for children up to 18 y of age. Included were studies of behavioral interventions implemented at individual, family, and community levels that assessed results in terms of reductions in caries increments. Only those reports published since 2011 were considered. Outcomes were variable, although motivational interviewing, which involves individuals in decisions about oral health within the context of their respective life circumstances, proved effective in 3 of 4 reported studies, and more definitive trials are underway. Recommendations for future research include examinations of the cost-effectiveness of interventions, as well as work focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying oral health behavior change and variables that may mediate or moderate responses to interventions. PMID:26438210

  20. Nigrostriatal lesion induces D2-modulated phase-locked activity in the basal ganglia of rats.

    PubMed

    Zold, Camila L; Ballion, Bérangère; Riquelme, Luis A; Gonon, François; Murer, M Gustavo

    2007-04-01

    There is a debate as to what modifications of neuronal activity underlie the clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease and the efficacy of antiparkinsonian pharmacotherapy. Previous studies suggest that release of GABAergic striatopallidal neurons from D2 receptor-mediated inhibition allows spreading of cortical rhythms to the globus pallidus (GP) in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesions. Here this abnormal spreading was thoroughly investigated. In control urethane-anaesthetized rats most GP neurons were excited during the active part of cortical slow waves ('direct-phase' neurons). Two neuronal populations having opposite phase relationships with cortical and striatal activity coexisted in the GP of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. 'Inverse-phase' GP units exhibited reduced firing coupled to striatal activation during slow waves, suggesting that this GP oscillation was driven by striatopallidal hyperactivity. Half of the pallidonigral neurons identified by antidromic stimulation exhibited inverse-phase activity. Therefore, spreading of inverse-phase oscillations through pallidonigral axons might contribute to the abnormal direct-phase cortical entrainment of basal ganglia output described previously. Systemic administration of the D2 agonist quinpirole to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats reduced GP inverse-phase coupling with slow waves, and this effect was reversed by the D2 antagonist eticlopride. Because striatopallidal hyperactivity was only slightly reduced by quinpirole, other mechanisms might have contributed to the effect of quinpirole on GP oscillations. These results suggest that antiparkinsonian efficacy may rely on other actions of D2 agonists on basal ganglia activity. However, abnormal slow rhythms may promote enduring changes in functional connectivity along the striatopallidal axis, contributing to D2 agonist-resistant clinical signs of parkinsonism.

  1. Scanning electron microscopic description of cellular activity and mineral changes in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, O; Boudigues, S; Pilet, P; Aguado, E; Heymann, D; Daculsi, G

    2001-12-01

    The cellular activity and changes in mineral composition of dental tissues involved in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions were investigated. Teeth with at least 1 lesion (n = 10) were extracted from 10 different cats that were presented primarily for chronic gingivostomatitis and/or severe periodontal disease. Scanning electron microscopic methods were used to determine the presence of resorptive cells in 8 teeth while 2 teeth were evaluated for pathologic changes in dental mineral composition. Observations were complicated by the presence of organic wear on the dental surfaces, however resorptive cells could be clearly identified in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions. Resorptive cells had morphologic features indicative of "osteoclast-like" cells or odontoclasts. Resorptive cell activity created a resorption area of darker dentin continuous with physiologic dentin. The darker dentin area seemed poorly mineralized and showed a significantly lower calcium/phosphorous ratio compared with adjacent physiologic denting in 1 tooth. A significantly higher level of magnesium combined with available carbonate ions may have increased the solubility in areas of darker dentin.

  2. Functional activation independently contributes to naming ability and relates to lesion site in post-stroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Xing, Shihui; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-04-01

    Language network reorganization in aphasia may depend on the degree of damage in critical language areas, making it difficult to determine how reorganization impacts performance. Prior studies on remapping of function in aphasia have not accounted for the location of the lesion relative to critical language areas. They rectified this problem by using a multimodal approach, combining multivariate lesion-symptom mapping and fMRI in chronic aphasia to understand the independent contributions to naming performance of the lesion and the activity in both hemispheres. Activity was examined during two stages of naming: covert retrieval, and overt articulation. Regions of interest were drawn based on over- and under-activation, and in areas where activity had a bivariate relationship with naming. Regressions then tested whether activation of these regions predicted naming ability, while controlling for lesion size and damage in critical left hemisphere naming areas, as determined by lesion-symptom mapping. Engagement of the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) and disengagement of the left dorsal pars opercularis (dPOp) during overt naming was associated with better than predicted naming performance. Lesions in the left STS prevented right STS engagement and resulted in persistent left dPOp activation. In summary, changes in activity during overt articulation independently relate to naming outcomes, controlling for stroke severity. Successful remapping relates to network disruptions that depend on the location of the lesion in the left hemisphere. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2051-2066, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cognitive structure of executive deficits in frontally lesioned head trauma patients performing activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Sandra; Godbout, Lucie; Braun, Claude M J

    2003-04-01

    Executive functions in activities of daily living (ADL) were investigated in 10 patients with frontal lobe lesions after a mild to severe closed head injury (CHI). The CHI patients were compared to 12 normal controls with a neuropsychological test battery, a script recitation task and a realistic simulation of complex multitask ADL (planning and preparing a meal). Though the CHI patients were significantly slow on one test and subject to interference on an attention test with parametric testing, the groups did not differ on any neuropsychological test with non parametric testing. However, the CHI patients manifested marked anomalies in the meal preparation task. While small sequences of actions were easily produced, large action sets could not be correctly executed. An outstanding deficit in strategic planning and prospective memory appears to be an important underpinning of the impairment of ADL observed in CHI patients with frontal lobe lesions.

  4. The hyperactive syndrome: metanalysis of genetic alterations, pharmacological treatments and brain lesions which increase locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Davide

    2008-12-01

    The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal models. To further understand the resulting data set, we have organized a second database of the alterations (genetic, pharmacological or brain lesions) that reduce locomotor activity. Using this approach, we estimated that 1.56% of the genes in the genome yield to hyperactivity and 0.75% of genes produce hypoactivity when altered. These genes have been classified into genes for neurotransmitter systems, hormonal, metabolic systems, ion channels, structural proteins, transcription factors, second messengers and growth factors. Finally, two additional classes included animals with neurodegeneration and inner ear abnormalities. The analysis of the database revealed several unexpected findings. First, the genes that, when mutated, induce hyperactive behaviour do not pertain to a single neurotransmitter system. In fact, alterations in most neurotransmitter systems can give rise to a hyperactive phenotype. In contrast, fewer changes can decrease locomotor activity. Specifically, genetic and pharmacological alterations that enhance the dopamine, orexin, histamine, cannabinoids systems or that antagonize the cholinergic system induce an increase in locomotor activity. Similarly, imbalances in the two main neurotransmitters of the nervous system, GABA and glutamate usually result in hyperactive behaviour. It is remarkable that no genetic alterations pertaining to the GABA system have been reported to reduce locomotor behaviour. Other neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, have a more complex influence. For instance, a decrease in norepinephrine

  5. Nano Silver Fluoride for preventing caries.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jacky; Hollands, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Randomised controlled trial, double blind, in a community setting. School children with active caries in primary teeth and no pulpal exposure, fistula or decay in permanent teeth were chosen. Caries and unsupported enamel were left as found and cotton wool rolls were used for isolation. Two drops of NSF or one drop of water were applied to the tooth with a microbrush for two minutes, once in a 12-month period. At one week, five months and 12 months the presence of active caries, as classified using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) criteria, was measured. If a blunt probe easily penetrated dentine with light force, active caries was recorded and taken to be a failure. One hundred and thirty primary teeth in 60 children with a mean age of 6.31 (± 0.60) were randomised. Sixty-three teeth were in the NSF group and 67 in the control group. After one week there were no losses, at the five-month follow up eight teeth were lost from the NSF group due to exfoliation or extraction and five from the control group. At twelve months a further five teeth were lost from the NSF group and 13 from the control group.At the one week follow up there was a 19% failure rate in the NSF group compared to 100% in the control group. At the five month recall this was 27.3% NSF compared to 72.6% water and at the final recall there was a 33.3% NSF failure rate and 65.3% control failure rate. The preventative fraction at this point was 50% and the NNT 3.12. All were statistically significant results (p= <0.05). The annual application of NSF solution was more effective in hardening and arresting dentine caries in primary teeth than the placebo. The effectiveness of NSF was found to be similar to silver diamine fluoride when applied once a year, but did not stain the dental tissue black and had no metallic taste. The application is simple, does not require a clinical setting and is inexpensive. NSF was demonstrated to be effective in arresting caries in children in

  6. Initial evaluation of an ultrasound measure for assessing the activity of skin lesions in juvenile localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Liebling, M S; Haines, K A; Weiss, J E; Prann, A

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of 2 proposed measures (the Ultrasound Disease Activity [U-DA] and the Tissue Thickness Score [TTS]) for evaluating sonographic differences in juvenile localized scleroderma skin lesions. We conducted a retrospective review of juvenile localized scleroderma patients who had ultrasound scans of their skin lesions between October 2005 and February 2009. Imaged lesions were classified as active or inactive based upon clinical assessment. Lesions had to have been imaged within 1 month of a clinic visit or have the same clinical assessment during both the visit before and the visit after the scan. Two physicians scored the scans using the U-DA, which scores for differences in lesion echogenicity and vascularity compared with normal tissue. Tissue thickness differences were evaluated by percent differences and by using the TTS. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was performed to assess differences. We studied 52 scans from 21 patients, 32 scans of active skin lesions and 20 scans of inactive skin lesions. Features reported by clinicians as indicative of active disease included erythema, warmth, violaceous color, new lesion, expansion of lesion, and induration. The U-DA was significantly different between active and inactive skin lesions (P = 0.0010) with significant differences found for the parameters of total echogenicity, hypodermis echogenicity, and deep tissue layer vascularity (P = 0.0014, P = 0.0023, and P = 0.0374, respectively). No significant differences were found for tissue layer thickness or TTS. The U-DA may be a useful tool in the identification of localized scleroderma activity. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of this potential monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB) based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI) based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS) and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25) was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17) or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37) presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68) and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87). Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  8. Incomplete caries removal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2013-04-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of incomplete caries removal, in particular in the treatment of deep caries. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials investigating one- or two-step incomplete compared with complete caries removal. Studies treating primary and permanent teeth with primary caries lesions requiring a restoration were analyzed. The following primary and secondary outcomes were investigated: risk of pulpal exposure, post-operative pulpal symptoms, overall failure, and caries progression. Electronic databases were screened for studies from 1967 to 2012. Cross-referencing was used to identify further articles. Odds ratios (OR) as effect estimates were calculated in a random-effects model. From 364 screened articles, 10 studies representing 1,257 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed risk reduction for both pulpal exposure (OR [95% CI] 0.31 [0.19-0.49]) and pulpal symptoms (OR 0.58 [0.31-1.10]) for teeth treated with one- or two-step incomplete excavation. Risk of failure seemed to be similar for both complete and incomplete excavation, but data for this outcome were of limited quality and inconclusive (OR 0.97 [0.64-1.46]). Based on reviewed studies, incomplete caries removal seems advantageous compared with complete excavation, especially in proximity to the pulp. However, evidence levels are currently insufficient for definitive conclusions because of high risk of bias within studies.

  9. RISK INDICATORS AND RISK PREDICTORS OF DENTAL CARIES IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB) based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI) based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS) and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25) was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17) or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37) presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68) and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87). Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren. PMID:19082400

  10. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD.

    PubMed

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, M; Connelly, J N; Skovhus Thomsen, J; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions had a hypermineralized zone in the dentin at the advancing front of the carious cavities as revealed by micro-computed tomography. This biological dentin reaction combined with the morphology of the cavities might indicate that some temporary topical pain relief and intervention treatment slowed down the rate of lesion progression. This is indirectly supported by examination of cavities of similar size and depth from a contemporary population without access to dental health care. In contrast to the lesions in the Roman teeth, these lesions did not exhibit a hypermineralized dentin reaction. We investigated whether the Pb isotopic composition of enamel and/or dentin of a single tooth matched that of a sample of an ancient Forum water lead pipe. The Pb isotopic composition of the tooth did not match that of the tube, suggesting that the subjects were exposed to different Pb sources during their lifetime other than the lead tubes.

  11. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Katie A; Platt, Nicola J; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD.

  12. Wide-Field Raman Imaging of Dental Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shan; Li, Bolan; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Lang, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Detection of dental caries at the onset remains as a great challenge in dentistry. Raman spectroscopy could be successfully applied towards detecting caries since it is sensitive to the amount of the Raman active mineral crystals, the most abundant component of enamel. Effective diagnosis requires full examination of a tooth surface via a Raman mapping. Point-scan Raman mapping is not clinically relevant (feasible) due to lengthy data acquisition time. In this work, a wide-field Raman imaging system was assembled based on a high-sensitivity 2D CCD camera for imaging the mineralization status of teeth with lesions. Wide-field images indicated some lesions to be hypomineralized and others to be hypermineralized. The observations of wide-field Raman imaging were in agreement with point-scan Raman mapping. Therefore, sound enamel and lesions can be discriminated by Raman imaging of the mineral content. In conclusion, wide-field Raman imaging is a potentially useful tool for visualization of dental lesions in the clinic. PMID:24781363

  13. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  14. Chemomechanical removal of dental caries in deciduous teeth: further studies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yip, H K; Stevenson, A G; Beeley, J A

    1999-02-27

    To further investigate the efficacy of N-monochloro-DL-2-aminobutyrate (NMAB) and NMAB containing 2 M urea (NMAB-urea) as chemomechanical caries removal reagents in deciduous teeth using standardised lesions and limited applicator pressure. In vitro. Carious dentine was removed from standardised lesions in deciduous teeth using NMAB, NMAB-urea or isotonic saline (control); 50 lesions were studied with each reagent. The surface of the dentine remaining in cavities where complete caries removal was achieved was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. NMAB-urea (but not NMAB) gave significantly improved caries removal compared with saline. The dentine surfaces remaining after complete caries removal were irregular and approximately one third were bacterially contaminated. The improved efficacy of NMAB by the addition of urea has been confirmed. Toxicity studies are still necessary prior to clinical use of this reagent.

  15. Are fluoride releasing dental materials clinically effective on caries control?

    PubMed

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2016-03-01

    (1) To describe caries lesions development and the role of fluoride in controlling disease progression; (2) to evaluate whether the use of fluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants, bonding orthodontic agents and restorative materials, in comparison to a non-fluoride releasing material, reduces caries incidence in children or adults, and (3) to discuss how the anti-caries properties of these materials have been evaluated in vitro and in situ. The search was performed on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and on Medline via Pubmed. Caries is a biofilm-sugar dependent disease and as such it provokes progressive destruction of mineral structure of any dental surface - intact, sealed or restored - where biofilm remains accumulated and is regularly exposed to sugar. The mechanism of action of fluoride released from dental materials on caries is similar to that of fluoride found in dentifrices or other vehicles of fluoride delivery. Fluoride-releasing materials are unable to interfere with the formation of biofilm on dental surfaces adjacent to them or to inhibit acid production by dental biofilms. However, the fluoride released slows down the progression of caries lesions in tooth surfaces adjacent to dental materials. This effect has been clearly shown by in vitro and in situ studies but not in randomized clinical trials. The anti-caries effect of fluoride releasing materials is still not based on clinical evidence, and, in addition, it can be overwhelmed by fluoride delivered from dentifrices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of individuals retaining their teeth lifelong, often with periodontitis-induced root surface exposure, there is the need for cost-effective management strategies for root caries lesions. The present study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments. Patients were simulated over 10 years using a Markov model. Four treatments were compared: No treatment, daily 225-800ppm fluoride rinses, chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish (2×/year), silver diamine fluoride (SDF) varnish (2×/year). Data from a systematic review were submitted to network meta-analysis for inferring relative efficacies of treatments. The health outcome was years of teeth being free of root caries. A mixed public-private payer perspective within 2016 German healthcare was taken, with costs being estimated from fee item catalogues or based on market prices. Populations with different numbers of teeth and tooth-level risks were modelled. Monte-Carlo microsimulations, univariate- and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In populations with 16 teeth at risk and low tooth-level risk for root caries, providing no preventive treatment was least costly, but also least effective (130 Euro, 144 years). SDF ranked next, being more costly (180 Euro), but also more effective (151 years). Payers willing to invest 8.30 Euro per root caries-free tooth-year found SDF most cost-effective. CHX varnish and fluoride rinse were not cost-effective. In populations with more teeth and high tooth-level risk, SDF was the most effective and least costly option. Root caries preventive treatments (like SDF) are effective and might even be cost-saving in high risk populations. Application of SDF can be recommended as a cost-saving treatment for prevention of root caries in patients with high risk of root caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved detection reveals active β-papillomavirus infection in skin lesions from kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Lanfredini, Simone; Peretti, Alberto; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Colombo, Enrico; Quaglia, Marco; Boldorini, Renzo; Miglio, Umberto; Doorbar, John; Bavinck, Jan N Bouwes; Quint, Koen D; de Koning, Maurits N C; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of β-HPV gene products, as defined in epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancer, could also be observed in lesions from kidney transplant recipients alongside the viral DNA. A total of 111 samples, corresponding to 79 skin lesions abscised from 17 kidney transplant recipients, have been analyzed. The initial PCR analysis demonstrated that β-HPV-DNA was highly present in our tumor series (85%). Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize productive infection in 4 out of 19 actinic keratoses, and in the pathological borders of 1 out of 14 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 out of 31 basal cell carcinomas. Increased expression of the cellular proliferation marker minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7), that extended into the upper epithelial layers, was a common feature of all the E4-positive areas, indicating that cells were driven into the cell cycle in areas of productive viral infections. Although the present study does not directly demonstrate a causal role of these viruses, the detection of E4 and L1 positivity in actinic keratosis and the adjacent pathological epithelium of skin cancer, clearly shows that β-HPV are actively replicating in the intraepidermal precursor lesions of kidney transplant recipients and can therefore cooperate with other carcinogenic agents, such as UVB, favoring skin cancer promotion.

  18. Lesions of the lateral habenula facilitate active avoidance learning and threat extinction.

    PubMed

    Song, Mihee; Jo, Yong Sang; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Choi, June-Seek

    2017-02-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain structure that provides strong projections to midbrain monoaminergic systems that are involved in motivation, emotion, and reinforcement learning. LHb neurons are known to convey information about aversive outcomes and negative prediction errors, suggesting a role in learning from aversive events. To test this idea, we examined the effects of electrolytic lesions of the LHb on signaled two-way active avoidance learning in which rats were trained to avoid an unconditioned stimulus (US) by taking a proactive shuttling response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). The lesioned animals learned the avoidance response significantly faster than the control groups. In a separate experiment, we also investigated whether the LHb contributes to Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning and extinction. Following paired presentations of the CS and the US, LHb-lesioned animals showed normal acquisition of conditioned response (CR) measured with freezing. However, extinction of the CR in the subsequent CS-only session was significantly faster. The enhanced performance in avoidance learning and in threat extinction jointly suggests that the LHb normally plays an inhibitory role in learning driven by absence of aversive outcomes.

  19. Positron emission mammography (PEM): Effect of activity concentration, object size, and object contrast on phantom lesion detection

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Wang, Carolyn L.; Eissa, Marna; Haseley, David; Kelly, Mary M.; Liu, Franklin; Parikh, Jay R.; Beatty, J. David; Rogers, James V.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To characterize the relationship between lesion detection sensitivity and injected activity as a function of lesion size and contrast on the PEM (positron emission mammography) Flex Solo II scanner using phantom experiments. Methods: Phantom lesions (spheres 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mm diameter) were randomly located in uniform background. Sphere activity concentrations were 3 to 21 times the background activity concentration (BGc). BGc was a surrogate for injected activity; BGc ranged from 0.44-4.1 kBq/mL, corresponding to 46-400 MBq injections. Seven radiologists read 108 images containing zero, one, or two spheres. Readers used a 5-point confidence scale to score the presence of spheres. Results: Sensitivity was 100% for lesions {>=}12 mm under all conditions except for one 12 mm sphere with the lowest contrast and lowest BGc (60% sensitivity). Sensitivity was 100% for 8 mm spheres when either contrast or BGc was high, and 100% for 4 mm spheres only when both contrast and BGc were highest. Sphere contrast recovery coefficients (CRC) were 49%, 34%, 26%, 14%, and 2.8% for the largest to smallest spheres. Cumulative specificity was 98%. Conclusions: Phantom lesion detection sensitivity depends more on sphere size and contrast than on BGc. Detection sensitivity remained {>=}90% for injected activities as low as 100 MBq, for lesions {>=}8 mm. Low CRC in 4 mm objects results in moderate detection sensitivity even for 400 MBq injected activity, making it impractical to optimize injected activity for such lesions. Low CRC indicates that when lesions <8 mm are observed on PEM images they are highly tracer avid with greater potential of clinical significance. High specificity (98%) suggests that image statistical noise does not lead to false positive findings. These results apply to the 85 mm thick object used to obtain them; lesion detectability should be better (worse) for thinner (thicker) objects based on the reduced (increased) influence of photon attenuation.

  20. Gastroprotective activity of oleanolic acid derivatives on experimentally induced gastric lesions in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Luis; Rodriguez, Jaime A; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2002-04-01

    The gastroprotective effect of the triterpene oleanolic acid (OA) was assessed on gastric ulceration in rats. The effect of a single oral dose of OA was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) in the following models: pylorus ligature (Shay), and aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. A single oral administration of OA at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-' inhibited the appearance of gastric lesions induced by ethanol, aspirin and pylorus ligature. In the pylorus ligature and aspirin models, the effect of OA at the selected concentrations was comparable with that of ranitidine at 50 mg kg(-1). In the ethanol-induced gastric lesion model, OA showed a dose-dependent activity, and at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) was as active as omeprazole at 20 mg kg(-1). The effect of OA, its acetylated and methoxylated derivatives, oleanonic acid and its methyl ester were assessed on HCI/ethanol-induced ulcers in mice at 200 mg kg(-1). OA and its methoxylated (OAM) and acetylated (OAAM, OAA) derivatives proved to be active in this animal model. The semisynthetic derivatives OAM and OAAM had the greatest gastroprotective activity, but their effect was not significantly greater than OA. In an acute toxicity test on mice, intraperitoneal administration of OA showed no toxicity at doses up to 600 mg kg(-1).

  1. The effect of retrosplenial cortex lesions in rats on incidental and active spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, A. J. D.; Hindley, E. L.; Pearce, J. M.; Vann, S. D.; Aggleton, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the importance of the retrosplenial cortex for the incidental learning of the spatial arrangement of distinctive features within a scene. In a modified Morris water-maze, rats spontaneously learnt the location of an escape platform prior to swimming to that location. For this, rats were repeatedly placed on a submerged platform in one corner of either a rectangular (Experiment 1) or square (Experiments 2, 3) pool with walls of different appearance. The rats were then released in the center of the pool for their first test trial. In Experiment 1, the correct corner and its diagonally opposite partner (also correct) were specified by the geometric properties of the pool. Rats with retrosplenial lesions took longer to first reach a correct corner, subsequently showing an attenuated preference for the correct corners. A reduced preference for the correct corner was also found in Experiment 2, when platform location was determined by the juxtaposition of highly salient visual cues (black vs. white walls). In Experiment 3, less salient visual cues (striped vs. white walls) led to a robust lesion impairment, as the retrosplenial lesioned rats showed no preference for the correct corner. When subsequently trained actively to swim to the correct corner over successive trials, retrosplenial lesions spared performance on all three discriminations. The findings not only reveal the importance of the retrosplenial cortex for processing various classes of visuospatial information but also highlight a broader role in the incidental learning of the features of a spatial array, consistent with the translation of scene information. PMID:25705182

  2. A pilot study of dentists' assessment of caries detection and staging systems applied to early caries: PEARL Network findings.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Van P; Schenkel, Andrew B; Penugonda, Bapanaiah; Wolff, Mark S; Zeller, Gregory G; Wu, Hongyu; Vena, Don; Grill, Ashley C; Curro, Frederick A

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and the Caries Classification System (CCS) are caries stage description systems proposed for adoption into clinical practice. This pilot study investigated clinicians' training in and use of these systems for detection of early caries and recommendations for individual tooth treatment. Patient participants (N = 8) with a range of noncavitated lesions (CCS ranks 2 and 4 and ICDAS II ranks 2-4) identified by a team of calibrated examiners were recruited from the New York University College of Dentistry clinic. Eighteen dentists-8 from the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network and 10 recruited from the Academy of General Dentistry-were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 5 dentists used only visual-tactile (VT) examination, 7 were trained in the ICDAS II, and 6 were trained in the CCS. Lesion stage for each tooth was determined by the ICDAS II and CCS groups, and recommended treatment was decided by all groups. Teeth were assessed both with and without radiographs. Caries was detected in 92.7% (95% CI, 88%-96%) of the teeth by dentists with CCS training, 88.8% (95% CI, 84%-92%) of the teeth by those with ICDAS II training, and 62.3% (95% CI, 55%-69%) of teeth by the VT group. Web-based training was acceptable to all dentists in the CCS group (6 of 6) but fewer of the dentists in the ICDAS II group (5 of 7). The modified CCS translated clinically to more accurate caries detection, particularly compared to detection by untrained dentists (VT group). Moreover, the CCS was more accepted than was the ICDAS II, but dentists in both groups were open to the application of these systems. Agreement on caries staging requires additional training prior to a larger validation study.

  3. Root caries and risk profiles using the Cariogram in different periodontal disease severity groups.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hani; Al Hamdan, Khalid; Rhbeini, Yasser; Heijl, Lars; Birkhed, Dowen

    2011-03-01

    To study root caries and risk profiles using the Cariogram in relation to periodontal disease severity and to analyse indicators associated with high caries risk. A cross-sectional examination was carried out on 112 patients with periodontal disease from two government clinics in Saudi Arabia. The investigation comprised a questionnaire, bitewing radiographs, measurement of salivary secretion rate, buffering capacity and cariogenic microorganisms, and registration of periodontal status, plaque amount and coronal and root caries/fillings (DFT and RDFT). The data were then entered into the Cariogram pedagogic model to illustrate the caries risk profiles. Patients were grouped according to periodontal disease severity into one of three groups: (1) gingivitis (n = 44); (2) mild-to-moderate periodontitis (n = 33); and (3) severe periodontitis (n = 35). The prevalence of RDFT in the total sample was 17%. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in number of root lesions or mean 'Actual Chance to Avoid New Cavities' (Chance-AC) according to the Cariogram. Of the total sample, 22% displayed high caries risk (Chance-AC ≤ 40%). The most significant risk indicators in high caries risk patients were infrequent use of fluoride and unfavourable salivary and microbial parameters. Root surface lesions and high caries risk were present in about one-fifth of the patients referred for periodontal treatment. A combination of risk indicators rather than a single one contributed to the increased risk. Caries and risk profiles were not significantly correlated with periodontal disease severity.

  4. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  5. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  6. Are distinctive risk indicators associated with different stages of caries in children? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Congiu, Giovanna; Cocco, Fabio; Meloni, Gianfranco; Sale, Silvana; Campus, Guglielmo

    2016-12-01

    Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease's development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. A total of 390 subjects aged 6-8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i) highest caries score; ii) most prevalent caries score; and iii) number of affected teeth. Parents/guardians completed a questionnaire regarding vital statistics, socio-economic indicators, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and oral health behaviours. Caries was detected in 42.31% of the subjects. Maternal nationality, parental education level, use of a sweetened pacifier at night, intake of lactose-free milk and toothbrushing frequency were statistically significant associated (p < 0.05) with subjects stratified according to the highest caries score. Parental educational level, maternal occupational status and use of a sweetened pacifier at night were associated (p < 0.05) with affected children stratified according to the most prevalent caries score. Maternal educational level and intake of lactose-free milk were associated with subjects with moderate caries stages compared to being caries-free (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Maternal nationality (p < 0.01) and toothbrushing frequency (p = 0.01) were associated with subjects affected by extensive lesions compared to caries-free children. In subjects affected by initial lesions as the most prevalent figure, gender (male) and paternal occupation status (unemployed) were statistically significant associated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively) compared to those affected by highest prevalence of extensive caries lesions. In children with the highest prevalence of moderate caries lesions, maternal education level (p < 0.01), paternal

  7. Factors associated with dental caries in a group of American Indian children at age 36 months.

    PubMed

    Warren, John J; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V; Marshall, Teresa A; Phipps, Kathy R; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R

    2016-04-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This article reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children, and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors. Nonparametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only noncavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added-sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (P < 0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size, and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in a Group of American Indian Children at age 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This paper reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Methods Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28 and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary and behavioral factors. Non-parametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Results Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only non-cavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (p<0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. Conclusions By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. PMID:26544674

  9. Increased expression of interleukin-1 receptor type 1 in active endometriotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Lawson, C; Al-Akoum, M; Maheux, R; Akoum, A

    2007-01-01

    The establishment and progression of ectopic endometrial implants are dependent upon their interaction with and responsiveness to the stimuli present in their new environment. According to our and other previous studies, immune cells-derived cytokines, such as IL-1, may alone or in concert with estrogens, enhance the capability of ectopic endometrial cells to implant and develop into the host tissue. In the present study, immunohistochemical and dual immunofluorescence analyses showed that the functional signaling interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1RI) is expressed in endometriotic tissue, particularly in the glands, and identified endothelial cells, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes as cells having marked expression of IL-1RI. The highest concentrations of IL-1RI protein in endometriotic tissue, as evaluated using histological score (HSCORE) and measured by ELISA, were found in red endometriotic lesions as compared with typical black-blue or white lesions. Western blotting showed a significant increase in the levels of the 50 kDa band, whose apparent molecular weight corresponds to the soluble form of IL-1RI. RT-PCR analysis of IL-1 mRNA levels showed a pattern of expression comparable to that of the protein. Interestingly, IL-1RI expression was more significant in the proliferative than in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. Marked expression of IL-1RI, the functional signaling receptor that mediates cell activation by IL-1, in red endometriotic implants, which are highly vascularized and represent the earliest and most active forms of the disease, point to a higher cell receptivity for IL-1 in these lesions, a relationship with the activity of the disease and a possible involvement in the early steps of endometriotic tissue growth and development.

  10. Occlusal caries detection using polarized Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, I.; Bulou, A.

    2008-02-01

    The tooth enamel, because of its hydroxyapatite composition, must present a Raman spectrum with strong polarization anisotropy. Carious lesions of the enamel will produce an alteration of local symmetry and will increase much more scattering of light. This will reduce the anisotropy of the Raman spectra. Because of the difference between high sensitivity to polarization of the 959 cm -1 Raman peak in sound enamel and low sensitivity in carried enamel, Raman polarized spectroscopy could be a useful method to early detect teeth caries.

  11. The Use of Probiotic Strains in Caries Prevention: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Mastroberardino, Stefano; Milia, Egle; Cocco, Fabio; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main relevant databases (Medline, Embase) were searched. Quality of the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) was classified using the “Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials” (CONSORT) checklist and the Impact Factor (IF) value of each journal was recorded. Sixty-six papers were identified, and 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only three studies had caries lesion development as outcome, all the others reported caries risk factors as interim evaluation. Using the CONSORT Score, the papers were coded as 4 excellent, 9 good and 10 poor. The mean IF value recorded was 1.438. Probiotics may play a role as antagonistic agent on mutans streptococci (MS), acidogenic/aciduric bacteria that contributes to the caries process. In two-thirds of the selected papers, probiotics have demonstrated the capacity to reduce MS counts in saliva and/or plaque in short-term. The effect of probiotics on the development of caries lesion seems encouraging, but to date, RCTs on this topic are insufficient to provide scientific clinical evidence. PMID:23857225

  12. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Ayumi; Noda, Masafumi; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries.

  13. Current concepts and techniques for caries excavation and adhesion to residual dentin.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Neves, Aline; Coutinho, Eduardo; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-02-01

    The advent of "Adhesive Dentistry" has simplified the guidelines for cavity preparation enormously. The design and extent of the current preparations are basically defined by the extent and shape of the caries lesion, potentially slightly extended by bevelling the cavity margins in order to meet the modern concept of minimally invasive dentistry. New caries excavation techniques have been introduced, such as the use of plastic and ceramic burs, improved caries-disclosing dyes, enzymatic caries-dissolving agents, caries-selective sono/air abrasion and laser ablation. They all aim to remove or help remove caries-infected tissue as selectively as possible, while being minimally invasive through maximum preservation of caries-affected tissue. Each technique entails a specific caries-removal endpoint and produces residual dentin substrates of different natures and thus different receptiveness for adhesive procedures. This paper reviews the newest developments in caries excavation techniques and their effect on the remaining dentin tissue with regard to its bonding receptiveness.

  14. Dental caries: risk assessment and treatment solutions for an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-10-01

    Caries remains one of the top three most common infectious diseases in the world today. Although caries prevalence decreased markedly in children and in adults up to age 40 between 1975 and 2000, the overall risk for caries in older age groups (45 to 64, 65 to 84, and > 85 years of age) has not decreased appreciably. In fact, the risk for caries in individuals 70 years of age and older has increased. The increase in restorative work needed between 1990 and 2030 will be highest in adults over the age of 44 years. Root caries prevalence and the number of restored teeth will be greatest in the elderly population. Approximately 30% of individuals over the age of 65 will have no permanent teeth. It is also apparent that additional caries risk factors are associated with a significant proportion of the older population, including reduced saliva flow, inadequate oral hygiene, frequent sugar intake, Asian ethnicity, and the presence of partial dentures. The principles of modern caries management focus on risk assessment, risk reduction, monitoring noncavitated carious lesions, and the assignment of specific treatment options according to risk. Because a relatively high proportion of elderly patients will remain at high risk for caries, therapeutic regimens for managing caries as an infectious disease must focus on the use of antibacterial treatment; high-fluoride dentifrices; supplementary low-dose, high-frequency fluoride rinses; patient education; and shorter recall intervals.

  15. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80) to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:20920261

  16. Activation of PKCα and PI3K Kinases in Hypertrophic and Nodular Port Wine Stain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rong; Gao, Lin; Tan, Wenbin; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Tao; Nelson, Jhon Stuart; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Port wine stain (PWS) is a co