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Sample records for active case ascertainment

  1. Testing the Feasibility of a Passive and Active Case Ascertainment System for Multiple Rare Conditions Simultaneously: The Experience in Three US States

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Suzanne; Ruttenber, Margaret; Mann, Joshua; Smith, Michael G; Royer, Julie; Valdez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Background Owing to their low prevalence, single rare conditions are difficult to monitor through current state passive and active case ascertainment systems. However, such monitoring is important because, as a group, rare conditions have great impact on the health of affected individuals and the well-being of their caregivers. A viable approach could be to conduct passive and active case ascertainment of several rare conditions simultaneously. This is a report about the feasibility of such an approach. Objective To test the feasibility of a case ascertainment system with passive and active components aimed at monitoring 3 rare conditions simultaneously in 3 states of the United States (Colorado, Kansas, and South Carolina). The 3 conditions are spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome. Methods Teams from each state evaluated the possibility of using current or modified versions of their local passive and active case ascertainment systems and datasets to monitor the 3 conditions. Together, these teams established the case definitions and selected the variables and the abstraction tools for the active case ascertainment approach. After testing the ability of their local passive and active case ascertainment system to capture all 3 conditions, the next steps were to report the number of cases detected actively and passively for each condition, to list the local barriers against the combined passive and active case ascertainment system, and to describe the experiences in trying to overcome these barriers. Results During the test period, the team from South Carolina was able to collect data on all 3 conditions simultaneously for all ages. The Colorado team was also able to collect data on all 3 conditions but, because of age restrictions in its passive and active case ascertainment system, it was able to report few cases of fragile X syndrome. The team from Kansas was able to collect data only on spina bifida. For all states, the implementation of an

  2. Adjusting for bias due to incomplete case ascertainment in case-control studies of birth defects.

    PubMed

    Howards, Penelope P; Johnson, Candice Y; Honein, Margaret A; Flanders, W Dana

    2015-04-15

    Case-control studies of birth defects might be subject to selection bias when there is incomplete ascertainment of cases among pregnancies that are terminated after a prenatal diagnosis of the defect. We propose a simple method to estimate inverse probability of selection weights (IPSWs) for cases ascertained from both pregnancies that end in termination and those that do not end in termination using data directly available from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and other published information. The IPSWs can then be used to adjust for selection bias analytically. We can also allow for uncertainty in the selection probabilities through probabilistic bias analysis. We provide an illustrative example using data from National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2009) to examine the association between prepregnancy obesity (body mass index, measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, of ≥30 vs. <30) and spina bifida. The unadjusted odds ratio for the association between prepregnancy obesity and spina bifida was 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.73), and the simple selection bias-adjusted odds ratio was 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.53). The probabilistic bias analysis resulted in a median adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% simulation interval: 0.97, 1.47). The proposed method provides a quantitative estimate of the IPSWs and the bias introduced by incomplete ascertainment of cases among terminated pregnancies conditional on a set of assumptions.

  3. Mixed Model with Correction for Case-Control Ascertainment Increases Association Power

    PubMed Central

    Hayeck, Tristan J.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Loh, Po-Ru; Vilhjalmsson, Bjarni; Pollack, Samuela; Gusev, Alexander; Yang, Jian; Chen, Guo-Bo; Goddard, Michael E.; Visscher, Peter M.; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a liability-threshold mixed linear model (LTMLM) association statistic for case-control studies and show that it has a well-controlled false-positive rate and more power than existing mixed-model methods for diseases with low prevalence. Existing mixed-model methods suffer a loss in power under case-control ascertainment, but no solution has been proposed. Here, we solve this problem by using a χ2 score statistic computed from posterior mean liabilities (PMLs) under the liability-threshold model. Each individual’s PML is conditional not only on that individual’s case-control status but also on every individual’s case-control status and the genetic relationship matrix (GRM) obtained from the data. The PMLs are estimated with a multivariate Gibbs sampler; the liability-scale phenotypic covariance matrix is based on the GRM, and a heritability parameter is estimated via Haseman-Elston regression on case-control phenotypes and then transformed to the liability scale. In simulations of unrelated individuals, the LTMLM statistic was correctly calibrated and achieved higher power than existing mixed-model methods for diseases with low prevalence, and the magnitude of the improvement depended on sample size and severity of case-control ascertainment. In a Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 multiple sclerosis dataset with >10,000 samples, LTMLM was correctly calibrated and attained a 4.3% improvement (p = 0.005) in χ2 statistics over existing mixed-model methods at 75 known associated SNPs, consistent with simulations. Larger increases in power are expected at larger sample sizes. In conclusion, case-control studies of diseases with low prevalence can achieve power higher than that in existing mixed-model methods. PMID:25892111

  4. A prospective ascertainment of cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Semeere, Aggrey; Wenger, Megan; Busakhala, Naftali; Buziba, Nathan; Bwana, Mwebesa; Muyindike, Winnie; Amerson, Erin; Maurer, Toby; McCalmont, Timothy; LeBoit, Philip; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin; Lukande, Robert; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Laker-Oketta, Miriam; Kambugu, Andrew; Glidden, David; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, problems in accurate cancer case ascertainment and enumeration of the at-risk population make it difficult to estimate cancer incidence. We took advantage of a large well-enumerated healthcare system to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a cancer which has become prominent in the HIV era and whose incidence may be changing with the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To achieve this, we evaluated HIV-infected adults receiving care between 2007 and 2012 at any of three medical centers in Kenya and Uganda that participate in the East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium. Through IeDEA, clinicians received training in KS recognition and biopsy equipment. We found that the overall prevalence of KS among 102,945 HIV-infected adults upon clinic enrollment was 1.4%; it declined over time at the largest site. Among 140,552 patients followed for 319,632 person-years, the age-standardized incidence rate was 334/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 314-354/100,000 person-years). Incidence decreased over time and was lower in women, persons on ART, and those with higher CD4 counts. The incidence rate among patients on ART with a CD4 count >350 cells/mm(3) was 32/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 14-70/100,000 person-years). Despite reductions over time coincident with the expansion of ART, KS incidence among HIV-infected adults in East Africa equals or exceeds the most common cancers in resource-replete settings. In resource-limited settings, strategic efforts to improve cancer diagnosis in combination with already well-enumerated at-risk denominators can make healthcare systems attractive platforms for estimating cancer incidence.

  5. Allopurinol Use during Pregnancy - Outcome of 31 Prospectively Ascertained Cases and a Phenotype Possibly Indicative for Teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Stieler, Katja; Panse, Mary; Wacker, Evelin; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Allopurinol is a purine analogue that inhibits xanthine oxidase. It is mainly used for the treatment of hyperuricemia in patients with gout or tumor lysis syndrome. Experience with allopurinol in pregnancy is scarce. In 2011, Kozenko et al. reported on a child with multiple malformations after maternal treatment with allopurinol throughout pregnancy. Possible teratogenicity of allopurinol was proposed due to the similarity of the pattern of malformations in children with mycophenolate embryopathy. A possible common mechanism of both drugs, i.e. disruption of purine synthesis, was discussed. We report on the outcome of 31 prospectively ascertained pregnancies with allopurinol exposure at least during first trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were 2 spontaneous abortions, 2 elective terminations of pregnancy and 27 live born children. The overall rate of major malformations (3.7%) and of spontaneous abortions (cumulative incidence 11%, 95%-CI 3–40) were both within the normal range. However, there was one child with severe malformations including microphthalmia, cleft lip and palate, renal hypoplasia, low-set ears, hearing deficit, bilateral cryptorchidism, and micropenis. The striking similarity of the anomalies in this child and the case described by Kozenko et al. might be considered as a signal for teratogenicity. Thus, we would recommend caution with allopurinol treatment in the first trimester, until further data are available. PMID:23840514

  6. Reducing case ascertainment costs in US population studies of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment—Part 1*

    PubMed Central

    Weir, David R.; Wallace, Robert B.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Plassman, Brenda L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Duara, Ranjan; Loewenstein, David; Ganguli, Mary; Sano, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Establishing methods for ascertainment of dementia and cognitive impairment that are accurate and also cost effective is a challenging enterprise. Large population-based studies often using administrative data sets offer relatively inexpensive but reliable estimates of severe conditions including moderate to advanced dementia that are useful for public health planning, but they can miss less severe cognitive impairment which may be the most effective point for intervention. Clinical and epidemiological cohorts, intensively assessed, provide more sensitive detection of less severe cognitive impairment but are often costly. Here, several approaches to ascertainment are evaluated for validity, reliability, and cost. In particular, the methods of ascertainment from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) are described briefly, along with those of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS). ADAMS, a resource-intense sub-study of the HRS, was designed to provide diagnostic accuracy among persons with more advanced dementia. A proposal to streamline future ADAMS assessments is offered. Also considered are decision tree, algorithmic, and web-based approaches to diagnosis that can reduce the expense of clinical expertise and, in some contexts, can reduce the extent of data collection. These approaches are intended for intensively assessed epidemiological cohorts. The goal is valid and reliable detection with efficient and cost-effective tools. PMID:21255747

  7. Enhancing Case Ascertainment of Parkinson’s Disease Using Medicare Claims Data in a Population-Based Cohort: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ton, TG; Biggs, ML; Comer, D; Curtis, L; Hu, S; Thacker, EL; Searles Nielsen, S; Delaney, JA; Landsittel, D; Longstreth, WT; Checkoway, H; Jain, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to improve a previous algorithm to ascertain Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) by incorporating additional data from Medicare outpatient claims. We compared our results to the previous algorithm in terms of baseline prevalence and incidence of PD, as well as associations with baseline smoking characteristics. Methods: Our original case ascertainment used self-reported diagnosis, anti-parkinsonian medication, and hospitalization discharge ICD-9 code. In this study, we incorporated additional data from fee-for-service Medicare claims, extended follow-up time, review of medical records, and adjudicated cause of death. Two movement disorders specialists adjudicated final PD status. We used logistic regression models and controlled for age, sex, and African American race. Results: We identified 75 additional cases, but reclassified 80 previously identified cases as not having PD. We observed significant inverse association with smoking status (odds ratio=0.42; 95% confidence interval=0.22, 0.79), and inverse linear trends with pack-years (p=0.005), and cigarettes per day (p=0.019) with incident PD. All estimates were stronger than those from the previous algorithm. Conclusions: Our enhanced method did not alter prevalence and incidence estimates compared to our previous algorithm. However, our enhanced method provided stronger estimates of association, potentially due to reduced level of disease misclassification. PMID:24357102

  8. META-ANALYSIS OF FACTOR V LEIDEN AND ISCHEMIC STROKE IN YOUNG ADULTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF CASE ASCERTAINMENT

    PubMed Central

    Hamedani, Ali G.; Cole, John W.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Kittner, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The Factor V Leiden mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in children, but not in adults. Whether it is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, however, is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies of ischemic stroke in adults ≤ 50 years of age published before June 2009. Across all studies, Factor V Leiden was detected in 154 of 2,045 cases (7.5%) and 217 of 5,307 controls (4.1%), yielding a fixed effect odds ratio of 2.00 (95% CI: 1.59–2.51). However, further analyses revealed substantial heterogeneity among these studies (p=0.005 for Q-test of heterogeneity). Hypothesizing that this heterogeneity could be related to differences among studies in case selection criteria, we stratified the meta-analysis into studies for which case samples were enriched or not enriched to include cases having an increased likelihood of prothrombotic genetic involvement (“selected” ischemic stroke studies, n = 9) and those that recruited cases from consecutive neurology referrals or hospitalizations (“unselected” ischemic stroke studies, n = 8). Among the nine “selected” ischemic stroke studies, Factor V Leiden was more strongly associated with stroke [OR = 2.73 (95% CI: 1.98–3.75)], whereas among the eight “unselected” ischemic stroke studies, the association between Factor V Leiden and stroke was substantially weaker [OR=1.40 (95% CI: 0.998–1.95)]. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.003 for Woolf’s test for heterogeneity). We conclude that Factor V Leiden is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in patient populations where there is an increased clinical suspicion of prothrombotic state. PMID:20616326

  9. Estimating the completeness of physician billing claims for diabetes case ascertainment using population-based prescription drug data

    PubMed Central

    Lix, L. M.; Kuwornu, J. P.; Kroeker, K.; Kephart, G.; Sikdar, K. C.; Smith, M.; Quan, H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Changes in physician reimbursement policies may hinder the collection of billing claims in administrative data; this can result in biased estimates of disease prevalence and incidence. However, the magnitude of data loss is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate completeness of capture of disease cases for Manitoba physicians paid by fee-for-service (FFS) and non-fee-for-service (NFFS) methods. Methods: Manitoba’s administrative data were used to identify a cohort (≥ 20 years) with a new diabetes medication between 1 April, 2007, and 31 March, 2009. Cohort members were classified by payment method of the prescribing physician (i.e. FFS vs. NFFS). The cohort was then classified as missing or not missing a diabetes diagnosis using physician claims and hospital records. Then, χ2 statistics were used to test for differences in the characteristics of the two groups. Results: The cohort consisted of 12 394 individuals; 86.4% had a prescription for a diabetes medication from an FFS physician. A total of 1172 physicians (81.8% FFS) prescribed these medications for the cohort. Cohort members with a prescription from an FFS physician were older and more likely to reside in the urban Winnipeg health region than those with a prescription from a NFFS physician. A greater percentage of NFFS physicians’ cases were missing a diabetes diagnosis (18.7% vs. 14.9% for FFS physicians). Conclusion: The results suggest minimal loss of physician claims associated with remuneration policies in Manitoba. This method of assessing data completeness could be applied to other chronic diseases and jurisdictions to estimate completeness. PMID:26959724

  10. Clinical features of septic discitis in the UK: a retrospective case ascertainment study and review of management recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Neil; Patel, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Septic discitis is a rare but important cause of spinal pain caused by intervertebral disc infection. This retrospective observational case series analysis will examine the clinical features and management of septic discitis in 23 patients and compare with a similar 2001 study. We will also review the evidence behind management recommendations to identify areas for future research. The incidence of septic discitis was 2 per 100,000 per year. Patients presented with spinal pain (96 %), fever (70 %) and raised inflammatory markers. All patients had blood cultures and 52 % had targeted microbiological analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism (39 %). Treatment was most often with intravenous flucloxacillin or ceftriaxone. CT-guided sampling for culture before commencing antibiotics increased organism detection from 33 to 67 %, and organism identification reduced the antibiotic course from an average of 142 days to 77 days. An increased number of significant co-morbid conditions were associated with worse outcomes. Results broadly resembled the 2001 study. Key differences were increased use and yield of magnetic resonance imaging and computerised tomography (CT) scanning and more frequent use of intravenous antibiotics. Comparisons between the studies suggest that improvements in the consistency of management have been slow. We suggest this due to the large spectrum of disease and the lack of guidelines in the UK. It is widely recommended to perform blood cultures and CT-guided biopsies before starting antibiotics, but it is unclear how long to withhold antibiotics if cultures remain negative. Six weeks of intravenous followed by 6 weeks of oral therapy is often suggested as treatment, whereas some recommend using inflammatory markers to guide antibiotic duration. Larger studies addressing these specific questions are required to provide more definitive guidance for these clinical decisions. PMID:27417552

  11. Whither the "signature wounds of the war" after the war: estimates of incidence rates and proportions of TBI and PTSD diagnoses attributable to background risk, enhanced ascertainment, and active war zone service, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Brundage, John F; Taubman, Stephen B; Hunt, Devin J; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are "signature wounds" of the Afghanistan/Iraq wars; however, many TBI/PTSD cases are not war related. During the wars, diagnoses of TBI/PTSD among military members increased because risks of TBI/PTSD, and capabilities to detect cases, increased. This report summarizes TBI/PTSD diagnosis experiences of three cohorts of overseas deployers in relation to the natures of their exposures to active war service and enhanced case ascertainment efforts. The findings suggest that, during the war, the proportions of PTSD diagnoses attributable to war zone service decreased from approximately 80% to less than 50%, while the proportions attributable to enhanced case ascertainment increased from less than 10% to nearly 50%. The proportions of TBI diagnoses attributable to war zone service more than tripled from 2003-2005 (13.1%) through 2007-2009 (44.8%); the proportions attributable to enhanced ascertainment also markedly increased, but not until after 2007. By the end of the war, war zone service and enhanced ascertainment accounted for similar proportions of all PTSD and TBI diagnoses. If programs and resources currently focused on TBI and PTSD continue, rates of diagnoses post-war will greatly exceed those pre-war. PMID:25734618

  12. A novel methodology for the objective ascertainment of psychic and existential damage.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Ananian, Viviana; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernàndez-Cueto, Claudio; Mendelson, George; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Terranova, Claudio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Villanueva, Enrique; Zoia, Riccardo; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Personal injury is a legal term for a physical or psychic injury suffered by the plaintiff under civil and/or tort law. With reference to non-pecuniary damages, the evidence itself of physical and/or psychic injury is not sufficient for damage compensation. The process of ascertaining impairments and/or disabilities which pertain to the "personal sphere" of the individual, such as pain and suffering, loss of amenity, and/or psycho-existential damage, poses particular difficulties in relation to the obtainment of scientific evidence. The "immateriality" and the subjective connotation of the personal sphere are, in themselves, critical issues. The clinical data obtained from the neuropsychological ascertainment find their essential prerequisite in the active participation of the examinee who, in legally relevant contexts (criminal law, civil law, insurance), may be "affected" by personal interests. The present manuscript presents a novel interdisciplinary methodology, experimented on a series of judicial and extra-judicial cases, aimed at the attainment of objectivity and accuracy eligible in relation to the judicial settlement of cases and other matters involving the ascertainment of peculiar aspects of non-pecuniary damage. PMID:27147416

  13. A novel methodology for the objective ascertainment of psychic and existential damage.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Ananian, Viviana; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernàndez-Cueto, Claudio; Mendelson, George; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Terranova, Claudio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Villanueva, Enrique; Zoia, Riccardo; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Personal injury is a legal term for a physical or psychic injury suffered by the plaintiff under civil and/or tort law. With reference to non-pecuniary damages, the evidence itself of physical and/or psychic injury is not sufficient for damage compensation. The process of ascertaining impairments and/or disabilities which pertain to the "personal sphere" of the individual, such as pain and suffering, loss of amenity, and/or psycho-existential damage, poses particular difficulties in relation to the obtainment of scientific evidence. The "immateriality" and the subjective connotation of the personal sphere are, in themselves, critical issues. The clinical data obtained from the neuropsychological ascertainment find their essential prerequisite in the active participation of the examinee who, in legally relevant contexts (criminal law, civil law, insurance), may be "affected" by personal interests. The present manuscript presents a novel interdisciplinary methodology, experimented on a series of judicial and extra-judicial cases, aimed at the attainment of objectivity and accuracy eligible in relation to the judicial settlement of cases and other matters involving the ascertainment of peculiar aspects of non-pecuniary damage.

  14. Predictors of Ascertainment of Autism Spectrum Disorders across Nine US Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettygrove, Sydney; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Meaney, F. John; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Nicholas, Joyce; Miller, Lisa; Miller, Judith; Rice, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence estimates derived from a single data source under-identify children and provide a biased profile of case characteristics. We analyzed characteristics of 1,919 children with ASD identified by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Cases ascertained only at education sources were…

  15. 5 CFR 511.609 - Ascertainment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ascertainment of facts. 511.609 Section... CLASSIFICATION UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Classification Appeals § 511.609 Ascertainment of facts. The employee, a designated representative, and the agency shall furnish such facts as may be requested by...

  16. 5 CFR 511.609 - Ascertainment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ascertainment of facts. 511.609 Section... CLASSIFICATION UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Classification Appeals § 511.609 Ascertainment of facts. The employee, a designated representative, and the agency shall furnish such facts as may be requested by...

  17. Comparison of key informant and survey methods for ascertainment of childhood epilepsy in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Das, T; Sengupta, S

    1998-08-01

    Epilepsy is the most important neurological problem in developing countries, with a total of 50 million people worldwide having the condition. 33 million of these cases are children in developing countries, of whom 90% are untreated. To determine the number of children with active epilepsy in a given developing country community, previous studies have either ascertained information directly from key informants in the community or through more broad-based two-stage surveys. Findings are reported from a study conducted in 46 villages of district 24 Parganas South, a rural district south of Calcutta, comparing the two approaches' sensitivity, efficacy, and costs. Village leaders, health workers, and students were interviewed as key informants, while house-to-house surveys were conducted in 15,000 households. The survey was 4 times as sensitive as the key informant approach, although the approaches had similar positive predictive values. The survey had an absolute sensitivity of 59%. Case identification by key informants strongly predicted successful treatment outcomes. The cost of finding 1 case was US$11 and US$14, and of finding one successful treatment outcome US$35 and US$67 for informants and survey, respectively. The use of key informants was essential to attaining longer-term program objectives. PMID:9758124

  18. Under-ascertainment of multiple myeloma among participants in UK atmospheric atomic and nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Roff, S R

    2003-12-01

    An inter-comparison of cases of multiple myeloma among UK participants in the UK's atmospheric atomic and nuclear weapons tests ascertained by direct follow up methods detected at least a third more cases than a strategy relying solely on data linkage between the Office of National Statistics and the Service Records Offices. These finding have implications for the conduct and robustness of follow up studies of long term health effects among participants in nuclear weapons tests.

  19. Tailored Calendar Journals to Ascertain Falls Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, Susan L; Silianoff, Tara J; Kim, H Lyn; Conte, Jane W; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    Although falls are a serious health risk for community-dwelling older adults, their ascertainment has been complicated by issues such as recall and reporting biases. We examined a novel method, individualized tailored calendars, to accurately ascertain falls in older adults. A convenience sample of 125 cognitively normal participants enrolled in longitudinal studies of healthy aging at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Ressearch Center was followed prospectively for 12 months. Tailored calendar journal pages were used to document falls daily and returned by mail monthly. Participants received a US$5 gift card incentive for each month returned. Participants returned 1,487 of 1,500 calendar months over the 12-month follow-up for 99.1% compliance rate. There were 154 falls reported. Tailored calendar journals and incentives may be effective in ascertaining falls among community-dwelling older adults. This tool could improve the accuracy of outcome measures for occupational therapy interventions. PMID:25866488

  20. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  1. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference. PMID:19901237

  2. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  3. Prevalence of pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and gestational diabetes in population-based data: impact of different ascertainment methods on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Roberts, Christine L; Simpson, Judy M; Ford, Jane B

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated strategies for ascertaining pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus from birth records and/or hospital discharge data. The results showed that ascertaining these conditions from a data set that linked birth records to the corresponding maternal hospital record for birth was sufficient for health outcomes research. Antenatal hospital records provided few extra cases and may be necessary only for the ascertainment when a very accurate estimate of the prevalence is required.

  4. Measuring underreporting and under-ascertainment in infectious disease datasets: a comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient and reliable surveillance and notification systems are vital for monitoring public health and disease outbreaks. However, most surveillance and notification systems are affected by a degree of underestimation (UE) and therefore uncertainty surrounds the 'true’ incidence of disease affecting morbidity and mortality rates. Surveillance systems fail to capture cases at two distinct levels of the surveillance pyramid: from the community since not all cases seek healthcare (under-ascertainment), and at the healthcare-level, representing a failure to adequately report symptomatic cases that have sought medical advice (underreporting). There are several methods to estimate the extent of under-ascertainment and underreporting. Methods Within the context of the ECDC-funded Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)-project, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify studies that estimate ascertainment or reporting rates for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis in European Union Member States (MS) plus European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland and four other OECD countries (USA, Canada, Australia and Japan). Multiplication factors (MFs), a measure of the magnitude of underestimation, were taken directly from the literature or derived (where the proportion of underestimated, under-ascertained, or underreported cases was known) and compared for the two pathogens. Results MFs varied between and within diseases and countries, representing a need to carefully select the most appropriate MFs and methods for calculating them. The most appropriate MFs are often disease-, country-, age-, and sex-specific. Conclusions When routine data are used to make decisions on resource allocation or to estimate epidemiological parameters in populations, it becomes important to understand when, where and to what extent these data represent the true picture of disease, and in some instances (such as priority setting) it is

  5. Ascertainment Biases in SNP Chips Affect Measures of Population Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Albrechtsen, Anders; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Chip-based high-throughput genotyping has facilitated genome-wide studies of genetic diversity. Many studies have utilized these large data sets to make inferences about the demographic history of human populations using measures of genetic differentiation such as FST or principal component analyses. However, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data suffer from ascertainment biases caused by the SNP discovery process in which a small number of individuals from selected populations are used as discovery panels. In this study, we investigate the effect of the ascertainment bias on inferences regarding genetic differentiation among populations in one of the common genome-wide genotyping platforms. We generate SNP genotyping data for individuals that previously have been subject to partial genome-wide Sanger sequencing and compare inferences based on genotyping data to inferences based on direct sequencing. In addition, we also analyze publicly available genome-wide data. We demonstrate that the ascertainment biases will distort measures of human diversity and possibly change conclusions drawn from these measures in some times unexpected ways. We also show that details of the genotyping calling algorithms can have a surprisingly large effect on population genetic inferences. We not only present a correction of the spectrum for the widely used Affymetrix SNP chips but also show that such corrections are difficult to generalize among studies. PMID:20558595

  6. Ascertainment through family history of disease often decreases the power of family-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel A R; Sham, Pak; Daly, Mark J; Purcell, Shaun

    2007-07-01

    Selection of cases with additional affected relatives has been shown to increase the power of the case-control association design. We investigated whether this strategy can also improve the power of family-based association studies that use the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), while accounting for the effects of residual polygenic and environmental factors on disease liability. Ascertainment of parent-offspring trios conditional on the proband having affected first-degree relatives almost always reduced the power of the TDT. For many disease models, this reduction was quite considerable. In contrast, for the same sample size, designs that analyzed more than one affected offspring per family often improved power when compared to the standard parent-offspring trio design. Together, our results suggest that (1) residual polygenic and environmental influences should be considered when estimating the power of the TDT for studies that ascertain families with multiple affected relatives; (2) if trios are selected conditional on having additional affected offspring, then it is important to genotype and include in the analysis the additional siblings; (3) the ascertainment strategy should be considered when interpreting results from TDT analyses. Our analytic approach to estimate the asymptotic power of the TDT is implemented online at http://pngu.mgh.harvard.edu/ ~purcell/gpc/. PMID:17372818

  7. Ascertainment of familial ovarian cancer in the Aberdeen Genetic Clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, H; Schofield, A; de Silva, D; Semper, J; Milner, B; Allan, L; Haites, N

    1996-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in women in the UK. Patients with a family history including ovarian cancer make up nearly 15% of family cancer referrals to the Genetic Clinic in Aberdeen. To date, only one pedigree has been suitable for linkage studies, which has enabled us to target screening more accurately at those people at highest risk. Following discovery of a strong candidate for the BRCA1 gene, direct mutation testing may soon be possible. People who seek testing will require further counselling. Therefore we anticipate an increased demand on both clinical and laboratory resources, but more accurate ascertainment of high risk subjects should lead to more appropriate targeting of screening services. PMID:8728689

  8. 16 CFR 1101.13 - Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public ability to ascertain readily identity...)(1) § 1101.13 Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler. The... readily ascertain from the information itself the identity of the manufacturer or private labeler of...

  9. 16 CFR 1101.13 - Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public ability to ascertain readily identity...)(1) § 1101.13 Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler. The... readily ascertain from the information itself the identity of the manufacturer or private labeler of...

  10. 16 CFR 1101.13 - Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public ability to ascertain readily identity...)(1) § 1101.13 Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler. The... readily ascertain from the information itself the identity of the manufacturer or private labeler of...

  11. 16 CFR 1101.13 - Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public ability to ascertain readily identity...)(1) § 1101.13 Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler. The... readily ascertain from the information itself the identity of the manufacturer or private labeler of...

  12. Cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and mutagenic appraisal to ascertain toxicological potential of particulate matter emitted from automobiles.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Altaf, Imran; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    Vehicular air pollution is a mounting health issue of the modern age, particularly in urban populations of the developing nations. Auto-rickshaws are not considered eco-friendly as to their inefficient engines producing large amount of particulate matter (PM), thus posing significant environmental threat. The present study was conducted to ascertain the cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and mutagenic potential of PM from gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA). Based on the increased amount of aluminum quantified during proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of PM from TSA and FSA, different concentrations of aluminum sulfate were also tested to determine its eco-toxicological potential. The MTT assay demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of TSA, FSA, and aluminum sulfate on BHK-21 cell line. LC50 of TSA, FSA, and aluminum sulfate was quantified at 16, 11, and 23.8 μg/ml, respectively, establishing PM from FSA, a highly cytotoxic material. In case of phytotoxicity screening using Zea mays, the results demonstrated that all three tested materials were equally phytotoxic at higher concentrations producing significant reduction (p < 0.001) in seed germination. Aluminum sulfate proved to be a highly phytotoxic agent even at its lowest concentration. Mutagenicity was assessed by fluctuation Salmonella reverse mutation assay adopting TA100 and TA98 mutant strains with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Despite the fact that different concentrations of PM from both sources, i.e., TSA and FSA were highly mutagenic (p < 0.001) even at lower concentrations, the mutagenic index was higher in TSA. Data advocate that all tested materials are equally ecotoxic, and if the existing trend of atmospheric pollution by auto-rickshaws is continued, airborne heavy metals will seriously affect the normal growth of local inhabitants and

  13. Cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and mutagenic appraisal to ascertain toxicological potential of particulate matter emitted from automobiles.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Altaf, Imran; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    Vehicular air pollution is a mounting health issue of the modern age, particularly in urban populations of the developing nations. Auto-rickshaws are not considered eco-friendly as to their inefficient engines producing large amount of particulate matter (PM), thus posing significant environmental threat. The present study was conducted to ascertain the cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and mutagenic potential of PM from gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA). Based on the increased amount of aluminum quantified during proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of PM from TSA and FSA, different concentrations of aluminum sulfate were also tested to determine its eco-toxicological potential. The MTT assay demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of TSA, FSA, and aluminum sulfate on BHK-21 cell line. LC50 of TSA, FSA, and aluminum sulfate was quantified at 16, 11, and 23.8 μg/ml, respectively, establishing PM from FSA, a highly cytotoxic material. In case of phytotoxicity screening using Zea mays, the results demonstrated that all three tested materials were equally phytotoxic at higher concentrations producing significant reduction (p < 0.001) in seed germination. Aluminum sulfate proved to be a highly phytotoxic agent even at its lowest concentration. Mutagenicity was assessed by fluctuation Salmonella reverse mutation assay adopting TA100 and TA98 mutant strains with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Despite the fact that different concentrations of PM from both sources, i.e., TSA and FSA were highly mutagenic (p < 0.001) even at lower concentrations, the mutagenic index was higher in TSA. Data advocate that all tested materials are equally ecotoxic, and if the existing trend of atmospheric pollution by auto-rickshaws is continued, airborne heavy metals will seriously affect the normal growth of local inhabitants and

  14. 7 CFR 52.1010 - Ascertaining the grade of a lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ascertaining the grade of a lot. 52.1010 Section 52.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1010 Ascertaining the grade of a lot. The grade of a lot of the processed product covered by...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1314(a)-1 - Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of error. 1.1314(a)-1 Section 1.1314(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Years and Special Limitations § 1.1314(a)-1 Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error. (a... ascertained the amount of the tax previously determined for the taxpayer as to whom the error was made for...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1314(a)-1 - Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of error. 1.1314(a)-1 Section 1.1314(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Years and Special Limitations § 1.1314(a)-1 Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error. (a... ascertained the amount of the tax previously determined for the taxpayer as to whom the error was made for...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1314(a)-1 - Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of error. 1.1314(a)-1 Section 1.1314(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Years and Special Limitations § 1.1314(a)-1 Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error. (a... ascertained the amount of the tax previously determined for the taxpayer as to whom the error was made for...

  18. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  19. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  20. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  1. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1314(a)-1 - Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of error. 1.1314(a)-1 Section 1.1314(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Years and Special Limitations § 1.1314(a)-1 Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error. (a... ascertained the amount of the tax previously determined for the taxpayer as to whom the error was made for...

  3. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  4. Data sources and methods for ascertaining human exposure to drugs.

    PubMed

    Jones, J K; Kennedy, D L

    Estimates of population exposure based on drug use data are critical elements in the post marketing surveillance of drugs and provide a context for assessing the various risks and benefits associated with drug treatment. Such information is important in predicting morbidity and planning public health protection strategies, indepth studies, and regulatory actions. Knowledge that a population of one thousand instead of one million may potentially be exposed to a drug can help determine how a particular regulatory problem will be handled and would obviously be a major determinant in designing a case-control or cohort study. National estimates of drug use give an overview of the most commonly used drug therapies in current practice. They also furnish valuable comparison data for specific studies of drug use limited to one group of drugs, one geographic region, or one medical care setting. The FDA has access to several different national drug use data bases, each measuring a different point in the drug distribution channels. None covers the entire spectrum of drug exposures. The major "holes" in this patchwork of data bases are the inability to measure OTC drug use with any accuracy and the lack of qualitative information on drug use in hospitals. In addition, there is no patient linkage with the data. The data can only show trends in drug use. They impart no sense of the longitudinal use of drugs for individual patients. There is no direct connection between the different data bases, all of which have their own sampling frames and their own projection methodologies. The market research companies have complete control over these methodologies and they are subject to periodic changes, a situation not entirely satisfactory for epidemiologic research. Sometimes it is a struggle to keep up with these changes. Over the past two years, every one of these data bases has undergone some type of sampling or projection methodology change. One important limitation to the use of all

  5. Multispectral upconversion luminescence intensity ratios for ascertaining the tissue imaging depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yu; Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Ding, Yadan; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Zhang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have in recent years emerged as excellent contrast agents for in vivo luminescence imaging of deep tissues. But information abstracted from these images is in most cases restricted to 2-dimensions, without the depth information. In this work, a simple method has been developed to accurately ascertain the tissue imaging depth based on the relative luminescence intensity ratio of multispectral NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs. A theoretical mode was set up, where the parameters in the quantitative relation between the relative intensities of the upconversion luminescence spectra and the depth of the UCNPs were determined using tissue mimicking liquid phantoms. The 540 nm and 650 nm luminescence intensity ratios (G/R ratio) of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs were monitored following excitation path (Ex mode) and emission path (Em mode) schemes, respectively. The model was validated by embedding NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs in layered pork muscles, which demonstrated a very high accuracy of measurement in the thickness up to centimeter. This approach shall promote significantly the power of nanotechnology in medical optical imaging by expanding the imaging information from 2-dimensional to real 3-dimensional.Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have in recent years emerged as excellent contrast agents for in vivo luminescence imaging of deep tissues. But information abstracted from these images is in most cases restricted to 2-dimensions, without the depth information. In this work, a simple method has been developed to accurately ascertain the tissue imaging depth based on the relative luminescence intensity ratio of multispectral NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs. A theoretical mode was set up, where the parameters in the quantitative relation between the relative intensities of the upconversion luminescence spectra and the depth of the UCNPs were determined using tissue mimicking liquid phantoms. The 540 nm and 650 nm luminescence intensity ratios (G/R ratio) of NaYF4:Yb3

  6. 7 CFR 52.811 - Ascertaining the grade of a lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Lot Compliance § 52.811 Ascertaining the grade of a lot. The grade of a lot of frozen red tart pitted...

  7. 7 CFR 52.811 - Ascertaining the grade of a lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Lot Compliance § 52.811 Ascertaining the grade of a lot. The grade of a lot of frozen red tart pitted...

  8. 7 CFR 52.811 - Ascertaining the grade of a lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Lot Compliance § 52.811 Ascertaining the grade of a lot. The grade of a lot of frozen red tart pitted...

  9. Whiplash-Associated Disorders : Clinical and medico-legal guidelines on the methods of ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, S D; Ananian, V; Baccino, E; Banczerowski, P; Bordignon, D; Boscolo-Berto, R; Domenici, R; Gorriz Quevedo, J; Graw, M; Hell, W; Hernandez Cueto, C; Knudsen, P J T; Masiero, S; Montisci, M; Norelli, G A; Pinchi, V; Raudys, R; Raul, J S; Sterzik, V; Tessitore, E; Tuusov, J; Vanezis, P; Vermylen, Y; Vieira, D N; Viel, G; Viero, A; Villanueva, E; Zoia, R

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD).The document includes a detailed description of the logical and methodological steps of the ascertainment process as well as a synoptic diagram in the form of Flow Chart.

  10. Utility of the National Death Index in ascertaining mortality in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Maddox, Lorene M; Lieb, Spencer; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2011-07-01

    To assess the utility of the National Death Index (NDI) in improving the ascertainment of deaths among people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors determined the number and characteristics of additional deaths identified through NDI linkage not ascertained by using standard electronic linkage with Florida Vital Records and the Social Security Administration's Death Master File. Records of people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome between 1993 and 2007 in Florida were linked to the NDI. The demographic characteristics and reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission modes of people whose deaths were identified by using the NDI were compared with those whose deaths were ascertained by standard linkage methods. Of the 15,094 submitted records, 719 had confirmed matches, comprising 2.1% of known deaths (n = 34,504) within the cohort. Hispanics, males, people 40 years of age or older, and injection drug users were overrepresented among deaths ascertained only by the NDI. In-state deaths comprised 59.0% of newly identified deaths, and human immunodeficiency virus was less likely to be a cause of death among newly identified compared with previously identified deaths. The newly identified deaths were not previously ascertained principally because of slight differences in personal identifying information and could have been identified through improved linkages with Florida Vital Records.

  11. On the validity of self-reports and indirect reports to ascertain malaria prevalence in settings of hypoendemicity.

    PubMed

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2011-03-01

    Self-reports are commonly used to ascertain malaria prevalence in epidemiological studies conducted in settings where laboratory diagnosis is impractical. Most studies, however, do not use self-report per se, but indirect report, where one respondent provides responses for all household members. Studies also vary in terms of the time frame used for this ascertainment. The aim of our research was to determine the validity of self-report and indirect report in ascertaining malaria prevalence over six, eighteen and thirty-month time periods. Reports of malaria episodes collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires (193 self-reports, 614 indirect reports) were compared to microscopy-confirmed cases (principally Plasmodium vivax) registered at a government-run health post in the Peruvian Amazon. Test parameters were estimated using a Bayesian latent class approach for imperfect gold standards. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore determinants associated with accurate responses. Malaria self-report for the thirty-month period prevalence had the highest sensitivity (91.0%). Specificity was maximized when malaria prevalence was measured over the last six months for both self-report (91.6%) and indirect report (96.7%). Accuracy was highest for the six-month period prevalence in both self-report (91.3%) and indirect report (96.4%). Respondents who were female, had more education, or who provided a report on behalf of a child ≤ 12 years of age, were generally more accurate. Both self-report and indirect report provides accurate estimates of malaria prevalence, especially over shorter periods of time. The choice between self-report and indirect report should ultimately depend on the research question and the target study population.

  12. Comorbidity of intellectual disability confounds ascertainment of autism: implications for genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Andrew; Kubina, Richard M; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2015-10-01

    While recent studies suggest a converging role for genetic factors towards risk for nosologically distinct disorders including autism, intellectual disability (ID), and epilepsy, current estimates of autism prevalence fail to take into account the impact of comorbidity of these disorders on autism diagnosis. We aimed to assess the effect of comorbidity on the diagnosis and prevalence of autism by analyzing 11 years (2000-2010) of special education enrollment data on approximately 6.2 million children per year. We found a 331% increase in the prevalence of autism from 2000 to 2010 within special education, potentially due to a diagnostic recategorization from frequently comorbid features such as ID. The decrease in ID prevalence equaled an average of 64.2% of the increase of autism prevalence for children aged 3-18 years. The proportion of ID cases potentially undergoing recategorization to autism was higher (P = 0.007) among older children (75%) than younger children (48%). Some US states showed significant negative correlations between the prevalence of autism compared to that of ID while others did not, suggesting state-specific health policy to be a major factor in categorizing autism. Further, a high frequency of autistic features was observed when individuals with classically defined genetic syndromes were evaluated for autism using standardized instruments. Our results suggest that current ascertainment practices are based on a single facet of autism-specific clinical features and do not consider associated comorbidities that may confound diagnosis. Longitudinal studies with detailed phenotyping and deep molecular genetic analyses are necessary to completely understand the cause of this complex disorder.

  13. Ascertaining the Perspectives of Young Children in Care: Case Studies in the Use of Reality Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the use of an innovative method, reality boxes, to elicit the perspectives of children, ages four to seven years, in state care. Using examples from a broader research project based on children in Northern Ireland, which was concerned with their participation rights, the article considers how the children used the boxes to…

  14. 7 CFR 27.97 - Ascertaining the accuracy of price quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ascertaining the accuracy of price quotations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  15. 7 CFR 52.783 - Ascertaining the grade of a lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Lot Compliance § 52.783 Ascertaining the grade of a lot. The grade of a lot of canned red tart pitted cherries... Other Processed Food Products (§§ 52.1 to 52.87). Score Sheet...

  16. 7 CFR 52.804 - Ascertaining the grade of a sample unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.804 Ascertaining the grade of a sample unit. (a) The grade of frozen red tart pitted cherries is determined immediately after thawing to the... flavor is characteristic of frozen red tart pitted cherries and that the product is free...

  17. 7 CFR 52.804 - Ascertaining the grade of a sample unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.804 Ascertaining the grade of a sample unit. (a) The grade of frozen red tart pitted cherries is determined immediately after thawing to the... flavor is characteristic of frozen red tart pitted cherries and that the product is free...

  18. A Case of Filament - Active Region Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrache, C.; Dumitru, L.

    2010-09-01

    We analyze a huge filament observed between 5 and 19 September 2001. In its evolution it is linked to the active region 9612, observed between 7 and 16 September 2001. The filament has a strange morphology and dynamics: starting as two parallel components (A and B), it becomes a double sigmoid filament when a third component (C ) appears linking the other two. An unusual magnetic topology characterizes this evolution: the active region is located between the parallel components. When the third component becomes observable, it links these ones first below the active region. After a spectacular plasma movement registered in filament (A), this one becomes linked to (B) above the active region. In spite of these dramatically changes of the magnetic topology and filament -- active region switch, no CME is observed. Only a few flares occurring in AR9612 are registered and these ones can be seen in the dynamics of the filament as an expression of large scale magnetic reconnections.

  19. Anticipation or ascertainment bias in schizophrenia? Penrose`s familial mental illness sample

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, A.S. |; Husted, J.

    1997-03-01

    Several studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset [AAO] in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. However, whether true anticipation or ascertainment bias is the principal originating mechanism remains unclear. In 1944 L.S. Penrose collected AAO data on a large, representative sample of familial mental illness, using a broad ascertainment strategy. These data allowed examination of anticipation and ascertainment biases in five two-generation samples of affected relative pairs. The median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO was used to assess anticipation. Results showed significant anticipation in parent-offspring pairs with schizophrenia (n = 137 pairs; MID 15 years; P = .0001) and in a positive control sample with Huntington disease (n = 11; P = .01). Broadening the diagnosis of the schizophrenia sample suggested anticipation of severity of illness. However, other analyses provided evidence for ascertainment bias, especially in later-AAO parents, in parent-offspring pairs. Aunt/uncle-niece/nephew schizophrenia pairs showed anticipation (n = 111; P = .0001), but the MID was 8 years and aunts/uncles had earlier median AAO than parents. Anticipation effects were greatest in pairs with late-AAO parents but remained significant in a subgroup of schizophrenia pairs with early parental AAO (n = 31; P = .03). A small control sample of other diseases had MID of 5 years but no significant anticipation (n = 9; F = .38). These results suggest that, although ascertainment-bias effects were observed in parent-offspring pairs, true anticipation appears to be inherent in the transmission of familial schizophrenia. The findings support investigations of unstable mutations and other mechanisms that may contribute to true anticipation in schizophrenia. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Finger-shaped Red Light Emitting Diode to Ascertain the Depth of Periungual Wart

    PubMed Central

    Nirmal, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Management of periungual wart is a great challenge, especially when there is subungual extension. The major cause of recurrence of wart is improper clinical assessment of its extent and not directing therapy against the entire wart. This difficulty of ascertaining its extent could be overcome with this finger-shaped red light emitting diode device. Red light in the device penetrates the thick palmar skin and dark constitutive skin colour due to its longer wavelength. PMID:27761093

  1. Inflation of sibling recurrence-risk ratio, due to ascertainment bias and/or overreporting.

    PubMed

    Guo, S W

    1998-07-01

    One widely used measure of familial aggregation is the sibling recurrence-risk ratio, which is defined as the ratio of risk of disease manifestation, given that one's sibling is affected, as compared with the disease prevalence in the general population. Known as lambdaS, it has been used extensively in the mapping of complex diseases. In this paper, I show that, for a fictitious disease that is strictly nongenetic and nonenvironmental, lambdaS can be dramatically inflated because of misunderstanding of the original definition of lambdaS, ascertainment bias, and overreporting. Therefore, for a disease of entirely environmental origin, the lambdaS inflation due to ascertainment bias and/or overreporting is expected to be more prominent if the risk factor also is familially aggregated. This suggests that, like segregation analysis, the estimation of lambdaS also is prone to ascertainment bias and should be performed with great care. This is particularly important if one uses lambdaS for exclusion mapping, for discrimination between different genetic models, and for association studies, since these practices hinge tightly on an accurate estimation of lambdaS. PMID:9634526

  2. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  3. Increased Case Notification through Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis among Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Fukushi; Eang, Mao Tan; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, there has been growing evidence that suggests the effectiveness of active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) in high-risk populations. However, the evidence is still insufficient as to whether ACF increases case notification beyond what is reported in the routine passive case finding (PCF). In Cambodia, National TB Control Programme has conducted nationwide ACF with Xpert MTB/RIF that retrospectively targeted household and neighbourhood contacts alongside routine PCF. This study aims to investigate the impact of ACF on case notifications during and after the intervention period. Methods Using a quasi-experimental cluster randomized design with intervention and control arms, we compared TB case notification during the one-year intervention period with historical baseline cases and trend-adjusted expected cases, and estimated additional cases notified during the intervention period (separately for Year 1 and Year 2 implementation). The proportion of change in case notification was compared between intervention and control districts for Year 1. The quarterly case notification data from all intervention districts were consolidated, aligning different implementation quarters, and separately analysed to explore the additionality. The effect of the intervention on the subsequent case notification during the post-intervention period was also assessed. Results In Year 1, as compared to expected cases, 1467 cases of all forms (18.5%) and 330 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (9.6%) were additionally notified in intervention districts, whereas case notification in control districts decreased by 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. In Year 2, 2737 cases of all forms (44.3%) and 793 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (38%) were additionally notified as compared to expected cases. The proportions of increase in case notifications from baseline cases and expected cases to intervention period cases were consistently higher in intervention group than in control

  4. Models Role within Active Learning in Biology. A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop-Pacurar, Irina; Tirla, Felicia-Doina

    2009-01-01

    In order to integrate ideas and information creatively, to motivate students and activate their thinking, we have used in Biology classes a series of active methods, among which the methods of critical thinking, which had very good results. Still, in the case of some intuitive, abstract, more difficult topics, such as the cell structure,…

  5. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. 71.14 Section 71.14 Animals... or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. When, in order to prevent the spread of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease, it becomes...

  6. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. 71.14 Section 71.14 Animals... or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. When, in order to prevent the spread of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease, it becomes...

  7. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. 71.14 Section 71.14 Animals... or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. When, in order to prevent the spread of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease, it becomes...

  8. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. 71.14 Section 71.14 Animals... or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. When, in order to prevent the spread of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease, it becomes...

  9. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. 71.14 Section 71.14 Animals... or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and compensation. When, in order to prevent the spread of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease, it becomes...

  10. Active case finding of tuberculosis: historical perspective and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Golub, J. E.; Mohan, C. I.; Comstock, G. W.; Chaisson, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a history of remarkable scientific achievements in microbiology and therapeutics, tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose an extraordinary threat to human health. Case finding and treatment of TB disease are the principal means of controlling transmission and reducing incidence. This review presents a historical perspective of active case finding (ACF) of TB, detailing case detection strategies that have been used over the last century. This review is divided into the following sections: mass radiography, house-to-house surveys, out-patient case detection, enhanced case finding, high-risk populations and cost-effectiveness. The report concludes with a discussion and recommendations for future case finding strategies. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of these methods will help inform and shape ACF as a TB control policy in the twenty-first century. PMID:16333924

  11. 76 FR 42129 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form (Form DHS-7001), Online Ombudsman Form DHS-7001 AGENCY: Office of the Citizenship and Immigration Service... practices of USCIS to mitigate problems. This form is used by an applicant who is experiencing problems...

  12. Can administrative data be used to ascertain clinically significant postoperative complications?

    PubMed

    Romano, Patrick S; Schembri, Michael E; Rainwater, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether postoperative complications can be ascertained using administrative data. We randomly sampled 991 adults who underwent elective open diskectomies at 30 nonfederal acute care hospitals in California. Postoperative complications were specified by reviewing medical literature and by consulting clinical experts. We compared hospital-reported ICD-9-CM data and independently recoded ICD-9-CM data with complications abstracted by clinicians using detailed criteria. Recoded ICD-9-CM data were more likely than hospital-reported ICD-9-CM data to capture true complications, when they occurred, but they also mislabeled more patients who never experienced clinically significant complications. This finding was most evident for mild or ambiguous complications, such as atelectasis, posthemorrhagic anemia, and hypotension. Overall, recoded ICD-9-CM data captured 47% and 56% of all mild and severe complications, respectively, whereas hospital-reported ICD-9-CM data captured only 37% and 44%, respectively, of all mild and severe complications. These findings raise questions about the validity of using administrative data to ascertain postoperative complications, even if coders are carefully hired, trained, and supervised. ICD-9-CM complication codes are more promising as a tool to help providers identify their own adverse outcomes than as a tool for comparing performance.

  13. 7 CFR 275.12 - Review of active cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cooperate in completing a quality control review has the effect of a refusal to cooperate shall include the... AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews... quality control review. These active cases shall be reviewed to determine if the household is eligible...

  14. 7 CFR 275.12 - Review of active cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooperate in completing a quality control review has the effect of a refusal to cooperate shall include the... AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews... quality control review. These active cases shall be reviewed to determine if the household is eligible...

  15. Gang Activity on Campus: A Crisis Response Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mahauganee; Meaney, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This case study challenges readers to consider a contemporary issue for campus threat assessment and emergency preparedness: gang presence on college campuses. A body of research examining the presence of gangs and gang activity on college campuses has developed, revealing that gangs pose a viable threat for institutions of higher education. The…

  16. Importance of active case detection in a malaria elimination programme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the aim of eliminating malaria from Sri Lanka by 2014, the Anti-Malaria Campaign of Sri Lanka (AMC) sought the support of Tropical and Environmental Disease and Health Associates Private Limited (TEDHA), a private sector organization. In 2009, TEDHA was assigned 43 government hospitals in the district of Mannar in the Northern Province and in districts of Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Ampara in the Eastern Province to carry out malaria surveillance to complement the surveillance activities of the AMC. Passive case detection (PCD), activated passive case detection (APCD) and active case detection (ACD) for malaria have been routinely carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods The active case detection programme of TEDHA involves screening of populations irrespective of the presence of fever or any other signs or symptoms of malaria to detect infections and residual parasite carriers. ACD is done by TEDHA in a) high risk populations through mobile malaria clinics including armed forces personnel and b) pregnant females who visit antenatal clinics for asymptomatic malaria infections during the first trimester of pregnancy. Populations are selected in consultation with the Regional Malaria Officer of the AMC thus avoiding any overlap with the population screened by the government. Results TEDHA screened 387,309 individuals in the four districts for malaria by ACD including high risk groups and pregnant women between January 2010 and December 2012. During this period seven individuals were diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infections and one individual was detected with a mixed infection of P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. All eight cases were detected by ACD carried out by mobile malaria clinics among high risk groups in the Mannar district. Conclusion The progress made by Sri Lanka in the malaria elimination drive is largely due to increased surveillance and judicious use of control methods which has resulted in zero indigenous malaria cases being reported since

  17. Validation of Verbal Autopsy Tool for Ascertaining the Causes of Stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Nausheen, Sidrah; Soofi, Sajid B.; Sadiq, Kamran; Habib, Atif; Turab, Ali; Memon, Zahid; Khan, M. Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Bhatti, Zaid; Ahmed, Imran; Bahl, Rajiv; Bhutta, Shireen; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess performance of the WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of still birth in comparison with reference standard cause of death ascertained by standardized clinical and supportive data. Methods All stillbirths at a tertiary hospital in Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recruited into study from August 2006- February 2008. The reference standard cause of death was established by two senior obstetricians within 48 hours using the ICD coding system. Verbal autopsy interviews using modified WHO tool were conducted by trained health workers within 2- 6 weeks of still birth and the cause of death was assigned by second panel of obstetricians. The performance was assessed in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Kappa. Results There were 204 still births. Of these, 80.8% of antepartum and 50.5% of intrapartum deaths were correctly diagnosed by verbal autopsy. Sensitivity of verbal autopsy was highest 68.4%, (95%CI: 46-84.6) for congenital malformation followed by obstetric complication 57.6%, (95%CI: 25-84.2). The specificity for all major causes was greater than 90%. The level of agreement was high (kappa=0.72) for anomalies and moderate (k=0.4) for all major causes of still birth, except asphyxia. Conclusion Our results suggest that verbal autopsy has reasonable validity in identifying and discriminating between causes of stillbirth in Pakistan. On the basis of these findings, we feel it has a place in resource constrained areas to inform strategic planning and mobilization of resources to attain Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24130814

  18. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    PubMed

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality.

  19. Remotely operable sample-taking appliance, especially for ascertaining radioactivity profiles in contaminated material surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hanulik, J.

    1983-09-20

    A sample-taking appliance comprises several sensors arranged on a turntable like sensor carrier in such a manner that the application areas of the small sensor sponges decrease stepwise from the first to the last sensor. By simple rotation of the turntable the sensors can be brought successively into a working position. The sensor carrier is preferably accommodated in a housing which is open at the bottom and which is raisable and lowerable in the frame of the appliance by, for example, a threaded spindle. The threaded spindle is driven by an electric motor. For each sampling the sensor carrier is lowered until the cell voltage corresponds to a predetermined desired value. This produces sufficiently precise and reproductible measured values of the electrolytic current for ascertaining the removed layer thickness. The appliance makes it possible to take material samples even from locations of high radiation loading. The material layers removed as samples lie concentrically above each other so that the graduation of the application areas comes into full effect and the material samples taken by the small sponges and the radioactivity contained therein are not falsified.

  20. Spreadsheet program to ascertain residuals radionuclide concentrations (SPARRC), version 1.0 (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    Several radionuclides such as radon, radium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta and photon emitters are to be regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. When water treatment plants remove these contaminants from drinking water sources, the contaminants get transferred to the treatment plant residuals such as wash water, brines, and sludges. The presence of radionuclides in treatment plant wastes, depending on the concentration relative to allowable limits, may limit the use of less expensive disposal options for those residuals, thereby increasing the costs. Depending on the concentration of co-contaminants in residuals, thereby increasing the costs. Depending on the concentration of co-contaminants in residuals, the residuals might be classified as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cost of residuals disposal is also a function of the volume (and/or mass) of the residuals. Therefore, it is important to estimate the quantities, radionuclide concentrations, and co-contaminant concentrations of residuals generated from water treatment plants that remove naturally-occurring radionuclides. The Spreadsheet Program to Ascertain Residuals radionuclide Concentrations (SPARRC) can be used to estimate the waste volumes and concentrations of radionuclides (and be used co-contaminants) in the residuals from water treatment plants removing naturally-occurring radionuclides. This computer program has been developed in support of the EPA`s revision to the 1990 document entitled `Suggested Guidelines for the Disposal of Drinking Water Treatment Wastes Containing Naturally Occurring Radionuclides`.

  1. Evidence of linkage of HDL level variation to APOC3 in two samples with different ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, France; Jarvik, Gail P; Motulsky, Arno G; Deeb, Samir S; Brunzell, John D; Wijsman, Ellen M

    2003-11-01

    The APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene complex encodes genes whose products are implicated in the metabolism of HDL and/or triglycerides. Although the relationship between polymorphisms in this gene cluster and dyslipidemias was first reported more than 15 years ago, association and linkage results have remained inconclusive. This is due, in part, to the oligogenic and multivariate nature of dyslipidemic phenotypes. Therefore, we investigate evidence of linkage of APOC3 and HDL using two samples of dyslipidemic pedigrees: familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and isolated low-HDL (ILHDL). We used a strategy that deals with several difficulties inherent in the study of complex traits: by using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach we allow for oligogenic trait models, as well as simultaneous incorporation of covariates, in the context of multipoint analysis. By using this approach on extended pedigrees we provide evidence of linkage of APOC3 and HDL level variation in two samples with different ascertainment. In addition to APOC3, we estimate that two to three genes, each with a substantial effect on total variance, are responsible for HDL variation in both data sets. We also provide evidence, using the FCHL data set, for a pleiotropic effect between HDL, HDL3 and triglycerides at the APOC3 locus.

  2. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Testing of Biological Ascertainment for Mendelian Randomization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Santiago; Gaunt, Tom R.

    2009-01-01

    Mendelian randomization (MR) permits causal inference between exposures and a disease. It can be compared with randomized controlled trials. Whereas in a randomized controlled trial the randomization occurs at entry into the trial, in MR the randomization occurs during gamete formation and conception. Several factors, including time since conception and sampling variation, are relevant to the interpretation of an MR test. Particularly important is consideration of the “missingness” of genotypes that can be originated by chance, genotyping errors, or clinical ascertainment. Testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is a genetic approach that permits evaluation of missingness. In this paper, the authors demonstrate evidence of nonconformity with HWE in real data. They also perform simulations to characterize the sensitivity of HWE tests to missingness. Unresolved missingness could lead to a false rejection of causality in an MR investigation of trait-disease association. These results indicate that large-scale studies, very high quality genotyping data, and detailed knowledge of the life-course genetics of the alleles/genotypes studied will largely mitigate this risk. The authors also present a Web program (http://www.oege.org/software/hwe-mr-calc.shtml) for estimating possible missingness and an approach to evaluating missingness under different genetic models. PMID:19126586

  3. Self-Confirmation and Ascertainment of the Candidate Genomic Regions of Complex Trait Loci – A None-Experimental Solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lishi; Jiao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengchen; Gu, Weikuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past half century, thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified by using animal models and plant populations. However, the none-reliability and imprecision of the genomic regions of these loci have remained the major hurdle for the identification of the causal genes for the correspondent traits. We used a none-experimental strategy of strain number reduction for testing accuracy and ascertainment of the candidate region for QTL. We tested the strategy in over 400 analyses with data from 47 studies. These studies include: 1) studies with recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice. We first tested two previously mapped QTL with well-defined genomic regions; We then tested additional four studies with known QTL regions; and finally we examined the reliability of QTL in 38 sets of data which are produced from relatively large numbers of RI strains, derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), known as BXD RI mouse strains; 2) studies with RI strains of rats and plants; and 3) studies using F2 populations in mice, rats and plants. In these cases, our method identified the reliability of mapped QTL and localized the candidate genes into the defined genomic regions. Our data also suggests that LRS score produced by permutation tests does not necessarily confirm the reliability of the QTL. Number of strains are not the reliable indicators for the accuracy of QTL either. Our strategy determines the reliability and accuracy of the genomic region of a QTL without any additional experimental study such as congenic breeding. PMID:27203862

  4. Self-Confirmation and Ascertainment of the Candidate Genomic Regions of Complex Trait Loci - A None-Experimental Solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lishi; Jiao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengchen; Gu, Weikuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past half century, thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified by using animal models and plant populations. However, the none-reliability and imprecision of the genomic regions of these loci have remained the major hurdle for the identification of the causal genes for the correspondent traits. We used a none-experimental strategy of strain number reduction for testing accuracy and ascertainment of the candidate region for QTL. We tested the strategy in over 400 analyses with data from 47 studies. These studies include: 1) studies with recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice. We first tested two previously mapped QTL with well-defined genomic regions; We then tested additional four studies with known QTL regions; and finally we examined the reliability of QTL in 38 sets of data which are produced from relatively large numbers of RI strains, derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), known as BXD RI mouse strains; 2) studies with RI strains of rats and plants; and 3) studies using F2 populations in mice, rats and plants. In these cases, our method identified the reliability of mapped QTL and localized the candidate genes into the defined genomic regions. Our data also suggests that LRS score produced by permutation tests does not necessarily confirm the reliability of the QTL. Number of strains are not the reliable indicators for the accuracy of QTL either. Our strategy determines the reliability and accuracy of the genomic region of a QTL without any additional experimental study such as congenic breeding. PMID:27203862

  5. Suicidal Ideation Associated with PCL Checklist-Ascertained PTSD among Veterans Treated for Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Haas, Gretchen L.; Appelt, Cathleen J.; Walker, Jon D.; Fox, Lauren J.; Kasckow, John W.; Luther, James F.; Salloum, Ihsan M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript begins by reviewing the literature concerning the use of the SCID versus the PCL for diagnosing PTSD, and by reviewing the literature regarding the presence of suicidal ideation as a clinical correlate of PTSD. This manuscript then describes our recent study involving PTSD among Veterans, which assessed the presence of suicidal ideation as a clinical correlate of PTSD, as diagnosed by the SCID versus as diagnosed by the PCL. We hypothesized that the presence of suicidal ideation would be associated with a diagnosis of PTSD. Subjects were 101 Veterans recruited from VA behavioral health and substance use treatment clinics in the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System. The study compared correlations of suicidal ideation with PTSD as determined with the PTSD Checklist versus the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and utilized question 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory for assessing presence of SI. PTSD was diagnosed in 15 subjects using the SCID, and in 15 subjects using the PTSD Checklist. SI were reported by 16 subjects. The presence of SI was significantly associated with the diagnosis of PTSD on the PCL (chi-square=5.73, df=1, p=0.017) but not on the SCID (chi-square=0.08, df=1, p=0.773). These findings suggest that SI associated with the diagnosis of PTSD among Veterans are better ascertained by the PCL as compared to the more elaborate diagnostic algorithm used in the SCID. The current study finding raises the possibility that a less complicated diagnostic assessment instrument such as the PCL may be superior to the SCID, a more complicated instrument for diagnosing PTSD, at least in some populations. PMID:25382964

  6. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  11. Combined risk assessment of physical activity and dietary habits on the development of colorectal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Steindorf, K; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Popiela, T; Jedrychowski, W; Penar, A; Matyja, A; Wahrendorf, J

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the importance of physical activity performed both in occupational settings and in leisure time on the risk of colorectal cancer, considering the possible confounding effects of dietary habits. The hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Poland. In total, 180 incident cases of colorectal cancer were recruited. An equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age, were chosen from patients with no history of cancer. A food frequency questionnaire combined with quantity of foods eaten was used to assess the usual dietary pattern for 148 food items. The average physical load of the interviewed patients before the occurrence of disease was ascertained by self-assessment. The degree to which patients' recreational time was sedentary was measured by the number of hours spent watching TV. The adjusted risk of colorectal cancer was reduced by half in those active in leisure time (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84). The effect of occupational physical activity was of about the same order of magnitude in terms of risk reduction (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29-1.29) and both activities combined acted as independent protective factors. The protective effect of healthy nutrition appeared to be independent from that attributed to physical effort.

  12. Current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Seta, S

    1996-06-28

    The current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan are described. The selected forensic science disciplines are forensic osteology including specialized technology of skull identification, forensic serology, forensic DNA analysis of poisonous materials, forensic hair and fiber analysis, trace evidence analysis, document analysis, forensic psychology mainly concerned with the so-called lie-detector, forensic image analysis, voice print analysis, fire and explosion analysis, forensic engineering, firearm and toolmark analysis. The current activity of the Training Institute of Forensic Science at the National Research Institute of Police Science is also briefly described with special regard to the education and training course of forensic DNA typing analysis. Instruments for analytical and methodological use are listed according to the availability in evidence sample analyses.

  13. Asymmetry in Active SETI: A case for transmissions from Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2011-02-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) typically presupposes contact with extraterrestrial civilizations much longer lived than humanity. Many have argued that given humanity's "youth," the burden of transmitting should be placed on the extraterrestrial civilizations, which presumably possess more advanced technologies. These assumptions have contributed to the current emphasis on Passive SETI. Complementing this existing stress on Passive SETI with an additional commitment to Active SETI, in which humankind transmits messages to other civilizations, would have several advantages, including (1) addressing the reality that regardless of whether older civilizations should be transmitting, they may not be transmitting; (2) placing the burden of decoding and interpreting messages on advanced extraterrestrials, which may facilitate mutual comprehension; and (3) signaling a move toward an intergenerational model of science with a long-term vision for benefiting other civilizations as well as future generations of humans. Technological requirements for Active SETI are considered, and a case is made for Active SETI as a means for experimentally testing variants of the Zoo Hypothesis. Recommendations are provided for sustaining Passive and Active SETI and the communities that conduct these searches.

  14. Geographical Variations and Genetic Distances of Three Saxidomus purpuratus Populations ascertained by PCR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong-Man

    2015-12-01

    Genomic DNA samples isolated from geographical purplish Washington clam (Saxidomus purpuratus) were obtained from three different regions in the Korean Peninsula: Geoje (Geoje population; GJP), Gunsan (Gunsan population; GSP) and a site of North Korea (North Korea population; NKP). The seven primers generated the total 369 loci that can be scored from the GSP clam population. 356 fragments were generated from the NKP clam population. The complexity of the banding patterns varies dramatically between the primers and three localities. In this study, 319 loci were identified in the purplish Washington clam from Geoje and 369 in the clam population from Gunsan: 221 specific loci (69.3%) in the GJP clam population and 300 (81.3%) in the GSP population. These results demonstrate that the primer detected a large quantity of specific fragments, suggesting that the genetic variation in the GSP is higher than in the GJP population. In particular, the BION-28 primer gave DNA profiles with more fragments than the other six primers in the NKP population. The oligonucleotides primer BION-75 produced 21 unique loci to each population, which were ascertaining each population, approximately 250 bp, 300 bp and 400 bp, in the GJP population. Outstandingly, the primer BION-50 detected 21 shared loci by the three populations, major and/or minor fragments of sizes 150 bp, which were matching in all samples. With regard to average bandsharing value (BS) results, individuals from GJP population (0.743) displayed higher bandsharing values than did individuals from GSP population (0.606). In the present study, the dendrogram gained by the seven oligonucleotides primers indicates three genetic clusters: cluster 1 (GEOJE 01 ~ GEOJE 07), cluster 2 (GUNSAN 08 ~ GUNSAN 14), cluster 3 (N.KOREA 15 ~ N.KOREA 21). Among the twenty one clams, the shortest genetic distance that revealed significant molecular differences was between individuals 08 and 09 from the NKP population (genetic distance = 0

  15. Using a Council of Beings to Ascertain Student Understanding of the Relationship between Sense-of-Place and Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogan, Margaret B.

    2012-01-01

    A modified J. Seed, Council of Beings is used to ascertain participants' understanding of their sense of place within the environment. Over the past 15 years, students in environmental education, teachers in-service programs or undergraduate face-to-face and Internet sustainability education courses have been exposed to pedagogy that leads to the…

  16. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise. PMID:27190487

  17. Spontaneous reports of primarily suspected herbal hepatotoxicity by Pelargonium sidoides: was causality adequately ascertained?

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Spontaneous reports of primarily assumed hepatotoxicity in connection with the use of Pelargonium sidoides (PS) have been interpreted by the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (DCGMA) as showing some hepatotoxic potential of PS used to treat common cold and other respiratory tract infections. Causality for PS was assessed using the liver specific, structured, quantitative, and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). In none of the 15 cases was there a highly probable or probable causality for PS. Analysis revealed confounding factors such as numerous final diagnoses unrelated to PS and poor data quality in virtually all cases. In only a minority of the cases were data provided to consider even common other diseases of the liver. For instance, biliary tract imaging data were available in only 3 patients; data to exclude virus infections by hepatitis A-C were provided in 4 cases and by CMV and EBV in 1 case, whereas HSV and VZV virus infections remained unconsidered. Thus, convincing evidence is lacking that PS was a potential hepatotoxin in the analyzed cases.

  18. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients' family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  19. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  20. Improving Ascertainment of Risk Factors for HIV Infection: Results of a Group-Randomized Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Pals, Sherri L.; Sajak, Tammy; Chase, Jennifer; Kajese, Tebitha

    2010-01-01

    To allow appropriate allocation of prevention and care funding, HIV/AIDS surveillance data must include risk factor information, currently available for less than 70% of cases reported in the United States. The authors evaluated an intervention consisting of provider training and materials to improve risk factor reporting. Facilities were matched…

  1. A pedigree analysis with minimised ascertainment bias shows anticipation in Met30-transthyretin related familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, K; Ikeda, S; Hanyu, N; Takeda, S; Yanagisawa, N

    1998-01-01

    In type I familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) caused by a variant Met30-transthyretin (TTR), genetic anticipation has been reported. To determine whether anticipation of the disease is a true biological phenomenon or the result of ascertainment bias, we compared age at onset of the affected child with that of the affected parent in 68 parent-child pairs (including data on assumed age at onset and on asymptomatic obligate heterozygotes and parents at obligate 50% risk) in 15 families. Excluding the parent-child pairs involving the proband and "bilineal pairs", onset occurred earlier in the child than in the transmitting parent in 60 out of 68 "unilineal pairs". After correction for ascertainment bias resulting from incomplete penetrance and reduced biological fitness in early onset patients, the number of anticipation pairs (60 pairs) was still significantly larger than that of non-anticipation pairs (29.7 pairs) (p < 0.05). When the children were sons, the difference in age at onset was significantly greater in the mother-son pairs than in the father-son pairs (p = 0.023). Although not all ascertainment biases could be eliminated, these data show strong evidence that anticipation in the transmission of Met30-TTR FAP is a true biological phenomenon. PMID:9475090

  2. 26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of passive activity losses and..., 1992. This section applies to cases commencing on or after November 9, 1992. (2) Cases commencing before November 9, 1992—(i) Election required. This section applies to a case commencing before...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of passive activity losses and..., 1992. This section applies to cases commencing on or after November 9, 1992. (2) Cases commencing before November 9, 1992—(i) Election required. This section applies to a case commencing before...

  4. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  5. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  6. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  7. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  8. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  9. Gaucher Disease Ascertained through a Parkinson’s Center: Imaging and Clinical Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Saunders-Pullman, R; Hagenah, J; Dhawan, V.; Stanley, K; Pastores, G; Sathe, S; Tagliati, M; Condefer, K; Palmese, C; Brüggemann, N; Klein, C; Roe, AM; Kornreich, R; Ozelius, LJ; Bressman, SB

    2010-01-01

    Among the genes implicated for parkinsonism is glucocerebrosidase (GBA), which causes Gaucher disease (GD). Despite a growing literature that GD may present as parkinsonism, neuroimaging, olfaction and neuropsychological testing have not been extensively reported. We describe transcranial sonography (TCS), 18F-fluorodopa (F DOPA) and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, olfaction testing, neuropsychological testing and clinical features in homozygous and compound heterozygous glucocerebrosidase mutation carriers identified through screening of 250 Ashkenazi Jewish parkinsonian individuals treated at a tertiary care center. We identified two individuals with N370S/R496H compound heterozygous mutations and two with N370S homozygous mutations; one individual died before completing detailed evaluation. TCS (n=3) demonstrated nigral hyperechogenicity that was greater than controls (median area maximal substantia nigra echogenicity (aSNmax) =0.28 cm2 vs. 0.14 cm2, p=0.005), but similar to IPD (aSNmax= 0.31 cm2). FDG PET (n=2) demonstrated hypermetabolism of the lentiform nuclei, and F-fluorodopa PET (n=2), bilateral reduction in striatal FDOPA uptake. Olfaction was markedly impaired in the two tested cases, including onset of smell disturbance in adolescence in one. Neuropsychological features (n=3) were consistent with Parkinson’s disease (PD) or diffuse Lewy body disease (DLB). The imaging, neuropsychological and olfactory markers suggest the GD phenotype includes PD with and without features of DLB, marked olfactory loss, nigral hyperechogenicity on TCS, and FDOPA and FDG PET abnormalities. PMID:20629126

  10. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, S.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Santos, I. D. A. O.; Oliveira, A. F.; Shie, J. N.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Oliveira, T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients' chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  11. Record linkage to correct under-ascertainment of cancers in HIV cohorts: The Sinikithemba HIV clinic linkage project.

    PubMed

    Sengayi, Mazvita; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kielkowski, Danuta; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Cloete, Christie; Giddy, Janet; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-09-15

    The surveillance of HIV-related cancers in South Africa is hampered by the lack of systematic collection of cancer diagnoses in HIV cohorts and the absence of HIV status in cancer registries. To improve cancer ascertainment and estimate cancer incidence, we linked records of adults (aged ≥ 16 years) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) enrolled at Sinikithemba HIV clinic, McCord Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with the cancer records of public laboratories in KZN province using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methods. We calculated incidence rates for all cancers, Kaposi sarcoma (KS), cervix, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) before and after inclusion of linkage-identified cancers with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 8,721 records of HIV-positive patients were linked with 35,536 cancer records. Between 2004 and 2010, we identified 448 cancers, 82% (n = 367) were recorded in the cancer registry only, 10% (n = 43) in the HIV cohort only and 8% (n = 38) both in the HIV cohort and the cancer registry. The overall cancer incidence rate in patients starting ART increased from 134 (95% CI 91-212) to 877 (95% CI 744-1,041) per 100,000 person-years after inclusion of linkage-identified cancers. Incidence rates were highest for KS (432, 95% CI 341-555), followed by cervix (259, 95% CI 179-390) and NADCs (294, 95% CI 223-395) per 100,000 person-years. Ascertainment of cancer in HIV cohorts is incomplete, PRL is both feasible and essential for cancer ascertainment. PMID:27098265

  12. Ascertaining effects of nanoscale polymeric interfaces on competitive protein adsorption at the individual protein level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Ravensbergen, Kristina; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    occurring in a competitive adsorption environment. Complex sequences of adhesion events in competitive adsorption involving multicomponent protein systems have been extensively investigated, but our understanding is still limited primarily to macroscopic adhesion onto chemically simple surfaces. We examine the competitive adsorption behavior from a binary protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen at the single protein level. We subsequently evaluate a series of adsorption and displacement processes occurring on both the macroscopic homopolymer and nanoscopic diblock copolymer surfaces, while systematically varying the protein concentration and incubation time. We identify the similarities and dissimilarities in competitive protein adsorption behavior between the two polymeric surfaces, the former presenting chemical uniformity at macroscale versus the latter exhibiting periodic nanointerfaces of chemically alternating polymeric segments. We then present our novel experimental finding of a large increase in the nanointerface-engaged residence time of the initially bound proteins and further explain the origin of this phenomenon manifested on nanoscale diblock copolymer surfaces. The outcomes of this study may provide timely insight into nanoscale competitive protein adsorption that is much needed in designing bioimplant and tissue engineering materials. In addition, the fundamental understanding gained from this study can be beneficial for the development of highly miniaturized biodevices and biomaterials fabricated by using nanoscale polymeric materials and interfaces. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fluorescence data on competitive and noncompetitive protein adsorption (Fig. S1) and AFM data of Fg adsorption on PS and PS-b-PMMA in a non-competitive case (Fig. S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07465g

  13. Vital status ascertainment through the files of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Social Security Administration.

    PubMed

    Page, W F; Mahan, C M; Kang, H K

    1996-03-01

    Veterans of US military service are a valuable resource for epidemiologic studies, and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) files provide an effective way to gather mortality information on veterans, so long as these files provide reasonably complete death reporting. To determine the completeness of VA death reporting, we assembled an independent sample of known veteran deaths among males born between 1936 and 1955 and assessed the performance of VA death reporting in this sample. We also compared VA death ascertainment to Social Security Administration (SSA) ascertainment. Based on the more than 4300 deaths in our study, we found VA death reporting to be approximately 90% complete by itself and 96% complete when used in conjunction with SSA death reporting. In addition, we found no evidence that VA death reporting changed substantially after passage of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, which limited eligibility for VA death benefits. Because veterans make up a large segment of the US population, our findings have particular relevance for studies in which mortality is a primary end point. PMID:10068251

  14. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted.

  15. Impact of awareness drives and community-based active tuberculosis case finding in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Parija, D; Patra, T K; Kumar, A M V; Swain, B K; Satyanarayana, S; Sreenivas, A; Chadha, V K; Moonan, P K; Oeltmann, J E

    2014-09-01

    India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control programme employs passive case detection. The new sputum smear-positive case detection rate is less than 70% in Odisha State. During April-June 2012, active case finding (ACF) was conducted through awareness drives and field-based tuberculosis (TB) screening in select communities with the lowest case detection rates. During the campaign, 240 sputum smear-positive TB cases were detected. The number of smear-positive cases detected increased by 11% relative to April-June 2011 in intervention communities compared to an 0.8% increase in non-intervention communities. ACF brought TB services closer to the community and increased TB case detection.

  16. Incorporating Active Learning with Videos: A Case Study from Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kester J.; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2008-01-01

    Watching a video often results in passive learning and does not actively engage students. In this study, a class of 20 HSC Physics students were introduced to a teaching model that incorporated active learning principles with the watching of a video that explored the Meissner Effect and superconductors. Students would watch short sections of the…

  17. Conscientization and Third Space: A Case Study of Tunisian Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumlik, Habiba; Schwartz, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines, "Al Bawsala," a nongovernmental organization and a female cyber social activist, Amira Yahyaoui, in the aftermath of Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution through the lens of adult education. The theoretical frameworks of conscientization and third space are employed to describe Yahyaoui's development of the watchdog…

  18. [Effects of activator and activator + anterior high-pull headgear on the growth direction of Class 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Uner, O; Akkaya, S; Buyruk, F

    1989-04-01

    In this study which the effects of activator and activator + anterior high-pull headgear on the growth direction of skeletal class 2 cases for a period of approximately 9 months; 33 cases having a mean age of 10.59 years; ANB angles 4.5 degrees and over were studied. Activator treatment has been applied to the 11 of the 22 treatment cases, the others have had the activator + anterior high-pull headgear treatment. The control group, 11 patients, has only been observed in terms of the growth and development without having any treatment. At the end of the study; it was found that the decrease in ANB angle and the increase in SL dimension in the treatment groups; the increase in anterior lower face height in the activator group and the increase in the ratio of posterior to anterior face height were statistically significant.

  19. Evaluation of community-based nurse case management activities for symptomatic HIV/AIDS clients.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Henry, S B; Holzemer, W L; Falknor, P

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate case management activities performed by nurse case managers in the California Pilot Care and Waiver Projects for HIV/AIDS patients. Nurse case managers, social workers, and site directors completed a 62-item survey. Significant differences appeared in ratings among the groups on five items. The nurse case managers responding to the survey indicated that a wide variety of nursing skills are used to provide case management services to persons living with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. This survey validates the interdisciplinary case management model in a community-based HIV population.

  20. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION AND INFRARED REACTIVATION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study evaluated the effectiveness and cost of removing trace organic contaminants and surrogates from drinking water by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The effect of multiple reactivations of spent GAC was also evaluated. Results indicated that reactivated GAC eff...

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Community Active Case Finding and Household Contact Investigation for Tuberculosis Case Detection in Urban Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sekandi, Juliet N.; Dobbin, Kevin; Oloya, James; Okwera, Alphonse; Whalen, Christopher C.; Corso, Phaedra S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Case detection by passive case finding (PCF) strategy alone is inadequate for detecting all tuberculosis (TB) cases in high burden settings especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative case detection strategies such as community Active Case Finding (ACF) and Household Contact Investigations (HCI) are effective but empirical evidence of their cost-effectiveness is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine whether adding ACF or HCI compared with standard PCF alone represent cost-effective alternative TB case detection strategies in urban Africa. Methods A static decision modeling framework was used to examine the costs and effectiveness of three TB case detection strategies: PCF alone, PCF+ACF, and PCF+HCI. Probability and cost estimates were obtained from National TB program data, primary studies conducted in Uganda, published literature and expert opinions. The analysis was performed from the societal and provider perspectives over a 1.5 year time-frame. The main effectiveness measure was the number of true TB cases detected and the outcome was incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) expressed as cost in 2013 US$ per additional true TB case detected. Results Compared to PCF alone, the PCF+HCI strategy was cost-effective at US$443.62 per additional TB case detected. However, PCF+ACF was not cost-effective at US$1492.95 per additional TB case detected. Sensitivity analyses showed that PCF+ACF would be cost-effective if the prevalence of chronic cough in the population screened by ACF increased 10-fold from 4% to 40% and if the program costs for ACF were reduced by 50%. Conclusions Under our baseline assumptions, the addition of HCI to an existing PCF program presented a more cost-effective strategy than the addition of ACF in the context of an African city. Therefore, implementation of household contact investigations as a part of the recommended TB control strategy should be prioritized. PMID:25658592

  2. Active inference and robot control: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Ange; Friston, Karl; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Active inference is a general framework for perception and action that is gaining prominence in computational and systems neuroscience but is less known outside these fields. Here, we discuss a proof-of-principle implementation of the active inference scheme for the control or the 7-DoF arm of a (simulated) PR2 robot. By manipulating visual and proprioceptive noise levels, we show under which conditions robot control under the active inference scheme is accurate. Besides accurate control, our analysis of the internal system dynamics (e.g. the dynamics of the hidden states that are inferred during the inference) sheds light on key aspects of the framework such as the quintessentially multimodal nature of control and the differential roles of proprioception and vision. In the discussion, we consider the potential importance of being able to implement active inference in robots. In particular, we briefly review the opportunities for modelling psychophysiological phenomena such as sensory attenuation and related failures of gain control, of the sort seen in Parkinson's disease. We also consider the fundamental difference between active inference and optimal control formulations, showing that in the former the heavy lifting shifts from solving a dynamical inverse problem to creating deep forward or generative models with dynamics, whose attracting sets prescribe desired behaviours. PMID:27683002

  3. When passives are easier than actives: two case studies of aphasic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Druks, J; Marshall, J C

    1995-06-01

    We outline a range of previous theoretical accounts of agrammatic comprehension in patients with Broca's aphasia. Specific attention is paid to patterns of preserved and impaired understanding of reversible actives and passives. We note that no prior account will allow for the existence of patients who show better comprehension of passives than actives. In three experiments, we compare and contrast the performance of two patients whose syntactic comprehension ability is in complementary distribution. The first patient (M.H.) performs well on simple actives, active questions, and active existentials, but is below chance on their corresponding passives. The second patient (B.M.) is at chance on simple actives, active questions and active existentials while scoring significantly above chance on their respective passives. We interpret both patterns of response in terms of the distinction drawn by Case theory between structural and inherent Case. The first patient's grammar cannot assign either structural or inherent Case and she must accordingly apply a non-linguistic linear strategy to assign thematic roles in all sentences. The second patient (B.M.) has a specific impairment of structural Case; he can accordingly not interpret actives (where Case is assigned configurationally) but can interpret passives (where Case is assigned lexically). PMID:7634762

  4. INVESTIGATING THE NUCLEAR ACTIVITY OF BARRED SPIRAL GALAXIES: THE CASE OF NGC 1672

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Koribalski, B.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Zezas, A.

    2011-06-10

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D{sub 25} area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (L{sub X} > 5 x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard ({Gamma} {approx} 1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 x 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}. This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  5. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J.; Koribalski, B.; Kuntz, K. D.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (LX 5 * 10(exp 39) erg s(exp -1)) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard (1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 * 10(exp 38) erg s(exp -1). This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  6. A case of electrocution during illegal fishing activities.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Vimercati, Luigi; Viola, Luigi; Vimercati, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    The passage of electric current through the human body causes variable harm, ranging from loss of consciousness to death caused by paralysis of the bulbar nerve centers. This report describes a fatal case caused by an illegal fishing practice involving stunning fish with electric shocks produced by an electric generator carried through the water inside the carcass of an old refrigerator to keep it afloat. This occurrence is unusual because of the circumstances giving rise to the use of electric current and the cause of death, which resulted from the combination of the electric current produced by the generator and the saltwater, bringing about death by drowning.

  7. Routine Breakers for Emotionally Active Learning: "A Case Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Luna, Rosa; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to present a typology of classroom activities which may serve as group driving dynamics to improve student attention in class. Human attention skills may have been shortened now and traditional ways of imparting knowledge should be modified (Soslau, 2015). As a consequence, this implies multi-tasking behaviour as users…

  8. A Semiotic Perspective of Mathematical Activity: The Case of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A semiotic perspective on mathematical activity provides a way of conceptualizing the teaching and learning of mathematics that transcends and encompasses both psychological perspectives focussing exclusively on mental structures and functions, and performance-focussed perspectives concerned only with student's behaviours. Instead it considers the…

  9. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  10. Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental…

  11. 76 FR 61725 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form; (Form DHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Federal Register on July 18, 2011 at 76 FR 42129, for a 60-day public comment period. No comments were... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. FOR FURTHER... to bring to the attention of the CIS Ombudsman (``trend''). For case problems, the CIS Ombudsman...

  12. Turning off the tap: stopping tuberculosis transmission through active case-finding and prompt effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Courtney M; Amanullah, Farhana; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Nardell, Edward A; Seddon, James A; Vasilyeva, Irina; Zhao, Yanlin; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2015-12-01

    To halt the global tuberculosis epidemic, transmission must be stopped to prevent new infections and new cases. Identification of individuals with tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment to rapidly render them non-infectious is crucial to this task. However, in settings of high tuberculosis burden, active case-finding is often not implemented, resulting in long delays in diagnosis and treatment. A range of strategies to find cases and ensure prompt and correct treatment have been shown to be effective in high tuberculosis-burden settings. The population-level effect of targeted active case-finding on reducing tuberculosis incidence has been shown by studies and projected by mathematical modelling. The inclusion of targeted active case-finding in a comprehensive epidemic-control strategy for tuberculosis should contribute substantially to a decrease in tuberculosis incidence. PMID:26515675

  13. Prevalence of permanent childhood hearing impairment in the United Kingdom and implications for universal neonatal hearing screening: questionnaire based ascertainment study

    PubMed Central

    Fortnum, Heather M; Summerfield, A Quentin; Marshall, David H; Davis, Adrian C; Bamford, John M

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of confirmed permanent childhood hearing impairment and its profile across age and degree of impairment in the United Kingdom. Design Retrospective total ascertainment through sources in the health and education sectors by postal questionnaire. Setting Hospital based otology and audiology departments, community health clinics, education services for hearing impaired children. Participants Children born from 1980 to 1995, resident in United Kingdom in 1998, with severe permanent childhood hearing impairment (hearing level in the better ear >40 dB averaged over 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz). Main outcome measures Numbers of cases with date of birth and severity of impairment converted to prevalences for each annual birth cohort (cases/1000 live births) and adjusted for underascertainment. Results 26 000 notifications ascertained 17 160 individual children. Prevalence rose from 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.98) for 3 year olds to 1.65 (1.62 to 1.68) for children aged 9-16 years. Adjustment for underascertainment increased estimates to 1.07 (1.03 to 1.12) and 2.05 (2.02 to 2.08). Comparison with previous studies showed that prevalence increases with age, rather than declining with year of birth. Conclusions Prevalence of confirmed permanent childhood hearing impairment increases until the age of 9 years to a level higher than previously estimated. Relative to current yields of universal neonatal hearing screening in the United Kingdom, which are close to 1/1000 live births, 50-90% more children are diagnosed with permanent childhood hearing impairment by the age of 9 years. Paediatric audiology services must have the capacity to achieve early identification and confirmation of these additional cases. What is already known on this topicThe prevalence of confirmed permanent childhood hearing impairment (>40 dB HL) in the United Kingdom has been estimated to rise with age to 1.33/1000 live births among children aged 5 years and

  14. Impurity profile tracking for active pharmaceutical ingredients: case reports.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lili; Mao, Bing; Reamer, Robert; Novak, Tom; Ge, Zhihong

    2007-06-28

    Tracking the impurity profile of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a very important task for all stages of drug development. A systematic approach for tracking impurity profile of API is described. Various real pharmaceutical applications are presented through successful examples of impurity profile tracking for three different novel APIs. These include MK-0969, an M3 antagonist; MK-0677, an oral-active growth hormone secretagogue and API-A, a cathepsin K inhibitor. A general strategy including selection of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) impurity profile method based on screening various stationary phases and changing the pH of the mobile phase and elucidation of impurity structures through the utilization of LC-MS, preparative-LC and NMR is demonstrated. A series of studies were conducted on the peak purity check by using the LC-UV diode-array and LC-MS detections. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the evaluation of peak purity are discussed. PMID:17142001

  15. 38 CFR 3.378 - Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases. 3.378 Section 3.378 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... tuberculosis pension cases. A permanent and total disability rating in effect during hospitalization will...

  16. 38 CFR 3.378 - Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases. 3.378 Section 3.378 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... tuberculosis pension cases. A permanent and total disability rating in effect during hospitalization will...

  17. 38 CFR 3.378 - Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases. 3.378 Section 3.378 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... tuberculosis pension cases. A permanent and total disability rating in effect during hospitalization will...

  18. 38 CFR 3.378 - Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases. 3.378 Section 3.378 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... tuberculosis pension cases. A permanent and total disability rating in effect during hospitalization will...

  19. 38 CFR 3.378 - Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Changes from activity in pulmonary tuberculosis pension cases. 3.378 Section 3.378 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... tuberculosis pension cases. A permanent and total disability rating in effect during hospitalization will...

  20. Promoting Physical Activity in Girls: A Case Study of One School's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Gwen; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study profiles one of 24 high schools that participated in a school-based, NIH-funded study to increase physical activity among high school girls. The case study school was one of 12 randomly assigned to the intervention group. The study intervention was based on the premise that a successful intervention is developed and tailored by…

  1. Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?

    PubMed

    Harmon, Russell S; Shughrue, Katrina M; Remus, Jeremiah J; Wise, Michael A; East, Lucille J; Hark, Richard R

    2011-07-01

    Conflict minerals is a term applied to ores mined in conditions of armed conflict and human rights abuse. Niobium and tantalum are two rare metals whose primary natural occurrence is in the complex oxide minerals columbite and tantalite, the ore of which is commonly referred to as coltan. The illicit export of coltan ore from the Democratic Republic of the Congo is thought to be responsible for financing the ongoing civil conflicts in this region. Determining the chemical composition of an ore is one of the means of ascertaining its provenance. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a means of rapidly distinguishing different geographic sources for a mineral because the LIBS plasma emission spectrum provides the complete chemical composition (i.e., "chemical fingerprint") of any material in real time. To test this idea for columbite-tantalite, three sample sets were analyzed. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) allows correct sample-level geographic discrimination at a success rate exceeding 90%. PMID:21537914

  2. Metastatic Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma with Osteoblastic Activity: A Case Report of Esophageal and Colonic Primaries

    PubMed Central

    Shabaik, Ahmed S.

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma with osteoblastic metastases is classically seen in prostate, breast, and lung primaries. Less common primary sites include thyroid, kidney, and stomach. We present two cases of primary gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma with metastatic osteoblastic activity from two previously unreported sites. The first case represents an esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in a background of intestinal metaplasia that metastasized with osteoblastic activity to the deltoid muscle. The second case demonstrates a Stage IV sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma with osteoblastic metastases to the liver and lymph nodes. The findings indicate that metastases from various gastrointestinal primary adenocarcinomas can have prominent bone formation. PMID:27738541

  3. The role of germline mutations in the BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair genes in men ascertained for early-onset and/or familial prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Maia, Sofia; Cardoso, Marta; Paulo, Paula; Pinheiro, Manuela; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Catarina; Pinto, Carla; Peixoto, Ana; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is one of the most common cancers diagnosed worldwide and 5-10 % of all cases are estimated to be associated with inherited predisposition. Even though there is strong evidence that the genetic component is significant in PrCa, the genetic etiology of familial and early-onset disease is largely unknown. Although it has been suggested that men from families with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) and, more recently, with Lynch syndrome may have an increased risk for PrCa, the contribution of these syndromes to PrCa predisposition in families ascertained for early-onset and/or familial PrCa, independently of the presence of other cancers in the family, is uncertain. To quantify the contribution of genes associated with HBOC and Lynch syndromes to PrCa predisposition, we have tested for germline mutations 460 early-onset and/or familial PrCa patients. All patients were screened for the six mutations that are particularly common in Portugal and 38 of them were selected for complete sequencing of BRCA1/2 and/or MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Two patients were found to harbor the same MSH2 mutation and a third patient carried a Portuguese BRCA2 founder mutation. None of the alterations were identified in 288 control subjects. Furthermore, we reviewed the 62 PrCa diagnoses in all HBOC (n = 161) and Lynch syndrome (n = 124) families previously diagnosed at our department, and found five other BRCA2 mutation carriers and two additional MSH2 mutation carriers. The clinicopathological characteristics of mutation carriers are in concordance with earlier data suggesting an aggressive PrCa phenotype and support the hypothesis that mutation carriers might benefit from targeted screening according to the gene mutated in the germline.

  4. A Tale of 2 Teachers: A Preschool Physical Activity Intervention Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Erin K.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preschool settings vary greatly, and research has shown that interventions are more successful when they can be adapted to individual settings. This is a descriptive case study of how 2 teachers successfully adapted and implemented a preschool physical activity intervention. Methods: The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool…

  5. Case Study of an Institutionalized Urban Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah A.; Rukavina, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/ sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson's propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to…

  6. Student Learning through Participation in Inquiry Activities: Two Case Studies in Teacher and Computer Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsa, Crina I.; Nerland, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The two case studies reported in this article contribute to a better understanding of how inquiry tasks and activities are employed as resourceful means for learning in higher professional education. An observation-based approach was used to explore characteristics of and challenges in students' participation in collaborative inquiry activities in…

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus and thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura: a refractory case without lupus activity.

    PubMed

    Garcia Boyero, Raimundo; Mas Esteve, Eva; Mas Esteve, Maria; Millá Perseguer, M Magdalena; Marco Buades, Josefa; Beltran Fabregat, Juan; Cañigral Ferrando, Guillermo; Belmonte Serrano, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has been infrequently reported. Usually, patients with TTP have more SLE activity and frequent renal involvement. Here we present a case of TTP associated to low-activity SLE. The absence of renal and major organ involvement increased the difficulty in making the initial diagnosis. ADAMTS13 activity in plasma in this patient was very low, as seen in other similar cases. The evolution of the patient was poor, needing plasma exchanges and immunosuppressive therapy, including the use of rituximab.

  8. Physical activity and subarachnoid haemorrhage: a population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Fann, J; Kukull, W; Katon, W; Longstreth, W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate physical activity as a risk factor for subarachnoid haemorrhage.
METHODS—A population based case-control study in King County, Washington. A standardised, personal interview was used to determine physical activity during the past year and at the onset of the bleed for case patients and a similar reference time for control subjects. Conditional logistic regression and a case cross over analysis were performed in which each case patient served as his or her own control. Subjects were 149 men and women with incident, spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage and two control subjects per case patient. Control subjects were identified through random digit dialing and matched on age, sex, and respondent type.
RESULTS—Four of the 149 (2.7%) case patients were engaged in vigorous physical activity at the time of their subarachnoid haemorrhage. With those who were engaged in non-vigorous or no physical activity serving as the reference group, the relative risk of sustaining a subarachnoid haemorrhage for those engaged in vigorous physical activity was 11.6 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-113.2). In the case cross over analysis, the relative risk was 15.0 (95% CI 4.3-52.2). Higher levels of long term regular physical activity over the past year were associated with a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (test for trend, p=0.3).
CONCLUSION—The risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage is increased during vigorous physical activity, although only a few result from this mechanism.

 PMID:11080229

  9. Analyzing Activities in the Course of Science Education, According to Activity Theory: The Case of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoraki, Xarikleia; Plakitsi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we analyze activities on the topic of sound, which are performed in the science education laboratory lessons in the third-year students of the Department of Early Childhood Education at the University of Ioannina. The analysis of the activities is based on one of the most modern learning theories of CHAT (Cultural Historical…

  10. Sustainable Passive and Active Remedial Measures of Creeping Bedrock Slopes: Two Case Studies from Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Michael; Weidner, Stefan

    Two case studies involving the large-scale and deep-seated creeping of slopes in southern Austria are discussed. In both instances passive and active remedial measures were applied to help mitigate the landslide hazard. At the first site, geodetic and extensometer measurements indicated movements averaging up to > 50 cm/year with a maximum of 352 cm occurring in one year. Previous active measures consisting of rigid structures were destroyed and replaced by flexible protective engineering works. The second case study involves an intensive geodetic monitoring program. Here, averaged yearly velocities are found up to > 30 cm/year. Active remedial measures consisted of stream diversion and protective engineering works. Both cases show the importance of a comprehensive passive remediation program.

  11. Relationship between education and training activities and tuberculosis case detection in Fiji, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Delai, M Y; Gounder, S; Tayler-Smith, K; Van den Bergh, R; Harries, A D

    2012-12-21

    Due to concerns about under-reporting of the tuberculosis (TB) case burden in Fiji, efforts have been put into national training, education and awareness activities in the formal health sector and among village health workers, health volunteers and the community since 2010. There has been an absolute increase in TB registrations, and TB case notification rates during the period of training activities in 2010 (21.3 per 100 000 population) and 2011 (23.6/100 000) were significantly increased compared with TB case notification rates in 2008 (12.4/100 000) and 2009 (14.6/100 000), when no training activities took place (P < 0.01). These findings support the use of ongoing training efforts.

  12. The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies. PMID:19251755

  13. Purposeful activity for people with enduring mental health problems: reflections from a case study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D

    1998-10-01

    The desire to work is deeply rooted in the human psyche and involves both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. If this is indeed the case, then this form of human activity should be considered to be an important element of our lives and therefore worthy of intervention when circumstances restrict an individual's engagement with it. To investigate the therapeutic nature of work for people with enduring mental health problems, the author conducted a pilot case study of a work rehabilitation scheme in the United Kingdom. The main theme to emerge from the study was that of purposeful activity. PMID:9793215

  14. [Cancer procoagulant activity in cases of esophageal, stomach and colorectal cancer considering progression degree and histological type of cancer].

    PubMed

    Kozuszko, B; Skrzydlewski, Z; Sulkowska, M; Snarska, J; Kozłowski, M; Skrzydlewska, E; Zalewski, B

    2001-09-01

    The cancer procoagulant activity has been evaluated in homogenates of esophagal, stomach and colorectal cancer tissues and in the blood serum of patients with these neoplasms's. Activity of CP was significantly higher in examined material than in control. The correlation between CP activity and progression degree as well as histological type was affirmed. The higher activity of CP in homogenates as well as in serum was observed in cases with higher degree of clinical progression and smaller activity of this enzyme corresponded with lower degree of the cancer progression. The highest activity of CP was observed in the cases of adenocarcinoma whereas the lowest in cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Higher activity of CP in homogenates of examined tissues correlated with higher activity of this enzyme in the serum. Activity of CP depended on the tissue localisation of the cancer and the highest was in the cases of stomach cancers whereas the lowest was in the cases of esophagal cancer.

  15. A Case of Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Healthy Active Duty Marine.

    PubMed

    Thota, Darshan; Portouw, Steven J; Bruner, David I

    2015-10-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon disorder that can lead to small bowel obstructions or perforations. Typical populations include young females with anorexia. However, there have been a few reports of healthy males with acute vomiting reported to have SMA syndrome. Our case report highlights an active duty Marine who developed SMA syndrome and the importance of recognizing this disease given the severity in delay of diagnosis in population of young healthy active duty members.

  16. Baby Boy Jones Interactive Case-Based Learning Activity: A Web-Delivered Teaching Strategy.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Lisa M; Carmona, Elenice Valentim; Paper, Bruce; Solis, Linda; Taylor, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Faced with limited resources, nurse educators are challenged with transforming nursing education while preparing enough qualified nurses to meet future demand; therefore, innovative approaches to teaching are needed. In this article, we describe the development of an innovative teaching activity. Baby Boy Jones is a Web-delivered, case-based learning activity focused on neonatal infection. It was created using e-learning authoring software and delivered through a learning management system.

  17. Active Bodies, Active Minds: A Case Study on Physical Activity and Academic Success in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Understanding Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheck, Jennifer; Wright, Catherine; Chomitz, Virginia; Chui, Kenneth; Economos, Christina; Schultz, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This case study addresses two major priorities of the Boston Foundation--health and education. Since the 2007 publication of the "Understanding Boston" report "The Boston Paradox: Lots of Health Care, Not Enough Health," the Boston Foundation has worked to draw attention to the epidemic of preventable chronic disease that not…

  18. Questioning the activity of active matter: the case of bird flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    Animal flocking is a natural instance of active matter. What makes flocks active is the rearrangement of neighborhoods, which constantly remodels the network of interactions between individuals in the group, keeping the system out of equilibrium. Despite the predicted importance of this reshuffling, its true impact for natural flocks is not well understood. Here we analyse films of flocks of startlings with a novel statistical inference technique based on dynamical maximum entropy to measure the parameters of flock alignment - alignment strength, interaction range, and noise. We show that birds align their flight orientations must faster than they change neighbors. In the statistical mechanics sense, this means that flocks remain adiabatically in equilibrium, allowing for a rigorous analogy with equilibrium systems of interacting spins, and we show that an inference method based on equilibrium assumptions gives fully consistent results.

  19. Answering the Call for Accountability: An Activity and Cost Analysis Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Rozana; Kisker, Carrie B.; Chang, June; Schirmer, James

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a case study on the creation and application of an activity-based cost accounting model that links community college salary expenditures to mission-critical practices within academic divisions of a southern California community college. Although initially applied as a financial management tool in private…

  20. Reconsidering the Boundaries of the Cyberloafing Activity: The Case of a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    While many scholars generally conceptualise cyberloafing as just one more type of conventional deviant behaviour at work, others consider this activity to be innocuous or even productive. In either case, cyberloafing is viewed as merely misusing Internet resources, without contemplating its potential online character. The purpose of this study is…

  1. Behavioral Activation for Comorbid PTSD and Major Depression: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation details the assessment and use of Behavioral Activation (BA) therapy to treat a 37-year-old male police officer/military veteran suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). This case study is an attempt to expand empirical knowledge regarding BA, comorbid PTSD and MDD, and…

  2. Developing Situated Knowledge about Teaching with Technology via Web-Enhanced Case-Based Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Situated, case-based approaches, featuring virtual teachers' activity and reasoning in university classrooms, may provide a viable alternative to immersive field-based apprenticeships. Despite widespread advocacy on situated teacher education, research on preservice teachers' situated learning remains rare. This study examined how preservice…

  3. Effects of Activation of Prior Knowledge on the Recall of a Clinical Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    A study investigated the known phenomenon of "intermediate effect" in which medical students with an intermediate amount of knowledge and experience demonstrate higher amounts of recall of the text of a medical case than either experienced clinicians or novices. In this study the amount of activation of prior knowledge was controlled by having…

  4. Adjuvant-activity of `diphtheroid' organisms isolated from the joints of cases of rhemumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    White, R. G.; Gordon, J.

    1970-01-01

    Two isolates of `diphtheroid' organisms from the joints of cases of rheumatoid arthritis were found to possess a surface network of filaments (125 Å wide) resembling the adjuvant-active peptidoglycolipid filaments of mycobacteria and some Nocardia spp. Tests for adjuvant activity in guinea-pigs showed that both isolates possessed the ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity to a simultaneously injected immunogen (ovalbumin) and to increase serum anti-ovalbumin levels (in particular γ2-immunoglobulin). The relationship of adjuvant-active bacilli to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 1 PMID:5477931

  5. Padova Charter on personal injury and damage under civil-tort law : Medico-legal guidelines on methods of ascertainment and criteria of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Comandè, Giovanni; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernandez-Cueto, Claudio; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Mendelson, George; Montisci, Massimo; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Pinchi, Vilma; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Shokry, Dina A; Sterzik, Vera; Vermylen, Yvo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Compensation for personal damage, defined as any pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss causally related to a personal injury under civil-tort law, is strictly based on the local jurisdiction and therefore varies significantly across the world. This manuscript presents the first "International Guidelines on Medico-Legal Methods of Ascertainment and Criteria of Evaluation of Personal Injury and Damage under Civil-Tort Law". This consensus document, which includes a step-by-step illustrated explanation of flow charts articulated in eight sequential steps and a comprehensive description of the ascertainment methodology and the criteria of evaluation, has been developed by an International Working Group composed of juridical and medico-legal experts and adopted as Guidelines by the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM).

  6. Exploratory qualitative case study of lab-type activity interactions in an online graduate geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavarella, Veronica C.

    This exploratory qualitative case study investigated the use of lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course. Constructivism is the theoretical framework used to explain how learning happens in lab-type activity, and provided the goals to which successful learning in lab-type activity is compared. This study focused on the learner-instructor, learner-learner, and perceptions of the learner-content interactions that occurred related to lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course to determine: if the instructor appeared as a facilitator of the learning process in the interactions over the activities; if students engaged in discussion and reflection about the activities; if students perceived the activities as meaningful and authentic; and if students perceived using higher order thinking and prior knowledge while interacting with the content. Ten graduate students from three offerings of the course participated in this study, as well as the instructor and designer of the course content and lab-type activities. Data were collected through interviews, and observation and analysis of the lab-type activities, instructor feedback to students in their graded activities, and discussion that occurred between the instructor and students and among students about the lab-type activities in discussion forums. The nature of the instructor's interactions in discussion forums, in feedback to students on graded activities, and reported by students' in interviews supported that, in the learner-instructor interactions, the instructor of this course was a facilitator who guided and scaffolded the students towards successfully completing the activities. Students engaged in discussion and reflected on the activities, but most learner-learner interactions in discussion forums about the lab-type activities appeared to occur for the purpose of comparison of results, support, and empathy. Students' success at higher order thinking type questions in lab

  7. Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia with anti-IgG activity: a series of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, L.; Dammacco, F.; Tursi, A.; Trizio, D.

    1970-01-01

    Clinical, serological and cellular studies were carried out in five cases of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia with cryoglobulinaemia of the mixed IgM–IgG type and extremely high serum levels of rheumatoid factor activity. Clinically, no joint involvement or other distinctive features were found in these patients, as compared with other cases of primary macroglobulinaemia without anti-γ-globulin activity. The isolation of the monoclonal IgM immunoglobulins, as well as absorption studies with IgG and immunocytological investigations demonstrated that the whole of the rheumatoid activity was associated with the Waldenström-type paraproteins. Such cases seem to represent instances of a rheumatoid factor monoclonal gammapathy, in fact a subgroup of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, in view of the presence of an IgM paraprotein, possessing anti-IgG activity, synthesized by the lymphocytoid cells infiltrating the bone marrow. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Figs. 9-11 PMID:4991117

  8. Mature vs. Active Deep-Seated Landslides: A Comparison Through Two Case Histories in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Piane, Luca; Perello, Paolo; Baietto, Alessandro; Giorza, Alessandra; Musso, Alessia; Gabriele, Piercarlo; Baster, Ira

    2016-06-01

    Two case histories are presented, concerning the still poorly known alpine deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSD) located nearby Lanzada (central Italian Alps), and Sarre (north-western Italian Alps). The Lanzada DSD is a constantly monitored, juvenile, and active phenomenon, partly affecting an existing hydropower plant. Its well-developed landforms allow a precise field characterization of the instability-affected area. The Sarre DSD is a mature, strongly remodeled phenomenon, where the only hazard factor is represented by secondary instability processes at the base of the slope. In this case, the remodeling imposed the adoption of complementary analytical techniques to support the field work. The two presented studies had to be adapted to external factors, namely (a) available information, (b) geological and geomorphological setting, and (c) final scope of the work. The Lanzada case essentially relied upon accurate field work; the Sarre case was mostly based on digital image and DTM processing. In both cases a sound field structural analysis formed the necessary background to understand the mechanisms leading to instability. A back-analysis of the differences between the study methods adopted in the two cases is finally presented, leading to suggestions for further investigations and design.

  9. Experience of active tuberculosis case finding in nearly 5 million households in India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, B M; Satyanarayana, S; Chadha, S S; Das, A; Thapa, B; Mohanty, S; Pandurangan, S; Babu, E R; Tonsing, J; Sachdeva, K S

    2016-03-21

    In India, to increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection under the National Tuberculosis Programme, active case finding (ACF) was implemented by the Global Fund-supported Project Axshya, among high-risk groups in 300 districts. Between April 2013 and December 2014, 4.9 million households covering ~20 million people were visited. Of 350 047 presumptive pulmonary TB cases (cough of ⩾2 weeks) identified, 187 586 (54%) underwent sputum smear examination and 14 447 (8%) were found to be smear-positive. ACF resulted in the detection of a large number of persons with presumptive pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB. Ensuring sputum examination of all those with presumptive TB was a major challenge.

  10. Unpacking teacher-researcher collaboration with three theoretical frameworks: a case of expansive learning activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-09-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the experiential and relational nature of collaboration; relational agency, draws on activity theory perspectives and identifies the change in the purpose of collaboration, from initially conducting classroom interventions to co-authoring research. Finally, cogenerative dialogue, deploys hermeneutic-phenomenological perspectives and investigates the dialogue that transpired between Lotta and the author, as they co-authored their research report. Such analysis sheds invaluable light on a case of expansive learning activity.

  11. Insulin Receptor Expression and Activity in the Brains of Nondiabetic Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lap; Yemul, Shrishailam; Knable, Lindsay; Katsel, Pavel; Zhao, Rudy; Haroutunian, Vahram; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the contents of the insulin receptor-beta subunit (IRβ) and [Tyr1162/1163]-phosphorylated IRβ as surrogate indices of total IR content and IR activation in postmortem hippocampal formation brain specimens from nondiabetic sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. We found no significant changes in the brain contents of total IRβ or [Tyr1162/1163]-phosphorylated IRβ, suggesting normal IR content and activation in the brains of nondiabetic sporadic AD cases. Moreover, total IRβ and [Tyr1162/1163]-phosphorylated IRβ levels in the hippocampal formation are not correlated with the severity of amyloid or tau-neuropathology. Exploring the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) α/β, key IR-signaling components, we observed significantly lower levels of total GSK3 α/β in brain specimens from nondiabetic AD cases, suggesting that impaired IR signaling mechanisms might contribute to the onset and/or progression of AD dementia. Outcomes from our study support the development of insulin-sensitizing therapeutic strategies to stimulate downstream IR signaling in nondiabetic AD cases. PMID:22666619

  12. Fine structure in proton radioactivity: An accurate tool to ascertain the breaking of axial symmetry in {sup 145}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, P.; Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2008-10-15

    With a proper formalism for proton emission from triaxially deformed nuclei, we perform exact calculations of decay widths for the decays to ground and first excited 2{sup +} states in the daughter nucleus. Our results for rotational spectrum, decay width and fine structure in the case of the nucleus {sup 145}Tm lead for the first time to an accurate identification of triaxial deformation using proton emission. This work also puts in evidence the advantage of proton emission over the conventional probes to study nuclear structure at the proton drip-line.

  13. A Successful Healthy Childbirth in a Case of Total Globozoospermia with Oocyte Activation by Calcium Ionophore

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Nilay; Akpak, Yasam Kemal; Oral, Serkan; Durmus, Tugce; Yilmaz, Rabiye

    2015-01-01

    Background Globozoospermia is a rare (incidence of 0.1% among andrological patients) and poorly understood condition, but a severe disorder in male infertility. This case report detailed the course of treatment and protocol of a patient with type 1 globozoospermia using Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and oocyte activation by calcium ionophore, which yielded conception and birth of a healthy baby after six previous unsuccessful attempts, using ICSI alone. Case Presentation A 39-year-old male with normal findings on routine examination presented to TDV 29 Mayis Hospital, Assisted Reproduction Unit (ART) with his 37-year-old wife. Her examination was also within normal limits and ovulatory cycle was regular. The male's diagnostic screening revealed normal karyotype (46, XY) and no Y-microdeletion. However, the spermogram was abnormal; sperm count of 14 million/ml with 35% active motility and 100% morphologically abnormal sperm, indicating globozoospermia. Ovarian stimulation was provided using classic long down-regulation protocol and 13 MII oocytes were collected. Next, calcium ionophore was applied following the ICSI procedure to improve the chances for fertilization. The case report compared quantitative procedural and diagnostic screening data, and fertilization rates. On day 5, two grade 1 blastocysts out of 5 embryos were transferred, yielding positive beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG), and ultimately a healthy delivery. Conclusion ICSI with assisted oocyte activation by calcium ionophore may overcome male infertility where there is total globozoospermia. PMID:25927030

  14. Test Cases for the Benchmark Active Controls: Spoiler and Control Surface Oscillations and Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Scott, Robert C.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2000-01-01

    sets from the first two tests have been chosen for Test Cases for computational comparisons concentrating on static conditions and cases with harmonically oscillating control surfaces. Several flutter Test Cases from both tests have also been included. Some aerodynamic comparisons with the BACT data have been made using computational fluid dynamics codes at the Navier-Stokes level (and in the accompanying chapter SC). Some mechanical and active control studies have been presented. In this report several Test Cases are selected to illustrate trends for a variety of different conditions with emphasis on transonic flow effects. Cases for static angles of attack, static trailing-edge and upper-surface spoiler deflections are included for a range of conditions near those for the oscillation cases. Cases for trailing-edge control and upper-surface spoiler oscillations for a range of Mach numbers, angle of attack, and static control deflections are included. Cases for all three types of flutter instability are selected. In addition some cases are included for dynamic response measurements during forced oscillations of the controls on the flexible mount. An overview of the model and tests is given, and the standard formulary for these data is listed. Some sample data and sample results of calculations are presented. Only the static pressures and the first harmonic real and imaginary parts of the pressures are included in the data for the Test Cases, but digitized time histories have been archived. The data for the Test Cases are also available as separate electronic files.

  15. Administrators in Action--Managing Public Monies and Processing Emotion in School Activities: A Teaching Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…

  16. A pilot study using global positioning systems (GPS) devices and surveys to ascertain older adults' travel patterns.

    PubMed

    Yen, Irene H; Leung, Cindy W; Lan, Mars; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Kayekjian, Karen C; Duru, O Kenrik

    2015-04-01

    Some studies indicate that older adults lead active lives and travel to many destinations including those not in their immediate residential neighborhoods. We used global positioning system (GPS) devices to track the travel patterns of 40 older adults (mean age: 69) in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Study participants wore the GPS devices for 7 days in fall 2010 and winter 2011. We collected survey responses concurrently about travel patterns. GPS data showed a mean of four trips/day, and a mean trip distance of 7.6 km. Survey data indicated that older adults commonly made trips for four activities (e.g., volunteering, work, visiting friends) at least once each week. Older adults regularly travel outside their residential neighborhoods. GPS can document the mode of travel, the path of travel, and the destinations. Surveys can document the purpose of the travel and the impressions or experiences in the specific locations.

  17. Fine Motor Activities Program to Promote Fine Motor Skills in a Case Study of Down's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Panyo, Kewalin

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome have developmental delays, particularly regarding cognitive and motor development. Fine motor skill problems are related to motor development. They have impact on occupational performances in school-age children with Down's syndrome because they relate to participation in school activities, such as grasping, writing, and carrying out self-care duties. This study aimed to develop a fine motor activities program and to examine the efficiency of the program that promoted fine motor skills in a case study of Down's syndrome. The case study subject was an 8 -year-old male called Kai, who had Down's syndrome. He was a first grader in a regular school that provided classrooms for students with special needs. This study used the fine motor activities program with assessment tools, which included 3 subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) that applied to Upper-limb coordination, Fine motor precision and Manual dexterity; as well as the In-hand Manipulation Checklist, and Jamar Hand Dynamometer Grip Test. The fine motor activities program was implemented separately and consisted of 3 sessions of 45 activities per week for 5 weeks, with each session taking 45 minutes. The results showed obvious improvement of fine motor skills, including bilateral hand coordination, hand prehension, manual dexterity, in-hand manipulation, and hand muscle strength. This positive result was an example of a fine motor intervention program designed and developed for therapists and related service providers in choosing activities that enhance fine motor skills in children with Down's syndrome. PMID:27357876

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of the method used for ascertainment of healthcare-associated infections in the second Slovenian national prevalence survey

    PubMed Central

    Serdt, Mojca; Lejko Zupanc, Tatjana; Korošec, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The second Slovenian national healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) prevalence survey (SNHPS) was conducted in acute-care hospitals in 2011. The objective was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the method used for the ascertainment of six types of HAIs (bloodstream infections, catheter-associated infections, lower respiratory tract infections, pneumoniae, surgical site infections, and urinary tract infections) in the University Medical Centre Ljubljana (UMCL). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients surveyed in the SNHPS in the UMCL using a retrospective medical chart review (RMCR) and European HAIs surveillance definitions. Sensitivity and specificity of the method used in the SNHPS using RMCR as a reference was computed for ascertainment of patients with any of the six selected types of HAIs and for individual types of HAIs. Agreement between the SNHPS and RMCR results was analyzed using Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results 1474 of 1742 (84.6%) patients surveyed in the SNHPS were included in RMCR. The sensitivity of the SNHPS method for detecting any of six HAIs was 90% (95% confidence interval (CI): 81%-95%) and specificity 99% (95% CI: 98%-99%). The sensitivity by type of HAI ranged from 63% (lower respiratory tract infections) to 92% (bloodstream infections). Specificity was at least 99% for all types of HAIs. Agreement between the two data collection approaches for HAIs overall was very good (κ=0.83). Conclusions The overall sensitivity of SNHPS collection method for ascertaining HAIs overall was high and the specificity was very high. This suggests that the estimated prevalence of HAIs in the SNHPS was credible. PMID:27703547

  19. UAV's for active tectonics : case example from the Longitudinal Valley and the Chishan Faults (Southern Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffontaines, Benoit; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Chan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Rou-Fei; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is a case example to study active tectonics due to the active NW-SE collision of the Philippine and Eurasian Sea Plates as the whole convergence reaches 10cm/y. In order to decipher the structural active tectonics geometry, we used herein UAV's to get high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) in local active tectonics key areas. Classical photo-interpretation where then developped in order to structurally interprete these data, confirmed by field studies. Two location had first been choosen in order to highlight the contribution of such high resolution DTM in SW Taiwan on the Longitudinal Valley Fault (SE Taiwan) on its southern branch from Pinting to Luyeh terraces (Pinanshan) where UAV's lead to better interprete the location of the outcropping active deformations. Combined with available GPS data and PALSAR interferometry (Deffontaines et Champenois et al., submitted) it is then possible to reconstruct the way of the present deformation in this local area. In the Pinting terraces, If the western branch of the fault correspond to an outcroping thrust fault, the eastern branch act as a a growing active anticline that may be characterized and quantified independantly. The interpretation of the UAV's high resolution DTM data on the Chishan Fault (SW Taiwan) reveals also the geometry of the outcropping active faults complex structural behaviour. If the Chishan Fault act as a thrusting in its northern tip (close to Chishan city), it acts as a right lateral strike-slip fault north of Chaoshan (Kaohsiung city) as described by Deffontaines et al. 2014. Therefore UAV's are a so useful tool to get very high resolution topographic data in Taiwan that are of great help to get the geometry of the active neotectonic structures in Taiwan.

  20. A case of atypical progressive outer retinal necrosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Se Joon; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chung, Hum

    2004-06-01

    This is a report of an atypical case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the clinical course of viral retinitis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. A 22-year-old male patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with unilaterally reduced visual acuity and a dense cataract. After cataract extraction, retinal lesions involving the peripheral and macular areas were found with perivascular sparing and the mud-cracked, characteristic appearance of PORN. He was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and was given combined antiviral treatment. With concurrent HAART, the retinal lesions regressed, with the regression being accelerated by further treatment with intravenous acyclovir and ganciclovir. This case suggests that HAART may change the clinical course of PORN in AIDS patients by improving host immunity. PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute unilateral cataract in AIDS patients. PMID:15255240

  1. A case of atypical progressive outer retinal necrosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Se Joon; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chung, Hum

    2004-06-01

    This is a report of an atypical case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the clinical course of viral retinitis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. A 22-year-old male patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with unilaterally reduced visual acuity and a dense cataract. After cataract extraction, retinal lesions involving the peripheral and macular areas were found with perivascular sparing and the mud-cracked, characteristic appearance of PORN. He was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and was given combined antiviral treatment. With concurrent HAART, the retinal lesions regressed, with the regression being accelerated by further treatment with intravenous acyclovir and ganciclovir. This case suggests that HAART may change the clinical course of PORN in AIDS patients by improving host immunity. PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute unilateral cataract in AIDS patients.

  2. Thoracic outlet syndrome of pectoralis minor etiology mimicking cardiac symptoms on activity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is the result of compression or irritation of neurovascular bundles as they pass from the lower cervical spine into the arm, via the axilla. If the pectoralis minor muscle is involved the patient may present with chest pain, along with pain and paraesthesia into the arm. These symptoms are also commonly seen in patients with chest pain of a cardiac origin. In this case, a patient presents with a history of left sided chest pain with pain and paraesthesia into the left upper limb, which only occurs whilst running. The symptoms were reproduced on both digital pressure over the pectoralis minor muscle and on provocative testing for thoracic outlet syndrome. The patient’s treatment therefore focused on the pectoralis minor muscle, with a complete resolution of symptoms. This illustrates that not all cases of chest pain with associated arm symptoms that occur on physical activity are of cardiac origin. PMID:23204575

  3. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  4. Very different performance of the power Doppler modalities of several ultrasound machines ascertained by a microvessel flow phantom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) subclinical disease activity can be detected with ultrasound (US), especially using power Doppler US (PDUS). However, PDUS may be highly dependent on the type of machine. This could create problems both in clinical trials and in daily clinical practice. To clarify how the PDUS signal differs between machines we created a microvessel flow phantom. Methods The flow phantom contained three microvessels (150, 1000, 2000 microns). A syringe pump was used to generate flows. Five US machines were used. Settings were optimised to assess the lowest detectable flow for each US machine. Results The minimal detectable flow velocities showed very large differences between the machines. Only two of the machines may be able to detect the very low flows in the capillaries of inflamed joints. There was no clear relation with price. One of the lower-end machines actually performed best in all three vessel sizes. Conclusions We created a flow phantom to test the sensitivity of US machines to very low flows in small vessels. The sensitivity of the power Doppler modalities of 5 different machines was very different. The differences found between the machines are probably caused by fundamental differences in processing of the PD signal or internal settings inaccessible to users. Machines considered for PDUS assessment of RA patients should be tested using a flow phantom similar to ours. Within studies, only a single machine type should be used. PMID:24286540

  5. Spawning behaviour and post-spawning migration patterns of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) ascertained from satellite archival tags.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Guillermo; Abascal, Francisco Javier; Varela, José Luis; Medina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Spawning behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was investigated using electronic satellite tags deployed in the western Mediterranean spawning ground, around the Balearic Islands (years 2009-2011). All the fish were tagged underwater and released within schools. In general, the fish tagged in the same year/school displayed common migratory trends. Following extended residency around the Balearic Islands, most tagged tuna crossed the Strait of Gibraltar heading for the North Atlantic. Discrepancies between the migratory tracks reconstructed from this and previous electronic tagging studies suggest that the bluefin tuna Mediterranean population may comprise distinct units exhibiting differing migratory behaviours. The diving behaviour varied between oceanic regions throughout the migratory pathways, the shallowest distribution taking place in the spawning ground and the deepest at the Strait of Gibraltar. A unique diving pattern was found on the majority of nights while the fish stayed at the spawning ground; it consisted of frequent and brief oscillatory movements up and down through the mixed layer, resulting in thermal profiles characterized by oscillations about the thermocline. Such a pattern is believed to reflect recent courtship and spawning activity. Reproductive parameters inferred from the analysis of vertical profiles are consistent with those estimated in previous studies based on biological samples.

  6. Indels ascertain the phylogenetic position of Coleodactylus elizae Gonçalves, Torquato, Skuk & Sena, 2012 (Gekkota: Sphaerodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Correia, Larissa Lima; Gamble, Tony; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Mott, Tamí

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical gecko genus Coleodactylus Parker 1926 was, until recently, composed of five species: C. amazonicus (Andersson 1918), C. brachystoma (Amaral 1935), C. meridionalis (Boulenger 1888), C. natalensis Freire 1999, and C. septentrionalis Vanzolini 1980 (Geurgas et al. 2008). However, several phylogenetic analyses recovered a polyphyletic Coleodactylus (Geurgas et al. 2008; Gamble et al. 2011a) leading Gamble et al. (2011b) to recognize a new genus, Chatogekko, for C. amazonicus. Coleodactylus and Chatogekko differ in both morphological and molecular characters. Coleodactylus has smooth dorsal scales and five scales forming the ungual sheath, while Chatogekko has keeled dorsal scales and four scales forming the ungual sheath (Gamble et al. 2011b). Furthermore, all Coleodactylus species have two deletions in the protein coding recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1), one of six base pairs (bp) and another of 18 bp (Gamble et al. 2008a; Geurgas et al. 2008), while Chatogekko has a unique three bp deletion in the RBMX gene and a three bp deletion in the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12 gene (PTPN12) (Gamble et al. 2011b). In addition, Chatogekko is differentiated from all others geckos by a unique set of 10 craniofacial features (Gamble et al. 2011b). PMID:27394257

  7. Spawning Behaviour and Post-Spawning Migration Patterns of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Ascertained from Satellite Archival Tags

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Guillermo; Abascal, Francisco Javier; Varela, José Luis; Medina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Spawning behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was investigated using electronic satellite tags deployed in the western Mediterranean spawning ground, around the Balearic Islands (years 2009-2011). All the fish were tagged underwater and released within schools. In general, the fish tagged in the same year/school displayed common migratory trends. Following extended residency around the Balearic Islands, most tagged tuna crossed the Strait of Gibraltar heading for the North Atlantic. Discrepancies between the migratory tracks reconstructed from this and previous electronic tagging studies suggest that the bluefin tuna Mediterranean population may comprise distinct units exhibiting differing migratory behaviours. The diving behaviour varied between oceanic regions throughout the migratory pathways, the shallowest distribution taking place in the spawning ground and the deepest at the Strait of Gibraltar. A unique diving pattern was found on the majority of nights while the fish stayed at the spawning ground; it consisted of frequent and brief oscillatory movements up and down through the mixed layer, resulting in thermal profiles characterized by oscillations about the thermocline. Such a pattern is believed to reflect recent courtship and spawning activity. Reproductive parameters inferred from the analysis of vertical profiles are consistent with those estimated in previous studies based on biological samples. PMID:24098502

  8. Seasonal Variations in Notification of Active Tuberculosis Cases in China, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Du, Xin; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Zeng, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background Although seasonal variation in tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been described in many countries, it remains unknown in China. Methods A time series decomposition analysis (X-12-ARIMA) was performed to examine the seasonal variation in active TB cases nationwide from 2005 through 2012 in China. Seasonal amplitude was calculated for the evaluation of TB seasonal variation. Results A total of 7.78 million active TB cases were reported over a period of 8 years. A spring peak (April) was observed with seasonal amplitude of 46.3%, compared with the winter trough (February). Most cases in provinces with subtropical and tropical monsoon climate showed lower amplitudes than those in temperate continental, plateau and mountain climate regions. The magnitude of seasonality varied inversely with annual average temperature, r (95% CI) = -0.71 (-0.79, -0.61). The seasonal amplitudes were 56.7, 60.5, 40.6, 46.4 and 50.9% for patients aged ≤14, 15–24, 25–44, 45–64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Students demonstrated greater seasonal amplitude than peasants, migrant workers and workers (115.3% vs. 43.5, 41.6 and 48.1%). Patients with pulmonary TB had lower amplitude compared to patients with pleural and other extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) (45.9% vs. 52.0 and 56.3%). Relapse cases with sputum smear positive TB (SS+ TB) had significantly higher seasonal amplitude compared to new cases with sputum smear positive TB (52.2% vs. 41.6%). Conclusions TB is a seasonal disease in China. The peak and trough of TB transmission actually are in winter and in autumn respectively after factors of delay are removed. Higher amplitudes of TB seasonality are more likely to happen in temperate continental, plateau and mountain climate regions and regions with lower annual average temperature, and young person, students, patients with EPTB and relapse cases with SS+ TB are more likely to be affected by TB seasonality. PMID:23874512

  9. Subsurface flows associated with non-Joy oriented active regions: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Hernández, Irene; Komm, Rudolf; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Baker, Deborah; Harra, Louise; Howe, Rachel

    2013-06-01

    Non-Joy oriented active regions (ARs) are a challenge for solar magnetic field modelers. Although significant deviations from Joy's law are relatively rare for simple bipolar ARs, understanding the causes of their particularity could be critical for the big picture of the solar dynamo. We explore the possibility of the sub-surface local dynamics being responsible for the significant rotation of these ARs. We apply the ring-diagram technique, a local helioseismology method, to infer the flows under and surrounding a non-Joy oriented AR and present the results of a case study in this paper.

  10. A Case Report of Supplement-Induced Hepatitis in an Active Duty Service Member.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Michael J; Castaneda, Joni L; Huitron, Sonny S; Wang, James

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of drug-induced hepatic injury has been increasing as a result of more widespread use of workout supplements containing anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass. Synthetic androgenic steroids are shown to cause cholestatic liver injury, but the exact mechanism of injury is not completely understood. We present a case of a healthy, young, active duty Army male soldier who developed pruritis and jaundice shortly after starting to take a body-building supplement containing anabolic steroids, and was subsequently found to have significant biopsy proven drug-induced liver injury. PMID:26126259

  11. Ascertainment and Verification of End-Stage Renal Disease and End-Stage Liver Disease in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design

    PubMed Central

    Kitahata, Mari M.; Drozd, Daniel R.; Crane, Heidi M.; Van Rompaey, Stephen E.; Althoff, Keri N.; Gange, Stephen J.; Klein, Marina B.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Abraham, Alison G.; Lo Re, Vincent; McReynolds, Justin; Lober, William B.; Mendes, Adell; Modur, Sharada P.; Jing, Yuezhou; Morton, Elizabeth J.; Griffith, Margaret A.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Moore, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of HIV disease has shifted from traditional AIDS-defining illnesses to serious non-AIDS-defining comorbid conditions. Research aimed at improving HIV-related comorbid disease outcomes requires well-defined, verified clinical endpoints. We developed methods to ascertain and verify end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and validated screening algorithms within the largest HIV cohort collaboration in North America (NA-ACCORD). Individuals who screened positive among all participants in twelve cohorts enrolled between January 1996 and December 2009 underwent medical record review to verify incident ESRD or ESLD using standardized protocols. We randomly sampled 6% of contributing cohorts to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of ESLD and ESRD screening algorithms in a validation subcohort. Among 43,433 patients screened for ESRD, 822 screened positive of which 620 met clinical criteria for ESRD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 82% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESRD. Among 41,463 patients screened for ESLD, 2,024 screened positive of which 645 met diagnostic criteria for ESLD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 27% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESLD. Our methods proved robust for ascertainment of ESRD and ESLD in persons infected with HIV. PMID:25789171

  12. Collaborative school planning and active schools: a case study of Lee County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Lees, Emily; Salvesen, David; Shay, Elizabeth

    2008-06-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the links between urban planning and school siting and, ultimately, the impact of both on physical activity, we conducted a case study of Lee County, Florida. Our study examined the extent of state-mandated collaboration between the Lee County School Board and Lee County government (e.g., the Lee County Department of Planning, the Office of Smart Growth, and the Department of Parks and Recreation). Specifically, we investigated planning processes under mandated coordination between the school board and the county and the impact of such coordination on the integration of land-use planning and school facility planning. By describing the process of mandated collaborative school planning in Florida, we illustrate the promise and pitfalls of such top-down legislation and offer insights to other state and local governments looking for ways to improve local planning and to increase physical activity among children.

  13. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    PubMed

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks.

  14. Treatment of mixed municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process: a case study.

    PubMed

    Brucculeri, M; Bolzonella, D; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of co-treating municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process was studied at full scale. The wastewater treatment plant considered in this paper operated an extended-oxidation process during vintage (four month per year) and a pre-denitrification/ oxidation process during the rest of the year. The experimentation showed that good performances, in terms of COD and nitrogen removal, could be obtained in both cases: 90% and 60%, for COD and nitrogen removal, respectively. Thanks to the high solid retention times applied to the system (up to 48 days) the waste activated sludge production was low (0.20 kgMLVSS/kgCODremoved) and respiration was the main process for carbon removal. Nitrification was always satisfactory while the behaviour of the denitrification process during vintage was not totally understood and further studies are going on. PMID:15771103

  15. The CCMC's national study of case manager job descriptions: an understanding of the activities, role relationships, knowledges, skills, and abilities.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein A; Huber, Diane L

    2006-01-01

    Defining the roles and functions of case managers is crucial in today's healthcare environment and necessary for the case management field. One way to address this issue is through the examination of case managers' job descriptions used in various healthcare organizations. The study reported herein used qualitative analysis procedures and the latent class cluster analysis method to examine a national sample of 1028 job descriptions of case managers. The study identified the activities, role relationships, knowledge, skills, and abilities of case managers working in varied settings. It also described the changes that occurred in the practice of case management, based on these job descriptions, over 5 years: from the mid-1990s until the early 2000s. One benefit of this study was a change in one eligibility criterion of the CCM credential. Another was the development of a taxonomy of case managers' roles and functions that can be used as a step toward standardization of case managers' job descriptions.

  16. Active oxygen species as mediators of plant immunity: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Sandermann, H

    2000-08-01

    A burst of active oxygen species (AOS) is known to be involved in local cell death as part of plant defence against pathogens. It is, however, under dispute to what extent AOS can induce pathogen resistance and immunity throughout the plant. Three experimental strategies that reveal a primary role for AOS and a surprisingly low chemical and spatial specificity are now described for tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Ozone is a gaseous AOS that was applied to non-transgenic plants. Hydrogen peroxide or singlet oxygen are AOS that were induced by high-light treatment of transgenic plants that contained antisense constructs inhibiting catalase activity or chlorophyll biosynthetic enzymes. In all cases, activated oxygen species, cellular lesions, ethylene and salicylic acid, and components of major plant defence systems (systemic acquired resistance, hypersensitive response) were induced, as was resistance towards pathogens (tobacco mosaic virus, Pseudomonas syringae or Peronospora parasitica). It is concluded that active oxygen species can act as mediators of plant immunity so that new non-pesticidal plant protection strategies could be developed.

  17. OSCE and Case Presentations As Active Assessments of Dental Student Performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang E; Anderson, Nina K; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and case presentation (CP) as forms of active assessment were effective measures of overall didactic knowledge and clinical performance in a predoctoral dental curriculum. This evaluation was conducted by statistical analysis of quality points (QP) awarded for didactic and clinical performance, CP grades, and OSCE scores for 185 students at Harvard School of Dental Medicine who graduated during the period 2010-14. As part of the requirements for graduation, each student takes three OSCEs and presents two patient cases. Data for the study were obtained from the Office of the Registrar. The results showed no direct correlation between QP and CP grades and no correlation between CP grades and OSCE scores. However, there was a correlation between OSCE scores and QP. Students with honors-level scores on any of the three OSCEs received significantly more QP than students who did not receive honors. In addition, students with passing scores on OSCEs 2 and 3 received significantly more QP than students with failing or marginal OSCE scores. Innovative formats of active assessment such as OSCEs and CPs can promote a student-centered learning environment. These data indicated that, within this study population, there was a positive association between OSCE scores and clinical and didactic performance, supporting the value of OSCEs as a means of assessment. PMID:26933109

  18. Conducting an Introductory Biology Course in an Active Learning Classroom: A Case Study of an Experienced Faculty Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, David; Guzey, S. Selcen

    2014-01-01

    A case study is described that examines the beliefs and practices of a university instructor who teaches regularly in an active learning classroom. His perspective provides insights into the pedagogical practices that drive his success in these learning spaces.

  19. Teaching with the Case Study Method to Promote Active Learning in a Small Molecule Crystallography Course for Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Michael G.; Powers, Tamara M.; Zheng, Shao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Implementing the case study method in a practical X-ray crystallography course designed for graduate or upper-level undergraduate chemistry students is described. Compared with a traditional lecture format, assigning small groups of students to examine literature case studies encourages more active engagement with the course material and…

  20. Challenges encountered when expanding activated sludge models: a case study based on N2O production.

    PubMed

    Snip, L J P; Boiocchi, R; Flores-Alsina, X; Jeppsson, U; Gernaey, K V

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice in wastewater engineering to extend standard activated sludge models (ASMs) with extra process equations derived from batch experiments. However, such experiments have often been performed under conditions different from the ones normally found in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As a consequence, these experiments might not be representative for full-scale performance, and unexpected behaviour may be observed when simulating WWTP models using the derived process equations. In this paper we want to highlight problems encountered using a simplified case study: a modified version of the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) is upgraded with nitrous oxide (N2O) formation by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Four different model structures have been implemented in the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1). The results of the investigations revealed two typical difficulties: problems related to the overall mathematical model structure and problems related to the published set of parameter values. The paper describes the model implementation incompatibilities, the variability in parameter values and the difficulties of reaching similar conditions when simulating a full-scale activated sludge plant. Finally, the simulation results show large differences in oxygen uptake rates, nitritation rates and consequently the quantity of N2O emission (GN2O) using the different models.

  1. Untreated Active Tuberculosis in Pregnancy with Intraocular Dissemination: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Stephen; Adams, Daniel; Oladipo, Yewande; Posso, Ramses; Mapp, Tiffany; Santiago, Crystal; Jain, Manisha; Marino, William D.; Henderson, Cassandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that affects hundreds of millions of people across the world. However, the incidence in developed countries has decreased over the past decades causing physicians to become unfamiliar with its unspecific symptoms. Pregnant individuals are especially difficult because many symptoms of active TB can mimic normal physiological changes of pregnancy. We present a case report of a 26-year-old multiparous woman, G4P3003, at 38-week gestation with a history of positive PPD who emigrated from Ghana 6 years ago. She came to the hospital with an initial complaint of suprapubic pain, pressure, and possible leakage of amniotic fluid for the past week. Patient also complained of a productive cough for the past 3 to 4 months with a decrease in vision occurring with the start of pregnancy. Visual acuity was worse than 20/200 in both eyes. Definitive diagnosis of active TB was delayed due to patient refusal of chest X-ray. Fortunately, delay in diagnosis was minimized since patient delivered within 24 hours of admission. Active TB was confirmed with intraocular dissemination. Patient had optic atrophy OS (left eye) and papillitis, choroiditis, and uveitis OD (right eye) due to TB infiltration. Fetus was asymptomatic and anti-TB therapy was started for both patients. PMID:26693374

  2. Active case finding for tuberculosis among people who inject drugs on methadone treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A.; Mbwambo, J.; Mteza, I.; Shenoi, S.; Lambdin, B.; Nyandindi, C.; Doula, B. I.; Mfaume, S.; Bruce, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Active case finding is a World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) case detection. Despite WHO recommendations for active case finding among people who inject drugs (PWID), few studies have been published. The historical focus of case finding has been in populations that are human immunodeficiency virus-positive, incarcerated or at higher occupational risk. OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the yield of active case finding among PWID newly started on methadone in Tanzania. DESIGN Of 222 methadone clients, 156 (70%) met with study administrators; 150 consented to participate, 139 (93%) of whom were male. The median age was 34 years. A symptom-based questionnaire was developed by the investigators and administered to every consenting patient by a native Swahili speaker. RESULTS Of the 150 patients surveyed, 16 (11%) had one or more TB symptoms and were referred for laboratory testing. Six new TB cases were identified in this active case finding program, with a prevalence of 4%. CONCLUSION This study presents the first data on TB prevalence in a population of PWID in Tanzania. This prevalence is 23 times that of the general Tanzanian TB prevalence of 0.2%. These results have significant implications for TB control. PMID:24902554

  3. Beyond active learning: a case study of teaching practices in an occupation-centered curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Although occupation-centered curricula are highly promoted, the teaching processes that convey such designs remain unclear. This case study elucidated occupation-centered teaching practices. Interview and observational data were collected over 8 weeks, and analysis involved coding transcriptions, data matrices, concept maps, journaling, and writing. Participants augmented active learning strategies with strategies that linked course topics to the subject of occupation. The use of linking strategies suggested that: (a) course content was treated as two-tiered; (b) neither content nor instructional processes were inherently occupation-centered; and (c) subject-centered education strengthens social learning theories. Although curricula may appear occupation-centered based on a curriculum description and course content, ultimately "linking opportunities" in the classroom constitute an essential feature that demarcates a program as occupation-centered.

  4. EChO spectra and stellar activity II. The case of dM stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandariato, Gaetano; Micela, Giuseppina

    2015-12-01

    EChO is a dedicated mission to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres. When extracting the planetary signal, one has to take care of the variability of the hosting star, which introduces spectral distortion that can be mistaken as planetary signal. Magneticvariability has to be taken into account in particular for M stars. To this purpose, assuming a one spot dominant model for the stellar photosphere, we develop a mixed observational-theoretical tool to extract the spot's parameters from the observed optical spectrum. This method relies on a robust library of spectral M templates, which we derive using the observed spectra of quiet M dwarfs in the SDSS database. Our procedure allows to correct the observed spectra for photospheric activity in most of the analyzed cases, reducing the spectral distortion down to the noise levels. Ongoing refinements of the template library and the algorithm will improve the efficiency of our algorithm.

  5. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  6. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  7. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Guesly J.; Fort, Dumesle St.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache (“Go and Seek”) was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment.

  8. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Guesly J.; Fort, Dumesle St.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache (“Go and Seek”) was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment. PMID:27668093

  9. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Delva, Guesly J; Francois, Ingrid; Claassen, Cassidy W; Dorestan, Darwin; Bastien, Barbara; Medina-Moreno, Sandra; Fort, Dumesle St; Redfield, Robert R; Buchwald, Ulrike K

    2016-01-01

    Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache ("Go and Seek") was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment. PMID:27668093

  10. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  11. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  12. Erosional flux from tectonically active landscapes: Case studies from Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; Allen, Philip; Gheorghiu, Delia; Rodes, Angel

    2016-04-01

    Erosion and sediment supply are fundamentally important controls on landscape evolution, governing the denudation of relief, the stratigraphy deposited in basins, and the ultimate destruction of orogens. However, quantifying the rates, timescales, and predominant processes of erosion remains a major challenge in many tectonically active areas. Here, we use Southern Italy as a case study to demonstrate how these challenges can be overcome. We present 15 new 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates, for systems distributed along 5 active normal faults for which we have excellent constraints on throw rates along strike and uplift history. These footwall catchments have a total relief of up to 1800 m and throw rates up to 1.4 mm/yr. We show that sediment supply estimates based on the 10Be erosion rates agree well with sediment supply predictions based on the fault throw profiles. Our results suggest that about 80% of the material uplifted by the faults is being eroded at a similar magnitude to the fault throw rates, offering new insights into the topographic balance of uplift and erosion in this area. These findings imply that active normal faulting is the primary control on sediment supply in Southern Italy. Our field observations suggest that landslides are an important source of sediment in our study area, and are largely driven by incision in response to fault activity. Using a field-calibrated landslide inventory, we estimate landslide-derived sediment flux for our sampled catchments. These estimates correlate well with total sediment flux estimates, demonstrating quantitatively that landslides must be a major source of sediment. Their erosional signal is adequately captured by the 10Be analyses most likely because of the high frequency of small landslides and their high spatial density in these catchments (typically >10% of the total area), which ensures sufficient sediment mixing. Finally, we use our results to calibrate the BQART model of sediment supply, enabling

  13. Recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Bain, Christopher J; Jordan, Susan J; Nagle, Christina M; Green, Adèle C; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2007-11-01

    It remains unclear whether physical activity is associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk. We therefore examined the association between recreational physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer in a national population-based case-control study in Australia. We also systematically reviewed all the available evidence linking physical activity with ovarian cancer to provide the best summary estimate of the association. The case-control study included women ages 18 to 79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive (n=1,269) or borderline (n=311) epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a network of clinics, physicians, and state cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n=1,509) were randomly selected from the national electoral roll and were frequency matched to cases by age and state. For the systematic review, we identified eligible studies using Medline, the ISI Science Citation Index, and manual review of retrieved references, and included all case-control or cohort studies that permitted assessment of an association between physical activity (recreational/occupational/sedentary behavior) and histologically confirmed ovarian cancer. Meta-analysis was restricted to the subset of these studies that reported on recreational physical activity. In our case-control study, we observed weakly inverse or null associations between recreational physical activity and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer overall. There was no evidence that the effects varied by tumor behavior or histologic subtype. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, which gave summary estimates of 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.85) for case-control studies and 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.17) for cohort studies for the risk of ovarian cancer associated with highest versus lowest levels of recreational physical activity. Thus, pooled results from observational studies suggest that a modest inverse association exists between level of recreational physical activity and

  14. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Interventions Among Immigrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schepisi, Monica Sañé; Gualano, Gina; Piselli, Pierluca; Mazza, Marta; D’Angelo, Donatella; Fasciani, Francesca; Barbieri, Alberto; Rocca, Giorgia; Gnolfo, Filippo; Olivani, Piefranco; Ferrarese, Maurizio; Codecasa, Luigi Ruffo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Girardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics. Individuals reporting TB history or symptoms were referred to a TB clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 6347 migrants enrolled, 891 (14.0%) reported TB history or symptoms suggestive of active TB and 546 (61.3%) were referred to the TB clinic. Of them, 254 (46.5%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. TB was diagnosed in 11 individuals representing 0.17% of those screened and 3.76% of those evaluated. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other TB screening programs for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. PMID:27403270

  15. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Interventions Among Immigrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Schepisi, Monica Sañé; Gualano, Gina; Piselli, Pierluca; Mazza, Marta; D'Angelo, Donatella; Fasciani, Francesca; Barbieri, Alberto; Rocca, Giorgia; Gnolfo, Filippo; Olivani, Piefranco; Ferrarese, Maurizio; Codecasa, Luigi Ruffo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Girardi, Enrico

    2016-06-24

    In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics. Individuals reporting TB history or symptoms were referred to a TB clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 6347 migrants enrolled, 891 (14.0%) reported TB history or symptoms suggestive of active TB and 546 (61.3%) were referred to the TB clinic. Of them, 254 (46.5%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. TB was diagnosed in 11 individuals representing 0.17% of those screened and 3.76% of those evaluated. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other TB screening programs for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. PMID:27403270

  16. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    PubMed

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks. PMID:26333832

  17. Policies related to active transport to and from school: a multisite case study.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Doescher, Mark P; Evenson, Kelly R; Fesperman, Carrie E; Litt, Jill S; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E; Terpstra, Jennifer L; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that influence ATS initiatives. Nine elementary schools in seven states participated in this case study. Sixty-nine stakeholders were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed using a master thematic codebook. This study identified two distinct aspects of policies: 'influential factors' which are factors that might impact policies related to ATS and 'policy actions' which are policies reported by people involved in ATS initiatives that directly affected their success. Influential factors included sidewalks, crosswalks/crossing guards, funding, personal safety concerns, advocacy group involvement and others. Policy actions included policies on school speed zone, drop-off, no-transport zones, school siting, school start/dismissal time and school choice. Despite the diversity of the schools studied, similarities included influence of built environment, safety concerns, funding and transdisciplinary collaboration. Stakeholders need to work together to stimulate action and ensure successful initiatives. Influential factors appear to be important to this process.

  18. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the ‘gold standard’). Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005–2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Methods The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005–2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Results Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Conclusions Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical

  19. Vitamin D deficiency and its association with disease activity in new cases of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Z S; Jahanshahifar, L; Jahanshahifar, F; Gholamrezaei, A

    2011-10-01

    Evidence has shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We evaluated the frequency of vitamin D deficiency and its association with disease activity in new cases of SLE. Women with newly diagnosed SLE, based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, were enrolled consecutively. Those receiving vitamin D supplements and postmenopausal women were not included. Disease activity was measured by the BILAG index (2004) and serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured by radioimmunoassay method. Forty SLE patients with mean age of 25.3 ± 4.2 years were studied. Severe, moderate, and mild vitamin D deficiency, corresponding to serum 25[OH]D concentrations of <12.5, 12.5-24.9, and 25-39.9  nmol/l, were found in 12.5%, 62.5%, and 17.5% of the patients, respectively. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was inversely correlated with the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index score (r = -0.486, p = 0.001). Those with a more severe vitamin D deficiency had also higher concentrations of liver enzymes (p < 0.05), lower serum albumin and hemoglobin concentrations (p < 0.05), and higher titers of antibodies to double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) (p < 0.001). This study showed that most of the SLE patients in our society have vitamin D deficiency at the time of diagnosis that is associated with a higher disease activity. Routine screening for vitamin D deficiency and its prompt treatment in patients with newly diagnosed SLE is recommended.

  20. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  1. A robust satellite technique for monitoring seismically active areas: The case of Bhuj Gujarat earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Aliano, C.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2007-02-01

    A robust satellite data analysis technique (RAT) has been recently proposed as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions and already successfully tested in different cases of earthquakes (both high and medium-low magnitudes). In this paper, the efficiency and the potentialities of the RAT technique have been tested even when it is applied to a wide area with extremely variable topography, land coverage and climatic characteristics (the whole Indian subcontinent). Bhuj-Gujarat's earthquake (occurred on 26th January 2001, MS ˜ 7.9) has been considered as a test case in the validation phase, while a relatively unperturbed period (no earthquakes with MS ≥ 5, in the same region and in the same period) has been analyzed for confutation purposes. To this aim, 6 years of Meteosat-5 TIR observations have been processed for the characterization of the TIR signal behaviour at each specific observation time and location. The anomalous TIR values, detected by RAT, have been evaluated in terms of time-space persistence in order to establish the existence of actually significant anomalous transients. The results indicate that the studied area was affected by significant positive thermal anomalies which were identified, at different intensity levels, not far from the Gujarat coast (since 15th January, but with a clearer evidence on 22nd January) and near the epicentral area (mainly on 21st January). On 25th January (1 day before Gujarat's earthquake) significant TIR anomalies appear on the Northern Indian subcontinent, showing a remarkable coincidence with the principal tectonic lineaments of the region (thrust Himalayan boundary). On the other hand, the results of the confutation analysis indicate that no meaningful TIR anomalies appear in the absence of seismic events with MS ≥ 5.

  2. Time Use Patterns between Maintenance, Subsistence and Leisure Activities: A Case Study in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui-fen, Zhou; Zhen-shan, Li; Dong-qian, Xue; Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government conducted its first time use survey of the activities of Chinese individuals in 2008. Activities were classified into three broad types, maintenance activities, subsistence activities and leisure activities. Time use patterns were defined by an individuals' time spent on maintenance, subsistence and leisure activities each…

  3. Achievement of Cure with Gefitinib in Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma Harboring an Activating EGFR Mutation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kuwata, Taiji; Yoneda, Kazue; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Oyama, Rintarou; Matumiya, Hiroki; Shinohara, Shuichi; Takenaka, Masaru; Oka, Soichi; Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Imanishi, Naoko; Kuroda, Koji; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may achieve long-term survival in selected cases with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring activating mutations in the EGFR gene, but a cured case has not been reported yet. Here, we present the first case of EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma cured with an EGFR-TKI, as the 75-year-old Japanese man has achieved complete response with gefitinib treatment and has survived without tumor 10 years after termination of gefitinib treatment.

  4. Trajectory Hunting: A Case Study of Rapid Chlorine Activation in December 1992 as Seen by UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.; Livesey

    2000-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) photochemical box model. As a case study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on December 29, 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Eleven air parcels that have been sampled several times along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 hPa), 520 K (approx. 31 hPa), and 585 K (approx. 22 hPa) levels were investigated. For the first time, the latest versions of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES, version 9) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, version 5) data sets are analyzed, and their consistency is assessed. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the conclusion that for the December 24-29, 1992 episode (1) the individual CLAES version 9 ClONO2 and MLS version 5 ClO measurements are self-consistent within their uncertainties; and (2) most of the time, UARS measurements of ClO, ClONO2, HNO3, and aerosol extinction at 780 cm (exp -1) agree within the range of their uncertainties with the model calculations. It appears that the HNO3 and aerosol extinction measurements for four parcels at 520 K look more supportive for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) scheme. However, the uncertainties in the individual UARS measurements and U.K. Meteorological Office temperature do not allow a definite discrimination between the NAT and supercooled ternary solution (STS) PSC schemes for this chlorine activation episode in December 1992.

  5. Trajectory Hunting: A Case Study of Rapid Chlorine Activation in December 1992 as Seen by UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.; Livesey, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) photochemical box model. As a case study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on December 29, 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Eleven air parcels that have been sampled several times along five-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 hPa), 520 K (approx. 31 hPa), and 585 K (approx. 22 hPa) levels were investigated. For the first time, the latest versions of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES, version 9) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, version 5) data sets are analyzed, and their consistency is assessed. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the conclusion that for the December 24-29, 1992 episode: (1) the individual CLAES ClONO2 and MLS ClO measurements are self-consistent within their uncertainties; and (2) most of the time, UARS measurements of ClO, ClONO2, HNO3, and aerosol extinction at 780 cm(exp -1) agree within the range of their uncertainties with the model calculations. It appears that the HNO3 and aerosol extinction measurements for four parcels at 520 K look more supportive for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) scheme, However, the uncertainties in the individual UARS measurements and UK Meteorological Office temperature do not allow a definite discrimination between the NAT and supercooled ternary solution (STS) PSC schemes for this chlorine activation episode in December 1992.

  6. [Surveillance and active search of suspected cases of hemorrhagic dengue in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Pontes, R J; Ruffino-Netto, A

    1997-03-01

    A clinical-epidemiological case study was carried out to evaluate a surveillance and active search system for suspect cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) during a dengue epidemic in the Ribeirão Preto municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between November 1990 and March 199. This was the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in this region. Although dengue is a growing public health problem in Brazil, and DHF/DSS has been reported to be evolving in the Americas, health officials have shown a passive attitude towards the disease, partly due to lack of experience. Reporting dengue occurrences, both of isolated cases and of epidemics, is essential to reduce mortality. The data analyzed were collected through the official epidemiological surveillance system during the 1990-1991 epidemic. Out of 2,521 confirmed cases of dengue, 34 cases of febrile acute illness with hemorrhagic manifestations were identified as possible cases of DHF/DSS, as well as two deaths associated to dengue. From these 36 cases, 12 cases were confirmed by laboratory exams as dengue with hemorrhagic manifestations. Examinations of clinical and laboratory data, and results of the autopsies suggested that the two deaths were cases of primary DHF/DSS. The difficulty of the health system in establishing the clinical suspicion of DHF/DSS was confirmed in the study. This resulted in delayed and inadequate clinical procedure. The present study also confirmed the need for a permanent active epidemiological surveillance system for the early identification of DHF/DSS suspect cases thus enabling quick and adequate control actions.

  7. Online anonymous discussion between service users and health professionals to ascertain stakeholder concerns in using e-health services in mental health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ray B; Ashurst, Emily J

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of e-health in mental health services requires that we are aware of stakeholders' concerns. We ascertained the views of mental health professionals and mental health service users through the (1) development of 12 topics based on the research literature, (2) presentation to 31 participants (19 mental health professionals and 12 mental health service users) and discussion in three 1-week programmes, (3) thematic analysis of transcripts, and (4) comparison with the literature to identify areas requiring attention in e-health implementation. This method of engaging mental health service users and mental health professionals was effective. We identified areas that (1) should be the first to implement (e.g. discussion forums, email, and Skype), (2) where further education and engagement are necessary before e-health methods could be used (e.g. unsupported computerised cognitive behavioural therapy, computer-patient interviewing, and patient access to online medical records), and (3) for further research (e.g. the impact of bad online experiences).

  8. The accuracy of ascertaining vital status in a historical cohort study of synthetic textiles workers using computerized record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M S; Carpenter, M; Thériault, G; Fair, M

    1993-01-01

    Vital status of a cohort of 10,211 Quebec, synthetic textiles workers was ascertained through a probabilistic record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base (CMDB); 5,033 of these workers were also traced using other sources. There was agreement in the vital status of all but 60 of the subjects traced jointly through the CMDB and the alternate sources. 41 subjects were declared 'deceased' from the CMDB but 'alive' from the alternate sources; it is likely that these subjects were indeed deceased. 19 subjects, declared 'deceased' with a fair degree of certainty from the alternate sources, were not identified from the computer search of the CMDB; 17 were found manually on the microfiche death records and two died outside of Canada. The probability of identifying deceased and living subjects from the CMDB was therefore estimated to be 98.2% (95% confidence interval: 97.5-98.7%) and about 100%, respectively. Estimates of cost are also presented, and it is concluded that use of the CMDB is the method of choice for tracing moderate to large cohorts.

  9. An interesting case of Lucio phenomenon triggered by activation of hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Mareen, Jacob; Madhukara, Jithendriya

    2016-01-01

    Lucio phenomenon (LP) or erythema necroticans is a rare type of reaction pattern found in untreated patients with diffuse non-nodular leprosy. It is important to distinguish this from vasculonecrotic erythema nodosum because thalidomide with high-dose steroids is the mainstay of treatment for the latter, whereas LP shows no response to thalidomide. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with purpuric patches, hemorrhagic blisters, and ulcers over extremities of 15 days duration. On cutaneous examination, there were multiple stellate purpuric patches, hemorrhagic bullae, and deep necrotic ulcers, mainly over extremities. Slit-skin smear examination from six sites revealed bacteriological index 6+ with globi, and morphological index 5%. Histopathology revealed diffuse infiltration of bacilli in epidermis, dermis, and endothelial cells along with neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate. Fibrinoid necrosis and thrombosis of blood vessels was also noted. The above clinicohistopathological features helped in making the diagnosis of LP. Concomitantly he was found to be infected with hepatitis C virus. Many triggering factors have been described in literature; however, activation of hepatitis C as a trigger for Lucio phenomenon has not been reported. In addition, IgM and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies were found to be positive. The patient was started on high-dose steroids along with multibacillary antileprosy therapy and improved within 2 weeks. PMID:27730040

  10. Chiropractic Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis: A Case Report Utilizing Active Release Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gliedt, Jordan A.; Daniels, Clinton J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to describe the chiropractic management of a case of lateral epicondylitis with active release techniques (ART). Clinical features A 48-year-old white man presented to a chiropractic clinic with a complaint of left lateral elbow pain that began 2 years previous with insidious onset. The patient reported an inability to play 18 consecutive holes of golf due to the pain. Intervention and outcome Treatment consisted of 5 sessions of ART (a soft tissue technique that is applied to muscles, fascia, tendons, ligaments, and nerves) applied to the left elbow soft tissue over a duration of 3 weeks. The patient reported an absence of pain and ability to consistently play 18 consecutive holes of golf up to 3 times per week at 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. Conclusion This patient with lateral epicondylitis responded favorably to chiropractic treatment using the application of ART, as demonstrated by reduced pain and increased functional outcomes. PMID:25685118

  11. Sympathetic activity-mediated neuropathic facial pain following simple tooth extraction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kohjitani, Atsushi; Miyawaki, Takuya; Kasuya, Keigo; Shimada, Masahiko

    2002-04-01

    This is a report of a case of sympathetic activity-mediated neuropathic facial pain induced by a traumatic trigeminal nerve injury and by varicella zoster virus infection, following a simple tooth extraction. The patient had undergone extraction of the right lower third molar at a local dental clinic, and soon after the tooth extraction, she became aware of spontaneous pain in the right ear, right temporal region, and in the tooth socket. At our initial examination 30 days after the tooth extraction, the healing of the tooth socket was normal; however, the patient had a tingling and burning sensation (dysesthesia) and spontaneous pain of the right lower lip and the right temporal region, both of which were exacerbated by non-noxious stimuli (allodynia). The patient also showed paralysis of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve, taste dysfunction, and increased varicella zoster serum titers. A diagnostic stellate ganglion block (SGB) 45 days after the tooth extraction using one percent lidocaine markedly alleviated the dysesthesia and allodynia. These symptoms are characteristic of neuropathic pain with sympathetic interaction. The patient was successfully treated with SGB and a tricyclic antidepressant. PMID:12002830

  12. Predicting urban design effects on physical activity and public health: A case study.

    PubMed

    MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, Daniel; Dennerlein, Taylor; Mead, Jill; Hasch, Trisha; Meacci, Grant; Levin, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    With increasing global concerns about obesity and related health effects, tools to predict how urban form affects population physical activity and health are needed. However, such tools have not been well established. This article develops a computer simulation model for forecasting the health effects of urban features that promote walking. The article demonstrates the model using a proposed small-area plan for a neighborhood of 10,400 residents in Raleigh, North Carolina, one of the fastest-growing and most sprawling U.S. cities. The simulation model predicts that the plan would increase average daily time spent walking for transportation by 17 min. As a result, annual deaths from all causes are predicted to decrease by 5.5%. Annual new cases of diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension are predicted to decline by 1.9%, 2.3%, 1.3%, and 1.6%, respectively. The present value of these health benefits is $21,000 per resident.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a) isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b) assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T

  14. Improving the efficiency of case-based reasoning to deal with activated sludge solids separation problems.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M; Mérida-Campos, C; Sánchez-Marré, M; Comas, J; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2006-06-01

    The potential of Case-Based Reasoning to use the knowledge gained from past experiences to solve problematic situations has made this Artificial Intelligence technique a useful decision support tool in different environmental domains such as wastewater treatment. Case-Based Reasoning tools automatically identify similarities between present and previous situations (cases) and reuse the experiences gained from the previous situations to solve current problems. Case retrieval can be considered to be the most important step in the process of Case-Based Reasoning. In the present study we propose incorporating a relevance network in order to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of case retrieval. The result is a context-sensitive feature-weighting methodology capable of defining the model of relationships between the different attributes or features that define the context in which Case-Based Reasoning is applied. These features affect the retrieval procedure directly. The feature's degree of relevance in the network is easily translated into a set of simple rules and applied during case retrieval, specifically during the similarity calculation. The results obtained in the present study show significant improvements in the accuracy of case retrieval. With the approach presented here experts considered more than 90% of the retrieved cases to be completely relevant according to the knowledge these cases provided for dealing with solids separation problems.

  15. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José; and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  16. Mitigating Financial Burden of Tuberculosis through Active Case Finding Targeting Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Fukushi; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Eang, Mao Tan; Saint, Saly; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite free TB services available in public health facilities, TB patients often face severe financial burden due to TB. WHO set a new global target that no TB-affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB. To monitor the progress and strategize the optimal approach to achieve the target, there is a great need to assess baseline cost data, explore potential proxy indicators for catastrophic costs, and understand what intervention mitigates financial burden. In Cambodia, nationwide active case finding (ACF) targeting household and neighbourhood contacts was implemented alongside routine passive case finding (PCF). We analyzed household cost data from ACF and PCF to determine the financial benefit of ACF, update the baseline cost data, and explore whether any dissaving patterns can be a proxy for catastrophic costs in Cambodia. Methods In this cross-sectional comparative study, structured interviews were carried out with 108 ACF patients and 100 PCF patients. Direct and indirect costs, costs before and during treatment, costs as percentage of annual household income and dissaving patterns were compared between the two groups. Results The median total costs were lower by 17% in ACF than in PCF ($240.7 [IQR 65.5–594.6] vs $290.5 [IQR 113.6–813.4], p = 0.104). The median costs before treatment were significantly lower in ACF than in PCF ($5.1 [IQR 1.5–25.8] vs $22.4 [IQR 4.4–70.8], p<0.001). Indirect costs constituted the largest portion of total costs (72.3% in ACF and 61.5% in PCF). Total costs were equivalent to 11.3% and 18.6% of annual household income in ACF and PCF, respectively. ACF patients were less likely to dissave to afford TB-related expenses. Costs as percentage of annual household income were significantly associated with an occurrence of selling property (p = 0.02 for ACF, p = 0.005 for PCF). Conclusions TB-affected households face severe financial hardship in Cambodia. ACF has the great potential to mitigate the costs

  17. Factors Associated with Adolescent Physical Activity during Middle School Physical Education: A One-Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senne, Terry; Rowe, David; Boswell, Boni; Decker, James; Douglas, Shaun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive component of a larger, exploratory case study was to examine associations among lesson contexts, teacher behaviors, and adolescent physical activity over a year of physical education (PE) at one school. Middle school students (n = 206) and their PE teachers (n = 4) were observed twice-weekly across one academic…

  18. Understanding EFL Students' Participation in Group Peer Feedback of L2 Writing: A Case Study from an Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While the last three decades have witnessed a growing body of research on peer feedback in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing, research about students' motives for participating in group peer feedback has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this case study, guided by the constructs of activity and motive…

  19. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Inter-Library Services: A Case Study in a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Although the true costs of inter-library loans (ILL) are unknown, universities increasingly rely on them to provide better library services at lower costs. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing analysis of ILL and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  20. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated…

  1. University Student Agency, Representation, and Activism: A Case Study of Students Studying English at Universite Cheikh Anta Diop (Dakar, Senegal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Casey

    2012-01-01

    This study explores and interrogates dominant representations of African university students by examining how students conceptualize and act upon their own agency. Using a qualitative case-study approach, the author examines how students actively confront the ideological and material conditions presented by schooling. [The dissertation citations…

  2. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  3. [Fatal head injury caused by a crossbow arrow with unusually preserved posttraumatic volitional activity - case report].

    PubMed

    Řehulka, Hynek; Čechová, Eva; Mottlová, Jitka; Valenta, Martin; Mareška, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The authors deal with a case of suicidal attempt resulting in a fatal head injury. A young man shot himself with a serially produced mechanical sports crossbow. The young man with a critical intracranial injury, a penetration, was nevertheless capable of basic locomotive activity, as well as of coherent communication with another people present at the scene. The critically injured patient was transported from the scene directly to medical centre where he subsequently underwent a neurologic surgery. On the eight day after the incident he died in the hospital as a result of sustained wounds. During the autopsy, a penetrating arrow-shot wound head injury was certified, occurring in the right and left temple area. Signs of a complex decompressive craniectomy were established too. The shooting channel was generally horizontally oriented, extending from the right to the left side, from behind in a 10 up to 15 degrees angle to the frontal plane, penetrating the brain from the right temple lobe and the frontal lobe, thereby pervading also frontal horns of lateral ventricles, and from the left afflicting the frontal lobe on the left side of the brain. In the course of the shooting channel, brain contusion occurred, accompanied by intraventricular haemorrhage. In addition, a heavy cerebral oedema, multiple secondary malacias, Durett haemorrhages and extensive thrombosis of cerebral sinuses were stated. In the course of police investigation, based mainly on the information given by the wounded man right after he had been found at the scene, it was revealed that another person might have been involved. The forensic autopsy, the investigation of the Police and the subsequent criminalist-ballistics expert investigation, supported by a series of experimental substitutive target shots, didnt, however, decidedly prove that any other culprit had been involved. PMID:27108656

  4. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  5. Teaching for Engagement: Part 1--Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Bill

    2015-01-01

    In the Winter, 2015, issue of the "College Quarterly," Donovan McFarlane provided some guidelines for the use of case studies in college teaching based in part on his own experience and in part on the published literature. This was not the first time that case-based teaching was the focus of work in the "College Quarterly."…

  6. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  7. Using Photographs as Case Studies to Promote Active Learning in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, David A.; Salame, Issa I.; Goodwyn, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    If a picture is worth a thousand words, think about how long it takes your students to read a thousand words. Case studies are effective and stimulating ways to teach a variety of subjects, including the biological sciences. In learning the details of a particular case, students develop skills in both deductive and inductive reasoning, hypothesis…

  8. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lebina, Limakatso; Fuller, Nigel; Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62-3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52-2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  9. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62–3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52–2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  10. Quasi-active, minimal-sensing load and damage identification and quantification techniques for filament-wound rocket motor casings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stites, Nick; Escobar, Carlos; White, Jonathan; Adams, Douglas E.; Triplett, Matt

    2007-04-01

    Filament-wound rocket motor casings are being considered by the United States Army for use in future lightweight missile systems. As part of the design process, a real-time, minimal-sensing, quasi-active health-monitoring system is being investigated. The health-monitoring scheme is quasi-active because abnormal loads acting on the structure are identified passively, the input force is not measured directly, and the curve-fit estimate of the impact force is used to update the frequency response functions (FRFs) that are functions of the system properties. This task traditionally requires an active-interrogation technique for which the input force is known. The updated FRFs and the estimated impact force can then be used in model-based damage-quantification methods. The proposed quasi-active approach to health monitoring is validated both analytically with a lumped-parameter model and experimentally with a composite missile casing. Minimal sensing is used in both models in order to reduce the complexity and cost of the system, but the small number of measurement channels causes the system of equations used in the inverse problem for load identification to be under-determined. However, a novel algorithm locates and quantifies over 3000 impacts at various locations around the casing with over 98% success, and the FRF-correction process is successfully demonstrated.

  11. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lebina, Limakatso; Fuller, Nigel; Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62-3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52-2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield.

  12. Geomagnetic response to solar activity: summary for the last ten years and analysis of selected cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejda, Pavel; Bochníček, Josef; Valach, Fridrich; Revallo, Miloš

    2014-05-01

    The main sources of geomagnetic disturbances are either coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are usually connected with eruptive flares, or high-speed streams of solar wind from coronal holes. Development of an eruptive flare and ejection of coronal mass is accompanied by magnetic reconnection. The evidence of reconnection can be found in a broad spectrum of observations. The observations of X-rays and radio bursts were used in our study. The geoeffectiveness of solar X-ray flares was initially analysed on data from the period 1996 - 2004 [1]. It was shown that the probability of geomagnetic response depends on the solar flare class and its position on the solar disc. The flares in the central region were found to be more geoeffective. The probability further increased if the flare was accompanied by Type II and/or Type IV of solar radio bursts. In the next step a neural network model was developed to determine the probability, with which flares will be followed by the geomagnetic response of a particular intensity. Enhancement of solar energetic particle flux was added to the set of input parameters. The results indicated that X-ray flares accompanied by solar radio bursts represent a good proxy of CMEs [2, 3]. This conclusion was now confirmed by the data from the period 2005 - 2012. Coronal holes are stable formations that can survive over several solar rotations. Corotating interaction regions (CIRs) between fast and slow solar wind can thus periodically pass over the Earth and cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. This periodicity makes the forecasts of the geomagnetic disturbances much easier [4] than in the case of eruptive phenomena. Our analysis confirmed that the strongest magnetic storms are caused by CMEs. Nevertheless, many geomagnetic disturbances in the active part of solar cycle are influenced by sequences of CMEs and CIRs, which increase their strength. [1] Bochníček, J., P. Hejda and F. Valach, Solar energetic events in the years 1996-2004. The

  13. How Students' Everyday Situations Modify Classroom Mathematical Activity: The Case of Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaz, Vanessa Sena; David, Maria Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to discuss how school mathematical activity is modified when students' everyday situations are brought into the classroom. One illustrative sequence--7th grade classes solving problems that required proportional reasoning--is characterized as a system of interconnected activities within the theoretical perspective of activity theory. We…

  14. Development of a brief assessment and algorithm for ascertaining dementia in low-income and middle-income countries: the 10/66 short dementia diagnostic schedule

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Guerchet, Maëlenn; Prince, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop and evaluate a short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnostic schedule for use in low-income and middle-income countries. Design Split-half analysis for algorithm development and testing; cross-evaluation of short-schedule and standard-schedule algorithms in 12 community surveys. Settings (1) The 10/66 pilot sample data set of people aged 60 years and over in 25 international centres each recruiting the following samples: (a) dementia; (b) depression, no dementia; (c) no dementia, high education and (d) no dementia, low education. (2) Cross-sectional surveys of people aged 65 years or more from 12 urban and rural sites in 8 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela, India, China and Puerto Rico). Participants In the 10/66 pilot samples, the algorithm for the short schedule was developed in 1218 participants and tested in 1211 randomly selected participants; it was evaluated against the algorithm for the standard 10/66 schedule in 16 536 survey participants. Outcome measures The short diagnostic schedule was derived from the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the CERAD 10-word list recall task and the Euro-D depression screen; it was evaluated against clinically assigned groups in the pilot data and against the standard schedule (using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) rather than Euro-D) in the surveys. Results In the pilot test sample, the short-schedule algorithm ascertained dementia with 94.2% sensitivity. Specificities were 80.2% in depression, 96.6% in the high-education group and 92.7% in the low-education group. In survey samples, it coincided with standard algorithm dementia classifications with over 95% accuracy in most sites. Estimated dementia prevalences in the survey samples were not consistently higher or lower using the short compared to standard schedule. Conclusions For epidemiological studies of dementia in low-income and middle-income settings where the GMS interview (and/or interviewer

  15. Youth knowledge of physical activity health benefits: a Brazilian case study.

    PubMed

    Zieff, Susan Gail; Guedes, Claudia Maria; Wiley, James

    2006-12-28

    This study presents the findings of a questionnaire-based investigation of knowledge about the relationship of physical activity to health among adolescent participants of a community-based physical activity intervention program in São Paulo, Brazil. Qualitative (inductive content analysis) and quantitative methods were applied to examine the participants' responses to two open-ended questions concerning the health benefits of physical activity and the educational goals of the intervention. More than 75% of all participants stated that health benefits (of some type) are attained through participation in physical activity. More than 50% of participants reported that the goal of the intervention was to educate people about the importance of a healthy, active lifestyle. Adolescents understand the relationship of physical activity to health as reflected in their knowledge assessments; their lifestyle choices support these beliefs. These findings offer encouragement for the development and implementation of educationally oriented interventions aimed at providing physical activity information and programming.

  16. Case Study of Severe Lightning Activity Prior to and During the Outbreak of the June 1st Greenbelt Tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, B. H.; Badesha, S.; Shishineh, A.; Adams, N. H.

    2012-12-01

    Surges in lightning activity have been known to be associated with the outbreak of tornado activity. We present a case study of a tornado that touched down near Greenbelt Maryland during the evening of June 1st 2012. Preceding the tornado touchdown, two single point lightning detection systems, a Boltek LD-250 and Vaisala SA20, recorded very high lightning activity rates. An electric field mill (EFM) was also making measurements and recorded large, rapid amplitude oscillations in the vertical electric fields. These electric field oscillations quickly subsided after the initial tornado touchdown. The lightning activity also generated significant RF interference in the S-band dish antenna operated at the Applied Physics Laboratory. It was somewhat surprising that the lightning activity produced enough radiation at these frequencies to cause measured levels of interference which could potentially impair satellite communications. Our interpretation of the EFM data is that intensive vertical forcing and rotation in the thunderstorm during the tornado formation caused the observed rapid electric field oscillations. At the same time, the vertical mixing in the storm caused a surge in lightning activity rates recorded by the Boltek and Vaisala sensors. Following the tornado touchdown, there was a rapid decrease in the lightning rates from the sensors. The EFM oscillations also abruptly ceased and went to a more normal slow-varying pattern typically observed during other thunderstorms without associated tornado activity. It is suggested that a network of field mills could provide realtime warning of imminent tornado activity.

  17. Non-verbal Full Body Emotional and Social Interaction: A Case Study on Multimedia Systems for Active Music Listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camurri, Antonio

    Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).

  18. Sport activity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A case study of a Paralympic swimmer.

    PubMed

    Vita, Giuseppe; La Foresta, Stefania; Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Lunetta, Christian; Mazzeo, Anna

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the positive physical, emotional and psychosocial changes induced by sport activity in a Paralympic swimmer with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A. When we compared evaluations before initiating sport activity with those after five years of competitive activity, we found: i) increased proximal muscles strength of upper limbs; ii) augmented ability to propel wheelchair independently; iii) improved quality of life; iv) reduced trait anxiety and striking improvement of depression; v) enhanced self-esteem. Longitudinal studies in large cohorts to evaluate the positive effects of sport activity are needed to support provision of evidence-based advice to patients and families.

  19. Sport activity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A case study of a Paralympic swimmer.

    PubMed

    Vita, Giuseppe; La Foresta, Stefania; Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Lunetta, Christian; Mazzeo, Anna

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the positive physical, emotional and psychosocial changes induced by sport activity in a Paralympic swimmer with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A. When we compared evaluations before initiating sport activity with those after five years of competitive activity, we found: i) increased proximal muscles strength of upper limbs; ii) augmented ability to propel wheelchair independently; iii) improved quality of life; iv) reduced trait anxiety and striking improvement of depression; v) enhanced self-esteem. Longitudinal studies in large cohorts to evaluate the positive effects of sport activity are needed to support provision of evidence-based advice to patients and families. PMID:27460291

  20. Meeting the Challenges of Active Learning in Web-Based Case Studies for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Maggie; Hadfield, Mark; Howarth, George; Lewarne, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Teaching staff, designing conventional courses in higher education, must make decisions about selecting content and activities to engage students in learning. When the Internet is chosen as the principal delivery vehicle it presents particular challenges for the design of active learning. Further challenges are added when working with a complex,…

  1. Decision-Making Styles of Active-Duty Police Officers: A Multiple-Case Occupational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Patrick Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the decision-making styles of active-duty police officers or what the consequences of not understanding those decision-making styles may be. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics and decision-making profiles of active-duty police officers, as well as any relationships that may exist among these variables,…

  2. Activated chemical defense in marine sponges--a case study on Aplysinella rhax.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Carsten; Schupp, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    Activated chemical defense, i.e., the rapid conversion of precursor molecules to defensive compounds following tissue damage, has been well documented for terrestrial and marine plants; but evidence for its presence in sessile marine invertebrates remains scarce. We observed a wound-activated conversion of psammaplin A sulfate to psammaplin A in tissue of the tropical sponge Aplysinella rhax. The conversion is rapid (requiring only seconds), the turnover rate increases with increasing wounding activity (e.g., approximately 20% after tissue stabbing vs. approximately 85% after tissue grinding), and is likely enzyme-catalyzed (no reaction in the absence of water and inhibition of the conversion by heat). Fish feeding assays with the pufferfish Canthigaster solandri, an omnivorous sponge predator, revealed an increased anti-feeding activity by the conversion product psammaplin A compared to the precursor psammaplin A sulfate. We propose that the wound-activated formation of psammaplin A in A. rhax is an activated defense targeted against predator species that are not efficiently repelled by the sponge's constitutive chemical defense. Recent observations of conversion reactions also in other sponge species indicate that more activated defenses may exist in this phylum. Based on the findings of this study, we address the question whether activated defenses may be more common in sponges--and perhaps also in other sessile marine invertebrates--than hitherto believed.

  3. Capacity Building as a Tool for Assessing Training and Development Activity: An Indian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnaveni, R.; Sripirabaa, B.

    2008-01-01

    In recognition of its increasing importance, many organizations make periodic assessments of their training and development activity. The objective of the present study was to extend the concept of capacity building to the assessment of training and development activity in an automobile component manufacturing organization, using a developed and…

  4. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  5. Cross-Continental Collaboration: A Case Study Using Activity Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, LanHui

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that simply linking learners from different countries using technology does not automatically bring about learning benefits; instead it frequently ends in tensions that, if not addressed, could potentially hinder learning. Using the lens of Vygotsky-inspired sociocultural theory, activity theory, and Engestrom's activity systems…

  6. Perception of Physical Activity Participation of Chinese Female Graduate Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Chinese female international students (CFIS) have been identified as one of the least physically active groups in the United States. In an effort to better understand this situation, this study's purpose was to examine CFIS in American higher education in terms of the meaning they assigned to physical activity and facilitators and…

  7. How Was the Activity? A Visualization Support for a Case of Location-Based Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Javier; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Sun, Jing; Santos, Patricia; Blat, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the use of mobile technologies has brought the formulation of location-based learning approaches shaping new or enhanced educational activities. Involving teachers in the design of these activities is important because the designs need to be aligned with the requirements of the specific educational settings. Yet analysing…

  8. Why Is Active Learning so Difficult to Implement: The Turkish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Fisun; Niemi, Hannele; Nevgi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to report how teacher education may promote active learning which is demanded by the current educational reform of Turkish teacher education (TE). This article also examines the effectiveness of the recent reforms in Turkey from a student's perspective, and provides an understanding of the concept of active learning, how it is…

  9. Using the Internet for Communicative Learning Activities in Kindergarten: The Case of the "Shapes Planet"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesakis, Georgios; Sofroniou, Christina; Mavroudi, Elisavet

    2011-01-01

    With the widespread use of the internet, more and more children get acquainted with its various uses at a young age while an increasing number of teachers are designing learning activities that utilize various internet services. Toward this direction, teachers need practical examples of pedagogically verified learning activities. This paper…

  10. The case for inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Arabacilar, Pelin; Marber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This minireview discusses the evidence that the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPKs) maybe of therapeutic value in heart failure. Most previous experimental studies, as well as past and ongoing clinical trials, have focussed on the role of p38 MAPKs in myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndromes. There is now growing evidence that these kinases are activated within the myocardium of the failing human heart and in the heart and blood vessels of animal models of heart failure. Furthermore, from a philosophical viewpoint the chronic activation of the adaptive stress pathways that lead to the activation of p38 MAPKs in heart failure is analogous to the chronic activation of the sympathetic, renin-aldosterone-angiotensin and neprilysin systems. These have provided some of the most effective therapies for heart failure. This minireview questions whether similar and synergistic advantages would follow the inhibition of p38 MAPKs.

  11. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities:Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Richard, S Austin; Frank, Elizabeth A; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:24163803

  12. Tool Mediation in Focus on Form Activities: Case Studies in a Grammar-Exploring Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlstrom, Petter; Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa; Lindstrom, Henrik; Knutsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    We present two case studies of two different pedagogical tasks in a Computer Assisted Language Learning environment called Grim. The main design principle in Grim is to support "Focus on Form" in second language pedagogy. Grim contains several language technology-based features for exploring linguistic forms (static, rule-based and statistical),…

  13. Activating "Language for Learning" through Schoolwide Pedagogy: The Case of Mackillop School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a primary school that engaged with the Innovative Designs for Enhancing Achievement in Schools (IDEAS) Project, and moved to the sustaining phase over a period of three years. It reports how the students, who were 98 percent English as a second language, improved their reading and numeracy during this time and…

  14. Exploring Freshmen Preservice Teachers' Situated Knowledge in Reflective Reports during Case-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyeonjin

    2011-01-01

    Many educators and scholars have emphasized situated learning approaches for teacher education, as teachers have been considered to be the most important factor for effective teaching with technology. While web-based cases are used for situated learning in various ways, their effects on preservice teacher learning from situated perspectives still…

  15. Unpacking Teacher-Researcher Collaboration with Three Theoretical Frameworks: A Case of Expansive Learning Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the…

  16. Older Workers in the 21st Century: Active and Educated, a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besl, John R.; Kale, Balkrishna D.

    1996-01-01

    A case study of the Wisconsin labor market suggests that in future older adults will have higher educational attainment and labor force participation rates than today's older cohorts. Changes in retirement programs and greater growth in white-collar occupations and women's employment are some of the causal factors. (SK)

  17. NITRIFICATION AND IRON AND ARSENIC REMOVAL IN BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FILTERS: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia in source waters can cause water treatment and distribution system problems, many of which are associated with biological nitrification. Therefore, in some cases, the removal of ammonia from water is desirable. Biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate and nitrate (nitr...

  18. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Waygood, E. Owen D.; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. PMID:26694429

  19. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  20. Translating epidemiology into policy to prevent childhood obesity: the case for promoting physical activity in school settings.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Chriqui, Jamie F; Burgeson, Charlene R; Fisher, Megan C; Ness, Roberta B

    2010-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem resulting from energy imbalance (when the intake of energy is greater than the amount of energy expended through physical activity). Numerous health authorities have identified policy interventions as promising strategies for creating population-wide improvements in physical activity. This case study focuses on energy expenditure through physical activity (with a particular emphasis on school-based physical education [PE]). Policy-relevant evidence for promoting physical activity in youth may take numerous forms, including epidemiologic data and other supporting evidence (e.g., qualitative data). The implementation and evaluation of school PE interventions leads to a set of lessons related to epidemiology and evidence-based policy. These include the need to: (i) enhance the focus on external validity, (ii) develop more policy-relevant evidence on the basis of "natural experiments," (iii) understand that policy making is political, (iv) better articulate the factors that influence policy dissemination, (v) understand the real-world constraints when implementing policy in school environments, and (vi) build transdisciplinary teams for policy progress. The issues described in this case study provide leverage points for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers as they seek to translate epidemiology to policy. PMID:20470970

  1. Translating Epidemiology into Policy to Prevent Childhood Obesity: The Case for Promoting Physical Activity in School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fisher, Megan C.; Ness, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, resulting from energy imbalance (when the intake of energy is greater than the amount of energy expended through physical activity). Numerous health authorities have identified policy interventions as promising strategies for creating population-wide improvements in physical activity. This case study focuses on energy expenditure through physical activity (with a particular emphasis on school-based physical education [PE]). Policy-relevant evidence for promoting physical activity in youth may take numerous forms including epidemiologic data and other supporting evidence (e.g., qualitative data). The implementation and evaluation of school PE interventions leads to a set of lessons related to epidemiology and evidence-based policy. These include the need to: 1) enhance the focus on external validity, 2) develop more policy-relevant evidence based on “natural experiments,” 3) understand that policymaking is political, 4) better articulate the factors that influence policy dissemination, 5) understand the real world constraints when implementing policy in school environments, and 6) build transdisciplinary teams for policy progress. The issues described in this case study provide leverage points for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers as they seek to translate epidemiology to policy. PMID:20470970

  2. REHABILITATION OF A SURGICALLY REPAIRED RUPTURE OF THE DISTAL BICEPS TENDON IN AN ACTIVE MIDDLE AGED MALE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; LaFontaine, Tom; Scheussler, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete rupture of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii is relatively rare and there is little information to guide therapists in rehabilitation after this injury. The purposes of this case report are to review the rehabilitation concepts used for treating such an injury, and discuss how to modify exercises during rehabilitation based on patient progression while adhering to physician recommended guidelines and standard treatment protocols. Case Presentation: The patient was an active 38‐year old male experienced in weight‐training. He presented with a surgically repaired right distal biceps tendon following an accident on a trampoline adapted with a bungee suspension harness. The intervention focused on restoring range of motion and strengthening of the supporting muscles of the upper extremity without placing undue stress on the biceps brachii. Outcomes: The patient was able to progress from a moderate restriction in ROM to full AROM two weeks ahead of the physician's post‐operative orders and initiate a re‐strengthening protocol by the eighth week of rehabilitation. At the eighth post‐operative week the patient reported no deficits in functional abilities throughout his normal daily activities with his affected upper extremity. Discussion: The results of this case report strengthen current knowledge regarding physical therapy treatment for a distal biceps tendon repair while at the same time providing new insights for future protocol considerations in active individuals. Most current protocols do not advocate aggressive stretching, AROM, or strengthening of a surgically repaired biceps tendon early in the rehabilitation process due to the fear of a re‐rupture. In the opinion of the authors, if full AROM can be achieved before the 6th week of rehabilitation, initiating a slow transition into light strengthening of the biceps brachii may be possible. Level of evidence: 4‐Single Case report PMID:23316429

  3. Non-Target Activity Detection by Post-Radioembolization Yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image Assessment Technique and Case Examples.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Tan, Andrew E H; Lo, Richard H G; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Tan, Bien Soo; Chow, Pierce K H; Ng, David C E; Goh, Anthony S W

    2014-01-01

    High resolution yttrium-90 ((90)Y) imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed (90)Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by (90)Y PET/CT, which qualitatively overcomes the problem of background noise. We present selected case examples of non-target activity in untargeted liver, stomach, gallbladder, chest wall, and kidney, supported by angiography and (90)Y bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT) or technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT.

  4. A case study in treating chronic comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with behavioral activation and pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Arco, Lucius

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is difficult to treat, and more so when comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present case study was to examine effects of behavioral activation (BA) and pharmacotherapy with an adult with chronic comorbid OCD and MDD. BA aimed at increasing approach behaviors in life activities and decreasing avoidant and inactive behaviors. After 21 months of treatment at a community mental health clinic, OCD and MDD symptoms, including compulsive checking behaviors, were no longer at clinical levels. Symptom alleviation and psychological health improved in line with increases in activities of living such as self-care, domestic, social, and studying, and decreases in medications from a regimen of mood stabilizers and anxiolytics to a sole antidepressant. The participant was satisfied with treatment procedures and outcome. The results add to growing evidence of effective BA treatments for comorbid disorders that include depression.

  5. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself. PMID:21258609

  6. The Case for Increased Physical Activity in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer, but there is little information on the merits of such activity in the prevention and management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). The present systematic review thus documents current levels of habitual physical activity and aerobic and muscular function in CIBD, and examines the safety, practicality and efficacy of exercise programmes in countering the disease process, correcting functional deficits and enhancing quality of life. A systematic search of the Ovid/Medline database from January 1996 to May 2015 linked the terms physical activity/motor activity/physical fitness/physical training/physical education/training/exercise/exercise therapy with Crohn's disease/colitis/ulcerative colitis/inflammatory bowel disease, supplementing this information by a scanning of reference lists and personal files.12 of 16 published studies show a low level of habitual physical activity in CIBD, with sub-normal values for aerobic power, lean tissue mass and muscular strength. 3 of 4 studies suggest physical activity may reduce the risk of developing IBD, and 11 interventions all note that exercise programmes are well tolerated with some decreases of disease activity, and functional gains leading to an increased health-related quality of life. Moreover, programme compliance rates compare favourably with those seen in the treatment of other chronic conditions. More information on mechanisms is needed, but regular moderate aerobic and/or resistance exercise improves the health status of patients with CIBD both by modulating immune function and by improving physical function. A regular exercise programme should thus become an important component in the management of CIBD. PMID:27116344

  7. Population-Level Impact of Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in an Asian Megacity

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, David W.; Lotia, Ismat; Azman, Andrew S.; Creswell, Jacob; Sahu, Suvanand; Khan, Aamir J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The potential population-level impact of private-sector initiatives for tuberculosis (TB) case finding in Southeast Asia remains uncertain. In 2011, the Indus Hospital TB Control Program in Karachi, Pakistan, undertook an aggressive case-finding campaign that doubled notification rates, providing an opportunity to investigate potential population-level effects. Methods We constructed an age-structured compartmental model of TB in the intervention area. We fit the model using field and literature data, assuming that TB incidence equaled the estimated nationwide incidence in Pakistan (primary analysis), or 1.5 times greater (high-incidence scenario). We modeled the intervention as an increase in the rate of formal-sector TB diagnosis and evaluated the potential impact of sustaining this rate for five years. Results In the primary analysis, the five-year intervention averted 24% (95% uncertainty range, UR: 18-30%) of five-year cumulative TB cases and 52% (95% UR: 45-57%) of cumulative TB deaths. Corresponding reductions in the high-incidence scenario were 12% (95% UR: 8-17%) and 27% (95% UR: 21-34%), although the absolute number of lives saved was higher. At the end of five years, TB notification rates in the primary analysis were below their 2010 baseline, incidence had dropped by 45%, and annual mortality had fallen by 72%. About half of the cumulative impact on incidence and mortality could be achieved with a one-year intervention. Conclusions Sustained, multifaceted, and innovative approaches to TB case-finding in Asian megacities can have substantial community-wide epidemiological impact. PMID:24147015

  8. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert® MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, S.; Shrestha, P.; Puri, M.; Kandel, S.; Lamichanne, B.; Elsey, H.; Brouwer, M.; Goel, S.; Chinnakali, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. Objectives: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert® MTB/RIF. Design: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. Results: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19.6%) had presumptive TB; 1239 (4.3%) of these were diagnosed with TB and 1195 (96%) were initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The yield of screening was highest among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) (6.1%), followed by household contacts (3.5%) and urban slum dwellers (0.5%). Among other risk groups, such as prisoners, factory workers, refugees and individuals with diabetes, the yield was less than 0.5%. The number needed to screen to diagnose an active TB case was 17 for PLHIV, 29 for household contacts and 197 for urban slum dwellers. Of 11 525 patients from ICF and the routine programme, 112 (1%) were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB. Conclusion: There was a substantial yield of TB cases among risk groups such as PLHIV and household contacts. Although the yield in urban slum dwellers was found to be moderate, some intervention should nonetheless be targeted because of the large population and poor access to care in this group. PMID:27358808

  9. An Experimental Comparison of Two Different Technetium Source Activities Which Can Imitate Thyroid Scintigraphy in Case of Thyroid Toxic Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Miftari, Ramë; Fejza, Ferki; Bicaj, Xhavit; Nura, Adem; Topciu, Valdete; Bajrami, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In cases of thyroid toxic autonomous nodule, anterior projection of Tc-99m pertechnetate image shows a hot nodule that occupies most, or the entire thyroid lobe with near-total or total suppression of the contra lateral lobe. In this case is very difficult to distinguish toxic nodule from lobe agenesis. Our interest was to estimate and determinate the rate of radioactivity when the source with high activity can make total suppression of the second source with low activity in same conditions with thyroid scintigraphy procedures. Material and methodology: Thyroid scintigraphy was performed with Technetium 99 meta stable pertechnetate. A parallel high resolution low energy collimator was used as an energy setting of 140 KeV photo peak for T-99m. Images are acquired at 200 Kilo Counts in the anterior projection with the collimator positioned as close as the patient’s extended neck (approximately in distance of 18 cm). The scintigraphy of thyroid gland was performed 15 minutes after intravenous administration of 1.5 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate. Technetium 99 meta stable radioactive sources with different activity were used for two scintigraphies studies, performed in same thyroid scintigraphy acquisition procedures. In the first study, were compared the standard source with high activity A=11.2 mCi with sources with variable activities B=1.33 mCi; 1.03 mCi; 0.7 mCi; 0.36 mCi; and 0.16mCi) in distance of 1.5cm from each other sources, which is approximately same with distance between two thyroid lobes. In the second study were compared the sources with low activity in proportion 70:1(source A = 1.5 mCi and source B=0.021mCi). As clinical studies we preferred two different patents with different thyroid disorders. There were one patient with thyroid toxic nodule in the right lobe, therefore the second patient was with left thyroid nodule agenesis. Results: During our examination, we accurately determined that two radioactive sources in proportion 70:1 will be

  10. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  11. Health education activities conducted by physiotherapy students on field trips to rural areas: a case study.

    PubMed

    Boucaut, R

    1998-11-01

    Field trips to country communities have formed part of the final year physiotherapy undergraduate curriculum at the University of South Australia since 1995. These trips have aimed to give students an experience in primary health care. This paper evaluates these activities within the framework of the health promotion model from the perspective of those involved and evaluates feedback from these people. The activities met four of the five criteria of the health promotion model to some degree. Evaluation from all those participating has been mainly positive, with some aspects of organisation of the field trips requiring improvement. All involved felt they had gained benefits from the field trips; however, further work is needed to align the activities with local health promotion infrastructure.

  12. Occupational and Environmental Health Risks Associated with Informal Sector Activities-Selected Case Studies from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Ayelo, Paul Ahoumènou; Djogbénou, Luc S; Kedoté, Marius; Lawin, Herve; Tohon, Honesty; Oloruntoba, Elizabeth O; Adebisi, Nurudeen A; Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius; Robins, Thomas; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Most in the Economic Community of West African States region are employed in the informal sector. While the informal sector plays a significant role in the region's economy, policymakers and the scientific community have long neglected it. To better understand informal-sector work conditions, the goal here is to bring together researchers to exchange findings and catalyze dialogue. The article showcases research studies on several economic systems, namely agriculture, resource extraction, transportation, and trade/commerce. Site-specific cases are provided concerning occupational health risks within artisanal and small-scale gold mining, aggregate mining, gasoline trade, farming and pesticide applications, and electronic waste recycling. These cases emphasize the vastness of the informal sector and that the majority of work activities across the region remain poorly documented, and thus no data or knowledge is available to help improve conditions and formulate policies and programs to promote and ensure decent work conditions. PMID:27231011

  13. Occupational and Environmental Health Risks Associated with Informal Sector Activities-Selected Case Studies from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Ayelo, Paul Ahoumènou; Djogbénou, Luc S; Kedoté, Marius; Lawin, Herve; Tohon, Honesty; Oloruntoba, Elizabeth O; Adebisi, Nurudeen A; Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius; Robins, Thomas; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Most in the Economic Community of West African States region are employed in the informal sector. While the informal sector plays a significant role in the region's economy, policymakers and the scientific community have long neglected it. To better understand informal-sector work conditions, the goal here is to bring together researchers to exchange findings and catalyze dialogue. The article showcases research studies on several economic systems, namely agriculture, resource extraction, transportation, and trade/commerce. Site-specific cases are provided concerning occupational health risks within artisanal and small-scale gold mining, aggregate mining, gasoline trade, farming and pesticide applications, and electronic waste recycling. These cases emphasize the vastness of the informal sector and that the majority of work activities across the region remain poorly documented, and thus no data or knowledge is available to help improve conditions and formulate policies and programs to promote and ensure decent work conditions.

  14. Agreement between international classification of disease (ICD) and cause of death and associated conditions (CODAC) for the ascertainment of cause of stillbirth (SB) in the rural areas of north India.

    PubMed

    Kaistha, Madhvi; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhardwaj, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    International Classification of Diseases-10 th version (ICD-10) has been used to ascertain the cause of death but its use for stillbirths (SBs) is limited. Cause of Death and Associated Conditions (CODAC) as a detailed system expected to provide the exact cause of SB, so a community-based study was planned to study the level of agreement between ICD-10 and CODAC for ascertaining the cause of SB. A verbal autopsy (VA) tool was used to collect the information and then the cause of each SB was assigned using ICD-10 and CODAC separately. Each tool was used for 87 SBs and found that prolonged singleton labor, maternal pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), and central nervous system (CNS) related congenital malformations were considered the top three causes. There was a significant agreement between ICD-10 and CODAC but the latter offers a scope to delineate the causes more precisely due to its hierarchal nature. PMID:26911221

  15. Designing medical devices for conformance with harmonized standards: a case study of non-active implants.

    PubMed

    Gogins, J A

    1995-01-01

    The European Community's Medical Devices Directives represent an ambitious effort to streamline the regulation of medical devices within the European Economic Area, an area comprising more than 380 million people. In this, the second of two special reports, Jean A. Goggins uses a case study format to demonstrate the process that would be used to gain European approval for a hypothetical medical device. In the first report, appearing on page 284, Richard C. Fries and Mark D. Graber describe the Medical Devices Directives and their effect on the product-development process. PMID:7550496

  16. The active and passive fantasy of rape as a specific determinant in a case of acrophobia.

    PubMed

    Adams-Silvan, A

    1986-01-01

    Acrophobia is generally understood as a defensive reaction against the wish to lose control of sexual impulses, but the precise nature of some of the fantasies involved has not been extensively elaborated. Associations, memories, and the analysis of a re-enactment in the treatment of a young woman demonstrated that the wish to rape and be raped were specific determinants of her severe acrophobia. The case presented also illustrates that in a true hysterical phobia genital dynamics predominate, albeit coloured and influenced in part by important pre-oedipal determinants.

  17. The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study analyses the effect of active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social networks on the development of lung cancer in patients who smoke. Our hypothesis is that study participants who lack social networks and do not actively participate in a sports club are at a greater risk for lung cancer than those who do. Methods Data for the study were taken from the Cologne Smoking Study (CoSmoS), a retrospective case-control study examining potential psychosocial risk factors for the development of lung cancer. Our sample consisted of n = 158 participants who had suffered lung cancer (diagnosis in the patient document) and n = 144 control group participants. Both groups had a history of smoking. Data on social networks were collected by asking participants whether they participated in a sports club and about the number of friends and relatives in their social environment. In addition, sociodemographic data (gender, age, education, marital status, residence and religion), physical activity and data on pack years (the cumulative number of cigarettes smoked by an individual, calculated by multiplying the number of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked divided by 20) were collected to control for potential confounders. Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results The results reveal that participants who are physically active are at a lower risk of lung cancer than those who are not (adjusted OR = 0.53*; CI = 0.29-0.97). Older age and lower education seem also to be risk factors for the development of lung cancer. The extent of smoking, furthermore, measured by pack years is statistically significant. Active participation in a sports club, number of friends and relatives had no statistically significant influence on the development of the cancer. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that there is a lower risk for physically active participants to develop lung cancer. In the

  18. Delivering Sustainable Practice? A Case Study of the Scottish Active Schools Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Since 1999, concerns about Scotland's future health and economic performance have profoundly impacted on the new Scottish Executive. Research highlighting an obesity crisis facing young Scots has, together with the work of Scotland's Physical Activity Task Force and Physical Education Review Group, encouraged the education of all young Scots to be…

  19. A Case Study on Using Prediction Markets as a Rich Environment for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Patrick; Garvey, John; McGrath, Fergal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, prediction markets are presented as an innovative pedagogical tool which can be used to create a Rich Environment for Active Learning (REAL). Prediction markets are designed to make forecasts about specific future events by using a market mechanism to aggregate the information held by a large group of traders about that event into a…

  20. Not so monofunctional--a case of thermostable Thermobifida fusca catalase with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Lončar, Nikola; Fraaije, Marco W

    2015-03-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a mesothermophilic organism known for its ability to degrade plant biomass and other organics, and it was demonstrated that it represents a rich resource of genes encoding for potent enzymes for biocatalysis. The thermostable catalase from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of 400 mg/L. Heat treatment of disrupted cells at 60 °C for 1 h resulted in enzyme preparation of high purity; hence, no chromatography steps are needed for large-scale production. Except for catalyzing the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide, TfuCat was also found to catalyze oxidations of phenolic compounds. The catalase activity was comparable to other described catalases while peroxidase activity was quite remarkable with a k obs of nearly 1000 s(-1) for catechol. Site directed mutagenesis was used to alter the ratio of peroxidase/catalase activity. Resistance to inhibition by classic catalase inhibitors and an apparent melting temperature of 74 °C classifies this enzyme as a robust biocatalyst. As such, it could compete with other commercially available catalases while the relatively high peroxidase activity also offers new biocatalytic possibilities.

  1. The Responses of Preschoolers with Cochlear Implants to Musical Activities: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn E.; Chen-Hafteck, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the musical experiences of preschool cochlear implant users. Research objectives were to examine: (1) musical, social and emotional responses to activities; and (2) whether length of experience with the implant influenced responses. Participants were three prelingually deafened children, age 4,…

  2. Descriptive Analysis of Title VII-Funded State Education Agency Activities. Volume II: Nine Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Hector; And Others

    Results of a national study of the use of funds provided by the 1974 amendments to Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act by the state education agencies (SEAs) are presented. The study was undertaken to (1) describe and analyze SEA policies and activities regarding bilingual education, (2) describe and analyze the SEA-level…

  3. Social Interaction and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A Case Study in Authentic Enterprise Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Christina W. M.; Man, Thomas W. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is an empirical study which aims to investigate the development of social interaction and their impacts on developing learners' entrepreneurial characteristics throughout their participation in an authentic enterprise activity. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of this study was drawn from the participants of an…

  4. Religiosity as a Determinant of Physical Activity: The Case of Judaism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2002-01-01

    Proposes religion/religiosity as an alternative determinant for understanding physical activity patterns, using the religion of Judaism as a vehicle for understanding such a relationship. The paper reviews previously investigated determinants, argues for religion as a determinant, and offers a limited agenda for beginning the study of religion and…

  5. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  6. Promoting Active Learning through "Pub Quizzes"--A Case Study at the University of Kent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klappa, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Several teaching approaches with a focus on active learning have been developed in the past, with the aim to encourage the learner to take responsibility for their own learning progress. Most of these approaches augment the learning of material after it was introduced in conventional lectures. The aim of this project was to develop a teaching…

  7. Who Will Present It during the Broadcast? A Case Study at a Daily Activity Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an investigation of a daily activity centre (DA). The overall aim was to build a grounded theory that could explain why this particular DA deviated from the norms of Swedish group homes and DAs described in previous studies. These studies have suggested that the staff stuck to old routines, such as letting the participants…

  8. Expressive Morality in a Collaborative Learning Activity: A Case Study in the Creation of Moral Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Bill; Buzzelli, Cary A.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the way moral meanings are created, Expressed, and negotiated in the actions and words of participants as they engage in a collaborative science activity. Offers an analysis of two excerpts from a video recording of a third grade classroom in which two students work with each other and with a visiting teacher on an experiment that…

  9. Integrating Academic Management with Business Planning Activities: The Case of University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Ansah, Collins; Afful, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Currently, public universities are facing chronic problem of underfunding. In a bid to explore more alternative and innovative ways of addressing such underfunding challenges, authorities of universities have sought to inject business activities into the management of the universities. They are now forced to search for additional sources of income…

  10. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  11. Motivating Nursing Faculty to Use Active Learning Strategies: A Qualitative Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardell, Traci Lee

    2011-01-01

    The nursing shortage remains of great concern to the nursing profession and to nursing educators. With the projected need for Registered Nurses high and the attrition rate in nursing programs remaining high, a focus on retention of qualified nursing students may be needed. One way to contribute to enhanced retention is using active learning…

  12. Imaging the complexity of an active normal fault system: The 1997 Colfiorito (central Italy) case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiaraluce, L.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Chiarabba, C.; Cocco, M.

    2003-01-01

    Six moderate magnitude earthquakes (5 < Mw < 6) ruptured normal fault segments of the southern sector of the North Apennine belt (central Italy) in the 1997 Colfiorito earthquake sequence. We study the progressive activation of adjacent and nearby parallel faults of this complex normal fault system using ???1650 earthquake locations obtained by applying a double-difference location method, using travel time picks and waveform cross-correlation measurements. The lateral extent of the fault segments range from 5 to 10 km and make up a broad, ???45 km long, NW trending fault system. The geometry of each segment is quite simple and consists of planar faults gently dipping toward SW with an average dip of 40??-45??. The fault planes are not listric but maintain a constant dip through the entire seismogenic volume, down to 8 km depth. We observe the activation of faults on the hanging wall and the absence of seismicity in the footwall of the structure. The observed fault segmentation appears to be due to the lateral heterogeneity of the upper crust: preexisting thrusts inherited from Neogene's compressional tectonic intersect the active normal faults and control their maximum length. The stress tensor obtained by inverting the six main shock focal mechanisms of the sequence is in agreement with the tectonic stress active in the inner chain of the Apennine, revealing a clear NE trending extension direction. Aftershock focal mechanisms show a consistent extensional kinematics, 70% of which are mechanically consistent with the main shock stress field.

  13. The antibiofilm activity of lingonberry flavonoids against oral pathogens is a case connected to residual complexity.

    PubMed

    Riihinen, Kaisu R; Ou, Zhen M; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Wu, Christine D

    2014-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) was evaluated against two oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Long-bed gel permeation chromatography (GPC; Sephadex LH-20) yielded purified flavonoids, with the most efficient minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against planktonic cells in the anthocyanin and procyanidin primary fractions against F. nucleatum (63-125 μg/ml) and in the procyanidin rich fraction against S. mutans (16-31 μg/ml). The purified flavonol glycosides and procyanidins inhibited biofilm formation of S. mutans (MICs 16-31 μg/ml), while the corresponding reference compounds showed no activity. Secondary GPC purification yielded flavonol glycosides devoid of antibiofilm activity in the 50% MeOH fraction, while elution with 70% acetone recovered a brownish material with activity against S. mutans biofilm (MIC 8 μg/ml). Even after HPLC-PDA, NMR, and MALDI-TOF analyses, the structural identity of this material remained unknown, while its color and analytical characteristics appear to be consistent with flavonoid oxidation products. PMID:24879903

  14. Counselor Technical Activity in Cases with Improving Working Alliances and Continuing-Poor Working Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Schmitz, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    Clients, 15 student volunteers paired with 15 counselors trainees for 4 sessions, rated strength of working alliance for each counseling session and scored counselor technical activity on various dimensions. Counselors were rated as relatively more challenging, thematically focused, and here-and-now oriented in improving dyads (eight dyads) than…

  15. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  16. A Case Study of an Induction Year Teacher's Problem-Solving Using the LIBRE Model Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Flores, Belinda Bustos; Claeys, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    Background: A federally-funded program at the University of Texas at San Antonio adopted a holistic problem solving mentoring approach for novice teachers participating in an accelerated teacher certification program. Aims/focus of discussion: To investigate a novice teacher's problem-solving activity through self-expression of challenges and…

  17. Crystallization kinetics and molecular mobility of an amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient: A case study with Biclotymol.

    PubMed

    Schammé, Benjamin; Couvrat, Nicolas; Malpeli, Pascal; Delbreilh, Laurent; Dupray, Valérie; Dargent, Éric; Coquerel, Gérard

    2015-07-25

    The present case study focuses on the crystallization kinetics and molecular mobility of an amorphous mouth and throat drug namely Biclotymol, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature resolved X-ray powder diffraction (TR-XRPD) and hot stage microscopy (HSM). Kinetics of crystallization above the glass transition through isothermal and non-isothermal cold crystallization were considered. Avrami model was used for isothermal crystallization process. Non-isothermal cold crystallization was investigated through Augis and Bennett model. Differences between crystallization processes have been ascribed to a site-saturated nucleation mechanism of the metastable form, confirmed by optical microscopy images. Regarding molecular mobility, a feature of molecular dynamics in glass-forming liquids as thermodynamic fragility index m was determined through calorimetric measurements. It turned out to be around m=100, describing Biclotymol as a fragile glass-former for Angell's classification. Relatively long-term stability of amorphous Biclotymol above Tg was analyzed indirectly by calorimetric monitoring to evaluate thermodynamic parameters and crystallization behavior of glassy Biclotymol. Within eight months of storage above Tg (T=Tg+2°C), amorphous Biclotymol does not show a strong inclination to crystallize and forms a relatively stable glass. This case study, involving a multidisciplinary approach, points out the importance of continuing looking for stability predictors.

  18. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    How can be univocally inferred the genesis of a linear surface scarp as the result of an active and capable fault (FAC) in tectonically active regions? Or, conversely, how it is possible to exclude that a scarp is the result of a capable fault activation? Trying to unravel this open questions, we show two ambiguous case studies about the problem of the identification of active and capable faults in a tectonically active area just based on the presence of supposed fault scarps at surface. The selected cases are located in the area comprised between the Middle Aterno Valley Fault (MAVF) and the Campo Imperatore Plain (Abruzzi Region, central Apennines), nearby the epicentral area of the April 6th, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. In particular, the two case studies analysed are located in a region characterized by a widespread Quaternary faults and by several linear scarps: the case studies of (i) Prata D'Ansidonia area and (ii) Santo Stefano di Sessanio area. To assess the origin and the state of activity of the investigated geomorphic features, we applied a classical geological and geomorphological approach, based on the analysis of the available literature, the interpretation of the aerial photographs, field surveying and classical paleoseismological approach, the latter consisting in digging excavations across the analysed scarps. These analysis were then integrated by morphometrical analyses. As for case (i), we focused on determining the geomorphic "meaning" of linear scarps carved onto fluvial-deltaic conglomerates (dated to the Early Pleistocene; Bertini and Bosi, 1993), up to 3 meters high and up to 1,5 km long, that border a narrow, elongated and flat-bottom depressions, filled by colluvial deposits. These features groove the paleo-landsurface of Valle Daria (Bosi and Bertini, 1970), wide landsurface located between Barisciano and Prata D'Ansidonia. Entwining paleoseismological trenching with geophysical analyses (GPR, ERT and microgravimetrical prospections), it

  19. Bullet identification: a case of a fatal hunting accident resolved by comparison of lead shot using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Capannesi, G; Sedda, A F

    1992-03-01

    Bullet identification by chemical analysis often provides a powerful clue in forensic science. A case is reported in which a hunting accident was resolved by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for direct comparison of the trace element content in lead shot. Different preparation batches of lead shot appear to have a high within-group composition homogeneity, and good differentiation is achieved between different batches. Determination of the nickel and antimony content on a bush branch demonstrated that the branch had been perforated by one of the shot pellets, and this helped the detectives in reconstruction of the crime scene. PMID:1500906

  20. Bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures in a healthy, active duty soldier: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony E; Rose, Stephen D

    2006-12-01

    Unilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are not uncommon. These injuries have been reported to occur spontaneously and after seemingly trivial trauma in elderly individuals, patients undergoing renal dialysis, and patients with metabolic derangements such as hyperparathyroidism. In young patients, unilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures have been reported as complications of burns, anabolic steroid abuse, and elective orthopedic surgery. Bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures in young healthy patients are rare injuries. We present the case of a young, healthy, active duty soldier who sustained bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures after a relatively minor trauma.

  1. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Melo, Angelita Cristine de; Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva de; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs.

  2. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  3. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    PubMed

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  4. A learning activity to introduce undergraduate students to bioethics in human clinical research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Ignacio; Gomez, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    We developed a pharmacology practicum assignment to introduce students to the research ethics and steps involved in a clinical trial. The assignment included literature review, critical analysis of bioethical situations, writing a study protocol and presenting it before a simulated ethics committee, a practice interview with a faculty member to obtain informed consent, and a student reflective assessment and self-evaluation. Students were assessed at various steps in the practicum; the learning efficiency of the activity was evaluated using an independent survey as well as students' reflective feedback. Most of the domains of Bloom's and Fink's taxonomies of learning were itemized and covered in the practicum. Students highly valued the translatability of theoretical concepts into practice as well as the approach to mimic professional practice. This activity was within a pharmacy program, but may be easily transferable to other medical or health sciences courses. PMID:25747690

  5. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yongchaiyudha, S; Rungpitarangsi, V; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Chokechaijaroenporn, O

    1996-11-01

    Aloe vera gel has been claimed to have antidiabetic activity but not all published results are consistent. We investigated the effect of oral administration of one tablespoonful of Aloe vera juice, twice a day for at least 2 weeks in patients with diabetes. Blood sugar and triglyceride levels in the treated group fell; cholesterol levels were not affected. The results suggest the potential of aloe vera juice for use as an antidiabetic agent.

  6. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    How can be univocally inferred the genesis of a linear surface scarp as the result of an active and capable fault (FAC) in tectonically active regions? Or, conversely, how it is possible to exclude that a scarp is the result of a capable fault activation? Trying to unravel this open questions, we show two ambiguous case studies about the problem of the identification of active and capable faults in a tectonically active area just based on the presence of supposed fault scarps at surface. The selected cases are located in the area comprised between the Middle Aterno Valley Fault (MAVF) and the Campo Imperatore Plain (Abruzzi Region, central Apennines), nearby the epicentral area of the April 6th, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. In particular, the two case studies analysed are located in a region characterized by a widespread Quaternary faults and by several linear scarps: the case studies of (i) Prata D'Ansidonia area and (ii) Santo Stefano di Sessanio area. To assess the origin and the state of activity of the investigated geomorphic features, we applied a classical geological and geomorphological approach, based on the analysis of the available literature, the interpretation of the aerial photographs, field surveying and classical paleoseismological approach, the latter consisting in digging excavations across the analysed scarps. These analysis were then integrated by morphometrical analyses. As for case (i), we focused on determining the geomorphic "meaning" of linear scarps carved onto fluvial-deltaic conglomerates (dated to the Early Pleistocene; Bertini and Bosi, 1993), up to 3 meters high and up to 1,5 km long, that border a narrow, elongated and flat-bottom depressions, filled by colluvial deposits. These features groove the paleo-landsurface of Valle Daria (Bosi and Bertini, 1970), wide landsurface located between Barisciano and Prata D'Ansidonia. Entwining paleoseismological trenching with geophysical analyses (GPR, ERT and microgravimetrical prospections), it

  7. Assessing molecular docking tools for relative biological activity prediction: a case study of triazole HIV-1 NNRTIs.

    PubMed

    Frączek, Tomasz; Siwek, Agata; Paneth, Piotr

    2013-12-23

    Molecular docking is a technique widely used in drug design. Many studies exist regarding the general accuracy of various docking programs, but case studies for a given group of related compounds are rare. In order to facilitate identification of novel triazole HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), several docking and scoring programs were evaluated for their ability to predict relative biological activity of 111 known 1,2,4-triazole and 76 other azole type NNRTIs. Glide, FlexX, Molegro Virtual Docker, AutoDock Vina, and Hyde were used. Different protocols, settings, scoring functions, and interaction terms were analyzed. We have found that the programs performance was dependent on the data set, indicating the importance of choosing good quality target data for any comparative study. The results suggest that after optimization and proper validation, some of the molecular docking programs can help in predicting relative biological activity of azole NNRTIs. PMID:24266618

  8. Passive versus active operator work in automated process control--a job design case study in a control centre.

    PubMed

    Persson, A; Wanek, B; Johansson, A

    2001-10-01

    Methods of avoiding common problems associated with operator work in automated process control, such as understimulation and difficulties in achieving and maintaining necessary skills and competence, are addressed in this paper. The source of these problems is deduced here to be that monitoring tasks are a predominant part of the job. This case study shows how work in a highly automated process can be designed not only to avoid the traditional problems, but also provide a stimulating job within a good work situation at the same time as fulfilling efficiency demands. A new definition of active/passive operator jobs is made which is based on a categorisation of the types of work tasks that make up the job. The definition gives an explanation of how different designs of operator jobs result in more or less active/passive work situations.

  9. A prenatally ascertained de novo terminal deletion of chromosomal bands 1q43q44 associated with multiple congenital abnormalities in a female fetus.

    PubMed

    Sismani, Carolina; Christopoulou, Georgia; Alexandrou, Angelos; Evangelidou, Paola; Donoghue, Jacqueline; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E; Velissariou, Voula

    2015-01-01

    Terminal deletions in the long arm of chromosome 1 result in a postnatally recognizable disorder described as 1q43q44 deletion syndrome. The size of the deletions and the resulting phenotype varies among patients. However, some features are common among patients as the chromosomal regions included in the deletions. In the present case, ultrasonography at 22 weeks of gestation revealed choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) and a single umbilical artery (SUA) and therefore amniocentesis was performed. Chromosomal analysis revealed a possible terminal deletion in 1q and high resolution array CGH confirmed the terminal 1q43q44 deletion and estimated the size to be approximately 8 Mb. Following termination of pregnancy, performance of fetopsy allowed further clinical characterization. We report here a prenatal case with the smallest pure terminal 1q43q44 deletion, that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized. In addition, to our knowledge this is the first prenatal case reported with 1q13q44 terminal deletion and Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS). Our findings combined with review data from the literature show the complexity of the genetic basis of the associated syndrome.

  10. Successful treatment of active haemorrhage from a duodenal diverticulum using surgicel (absorbable haemostat): a case report.

    PubMed

    Muguti, Gi; Gandhi, H; Ridgeway, D

    2007-01-01

    Haemorrhage is one of the rare but serious complications of duodenal diverticula. Current methods of treatment include: endoscopy with injection therapy or hemoclip application and diverticulectomy. In this paper we present the case of a 61 year old man with life threatening haemorrhage who was managed successfully with gentle packing of a bleeding duodenal diverticulum using SURGICEL (Absorbable Haemostat). This appears to be a simple and effective way of dealing with the problem especially in situations where other methods are ineffective or inapplicable. Early surgical intervention before the development of any coagulopathy increases the chances of a successful outcome. It has not been possible to find a similar report from a thorough literature search. PMID:20353131

  11. Midtail plasma flows and the relationship to near-Earth substorm activity: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Goodrich, C. C.; Reeves, G. D.; Belian, R. D.; Taktakishvili, A.

    1994-12-01

    Recent simulations of magnetotail reconnection have pointed to a link between plasma flows, dipolarization, and the substorm current wedge. In particular, Hesse and Birn (1991) have proposed that earthward jetting of plasma from the reconnection region transports flux into the near-Earth region. At the inner edge of the plasma sheet this flux piles up, producing a dipolarization of the magnetic field. The vorticity produced by the east-west deflection of the flow at the inner edge of the plasma sheet gives rise to field-aligned currents that have region 1 polarity. Thus in this scenario the earthward flow from the reconnection region produces the dipolarization ad the current wedge in a self-consistent fashion. In this study we examine observations made on April 8, 1985 by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE)/Ion Release Module (IRM), the geosynchronous satellites 1979-053, 1983-019, and 1984-037, and Syowa station, as well as AE. This event is unique because IRM was located near the neutral sheet in the midnight sector for am extended period of time. Ground data show that there was ongoing activity in the IRM local time sector for several hours, beginning at 1800 UT and reaching a crescendo at 2300 UT. This activity was also accompanied by energetic particle variations, including injections, at geosynchronous orbit in the nighttime sector. Significantly, there were no fast flows at the neutral sheet until the great intensification of activity at 2300 UT. At that time, IRM recorded fast eartheard flow simultaneous with a dipolatization of the magetic field. We conclude that while the aforementioned scenario for the creation of the current wedge encounters serious problems explaining the earlier activity, the observations at 2300 UT are consistent with the scenario of Hesse and Birn (1191). On that basis it is argued that the physics of substorms is not exclusively rooted in the development of a global tearing mode. Processes at the inner edge

  12. Midtail plasma flows and the relationship to near-Earth substorm activity: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Goodrich, C. C.; Reeves, G. D.; Belian, R. D.; Taktakishvili, A.

    1994-12-01

    Recent simulations of magnetotail reconnection have pointed to a link between plasma flows, dipolarization, and the substorm current wedge. In particular, Hesse and Birn (1991) have proposed that earthward jetting of plasma from the reconnection region transports flux into the near-Earth region. At the inner edge of the plasma sheet this flux piles up, producing a dipolarization of the magnetic field. The vorticity produced by the east-west deflection of the flow at the inner edge of the plasma sheet gives rise to field-aligned currents that have region 1 polarity. Thus in this scenario the earthward flow from the reconnection region produces the dipolarization and the current wedge in a self-consistent fashion. In this study we examine observations made on April 8, 1985 by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Ion Release Module (IRM), the geosynchronous satellites 1979-053, 1983-019, and 1984-037, and Syowa station, as well as AE. This event is unique because IRM was located near the neutral sheet in the midnight sector for an extended period of time. Ground data show that there was ongoing activity in the IRM local time sector for several hours, beginning at 1800 UT and reaching a crescendo at 2300 UT. This activity was also accompanied by energetic particle variations, including injections, at geosynchronous orbit in the nighttime sector. Significantly, there were no fast flows at the neutral sheet until the great intensification of activity at 2300 UT. At that time, IRM recorded fast earthward flow simultaneous with a dipolarization of the magnetic field. We conclude that while the aforementioned scenario for the creation of the current wedge encounters serious problems explaining the earlier activity, the observations at 2300 UT are consistent with the scenario of Hesse and Birn (1991). On that basis it is argued that the physics of substorms is not exclusively rooted in the development of a global tearing mode. Processes at the inner edge of

  13. Midtail plasma flows and the relationship to near-Earth substorm activity: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Goodrich, C. C.; Reeves, G. D.; Belian, R. D.; Taktakishvili, A.

    1994-01-01

    Recent simulations of magnetotail reconnection have pointed to a link between plasma flows, dipolarization, and the substorm current wedge. In particular, Hesse and Birn (1991) have proposed that earthward jetting of plasma from the reconnection region transports flux into the near-Earth region. At the inner edge of the plasma sheet this flux piles up, producing a dipolarization of the magnetic field. The vorticity produced by the east-west deflection of the flow at the inner edge of the plasma sheet gives rise to field-aligned currents that have region 1 polarity. Thus in this scenario the earthward flow from the reconnection region produces the dipolarization ad the current wedge in a self-consistent fashion. In this study we examine observations made on April 8, 1985 by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE)/Ion Release Module (IRM), the geosynchronous satellites 1979-053, 1983-019, and 1984-037, and Syowa station, as well as AE. This event is unique because IRM was located near the neutral sheet in the midnight sector for am extended period of time. Ground data show that there was ongoing activity in the IRM local time sector for several hours, beginning at 1800 UT and reaching a crescendo at 2300 UT. This activity was also accompanied by energetic particle variations, including injections, at geosynchronous orbit in the nighttime sector. Significantly, there were no fast flows at the neutral sheet until the great intensification of activity at 2300 UT. At that time, IRM recorded fast eartheard flow simultaneous with a dipolatization of the magetic field. We conclude that while the aforementioned scenario for the creation of the current wedge encounters serious problems explaining the earlier activity, the observations at 2300 UT are consistent with the scenario of Hesse and Birn (1191). On that basis it is argued that the physics of substorms is not exclusively rooted in the development of a global tearing mode. Processes at the inner edge

  14. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulevski, A.; Morganti, R.; Barthel, P. D.; Murgia, M.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, G. J.; Brüggen, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Best, P. N.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Chyzy, K. T.; de Gasperin, F.; Bîrzan, L.; Brunetti, G.; Brienza, M.; Rafferty, D. A.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Deller, A.; Zarka, P.; Schwarz, D.; Mahony, E.; Orrú, E.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Meulman, H.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.

    2015-07-01

    Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~ 4″), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~ 30″), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The outermost regions of radio emission have a steep spectral index (α< - 1), indicative of old plasma. We connect the spectral index properties of the resolved source structure with the integrated fluxdensity spectral index of 4C 35.06 and suggest an explanation for its unusual integrated flux density spectral shape (a moderately steep power law with no discernible spectral break), possibly providing a proxy for future studies of more distant radio sources through inferring their detailed spectral index properties and activity history from their integrated spectral indices. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. In this scenario, the AGN turned on sometime in the past, and has produced the helical pattern of emission, possibly a sign of jet precession/merger during that episode of activity. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever

  15. Using ToxCast to Explore Chemical Activities and Hazard Traits: A Case Study With Ortho-Phthalates.

    PubMed

    Pham, Nathalie; Iyer, Shoba; Hackett, Edward; Lock, Bennett H; Sandy, Martha; Zeise, Lauren; Solomon, Gina; Marty, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    US EPA's Toxicity Forecaster (ToxCastTM) is a tool with potential use in evaluating safer consumer products, conducting chemical alternatives analyses, prioritizing chemicals for exposure monitoring, and ultimately performing screening-level risk assessments. As a case study exploring a potential use of ToxCast, we evaluated ToxCast results for ortho-phthalates focused on the well-established toxicological endpoints of some members of this class. We compared molecular perturbations measured in ToxCast assays with the known apical toxicity endpoints of o-phthalates reported in the open literature to broadly reflect on the predictive capability of the high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. We grouped the ToxCast assays into defined sets to examine o-phthalate activity and potency. This study revealed several links between key molecular events assayed in vitro and chemical-specific hazard traits. In general, parent o-phthalates are more active than their monoester metabolites. The medium-chain length o-phthalate group is also more active than other o-phthalate groups, as supported by Toxicological Priority Index ranking and statistical methods. Some HTS assay results correlated with in vivo findings, but others did not. For example, there was a notable lack of assay activity to explain the known male reproductive toxicity of these compounds. Ultimately, HTS data resources such as ToxCast may inform us of sensitive upstream toxicity endpoints and may assist in the rapid identification of environmental chemical hazards for screening and prioritization. However, this case study shows that the absence of positive results in ToxCast in vitro assays cannot be interpreted as absence of related in vivo toxicity, and limited biological coverage by the assays remains a concern.

  16. Quantitative PCR for detection of Shigella improves ascertainment of Shigella burden in children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Brianna; Ochieng, John B; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Toure, Aliou; Ahmed, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Rasko, David A; Morris, Carolyn R; Juma, Jane; Fields, Barry S; Dione, Michel; Malle, Dramane; Becker, Stephen M; Houpt, Eric R; Nataro, James P; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Pop, Mihai; Oundo, Joe; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Tamboura, Boubou; Stine, O Colin

    2013-06-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of Shigella spp. are limited by the suboptimal sensitivity of current diagnostic and surveillance methods. We used a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect Shigella in the stool samples of 3,533 children aged <59 months from the Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh, with or without moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD). We compared the results from conventional culture to those from qPCR for the Shigella ipaH gene. Using MSD as the reference standard, we determined the optimal cutpoint to be 2.9 × 10(4) ipaH copies per 100 ng of stool DNA for set 1 (n = 877). One hundred fifty-eight (18%) specimens yielded >2.9 × 10(4) ipaH copies. Ninety (10%) specimens were positive by traditional culture for Shigella. Individuals with ≥ 2.9 × 10(4) ipaH copies have 5.6-times-higher odds of having diarrhea than those with <2.9 × 10(4) ipaH copies (95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 8.5; P < 0.0001). Nearly identical results were found using an independent set of samples. qPCR detected 155 additional MSD cases with high copy numbers of ipaH, a 90% increase from the 172 cases detected by culture in both samples. Among a subset (n = 2,874) comprising MSD cases and their age-, gender-, and location-matched controls, the fraction of MSD cases that were attributable to Shigella infection increased from 9.6% (n = 129) for culture to 17.6% (n = 262) for qPCR when employing our cutpoint. We suggest that qPCR with a cutpoint of approximately 1.4 × 10(4) ipaH copies be the new reference standard for the detection and diagnosis of shigellosis in children in low-income countries. The acceptance of this new standard would substantially increase the fraction of MSD cases that are attributable to Shigella. PMID:23536399

  17. Isotopic Evidence for Microbial Activity in Crystalline Bedrock Fractures - a Case Study from Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlstedt, E. K.; Karhu, J.; Pitkänen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the geochemical environment in crystalline bedrock fractures were investigated using the stable isotopes of C, O and S in fracture filling minerals as tracers. Of special interest were the possible changes which may occur in the subsurface at low temperatures. Especially, the influence of microbial activity was recognized as a catalyst for inducing changes in the geochemical environment. The study site is the Olkiluoto island located on the western coast of Finland, planned to host a geological repository for nuclear waste. Fracture surfaces were investigated to recognize the latest mineralizations at the site. These fillings were comprised of thin plates or small euhedral crystals of calcite and pyrite. The carbon and sulfur isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite were measured from bulk material by conventional IRMS, and in situ by secondary ion mass spectrometry. A notable feature of the late-stage fillings was high variabilities in the δ13C values of calcite and the δ34S values of pyrite, which ranged from -53.8 ‰ to +31.6 ‰ and from -50.4 ‰ to +77.7 ‰, respectively. Based on the isotopic compositions of the fillings, several features in the past hydrogeochemical environment could be recognized. The isotopic composition of the fracture fillings indicate an environment which was stratified with respect to depth. Characteristic features include bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) occurring at depths <111 m (bsl), and a methanogenetic environment at depths >50 m. It appears that methanic conditions were replaced by sulfate reduction at depths >50 m likely due to infiltration of SO42--rich brackish waters. Sulfate reducing bacteria used mainly surface derived organic carbon as electron donors. Some indication of minor methanotrophic activity was recognized in anomalously low δ13C values of calcite, down to -53.8 ‰, at the depth range of 34-54 m. This methanotrophic activity may have been related to bacteria using CH4 as an electron donor in

  18. Proliferative activity (ki-67 expression) and outcome in high grade osteosarcoma: a study of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Jong, R; Davis, A M; Mendes, M G; Wunder, J S; Bell, R S; Kandel, R

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. Although pre-operative chemotherapy has improved the prognosis for individuals with osteosarcoma, approximately 40% of patients will die of their disease.The aim of this study was to quantitate proliferative activity in high grade osteosarcomas and to determine whether proliferation is a prognostic factor.Patients. The study consisted of 27 patients with high grade non-metastatic osteosarcoma at various sites for whom pre-operative biopsies and resection specimens were available for review. All patients were treated similarly and had at least 24 months' follow-up from the date of diagnosis.Methods. Proliferative activity (Ki-67 expression) was examined in the diagnostic biopsies immunohistochemically using the MIB-1 antibody. Proliferation was quantitated in two ways; (1) the number of immunopositive cells was counted manually using an ocular grid; or (2) the percentage of immunopositive nuclear area was assessed using morphometric image analysis. Proliferative index was evaluated in relation to patient outcome.Results. Proliferative activity was seen in all biopsies.The median proliferative index as determined by counting cells was 24% (mean of 27%, range of 7-61%) and by image analysis was 2% (mean 3%, range 0.32-8.4).The correlation between MIB-1 proliferation indices determined either by image analysis methodology or manual cell counting was high (Spearman's rho=0.79). Proliferative index did not appear to predict either disease-free or overall survival.Discussion. Tumor proliferation does not appear to be prognostic for high grade osteosarcomas.Whether assessment of this feature in conjunction with other tumor characteristics might be prognostic requires further study. PMID:18521434

  19. Nicotinamide polymeric nanoemulsified systems: a quality-by-design case study for a sustained antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Osama A A; Aljaeid, Bader M

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3, was demonstrated to combat some of the antibiotic-resistant infections that are increasingly common around the world. The objective of this study was to thoroughly understand the formulation and process variabilities affecting the preparation of nicotinamide-loaded polymeric nanoemulsified particles. The quality target product profile and critical quality attributes of the proposed product were presented. Plackett-Burman screening design was employed to screen eight variables for their influences on the formulation's critical characteristics. The formulations were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsification followed by solvent replacement. The prepared systems were characterized by entrapment capacity (EC), entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, in vitro drug release, and their antibacterial activity against bacterial scrums. EC, EE, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percentage release in 24 hours were found to be in the range of 33.5%-68.8%, 53.1%-67.1%, 43.3-243.3 nm, 0.08-0.28, 9.5-53.3 mV, and 5.8%-22.4%, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Pareto charts revealed that the experimental loadings of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and Eudragit(®) S100 were the most significant for their effects on nicotinamide EC and EE. Moreover, the polymeric nanoemulsified particles demonstrated a sustained release profile for nicotinamide. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction demonstrated a significant interaction between the drug and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin that might modulate the sustained release behavior. Furthermore, the formulations provided a sustained antibacterial activity that depended on nicotinamide-loading concentration, release rate, and

  20. ANDRILL educational activities in Italy: progettosmilla.it, a case-study of an interactive project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2006, the Italian ANDRILL (Antartic Geological Drilling) team selected the project progettosmilla.it and its instructor Matteo Cattadori, a high school teacher and collaborator of Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali (TN - Italy) to represent Italy in the ANDRILL-ARISE team. The ARISE (Andrill Research Immersion for Science Educators) comprised a group of teachers from 4 nations (US, New Zealand, Germany and Italy) and is part of the initiative Public and Educational Outreach component of the ANDRILL project. The selected teachers are sent to Antarctica and are actively involved in all stages of the scientific investigation, with the main aim of establishing a bridge between research and the schools in the participating countries. Progettosmilla.it was selected to take part in the first edition of ANDRILL-ARISE held at the American Antarctic base of Mc Murdo during the 2006-2007 austral summer.The project makes use of different tools, techniques and forms of communication-education to stimulate the interest and motivation of students, teachers and organizers/trainers in ANDRILL research and polar sciences in general. Activities are organized and scheduled according to a fixed timetable that cover 2/3 of an academic year and are centered on the site www.progettosmilla.it. This site feature daily reports, as well as online activities and various services for users in Italian schools. Among the online materials, more conventional ones are: - summaries of the ANDRILL research and the Antarctic environment; including multimedia (1200 photos, 10 video and audio); resource folders for teachers on 10 different subjects of study; course work for the participating school students. - ITC-oriented materials such as: videoconferencing and chat sessions with Antarctica or between classes, blogs, web-quest, animations and interactive teaching. -Many services are implemented in collaboration with other teachers and allow the ARISE team to perform distant collaborative

  1. LCA of waste prevention activities: a case study for drinking water in Italy.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2012-10-15

    The strategic relevance of waste prevention has considerably increased worldwide during recent years, such that the current European legislation requires the preparation of national waste prevention programmes in which reduction objectives and measures are identified. In such a context, it is possible to recognise how, in order to correctly evaluate the environmental consequences of a prevention activity, a life cycle perspective should be employed. This allows us to go beyond the simple reduction of the generated waste which, alone, does not automatically imply achieving better overall environmental performance, especially when this reduction is not pursued through the simple reduction of consumption. In this study, the energetic and environmental performance of two waste prevention activities considered particularly meaningful for the Italian context were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The two activities were the utilisation of public network water (two scenarios) and of refillable bottled water (two scenarios) for drinking purposes, instead of one-way bottled water (three scenarios). The energy demand and specific potential impacts of the four waste prevention scenarios and of the three baseline scenarios were compared with the aim of evaluating whether, and under what conditions, the analysed prevention activities are actually associated with overall energetic and environmental benefits. In typical conditions, the use of public network water directly from the tap results in the best scenario, while if water is withdrawn from public fountains, its further transportation by private car can involve significant impacts. The use of refillable PET bottled water seems the preferable scenario for packaged water consumption, if refillable bottles are transported to local distributors along the same (or a lower) distance as one-way bottles to retailers. The use of refillable glass bottled water is preferable to one-way bottled water only if a

  2. Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moneta, Diana; Mora, Paolo; Viganò, Giacomo; Alimonti, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER - DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator) is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of "case studies", that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and "costs" of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids) and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

  3. Relationship Between Saturn Kilometric Radiation Emissions and Kronian Magnetotail Activity, as Compared with the Terrestrial Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, C. M.; Lamy, L.; Freeman, M. P.; Cecconi, B.; Zarka, P.; Dougherty, M. K.; Kurth, W. S.

    2008-12-01

    Several examples of plasmoid passage associated with substorm-like reconnection in the magnetotail of Saturn have been discovered using data from the Cassini magnetometer [Jackman et al., 2008]. Some of these events (along with several others) have subsequently been found to be roughly associated with bursts of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) emission. We explore this link in detail, with particular emphasis on expansions of the radio emission to lower frequencies, signifying motion of the source along the field lines. We compare with observations of Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) at Earth, which has been shown in some cases to have a separate low-frequency component associated with substorm onset [Morioka et al., 2007] We also wish to estimate the recurrence rate of kronian substorms. Previously for the case of the terrestrial magnetosphere, it has been found that the substorm phenomenon is identified with a component of the probability distribution of durations for which the AU or AL indices are above or below a fixed threshold, respectively [Freeman, Watkins and Riley, 2000]. After exploring the correlation between terrestrial substorms and AKR (which can be a reasonable proxy for the AE indices), we then apply the threshold crossing technique to Saturn by using data from the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument. We look at the probability distributions of Saturn's radio emissions in different frequency bands above and below fixed thresholds, with a view to revealing kronian substorms as a distinct separate population with a characteristic scale. References: Freeman, M.P., N.W. Watkins and D.J. Riley, (2000), Evidence for a solar wind origin of the power law burst lifetime distribution of the AE indices, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 8, 1087-1090. Jackman, C. M., C. S. Arridge, N. Krupp, E. J. Bunce, D. G. Mitchell, W. S. Kurth, H. J. McAndrews, M. K. Dougherty, C. T. Russell, N. Achilleos, A. J. Coates, and G. H. Jones (2008), A multi

  4. Muscle activity, cross-sectional area, and density following passive standing and whole body vibration: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Kei; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Zariffa, Jose; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora; Popovic, Milos R.; Catharine Craven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of intermittent passive standing (PS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the electromyography (EMG) activity, cross-sectional area, and density of lower extremity muscles in individuals with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Case series. Methods Seven adult men with chronic (≥2 years), thoracic motor complete (AIS A–B) SCI completed a 40-week course of thrice-weekly intermittent PS-WBV therapy, in a flexed knee posture (160°), for 45 minutes per session at a frequency of 45 Hz and 0.6–0.7 mm displacement using the WAVE® Pro Plate, with an integrated EasyStand™ standing frame. EMG was measured in major lower extremity muscles to represent muscle activity during PS-WBV. The cross-sectional area and density of the calf muscles were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the widest calf cross-section (66% of the tibia length) at pre- and post-intervention. All measured variables were compared between the pre- and post-intervention measurements to assess change after the PS-WBV intervention. Results PS-WBV acutely induced EMG activity in lower extremity muscles of SCI subjects. No significant changes in lower extremity EMG activity, muscle cross-sectional area, or density were observed following the 40-week intervention. Conclusions Although acute exposure to PS-WBV can induce electrophysiological activity of lower extremity muscles during PS in men with motor complete SCI, the PS-WBV intervention for 40 weeks was not sufficient to result in enhanced muscle activity, or to increase calf muscle cross-sectional area or density. PMID:25059652

  5. Investigating the relationship of lightning activity and rainfall: A case study for Crete Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship of lightning activity and rainfall is investigated for rain events of variable intensity. Rain data from 22 gauging stations over the island of Crete and lightning activity from the Global Lightning Network including both cloud-to-ground and some cloud flashes are analyzed for the period September 2012 to June 2014. Local thunderstorms' characteristics are investigated both individually as well as in groups according to the results of k-means clustering algorithm in 3 dimensions (space (x, y) and time (t)) in which the number of clusters is decided by G-means algorithm. Correlation of non-zero pairs of rain intensity and number of flashes is examined at various time intervals, time lags and effective radii. Also, correlation of flash count within 50 km radius around the stations is examined for the rain events of maximum hourly intensity for each gauging station. The highest coincidence of lightning clusters with intense rain events reaches 60% when gauges are 25-30 km from the cluster center. Maximum correlation within non-zero pairs of rain intensity and flashes number is obtained for more intense rain (99th percentile) and for increased flash count within the searching area (more than 10 flashes). Also, correlation is stronger for shorter time windows. The findings of this study improve the understanding of thunderstorm events and could provide staple information for the improvement of forecasting extreme events.

  6. Precise survival time and physical activity after fatal left ventricle injury from sharp pointed weapon: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Kolopp, Martin; Coudane, Henry; Martrille, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Survival time and physical activity following fatal injury are especially important during investigation of homicide cases and the estimation of a victim's survival time and physical activity following a fatal injury from a sharp weapon is a commonly raised issue, particularly at trial. According to the literature, survival time and physical activity after cardiac damage are short-term estimates without high accuracy. We report the homicide case of a young man who died as a result of a left ventricle injury caused by a sharp pointed weapon. This case is based on evidence from a video surveillance camera that recorded the whole scene after the fatal injury: The victim showed an adapted physical activity for 38 s, although the left ventricle incision measured 2 cm. Despite several cases in the literature, it is not possible to correlate precisely the size of the wounds and the acting capability.

  7. Electric utility/advocacy group interaction: A case history report on the key outcomes of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Schexnayder, S. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Altman, J.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the findings derived from ten case studies of activities undertaken by energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) to influence the use of cost-effective Demand-Side Management (DSM) by electric utilities and to promote Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). Nine of these ten cases included some form of interactive effort involving utilities and, in almost all cases, other nonutility parties (NUPs) as well. All ten cases also included other EEAG activities. Key findings of the study include the following: interactive efforts had substantially greater effects on utility DSM usage and on relations among the involved parties than on regulatory policy; other EEAG activities had the great effect on regulatory policy and the least direct effect on utility DSM usage; and the discernible overall effects of interactive efforts were somewhat greater than those of the EEAGs' other activities, which often had less tangible and immediate effects.

  8. Precise survival time and physical activity after fatal left ventricle injury from sharp pointed weapon: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Kolopp, Martin; Coudane, Henry; Martrille, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Survival time and physical activity following fatal injury are especially important during investigation of homicide cases and the estimation of a victim's survival time and physical activity following a fatal injury from a sharp weapon is a commonly raised issue, particularly at trial. According to the literature, survival time and physical activity after cardiac damage are short-term estimates without high accuracy. We report the homicide case of a young man who died as a result of a left ventricle injury caused by a sharp pointed weapon. This case is based on evidence from a video surveillance camera that recorded the whole scene after the fatal injury: The victim showed an adapted physical activity for 38 s, although the left ventricle incision measured 2 cm. Despite several cases in the literature, it is not possible to correlate precisely the size of the wounds and the acting capability. PMID:26914799

  9. The active management of surgical waiting lists: a urological surgery case study.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Russell J; Smith, Katrina M; Dejager, Ebony M; Callahan, John T; Abernethy, Jennifer A; Dunn, Eddie J; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2011-11-01

    Elective surgery waiting list management is a major public healthcare issue. This case study describes an integrated multifaceted approach to waiting list management at Peninsula Health, a public health service in Victoria, Australia. At the commencement of this study it was recognised that several issues associated with the urological surgical service constituted potential clinical risk. These included: recall mechanisms for multiple surveillance procedures; significant resource deficits; and long surgery waiting times. Responding to these issues a multifaceted approach to wait list management was implemented including: audit; direct lines of communication between clinical and administrative staff; urgent caseload management; utilisation of the Elective Surgery Access Scheme; financial and resource analysis justifying the appointment of a full-time urologist, and the establishment of a urology service from a satellite campus; implementation of a recall database; development of an outpatient service; and commencement of a day surgery initiative. This approach yielded results that included a 67% reduction in the number of 'ready for care' patients and a 78% reduction in the number of patients classified as 'overdue for surgery'. Average wait time for semi-urgent and non-urgent patients reduced from 248 days to 180 days in the 10-month period. PMID:22126940

  10. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  11. Reconstruction of landslide activity by tree-ring analysis - a case study for Jiufangshan landslide, Gansu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.; Bai, S. B.; Wang, J.; Thiebes, B.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2012-04-01

    The understanding of geomorphic processes and knowledge of past events are important elements for the assessment of natural hazards. With the increased damage due to landslides and debris-flows in recent years, risk management and evaluation of geological disasters received more attention. The analysis of tree-ring data has widely been used to facilitate landslide research, and in particular the dating of previous process activations. Tree-ring analysis has been proven to be able to precisely determine the time of landslide failure in previous studies. The main goal of this research is the investigations of previous reactivation phases for the large Jiufangshan landslide using tree-ring analysis. The study area of the described investigations is located in Wudu District of south of Gansu Province in Northwestern China. The landslide has a length of 1050 m and a width of 400 m. The maximum elevation is 1320 m while the lowest elevation is 876 m. The mean slope angle is 40°. Local archives report several reactivation phases of Jiufangshan landslide which mostly occurred in the rainy season. In addition to heavy precipitation, seismic shaking and poorly adapted irrigation activities are likely triggers. In the field, a standard borer was used to drill pine trees on the landslide body and to extract samples. Samples were taken to the laboratory and tree-rings were measured by microscope analysis. To distinguish regular years from years with growth anomalies the following method was applied: every year with a 40% smaller or 50% larger tree ring than observed in the four previous years was determined as a year of growth reduction or growth recovery, respectively. Growth anomalies which could be observed for three or more successive years, were interpreted as a result of landslide activity. The preliminary results show eccentric wood and false rings in the tree-ring samples. Particular periods of abrupt growth reduction or growth recovery can be found for 1980-1982, 1984

  12. A Case Study of URM Retention through IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2012-12-01

    , focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in Earth system science. Through a three-phase structure of activities, the program addresses major barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one-on-one mentoring, and a facilitated virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report a reduced sense of isolation, an increased sense of community, and a higher level of confidence about their ability to succeed in their chosen field. As of August 2012, 189 students have participated in the program. 60 of those students are currently enrolled in a PhD. program. Another 35 have completed their PhD and are actively engaged in the ESS workforce.

  13. Nicotinamide polymeric nanoemulsified systems: a quality-by-design case study for a sustained antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Osama AA; Aljaeid, Bader M

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3, was demonstrated to combat some of the antibiotic-resistant infections that are increasingly common around the world. The objective of this study was to thoroughly understand the formulation and process variabilities affecting the preparation of nicotinamide-loaded polymeric nanoemulsified particles. The quality target product profile and critical quality attributes of the proposed product were presented. Plackett–Burman screening design was employed to screen eight variables for their influences on the formulation’s critical characteristics. The formulations were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsification followed by solvent replacement. The prepared systems were characterized by entrapment capacity (EC), entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, in vitro drug release, and their antibacterial activity against bacterial scrums. EC, EE, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percentage release in 24 hours were found to be in the range of 33.5%–68.8%, 53.1%–67.1%, 43.3–243.3 nm, 0.08–0.28, 9.5–53.3 mV, and 5.8%–22.4%, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Pareto charts revealed that the experimental loadings of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and Eudragit® S100 were the most significant for their effects on nicotinamide EC and EE. Moreover, the polymeric nanoemulsified particles demonstrated a sustained release profile for nicotinamide. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction demonstrated a significant interaction between the drug and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin that might modulate the sustained release behavior. Furthermore, the formulations provided a sustained antibacterial activity that depended on nicotinamide-loading concentration

  14. Age, transvestism, bondage, and concurrent paraphilic activities in 117 fatal cases of autoerotic asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Hucker, S J

    1991-09-01

    Autoerotic asphyxia is the practice of self-inducing cerebral anoxia, usually by hanging, strangulation, or suffocation, during masturbation. This study investigated the relationships between: asphyxiators' ages; two paraphilias commonly accompanying autoerotic asphyxia, bondage and transvestism; and various other types of simultaneous sexual behaviour. Subjects were two concurrent series totalling 117 males aged 10-56 who died accidentally during autoerotic asphyxial activities. Data concerning sexual paraphernalia at the scene of death or among the deceased's effects were extracted from coronors' files using standardised protocols. Anal self-stimulation with dildos, etc., and self-observation with mirrors or cameras were correlated with transvestism. Older asphyxiators were more likely to have been simultaneously engaged in bondage or transvestism, suggesting elaboration of the masturbatory ritual over time. The greatest degree of transvestism was associated with intermediate rather than high levels of bondage, suggesting that response competition from bondage may limit asphyxiators' involvement in a third paraphilia like transvestism. PMID:1958948

  15. Active star formation at intermediate Galactic latitude: the case of IRAS 06345-3023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Palmeirim, P. M.

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a small aggregate of young stars seen in high-resolution, deep near-infrared (JHKS) images towards IRAS 06345-3023 in the outer Galaxy and well below the mid-plane of the Galactic disc. The group of young stars is likely to be composed of low-mass stars, mostly Class I young stellar objects. The stars are seen towards a molecular cloud whose CO map peaks at the location of the IRAS source. The near-infrared images reveal, additionally, the presence of nebular emission with rich morphological features, including arcs in the vicinity of embedded stars, wisps and bright rims of a butterfly-shaped dark cloud. The location of this molecular cloud as a new star formation site well below the Galactic plane in the outer Galaxy indicates that active star formation is taking place at vertical distances larger than those typical of the (thin) disc.

  16. Activity Diagrams for DEVS Models: A Case Study Modeling Health Care Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ozmen, Ozgur; Nutaro, James J

    2015-01-01

    Discrete Event Systems Specification (DEVS) is a widely used formalism for modeling and simulation of discrete and continuous systems. While DEVS provides a sound mathematical representation of discrete systems, its practical use can suffer when models become complex. Five main functions, which construct the core of atomic modules in DEVS, can realize the behaviors that modelers want to represent. The integration of these functions is handled by the simulation routine, however modelers can implement each function in various ways. Therefore, there is a need for graphical representations of complex models to simplify their implementation and facilitate their reproduction. In this work, we illustrate the use of activity diagrams for this purpose in the context of a health care behavior model, which is developed with an agent-based modeling paradigm.

  17. DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. THE CASE OF EQUAL PEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; Salviander, S.; Stevens, A. C.; Rosario, D. J. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: acs0196@mail.utexas.edu

    2012-06-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked narrow lines (DPAGNs) may be caused by kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs, bipolar outflows, or rotating gaseous disks. We examine the class of DPAGNs in which the two narrow-line components have closely similar intensity as being especially likely to involve disks or jets. Two spectroscopic indicators support this likelihood. For DPAGNs from Smith et al., the 'equal-peaked' objects (EPAGNs) have [Ne V]/[O III]ratios lower than for a control sample of non-double-peaked AGNs. This is unexpected for a pair of normal AGNs in a galactic merger, but may be consistent with [O III] emission from a rotating ring with relatively little gas at small radii. Also, [O III]/H{beta} ratios of the redshifted and blueshifted systems in the EPAGN are more similar to each other than in a control sample, suggestive of a single ionizing source and inconsistent with the binary interpretation.

  18. [A case of successful thrombolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Chiyo; Yano, Toshiyuki; Tashiro, Hironori; Terasaki, Hidenori

    2002-02-01

    A 52-year-old female suspected of hypercoagulability underwent modified radical hysterectomy and left oophorectomy for uterus cancer and left giant ovarian tumor under general combined with epidural anesthesia. On the day after the operation, the patient complained of dyspnea and developed tachypnea, a low Spo2, and hypotension after the intermittent external pneumatic compression of the legs. Echocardiography showed acute right cardiac failure and pulmonary angiography revealed massive pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient fell into shock with severe hypotension and unconsciousness during the catheter fragmentation and aspiration therapy for pulmonary thrombi. Bolus intravenous injection of monteplase 1.6 million units, a mutant of tissue plasminogen activator with a longer half-life, rapidly improved the shock status and stabilized the hemodynamic condition. Monteplase would be useful for life-threatening pulmonary thromboembolism although the risk of hemorrhagic complication remains.

  19. Creating experiential learning activities using Web 2.0 tools and technologies: a case study.

    PubMed

    Brixey, Juliana J; Warren, Judith J

    2009-01-01

    Learning is no longer an internal individual activity but occurs through networks and connections. The aim of this project was to teach online health informatics students to use Web 2.0 tools and technologies to form networks and connections through experiential learning assignments. Web 2.0 tools and technologies were evaluated using a criteria checklist prior to implementation for students enrolled in health informatics classes at the University of Kansas School of Nursing. Health informatics students have developed competencies using an instant message service, blogging, concept mapping, social bookmarking, and interacting a virtual environment. In the future, health care professionals will have to work in rapidly changing environments and keep abreast of new innovations and tools, learn to use those tools, and to teach others about the tools.

  20. Linear active disturbance rejection control of underactuated systems: the case of the Furuta pendulum.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Neria, M; Sira-Ramírez, H; Garrido-Moctezuma, R; Luviano-Juárez, A

    2014-07-01

    An Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) scheme is proposed for a trajectory tracking problem defined on a nonfeedback linearizable Furuta Pendulum example. A desired rest to rest angular position reference trajectory is to be tracked by the horizontal arm while the unactuated vertical pendulum arm stays around its unstable vertical position without falling down during the entire maneuver and long after it concludes. A linear observer-based linear controller of the ADRC type is designed on the basis of the flat tangent linearization of the system around an arbitrary equilibrium. The advantageous combination of flatness and the ADRC method makes it possible to on-line estimate and cancels the undesirable effects of the higher order nonlinearities disregarded by the linearization. These effects are triggered by fast horizontal arm tracking maneuvers driving the pendulum substantially away from the initial equilibrium point. Convincing experimental results, including a comparative test with a sliding mode controller, are presented.

  1. Brain mapping of epileptic activity in a case of idiopathic occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome).

    PubMed

    Leal, Alberto J R; Nunes, Sofia; Martins, António; Secca, Mário Forjaz; Jordão, Constança

    2007-06-01

    The Panayiotopoulos type of occipital lobe epilepsy has generated great interest, but the particular brain areas involved in the peculiar seizure manifestations have not been established. We studied a patient with the syndrome, using high-resolution EEG and simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resolution of the scalp EEG was improved using a realistic spline Laplacian algorithm, and produced a complex distribution of current sinks and sources over the occipital lobe. The spike-related blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) effect was multifocal, with clusters in lateral and inferior occipital lobe and lateral and anterior temporal lobe. We also performed regional dipole seeding in BOLD clusters to determine their relative contribution to generation of scalp spikes. The integrated model of the neurophysiologic and vascular data strongly suggests that the epileptic activity originates in the lateral occipital area, spreading to the occipital pole and lateral temporal lobe.

  2. Social capital and premarital sexual activity in Africa: the case of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Djamba, Yanyi K

    2003-08-01

    Prior research has pointed to several factors that may affect sexual behavior in Africa, but much of the work has been atheoretical or descriptive, thus reducing the explanatory value of some findings. In this study, the influence of individual characteristics and family background were examined in a sample of 2,000 women aged 14-24 interviewed in Kinshasa in 1995. The analysis was guided by the social capital framework and the discussion focused on three theoretical perspectives: rational adaptation, social disorganization, and patrilineal bias. The results from the event history analysis showed that poverty, exposure to mass media, patrilinearity, and AIDS awareness greatly reduce the risk of premarital sexual activity. In contrast, social capital, as measured by the number of siblings, was positively associated with sexual permissiveness, suggesting a dilution of adults' attention to children in larger families.

  3. Analysis of Landsat TM data for active tectonics: the case of the Big Chino Fault, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, Stefano

    1994-12-01

    The Big Chino Valley is a 50 km-long tectonic depression of the Basin and Range province of the South- western United States. It is bordered on the NE side by an important normal fault, the Big Chino Fault. The activity of the latter has been hypothesised on the basis of the presence of a 20 m-high fault scarp and on local geomorphological studies. Moreover, a magnitude 4.9 earthquake occurred in southern Arizona in 1976 has been attributed to this fault. The climate in the Big Chino Valley is semi-arid with average rainfall of about 400 mm per year; a very sparse vegetation cover is present, yielding a good possibility for the geo-lithologic application of remote sensing data. The analysis of the TM spectral bands shows, in the short wave infrared, a clear variation in the reflected radiance across the fault scarp. Also the available radar (SLAR) images show a marked difference in response between the two sides of the fault. An explanation of this phenomena has been found in the interaction between the geomorphic evolution, the pedological composition, and the periodic occurrence of coseismic deformation along the fault. Other effects of the latter process have been investigated on colour D- stretched images whose interpretation allowed to detect two paleoseismic events of the Big Chino Fault. This work demonstrates that important information on the seismological parameters of active faults in arid and semiarid climates can be extracted from the analysis of satellite spectral data in the visible and near -infrared.

  4. Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

  5. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    Climate dynamics at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual scales shape global fire activity, although difficulties of assembling reliable fire and meteorological data with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution have frustrated quantification of this variability. Using Australia as a case study, we combine data from 4760 meteorological stations with 12 years of satellite-derived active fire detections to determine day and night time fire activity, fire season start and end dates, and inter-annual variability, across 61 objectively defined climate regions in three climate zones (monsoon tropics, arid and temperate). We show that geographic patterns of landscape burning (onset and duration) are related to fire weather, resulting in a latitudinal gradient from the monsoon tropics in winter, through the arid zone in all seasons except winter, and then to the temperate zone in summer and autumn. Peak fire activity precedes maximum lightning activity by several months in all regions, signalling the importance of human ignitions in shaping fire seasons. We determined median daily McArthur forest fire danger index (FFDI50) for days and nights when fires were detected: FFDI50 varied substantially between climate zones, reflecting effects of fire management in the temperate zone, fuel limitation in the arid zone and abundance of flammable grasses in the monsoon tropical zone. We found correlations between the proportion of days when FFDI exceeds FFDI50 and the Southern Oscillation index across the arid zone during spring and summer, and Indian Ocean dipole mode index across south-eastern Australia during summer. Our study demonstrates that Australia has a long fire weather season with high inter-annual variability relative to all other continents, making it difficult to detect long term trends. It also provides a way of establishing robust baselines to track changes to fire seasons, and supports a previous conceptual model highlighting multi-temporal scale effects of climate in

  6. Metabolites in safety testing assessment in early clinical development: a case study with a glucokinase activator.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Litchfield, John; Atkinson, Karen; Eng, Heather; Amin, Neeta B; Denney, William S; Pettersen, John C; Goosen, Theunis C; Di, Li; Lee, Esther; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Dalvie, Deepak K; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2014-11-01

    The present article summarizes Metabolites in Safety Testing (MIST) studies on a glucokinase activator, N,N-dimethyl-5-((2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yl)oxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (PF-04937319), which is under development for the treatment of type 2 diametes mellitus. Metabolic profiling in rat, dog, and human hepatocytes revealed that PF-04937319 is metabolized via oxidative (major) and hydrolytic pathways (minor). N-Demethylation to metabolite M1 [N-methyl-5-((2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yl)oxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide] was the major metabolic fate of PF-04937319 in human (but not rat or dog) hepatocytes, and was catalyzed by CYP3A and CYP2C isoforms. Qualitative examination of circulating metabolites in humans at the 100- and 300-mg doses from a 14-day multiple dose study revealed unchanged parent drug and M1 as principal components. Because M1 accounted for 65% of the drug-related material at steady state, an authentic standard was synthesized and used for comparison of steady-state exposures in humans and the 3-month safety studies in rats and dogs at the no-observed-adverse-effect level. Although circulating levels of M1 were very low in beagle dogs and female rats, adequate coverage was obtained in terms of total maximal plasma concentration (∼7.7× and 1.8×) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; 3.6× and 0.8× AUC) relative to the 100- and 300-mg doses, respectively, in male rats. Examination of primary pharmacology revealed M1 was less potent as a glucokinase activator than the parent drug (compound PF-04937319: EC50 = 0.17 μM; M1: EC50 = 4.69 μM). Furthermore, M1 did not inhibit major human P450 enzymes (IC50 > 30 μM), and was negative in the Salmonella Ames assay, with minimal off-target pharmacology, based on CEREP broad ligand profiling. Insights gained from this analysis should lead to a more efficient and focused development plan for fulfilling MIST requirements with

  7. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study.

    PubMed

    Olaka, Lydia A; Wilke, Franziska D H; Olago, Daniel O; Odada, Eric O; Mulch, Andreas; Musolff, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02-75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F(-) concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2-9.2mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27-75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from -6.2 to +5.8‰ and -31.3 to +33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750-6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (<1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F(-) enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management in Naivasha as well as similar

  8. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study.

    PubMed

    Olaka, Lydia A; Wilke, Franziska D H; Olago, Daniel O; Odada, Eric O; Mulch, Andreas; Musolff, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02-75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F(-) concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2-9.2mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27-75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from -6.2 to +5.8‰ and -31.3 to +33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750-6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (<1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F(-) enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management in Naivasha as well as similar

  9. Geomorphic impacts of active tectonics on a river course, the case of Klissoura gorge, central Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Karymbalis, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    The delicate balance of the natural processes within the river systems can be easily tipped making them very sensitive to changes occurring on the earth surface. Fluvial systems are therefore profoundly influenced by endogenic processes such as active tectonics as well as global sea level fluctuations following the climatic variations during the Quaternary. This study deals with the geomorphological evolution of the broader area of the abandoned gorge of Klissoura which is located in central Greece. This 130 m deep and roughly 3 km long gorge is a characteristic example of an old drainage course preserved on the footwall blocks of two normal faults which confine both outlets of the deeply incised valley. The gorge has formed by a river that once had a N-S flow direction discharging into the Gulf of Patras. Acheloos River and the much smaller Ermitza Remma Stream are the two recent primary watercourses which drain the area close to the abandoned gorge. Both the dimensions and morphological characteristics of the abandoned deep valley indicate that the gorge has formed by a large river with high discharge in order to incise into the limestone bedrock. In order to investigate the tectonic constrains and determine the geomorphic and climatic processes that compelled the lower reaches of Acheloos River to abandon the gorge and find an outlet following its present course a GIS based analysis at a scale of 1:50.000 was applied in the drainage basin of Acheloos River. Additionally, to reconstruct the palaeolandscape and the earth surface processes, a detailed morphometric and geomorphic analysis of the abandoned gorge was also performed at a scale of 1:5.000 coupled with field observations and stratigraphic analysis of the deposits outcropping on the valley sides within the gorge as well as on both outlets. The geomorphic analysis led to the conclusion that the primary course of the gorge abandonment and diversion and reverse of the drainage is the uplift of the footwall

  10. The altitude effect on the climatic factors controlling debris flows activation: the Marderello Torrent case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Michela; Turconi, Laura; Savio, Gabriele; Tropeano, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    The left Cenischia valley includes some of the best known alpine basins prone to debris flow in Northwestern Italian Alps. In particular, in the Marderello catchment (6,6 km²), a left tributary of the Cenischia river, 31 important debris flood/flow events occurred during the last one hundred years. According to the chronicles of the last three centuries, events with significant volumes are on the average liable to take place every 3-4 years, whereas minor events may occur even twice per year. Due to the high frequency of activations, the site is of relevant interest for monitoring purposes. Since the early nineties, the CNR IRPI equipped the Marderello basin with meteorological monitoring devices. The rainfall monitoring network consists of four rain gauges, placed at different elevations, between 800 m a.s.l. and 2854 m a.s.l. Other meteorological data (air moisture and temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction) are provided by three stations located at 3150, 2150 and 830 m a.s.l. The main objective of the monitoring is the investigation of the triggering conditions for debris flows initiation. In the scientific literature the prediction of debris flows is often tackled by the use of empirical methods, based on the analysis of past activation and related rainfall triggering conditions. The effectiveness of these methods strictly depends on the representativeness of the meteorological monitoring stations used to collect the data. In complex orography sites, as the Alpine catchments are, the remarkable elevation gaps between the source areas of debris flows and the rain gauges position make it difficult to identify the triggering rainfall. To attain more reliable results, the elevation effect must be considered. In fact, elevation influences the precipitation in terms of cumulative values and, as a result of the temperature gradient, it controls the nature of the precipitation (rain/snow). In the present study we use the rainfall and temperature

  11. Three-Year Follow-Up of a Prenatally Ascertained Apparently Non-Mosaic sSMC(10): Delineation of a Non-Critical Region.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Laura; Costa, Marta; Lloveras, Elisabet; Ordóñez, Elena; Maiz, Nerea; Hernando, Cristina; Villa, Olaya; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Plaja, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) originating from chromosome 10 are rare and usually found in mosaic form. We present a de novo apparently non-mosaic sSMC(10) prenatally diagnosed in amniotic fluid and postnatally confirmed in peripheral blood. Characterization by array-CGH showed a pericentromeric duplication of 7.1 Mb of chromosome 10. The fetus did not show ultrasound abnormalities, and a normal female phenotype was observed during a 3-year postnatal follow-up. The absence of phenotypic abnormalities in the present case provides evidence of a non-critical pericentromeric region in 10p11.21q11.1 (hg19 35,355,570-42,448,569) associated with a duplication. PMID:26974471

  12. Three-Year Follow-Up of a Prenatally Ascertained Apparently Non-Mosaic sSMC(10): Delineation of a Non-Critical Region.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Laura; Costa, Marta; Lloveras, Elisabet; Ordóñez, Elena; Maiz, Nerea; Hernando, Cristina; Villa, Olaya; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Plaja, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) originating from chromosome 10 are rare and usually found in mosaic form. We present a de novo apparently non-mosaic sSMC(10) prenatally diagnosed in amniotic fluid and postnatally confirmed in peripheral blood. Characterization by array-CGH showed a pericentromeric duplication of 7.1 Mb of chromosome 10. The fetus did not show ultrasound abnormalities, and a normal female phenotype was observed during a 3-year postnatal follow-up. The absence of phenotypic abnormalities in the present case provides evidence of a non-critical pericentromeric region in 10p11.21q11.1 (hg19 35,355,570-42,448,569) associated with a duplication.

  13. Unbiased ascertainment of a patient with a 47,XY, +pseudic (15)t(15;15)(q13;q13) karyotype by amniocentesis

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, E.; Prochazka, G.; Hamilton, S.

    1994-09-01

    A 47,XY,+mar male karyotype was found in all metaphases on an amniocentesis from a 36-year-old woman (G1,P0). The marker was G group size. Chromosome studies on the parents were normal. C-banding, NOR staining and FISH demonstrated that the marker was dicentric, bisatellited, derived from No. 15 and contained 2 copies of the chromosomal region flanked by the Prader-Willi/Angelman A and B probes. The final karyotype was: 47,XY,+pseudic(15)t(15;15)(q13;q13), making the fetus tetrasomic for the genes in the duplicated region. DNA marker studies for No. 15 (performed in the laboratory of Dr. David Ledbetter) revealed that the fetus had inherited on No. 15 from each parent and that the marker was derived from both maternal No. 15 chromosomes. The parents chose to continue the pregnancy. The baby was born at 38 weeks gestation, was mildly edematous and had Apgar scores of 4, 7, and 8 at 1, 5, and 10 min, respectively. The marker was confirmed to be present in placenta and the baby`s blood. Examination at 6 weeks showed appropriate growth and development. Data from published cases predict that this baby will be mentally retarded and may have seizures because he is tetrasomic for 15pter-q13, but will not have Prader-Willi or Angelman syndromes since he has biparental inheritance of his normal No. 15s. However, the published cases may represent a biased sample as most were identified in mentally retarded individuals, not by prenatal diagnosis. This infant`s development will continue to be followed closely.

  14. Models of Active Glacial Isostasy Roofing Warm Subduction: Case of the South Patagonian Ice Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemann, Volker; Ivins, Erik R.; Martinec, Zdenek; Wolf, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Modern geodetic techniques such as precise Global Positioning System (GPS) and high-resolution space gravity mapping (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, GRACE) make it possible to measure the present-day rate of viscoelastic gravitational Earth response to present and past glacier mass changes. The Andes of Patagonia contain glacial environments of dramatic mass change. These mass load changes occur near a tectonically active boundary between the Antarctic and South American plates. The mechanical strength of the continental side of this boundary is influenced by Neogene ridge subduction and by the subduction of a youthful oceanic slab. A ridge of young volcanos parallels the Pacific coastline. Release of volatiles (such as water) at depth along this ridge creates a unique rheological environment. To assess the influence of this rheological ridge structure on the observational land uplift rate, we apply a two dimensional viscoelastic Earth model. A numerical study is presented which examines the sensitivity of the glacial loading-unloading response to the complex structure at depth related to the subducting slab, the viscous wedge between slab and continental lithosphere, and the increase of elastic thickness from oceanic to continental lithosphere. A key feature revealed by our numerical experiments is a continuum flow wherein the slab subdues the material transport toward oceanic mantle and crust. The restricted flow is sensitive to the details of slab mechanical strength and penetration into the upper mantle. The reduced viscosity within the mantle wedge, however, enhances the load-induced material transport everywhere within the asthenosphere.

  15. H-reflex suppression and autonomic activation during lucid REM sleep: a case study.

    PubMed

    Brylowski, A; Levitan, L; LaBerge, S

    1989-08-01

    A single subject, a proficient lucid dreamer experienced with signaling the onset of lucidity (reflective consciousness of dreaming) by means of voluntary eye movements, spent 4 nonconsecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. The subject reported becoming lucid and signaling in 8 of the 18 rapid-eye movement (REM) periods recorded. Ten lucid dream reports were verified by polygraphic examination of signals, providing a total of 12.5 min of signal-verified lucid REM. H-Reflex amplitude was recorded every 5 s, along with continuous recording of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, finger pulse, and respiration. Significant findings included greater mean H-reflex suppression during lucid REM sleep than during nonlucid REM and correlations of H-reflex suppression with increased eye movement density, heart rate, and respiration rate. These results support previous studies reporting that lucid REM is not, as might be supposed, a state closer to awakening than ordinary, or nonlucid, REM; rather, lucid dreaming occurs during unequivocal REM sleep and is characteristically associated with phasic REM activation. PMID:2762692

  16. Health activism and the logic of connective action. A case study of rare disease patient organisations

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Stefania; Cappai, Franco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This exploratory work investigates the role of digital media in expanding health discourse practices in a way to transform traditional structures of agency in public health. By focusing on a sample of rare disease patient organisations as representative of contemporary health activism, this study investigates the role of digital communication in the development of (1) bottom-up sharing and co-production of health knowledge, (2) health public engagement dynamics and (3) health information pathways. Findings show that digital media affordances for patient organisations go beyond the provision of social support for patient communities; they ease one-way, two-way and crowdsourced processes of health knowledge sharing, exchange and co-production, provide personalised routes to health public engagement and bolster the emergence of varied pathways to health information where experiential knowledge and medical authority are equally valued. These forms of organisationally enabled connective action can help the surfacing of personal narratives that strengthen patient communities, the bottom-up production of health knowledge relevant to a wider public and the development of an informational and eventually cultural context that eases patients’ political action. PMID:27499676

  17. Motif Discovery on Seismic Amplitude Time Series: The Case Study of Mt Etna 2011 Eruptive Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, Carmelo; Aliotta, Marco; Cannata, Andrea; Montalto, Placido; Patanè, Domenico; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Spampinato, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    Algorithms searching for similar patterns are widely used in seismology both when the waveforms of the events of interest are known and when there is no a priori-knowledge. Such methods usually make use of the cross-correlation coefficient as a measure of similarity; if there is no a-priori knowledge, they behave as brute-force searching algorithms. The disadvantage of these methods, preventing or limiting their application to very large datasets, is computational complexity. The Mueen-Keogh (MK) algorithm overcomes this limitation by means of two optimization techniques—the early abandoning concept and space indexing. Here, we apply the MK algorithm to amplitude time series retrieved from seismic signals recorded during episodic eruptive activity of Mt Etna in 2011. By adequately tuning the input to the MK algorithm we found eight motif groups characterized by distinct seismic amplitude trends, each related to a different phenomenon. In particular, we observed that earthquakes are accompanied by sharp increases and decreases in seismic amplitude whereas lava fountains are accompanied by slower changes. These results demonstrate that the MK algorithm, because of its particular features, may have wide applicability in seismology.

  18. H-reflex suppression and autonomic activation during lucid REM sleep: a case study.

    PubMed

    Brylowski, A; Levitan, L; LaBerge, S

    1989-08-01

    A single subject, a proficient lucid dreamer experienced with signaling the onset of lucidity (reflective consciousness of dreaming) by means of voluntary eye movements, spent 4 nonconsecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. The subject reported becoming lucid and signaling in 8 of the 18 rapid-eye movement (REM) periods recorded. Ten lucid dream reports were verified by polygraphic examination of signals, providing a total of 12.5 min of signal-verified lucid REM. H-Reflex amplitude was recorded every 5 s, along with continuous recording of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, finger pulse, and respiration. Significant findings included greater mean H-reflex suppression during lucid REM sleep than during nonlucid REM and correlations of H-reflex suppression with increased eye movement density, heart rate, and respiration rate. These results support previous studies reporting that lucid REM is not, as might be supposed, a state closer to awakening than ordinary, or nonlucid, REM; rather, lucid dreaming occurs during unequivocal REM sleep and is characteristically associated with phasic REM activation.

  19. A Pragmatic Bayesian Perspective on Correlation Analysis - The exoplanetary gravity - stellar activity case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Faria, J. P.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.

    2016-05-01

    We apply the Bayesian framework to assess the presence of a correlation between two quantities. To do so, we estimate the probability distribution of the parameter of interest, ρ, characterizing the strength of the correlation. We provide an implementation of these ideas and concepts using python programming language and the pyMC module in a very short (˜ 130 lines of code, heavily commented) and user-friendly program. We used this tool to assess the presence and properties of the correlation between planetary surface gravity and stellar activity level as measured by the log( R^' }_{{HK}}) indicator. The results of the Bayesian analysis are qualitatively similar to those obtained via p-value analysis, and support the presence of a correlation in the data. The results are more robust in their derivation and more informative, revealing interesting features such as asymmetric posterior distributions or markedly different credible intervals, and allowing for a deeper exploration. We encourage the reader interested in this kind of problem to apply our code to his/her own scientific problems. The full understanding of what the Bayesian framework is can only be gained through the insight that comes by handling priors, assessing the convergence of Monte Carlo runs, and a multitude of other practical problems. We hope to contribute so that Bayesian analysis becomes a tool in the toolkit of researchers, and they understand by experience its advantages and limitations.

  20. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of amaryllidaceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae) based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated with phylogeny and found evidence for a significant phylogenetic signal in these traits, although the effect is not strong. Conclusions Several genera are non-monophyletic emphasizing the importance of using phylogeny for interpretation of character distribution. Alkaloid diversity and in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and binding to the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) are significantly correlated with phylogeny. This has implications for the use of phylogenies to interpret chemical evolution and biosynthetic pathways, to select candidate taxa for lead discovery, and to make recommendations for policies regarding traditional use and conservation priorities. PMID:22978363

  1. A Pragmatic Bayesian Perspective on Correlation Analysis. The exoplanetary gravity - stellar activity case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Faria, J. P.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.

    2016-11-01

    We apply the Bayesian framework to assess the presence of a correlation between two quantities. To do so, we estimate the probability distribution of the parameter of interest, ρ, characterizing the strength of the correlation. We provide an implementation of these ideas and concepts using python programming language and the pyMC module in a very short (˜ 130 lines of code, heavily commented) and user-friendly program. We used this tool to assess the presence and properties of the correlation between planetary surface gravity and stellar activity level as measured by the log(R^' }_{ {HK}}) indicator. The results of the Bayesian analysis are qualitatively similar to those obtained via p-value analysis, and support the presence of a correlation in the data. The results are more robust in their derivation and more informative, revealing interesting features such as asymmetric posterior distributions or markedly different credible intervals, and allowing for a deeper exploration. We encourage the reader interested in this kind of problem to apply our code to his/her own scientific problems. The full understanding of what the Bayesian framework is can only be gained through the insight that comes by handling priors, assessing the convergence of Monte Carlo runs, and a multitude of other practical problems. We hope to contribute so that Bayesian analysis becomes a tool in the toolkit of researchers, and they understand by experience its advantages and limitations.

  2. [An accelerated idioventricular rhythm and sports activity. Comments on a clinical case and a characterization of the arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Riva, U R; Budriesi, N; Fancinelli, M; Labriola, E

    1994-08-01

    In the evaluation of an accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR) case presented by an athlete, even though considered qualified for agonistic sport practice in compliance with the COCIS protocol, the authors made some considerations relative to such type of arrhythmia. AIVR are characterized by a wide oscillation of frequency (from 40 to 120 b/min) and are distinguished as active AIVR when the ventricular center exceeds the discharge frequency in a non depressed sinusal activity; and it's passive AIVR when an automatic ventricular center substitutes the physiological pacemaker in the presence of sinusal bradycardia. This leads to think that it could be two different phenomenons. The first is characterized by a low frequency and is determined by the activation of some automatic cells located under the His bundle, and the second arises with the extrasystolic modality. Moreover, AIVR manifest a parasystolic type of behaviour that complicates the diagnostic differentiation. Therefore it can be considered that the arrhythmia of ventricular genesis (AIVR, ventricular tachycardia, parasystole) represents the varied expression of the same electrogenic substratum with different discharge potentiality. Thus was formulated the proposal of unifying the ventricular rhythms in one group which includes: rhythm of ventricular escapement, AIVR, parasystole and ventricular tachycardia.

  3. Multilayer stress from gravity and its tectonic implications in urban active fault zone: A case study in Shenzhen, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuang; Wang, Hai-hong; Luo, Zhi-cai; Ning, Jin-sheng; Liu, Hua-liang

    2015-03-01

    It is significant to identify urban active faults for human life and social sustainable development. The ordinary methods to detect active faults, such as geological survey, artificial seismic exploration, and electromagnetic exploration, are not convenient to be carried out in urban area with dense buildings. It is also difficult to supply information about vertical extension of the deeper faults by these methods. Gravity, reflecting the mass distribution of the Earth's interior, provides an alternative way to detect faults, which is more efficient and convenient for urban active fault detection than the aforementioned techniques. Based on the multi-scale decomposition of gravity anomalies, a novel method to invert multilayer horizontal tectonic stresses is proposed. The inverted multilayer stress fields are further used to infer the distribution and stability of the main faults. In order to validate our method, the multilayer stress fields in the Shenzhen fault zone are calculated as a case study. The calculated stress fields show that their distribution is controlled significantly by the strike of the main faults and can be used to derive depths of the faults. The main faults in Shenzhen may range from 4 km to 20 km in the depth. Each layer of the crust is nearly equipressure since the horizontal tectonic stress has small amplitude. It indicates that the main faults in Shenzhen are relatively stable and have no serious impact on planning and construction of the city.

  4. Markers of thrombogenesis are activated in unmedicated patients with acute psychosis: a matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic treatment has been repeatedly found to be associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in schizophrenia. The extent to which the propensity for venous thromboembolism is linked to antipsychotic medication alone or psychosis itself is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether markers of thrombogenesis are increased in psychotic patients who have not yet been treated with antipsychotic medication. Methods We investigated the plasma levels of markers indicating activation of coagulation (D-dimers and Factor VIII) and platelets (soluble P-selectin, sP-selectin) in an antipsychotic-naive group of fourteen men and eleven women with acute psychosis (age 29.1 ± 8.3 years, body mass index 23.6 ± 4.7), and twenty-five healthy volunteers were matched for age, gender and body mass index. Results D-dimers (median 0.38 versus 0.19 mg/l, mean 1.12 ± 2.38 versus 0.28 ± 0.3 mg/l; P = 0.003) and sP-selectin (median 204.1 versus 112.4 ng/ml, mean 209.9 ± 124 versus 124.1 ± 32; P = 0.0005) plasma levels were significantly increased in the group of patients with acute psychosis as compared with healthy volunteers. We found a trend (median 148% versus 110%, mean 160 ± 72.5 versus 123 ± 62.5; P = 0.062) of increased plasma levels of factor VIII in psychotic patients as compared with healthy volunteers. Conclusions The results suggest that at least a part of venous thromboembolic events in patients with acute psychosis may be induced by pathogenic mechanisms related to psychosis rather than by antipsychotic treatment. Finding an exact cause for venous thromboembolism in psychotic patients is necessary for its effective treatment and prevention. PMID:21199572

  5. [A case of Isaac's syndrome--continuous muscle fiber activity syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kuwasaki, N; Shoji, H; Tominaga, H; Kaji, M; Nonaka, K

    1986-06-01

    A 34-year-old woman noted difficulty of gait initiation, then dilated finger opening and hyperhidrosis appeared. Her stature was a muscular habitus, and muscle stiffness and myokymia were found in all muscles of the extremities. Her stiffness persisted during sleep. Her calf muscles were large and a contracture was noticed in ankle joints. There was no evidence of wasting and weakness. A remarkable delay in voluntary relaxation of the contracted muscles without percussion myotonia was recognized. Tendon reflexes of lower extremities were absent. Laboratory examination revealed elevation of CPK, LDH, myoglobulin, aldolase and basal metabolic rate (BMR). An extraband of CPK isoenzyme between MB and MM fraction was observed. The thin layer gel filtration technique and immunofixation technique showed that this extraband was complexes of CPK and IgA, and light chain of the CPK linked IgA was lambda type. All other laboratory tests were normal for the following: urinalysis, ESR, a blood count, liver function, kidney function, glucose, rheumatoid factor, CRP, thyroid function, parathyroid function, serum electrolytes, ECG, EEG, cranial CT, without slight elevation of IgA, and CSF protein. In needle EMG and surface EMG spontaneous discharges were recorded at rest. These discharges consist of normal motor unit potentials, doublets, and triplets in needle EMG. The discharges were markedly reduced after the median nerve block with xylocaine. In needle EMG, myotonic discharge was not observed. Nerve conduction velocities were within normal ranges. According to these data, she was diagnosed as having Issacs' syndrome (continuous muscle fiber activity syndrome). Carbamazepine, 200 mg daily was administrated and showed a dramatic reversal of the symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3730194

  6. The weathering and element fluxes from active volcanoes to the oceans: a Montserrat case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Hembury, Deborah J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Tonge, Bill; Darling, W. George; Loughlin, Susan C.

    2011-04-01

    The eruptions of the Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat (Lesser Antilles) from 1995 to present have draped parts of the island in fresh volcaniclastic deposits. Volcanic islands such as Montserrat are an important component of global weathering fluxes, due to high relief and runoff and high chemical and physical weathering rates of fresh volcaniclastic material. We examine the impact of the recent volcanism on the geochemistry of pre-existing hydrological systems and demonstrate that the initial chemical weathering yield of fresh volcanic material is higher than that from older deposits within the Lesser Antilles arc. The silicate weathering may have consumed 1.3% of the early CO2 emissions from the Soufrière Hills volcano. In contrast, extinct volcanic edifices such as the Centre Hills in central Montserrat are a net sink for atmospheric CO2 due to continued elevated weathering rates relative to continental silicate rock weathering. The role of an arc volcano as a source or sink for atmospheric CO2 is therefore critically dependent on the stage it occupies in its life cycle, changing from a net source to a net sink as the eruptive activity wanes. While the onset of the eruption has had a profound effect on the groundwater around the Soufrière Hills center, the geochemistry of springs in the Centre Hills 5 km to the north appear unaffected by the recent volcanism. This has implications for the potential risk, or lack thereof, of contamination of potable water supplies for the island's inhabitants.

  7. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    other active volcanic systems on Earth.

  8. Active and passive case detection strategies for the control of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, A K; Harries, A D; Hinderaker, S G; Zachariah, R; Ahmed, B; Shah, G N; Khogali, M A; Das, G I; Ahmed, E M; Ritmeijer, K

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Deux sous-districts du Bangladesh, Fulbaria et Trishai, où la leishmaniose est hyper-endémique.Objectif : Déterminer 1) le nombre de patients ayant eu un diagnostic de leishmaniose viscérale (VL) et de leishmaniose dermique post-kala azar (PKDL) grâce à une stratégie de détection active des cas (ACD) à Fulbaria et à une stratégie de détection passive (PCD) à Trishai, et 2) le temps écoulé entre les symptômes et le diagnostic dans le sous-district à ACD.Schéma : Etude descriptive transversale des patients diagnostiqués entre mai 2010 et décembre 2011. La stratégie ACD comportait une éducation des communautés et des stratégies avancées ciblant les foyers des patients index grâce à un dépistage basé sur les symptômes et au test rK-39 pour les patients suspects.Résultats : Dans les districts de stratégie ACD (Fulbaria) et le sous-district de stratégie PCD (Trishai), 1088 et 756 patients respectivement ont eu un diagnostic de VL et 1145 et 37 respectivement ont eu un diagnostic de PKDL. Dans ce sous-district, le délai médian de diagnostic était de 60 jours pour tous les patients atteints de VL, qu'ils soient référés par du personnel des stratégies avancées ou viennent d'eux-mêmes. Il était respectivement de 345 et 360 jours pour la PKDL.Conclusion : Une stratégie ACD au niveau d'un sous-district permet de dépister un nombre accru de VL et encore plus de PKDL. Comme la PKDL constitue un réservoir d'infection, la stratégie d'ACD et le traitement des cas dépistés peuvent contribuer à l'élimination régionale de la leishmaniose du sous-continent indien.

  9. Late Holocene fluvial activity and correlations with dendrochronology of subfossil trunks: Case studies of northeastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădoane, Maria; Nechita, Constantin; Chiriloaei, Francisca; Rădoane, Nicolae; Popa, Ionel; Roibu, Cătălin; Robu, Delia

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the late Holocene behaviour of rivers using an interdisciplinary approach combining fluvial geomorphology and subfossil trunk dendrochronology. The subfossil wood material collected along the rivers was investigated for dendrometric and dendrochronologic parameters. The research methods in these fields helped us to understand the effect of the fluvial environment on riparian trees and their records and helped in reconstructing the riparian palaeoenvironment. The study area consists of two rivers with different typologies but comparable sizes: the Moldova River, which features a braided to wandering channel in its lower reach, and the Siret River, which features a sinuous-meandering channel. Along the 100-km-long floodplain of the former and the 144-km-long floodplain of the latter, we found and sampled 77 subfossil trunks, of which 26 were subjected to 14C dating. The resulting data consist of floodplain facies mapping data, electric resistivity measurements, absolute dates, and dendrometric and dendrochronologic data. The results indicate that during a 100-year period, the two rivers were sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic effects, particularly a narrowing of the active channel by 76% in the braided channel and 38% in the sinuous-meandering channel. During the past 3300-3000 YBP, the Moldova River maintained its braided style, whereas the sinuous-meandering style has been characteristic of the Siret River for the previous 6800-4600 YBP. The two distinct fluvial environments are recorded in the dendrometric structure of the trunks buried in the channel-fill sediments. The braided fluvial environment was more effective in uprooting riparian trees and incorporating them in the floodplain deposits, whereas the sinuous-meandering style of stream effectively buried tree trunks in lateral accretion lobes. Absolute and dendrochronologic dating allowed for the reconstruction of timelines of the felling of the trees

  10. The relationship between terrorist activities and cases of malaria in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey, 1984-1998.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ilhan; Egri, Mucahit; Celbis, Osman; Toprak, Sadik; Ozag, Kadir

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cases of malaria are related to terrorist activities that have occurred in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey. Some of the determinants related to malaria have been investigated using a national dataset for 11 provinces located in these regions of Turkey. In these regions, both terrorist activity and cases of malaria were common from 1984 to 1998. A multiple regression technique was used to identify the variables that are significantly associated with cases of malaria. Annual incidence of malaria was chosen as the dependent variable along with three independent (explanatory) variables: annual number of terrorist incidences, people per healthcare technician and number of thick blood films per 100,000 people. Based on this analysis, it is determined that the annual number of terrorist incidences has been associated with the annual number of malaria cases in these regions of Turkey since the beginning of terrorist activity in 1984.

  11. When Environmental Action Does Not Activate Concern: The Case of Impaired Water Quality in Two Rural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stough-Hunter, Anjel; Lekies, Kristi S.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    2014-12-01

    Little research has considered how residents' perceptions of their local environment may interact with efforts to increase environmental concern, particularly in areas in need of remediation. This study examined the process by which local environmental action may affect environmental concern. A model was presented for exploring the effects of community-based watershed organizations (CWOs) on environmental concern that also incorporates existing perceptions of the local environment. Survey data were collected from area residents in two watersheds in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA, an area affected by abandoned mine drainage. The findings suggest that residents' perceptions of local water quality and importance of improving water quality are important predictors of level of environmental concern and desire for action; however, in this case, having an active or inactive CWO did not influence these perceptions. The implications of these findings raise important questions concerning strategies and policy making around environmental remediation at the local level.

  12. When environmental action does not activate concern: the case of impaired water quality in two rural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Stough-Hunter, Anjel; Lekies, Kristi S; Donnermeyer, Joseph F

    2014-12-01

    Little research has considered how residents' perceptions of their local environment may interact with efforts to increase environmental concern, particularly in areas in need of remediation. This study examined the process by which local environmental action may affect environmental concern. A model was presented for exploring the effects of community-based watershed organizations (CWOs) on environmental concern that also incorporates existing perceptions of the local environment. Survey data were collected from area residents in two watersheds in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA, an area affected by abandoned mine drainage. The findings suggest that residents' perceptions of local water quality and importance of improving water quality are important predictors of level of environmental concern and desire for action; however, in this case, having an active or inactive CWO did not influence these perceptions. The implications of these findings raise important questions concerning strategies and policy making around environmental remediation at the local level.

  13. Antiepileptic drugs with histone deacetylase inhibition activity and prostate cancer risk: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Jukka K; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Murtola, Teemu J

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that antiepileptic drugs with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor properties may have prostate cancer preventive effects. We evaluated the association between antiepileptic drug use and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. The study included all new prostate cancer cases diagnosed in Finland in 1995-2002 and matched controls (24,657 case-control pairs) identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry and the Population Register Center, respectively. Information on antiepileptic drug purchases was obtained from the national prescription reimbursement database. Odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals were estimated using age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis. Compared to never-users of antiepileptic drugs, the overall prostate cancer risk was decreased among users of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and valproic acid (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.47, 95 % CI 0.24-0.92; OR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.71-0.94, and OR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.42-0.92, respectively), but not among users of other antiepileptic drugs. Overall prostate cancer risk decreased in a dose-dependent manner by cumulative amount, duration and yearly dosage (intensity) of HDAC inhibitors valproic acid and carbamazepine. The risk of advanced prostate cancer was decreased only among carbamazepine users (OR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.44-0.96). Our results support possible prostate cancer preventive effects of HDAC inhibitors. However, also phenobarbital use was associated with decreased prostate cancer risk, despite not having HDAC inhibiting activity. The mechanism of action for antiepileptic drugs in prostate cancer deserves further study. PMID:27038166

  14. Dissent by Design: Fostering Student Activism in Higher Education through a Case Study of Student Affairs in a Public University in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Maria Aurora Correa; Baranovich, Diana-Lea

    2016-01-01

    Student activism is a ubiquitous component in most democratic societies. Despite its disconcerting implications to the university's operations, it remains an important agenda to student development in higher education. This study presents the case of a university in the Philippines where student activism is a predominant ethos. The findings expose…

  15. Successful Tocilizumab Therapy for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still's Disease: A Case-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eri; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ishii, Akira; Oda, Aya; Terai, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in whom macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) developed despite therapy with oral high-dose prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy twice. She was successfully treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Soon afterward, her fever ceased and high levels of both ferritin and C-reactive protein levels decreased. Her course was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytomegalovirus infection, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After these were resolved, AOSD-associated MAS was well controlled. She was discharged on hospital day 87. Although biologics such as TCZ are becoming established for the treatment of AOSD, there is no recommended therapy for AOSD-associated MAS. Several biologics have been tried for this complication, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. We reviewed reported cases of AOSD-associated MAS successfully treated with various biologics. TCZ initiation after adequate nonselective immunosuppressive therapy, such as methylprednisolone pulse therapy or a prednisolone-based combination of immunosuppressants, can be an effective treatment for AOSD-associated MAS. On the other hand, biologics given after insufficient immunosuppressive therapy may cause MAS. A strategy combining adequate immunosuppression and a biologic could be safe if special attention is given to adverse events such as opportunistic infections or biologic-associated MAS. PMID:27688774

  16. Successful Tocilizumab Therapy for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still's Disease: A Case-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eri; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ishii, Akira; Oda, Aya; Terai, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in whom macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) developed despite therapy with oral high-dose prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy twice. She was successfully treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Soon afterward, her fever ceased and high levels of both ferritin and C-reactive protein levels decreased. Her course was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytomegalovirus infection, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After these were resolved, AOSD-associated MAS was well controlled. She was discharged on hospital day 87. Although biologics such as TCZ are becoming established for the treatment of AOSD, there is no recommended therapy for AOSD-associated MAS. Several biologics have been tried for this complication, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. We reviewed reported cases of AOSD-associated MAS successfully treated with various biologics. TCZ initiation after adequate nonselective immunosuppressive therapy, such as methylprednisolone pulse therapy or a prednisolone-based combination of immunosuppressants, can be an effective treatment for AOSD-associated MAS. On the other hand, biologics given after insufficient immunosuppressive therapy may cause MAS. A strategy combining adequate immunosuppression and a biologic could be safe if special attention is given to adverse events such as opportunistic infections or biologic-associated MAS. PMID:27688774

  17. Successful Tocilizumab Therapy for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still's Disease: A Case-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eri; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ishii, Akira; Oda, Aya; Terai, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in whom macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) developed despite therapy with oral high-dose prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy twice. She was successfully treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Soon afterward, her fever ceased and high levels of both ferritin and C-reactive protein levels decreased. Her course was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytomegalovirus infection, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After these were resolved, AOSD-associated MAS was well controlled. She was discharged on hospital day 87. Although biologics such as TCZ are becoming established for the treatment of AOSD, there is no recommended therapy for AOSD-associated MAS. Several biologics have been tried for this complication, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. We reviewed reported cases of AOSD-associated MAS successfully treated with various biologics. TCZ initiation after adequate nonselective immunosuppressive therapy, such as methylprednisolone pulse therapy or a prednisolone-based combination of immunosuppressants, can be an effective treatment for AOSD-associated MAS. On the other hand, biologics given after insufficient immunosuppressive therapy may cause MAS. A strategy combining adequate immunosuppression and a biologic could be safe if special attention is given to adverse events such as opportunistic infections or biologic-associated MAS.

  18. X/Autosome translocation in three generations ascertained through an infant with trisomy 16p due to failure of spreading of X-inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Preis, W.; Barbi, G.; Liptay, S.; Kennerknecht, I.; Schwemmle, S.; Pohlandt, F.

    1996-01-11

    We report on a reciprocal translocation t(X;16)(q28;p12) detected in a newborn girl with clinical manifestations of partial trisomy 16p. A balanced translocation was found in the mother and in the maternal grandmother. Replication studies on lymphocytes and fibroblasts showed nonrandom X-inactivation in both the patient and her mother. In the mother, the derivative X (der(X)) was active, whereas the normal X was late replicating. In contrast, in the patient the der(X) was late replicating, and there was no spreading of X-inactivation onto the autosomal segment, thus giving an explanation for the full clinical pictures of partial trisomy 16p. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  19. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  20. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  1. NaNoWriMo in the AcadLib: A Case Study of National Novel Writing Month Activities in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alex P.

    2012-01-01

    The J. D. Williams Library at the University of Mississippi launched a pilot program during the 2010 National Novel Writing Month, hosting related events to determine community demand and how such efforts could be quantified. Using participant-submitted word counts and the event's own tools, researchers were able to ascertain that such events had…

  2. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a

  3. Finding the Little 'c' in Physics: A Multiple Case Study Examining the Development of Creative Activities in the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Christopher

    This study focused on how physics teachers develop and implement activities that promote creative thinking strategies in the standards based physics classroom. A particular focus was placed on every day or little "c", creativity, which can be taught in the high school classroom. The study utilized a multiple case study design, which allows for in-depth study in a variety of settings. Four participants from various high schools were identified utilizing administrator recommendations. Data were then collected via interviews, observations, and documents. The data were coded and analyzed for emerging themes. The themes were then merged to determine findings to the stated research questions. The research demonstrated the importance of modifying activities for student interest and understanding through effective use of scientific inquiry. The past experiences and professional development of the participants served as a vital piece to the development of their educational pedagogy especially concerning inquiry and questioning strategies. It was also established that an unstructured, positive classroom environment is a vital aspect of teaching while supporting creative thinking skills.

  4. Changes of oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus during obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Julien; Polosan, Mircea; Piallat, Brigitte; Krack, Paul; Bougerol, Thierry; Chabardès, Stéphan; David, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has positive and negative effects on mood and cognition, as shown in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and severe obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Such behavioural and clinical effects suggest that the STN has an important function in limbic circuitry, which still needs to be clarified from electrophysiological recordings. Here we report two exceptional cases of OCD patients in whom local field potentials (LFP) of the anterior STN were directly recorded during acute obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We found significant symptom-related changes in different frequency bands, with no clear preferential oscillatory pattern. The overall modified STN activity during OCD symptoms suggests a mixture of both pathological and compensatory mechanisms that would reflect the maintenance of an over stable motor/cognitive/emotional set. Whether this activity propagates throughout the entire cognitive-limbic loops that are impaired in OCD is an interesting question for future research in larger series of patients. PMID:24552693

  5. Solar activity as a possible cause of large forest fires--a case study: analysis of the Portuguese forest fires.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F P; Radovanovic, M

    2008-05-01

    Fires of large dimension destroy forests, harvests and housing objects. Apart from that combustion products and burned surfaces become large ecological problems. Very often fires emerge simultaneously on different locations of a region so a question could be asked if they always have been a consequence of negligence, pyromania, high temperatures or maybe there has been some other cause. This paper is an attempt of establishing the possible connection between forest fires that numerous satellites registered and activities happening on the Sun immediately before fires ignite. Fires emerged on relatively large areas from Portugal and Spain on August 2005, as well as on other regions of Europe. The cases that have been analyzed show that, in every concrete situation, an emission of strong electromagnetic and thermal corpuscular energy from highly energetic regions that were in geo-effective position had preceded the fires. Such emissions have, usually, very high energy and high speeds of particles and come from coronary holes that also have been either in the very structure or in the immediate closeness of the geo-effective position. It should also be noted that the solar wind directed towards the Earth becomes weaker with deeper penetration towards the topographic surface. However, the results presented in this paper suggest that, there is a strong causality relationship between solar activity and the ignition of these forest fires taking place in South-western Europe.

  6. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability.

  7. 'A tale of two cases:' the health, illness, and physical activity stories of two children living with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Moola, Fiona J; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-01-01

    Storytelling is perennial, and central to the human condition. Although illness may shatter identity and one's role and place in the broader social world, narrative may aid in the process of self-reparation. Despite the merits of the narrative approach, it has been underutilized with children who are living with cystic fibrosis (CF). The role that illness narratives may play in influencing CF youths' physical activity also remains poorly investigated. This article drew on the qualitative case study methodological tradition to narrate the stories of two children living with CF at a children's hospital in Canada. The findings beg researchers to consider (a) how children with life-limiting diseases borrow multiple illness narrative types, (b) the role of development in influencing the kinds of stories that children can tell, and (c) the impact of illness narratives on physical activity. By rendering the tales of two CF youth in this study, we respond to Aurthur Frank's call; taking a multiple narrative turn, we listen to stories of a different kind of suffering. PMID:23172873

  8. Challenges to Understand Stellar Chromospheres and Stellar Activity: The Limit Case of Late-A and Early-F Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Gouttebroze, P.

    The onset of chromospheric activity appears at late-A and early-F stars where theories predict atmospheres in radiative equilibrium and shallow or non-existent convective zones. The detection of Ly-α emission cores in several A and F stars, first with the IUE satellite and then with the HST, gives evidence for the presence of chromospheric layers in these stars up to B - V = 0. ^m19 (Catalano et al. [CITE]). Semiempirical chromospheric models for Altair allowed us (Freire et al. [CITE]) to explain the observed emission profiles taking into account normal HI IS absorption. However, due to the very high rotational velocity we analyzed alternative hypotheses like the formation of Ly-α emissions into a corotating expanding wind, but we ruled out this alternative because we obtained inconsistent results. In addition, X-ray emission (originated surely in a corona) strengthen the presence of a chromosphere. Here we place the problem of chromospheric activity of late-A and early-F stars in the general context of the formation of over-photospheric stellar layers, comparing them with late-type star and solar cases.

  9. Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis (TB) in an Emergency Room in a Region with High Prevalence of TB in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; Müller, Alice Mânica; Tomasini, Karina da Silva; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Golub, Jonathan E.; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public hospital emergency room (ER) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, a setting with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objective To determine the prevalence of PTB, using a symptom based active case finding (ACF) strategy in the ER of a public hospital in an area with high prevalence of TB and HIV, as well as variables associated with pulmonary TB diagnosis. Methods Cross sectional study. All patients ≥18 years seeking care at the ER were screened for respiratory symptoms and those with cough ≥2 weeks were invited to provide a chest radiograph and two unsupervised samples of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture. Results Among 31,267 admissions, 6,273 (20.1%) reported respiratory symptoms; 197 reported cough ≥2 weeks, of which pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 30. In multivariate analysis, the variables associated with a pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis were: age (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97; p<0.0001), sputum production (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06–0.56; p = 0.003), and radiographic findings typical of TB (OR 12.11, 95% CI 4.45–32.93; p<0.0001). Conclusions This study identified a high prevalence of pulmonary TB among patients who sought care at the emergency department of a tertiary hospital, emphasizing the importance of regular screening of all comers for active TB in this setting. PMID:25211158

  10. Five cases of Thermopsis poisoning.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, D G; Murphy, M M; Wruk, K M; Rumack, B H

    1988-01-01

    Various Thermopsis species are found in the foothills and plains of the Rocky Mountains. There are no reported cases of human ingestion to Thermopsis reported in the literature. We report 5 cases of ingestion of seeds or flowers where the primary symptoms were nausea, vomiting and headache of several hours duration. As few as 6 seeds produced symptoms. The common names used by parents when calling the poison center could have easily lead to misidentification and a careful history and subsequent professional identification were required to ascertain the actual plant involved. PMID:3193493

  11. Interseismic strain accumulation across an active thrust system: an InSAR case study in the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, R.; Doin, M.; Ducret, G.; Bollinger, L.; Pinel-Puysségur, B.; Lasserre, C.; Jolivet, R.

    2011-12-01

    The major active thrust system underlying the Himalayan range produces recurrent large earthquakes, posing a significant threat to the densely populated Indo-Gangetic basin. Measuring the interseismic deformation associated with this fault system could provide important constraints on the geometry of the locked faults that are bound to rupture in future great earthquakes. This has so far been considered out of reach of InSAR techniques, due to decorrelation, prominent topographic features, and unfavourable climatic conditions. However, preliminary tests carried out with the archived ASAR data provided by ESA's ENVISAT satellite since 2002 have shown that recent advances in InSAR processing may now allow geodesists to tackle most of these perturbations. In this context, applying these advanced techniques to the case of the Himalayas is both a challenging and necessary task. We will present the methodology and the first results of an InSAR study of interseismic strain accumulation across the Himalayas. Small-baseline processing of ENVISAT data using a combination of ROI_PAC software, NSBAS processing chain and MulSAR technique yields a sufficient number of coherent interferograms to compute a preliminary average velocity map of interseismic uplift. Time-space variations of stratified tropospheric delay observed in these interferogrames are mitigated using a prediction deduced from outputs of the ECMWF global meteorological reanalysis ERA-Interim. Finally, a correction of DEM errors from the wrapped InSAR data set further improves the coherence of interferograms with a large perpendicular baseline. Comparison of the InSAR LOS velocity maps with microseismic activity detected near the transition zone at the base of the seismogenic portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust is expected to provide constraints on the process of elastic strain accumulation during the interseismic period. This will help in understanding the interaction between the construction of topography

  12. Effect of CO sub 2 enrichment and high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) on rubisco and PEP-case activities of in vitro cultured strawberry plants

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Y.; Beeson, R.; Gosselin, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Standard growing conditions in vitro (low light and CO{sub 2}) are not conducive to autotrophy. An experiment was conducted to improve photosynthesis in vitro in the hope of increasing survival in acclimatization. A factorial experiment was elaborated where CO{sub 2} and PPFD were supplied to in vitro cultured strawberry plants in the rooting stage. Activities of carboxylating enzymes were determined after 4 weeks of culture. The activities of non-activated and activated rubisco and PEP-Case were measured after extraction of the enzymes and a reaction with NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} followed by scintillation counting spectroscopy. High CO{sub 2} concentration significantly increased net assimilation rates (NAR) by 165% over the control for both 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. High PPFD only increased NAR by 12 and 35% for 150 and 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} respectively over the control. Plants grown at 3000 ppm CO{sub 2} had the highest level of chlorophyll/g FW with 97% more than the control. The activity of PEP-Case was the highest at high light levels and high CO{sub 2} with rates of 1.65 for 1650 ppm versus 1.22 mmol CO{sub 2} mg{sup {minus}1} chl. h{sup {minus}1} at 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}. There was no difference in PEP activity at low light levels. The rubisco activity was lower at 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. Increases in NAR correlate more closely to the PEP-Case than to Rubisco activity. Physiological significance of high activity of PEP-Case over rubisco will be discussed.

  13. [Pontine reversible leucopathy in an AIDS patient associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Cartier, Luis; Matamala, José Manuel; Yáñez, Alonso

    2016-05-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes. We report a 25 years old asymptomatic male with AIDS, with normal blood pressure who after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reported vertigo. The MRI showed a central pontine T2 hyperintensity with diffusion restriction, which was interpreted as a central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), but the lack of motor symptoms made improbable a real demyelination of the pons. The follow-up MRI revealed complete regression of the images. To our knowledge, this case could be the second report of a reversible leucopathy of the pons in a patient with AIDS, were the MRI images also simulated a CPM. This report extends the knowledge around the variability of the pathogenic interpretation of CPM images and their association with HAART. PMID:27552021

  14. Social media activism and Egyptians' use of social media to combat sexual violence: an HiAP case study.

    PubMed

    Peuchaud, Sheila

    2014-06-01

    This paper represents a case study of how social media activists have harnessed the power of Facebook, Twitter and mobile phone networks to address sexual harassment in Egypt. HarassMap plots reports of sexual harassment on a Google Map and informs victims of support services. Tahrir Bodyguard and Operation Anti-Sexual Harassment (OpAntiSH) protect female protestors who have been vulnerable to sexual aggression at the hands of unruly mobs and by agents of the state. Activists have access to an Android app called 'I'm Getting Arrested' or 'Byt2ebed 3alia' in Egyptian Arabic. The app sends the time and GPS coordinates of an arrest to family, fellow activists, legal counsel and social media outlets. The hope is the initiatives described in this paper could inspire public health ministries and activist NGOs to incorporate crowdsourcing social media applications in the spirit of health in all policies (HiAP). To that end, this paper will begin by defining social media activism from the perspective of the communications discipline. This paper will then demonstrate the significance of sexual harassment as a public health issue, and describe several social media efforts to document incidents and protect victims. The paper will conclude with discussion regarding how these innovations could be integrated into the HiAP approach. PMID:25217347

  15. Social media activism and Egyptians' use of social media to combat sexual violence: an HiAP case study.

    PubMed

    Peuchaud, Sheila

    2014-06-01

    This paper represents a case study of how social media activists have harnessed the power of Facebook, Twitter and mobile phone networks to address sexual harassment in Egypt. HarassMap plots reports of sexual harassment on a Google Map and informs victims of support services. Tahrir Bodyguard and Operation Anti-Sexual Harassment (OpAntiSH) protect female protestors who have been vulnerable to sexual aggression at the hands of unruly mobs and by agents of the state. Activists have access to an Android app called 'I'm Getting Arrested' or 'Byt2ebed 3alia' in Egyptian Arabic. The app sends the time and GPS coordinates of an arrest to family, fellow activists, legal counsel and social media outlets. The hope is the initiatives described in this paper could inspire public health ministries and activist NGOs to incorporate crowdsourcing social media applications in the spirit of health in all policies (HiAP). To that end, this paper will begin by defining social media activism from the perspective of the communications discipline. This paper will then demonstrate the significance of sexual harassment as a public health issue, and describe several social media efforts to document incidents and protect victims. The paper will conclude with discussion regarding how these innovations could be integrated into the HiAP approach.

  16. Self-help/mutual aid as active citizenship associations: a case-study of the chronically ill in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Guido; Spina, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Contrary to the most widespread conception that considers self-help/mutual aid as a component of the 'third sector', an approach is proposed which assumes, on the basis of the specific nature of the social bond and of the social action that characterizes it, it can be more properly considered as part of the 'new civil society' as it has been configured during the time in Western societies. This implies its location in the public non-state and non-systemic space that it has been created in the specific form of associations of citizenship. An interuniversity research project is then presented which, using this approach, studied the case of self-help/mutual aid associations for the chronically ill in Italy, offering some of the findings regarding the origin, structural characteristics, geographical distribution and activities of these associations in order to at least partially verify the heuristic value of this approach and its implications for the processes of reform of the health systems.

  17. Activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 in saliva as diagnostic test for periodontal disease? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Izadi Borujeni, Susan; Mayer, Matthias; Eickholz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Untreated periodontal disease may influence general health. However, how may a physician, who is not trained in periodontal probing, detect untreated periodontitis? Activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) in saliva correlates with periodontal probing parameters. Thus, sensitivity and specificity of a chair-side test for aMMP-8 to detect periodontitis were evaluated. Thirty cases [untreated chronic periodontitis (ChP); 15 generalized moderate and 15 generalized severe] and 30 controls [probing depths (PD) ≤3 mm, vertical probing attachment level (PAL-V) ≤2 mm at <30 % of sites) were examined periodontally (PD, PAL-V, bleeding on probing). Subsequently, the aMMP-8 test was performed. The test kit becomes positive with ≥25 ng/ml aMMP-8 in the sample. The aMMP-8 test was positive in 87 % of ChP and in 40 % of controls. That corresponds to a sensitivity of 87 % and a specificity of 60 %. The sensitivity to detect generalized severe ChP was 93 % (60 % specificity). Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis to explain positive aMMP-8 tests identified exclusively ChP with an odds ratio of 9.8 (p < 0.001). Positive results of the aMMP-8 test significantly correlate with generalized ChP. The aMMP-8 test may be used by physicians to detect periodontitis in their patients.

  18. Physical activity in individuals with haemophilia and experience with recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein and recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein for the treatment of active patients: a literature review and case reports

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael; Álvarez-Román, María Teresa; Chowdary, Pratima; Quon, Doris V.; Schafer, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The World Federation of Hemophilia and the National Hemophilia Foundation encourage people with haemophilia (PWH) to participate in routine physical activity. The benefits of physical activity for PWH include improvements in joint, bone, and muscle health. Accordingly, a number of studies suggest that levels of physical activity among PWH are similar to those of their healthy peers, especially among individuals who began prophylaxis at an early age (≤3 years). Importantly, several studies found either no increased risk or only a transient increase in risk of bleeding with more intensive physical activity compared with less intensive physical activity. Data on optimal prophylaxis regimens for PWH who participate in physical/sporting activities; however, remain sparse. Long-acting recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) and recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein (rFIXFc) demonstrated efficacy for the prevention and treatment of bleeding episodes in Phase 3 clinical trials of participants with haemophilia A and B, respectively, with most individuals able to maintain or increase their physical activities. This manuscript reviews the current literature that describes physical activity in PWH. Additionally, case studies are presented to provide supplemental information to clinicians illustrating the use of rFVIIIFc and rFIXFc in physically active patients with haemophilia A and B, respectively. These case reports demonstrate that it is possible for patients to be physically active and maintain good control of their haemophilia with extended interval prophylactic dosing using rFVIIIFc or rFIXFc. PMID:27116081

  19. [Ascertaining a Venezuelan oil town's health conditions].

    PubMed

    Mijares-Seminario, Rodrigo; Hernández, Leicy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysing health conditions in the town of Carirubana in Falcón State, Venezuela, as a prior study to the construction of a gas conditioning plant there. Methods This study formed part of a field research project which involved consulting primary and secondary sources. The former consisted of evaluating public and private health-centres and those in the Barrio Adentro system; the aforementioned health centres' medical staff were interviewed to determine current health-disease status and the factors determining health for the town being studied. Likewise, both situations (health-disease and factors determining health) were evaluated and analysed in the secondary sources at national, state and municipal level. Results Deficits were observed at national level regarding public health infrastructure; there were 1.3 beds per thousand inhabitants, this being less than half that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (i.e. three to four beds per thousand inhabitants). State and municipal cancer mortality rates were relatively stable over a four-year period (2001-2004). Conclusions The mortality rate in Carirubana was characteristic of a low-income area. The poverty and pollution directly produced by the oil refining plants were the key determinants for this town's morbidity and mortality rates.

  20. Forecasting landslide activations by means of GA-SAKe. An example of application to three case studies in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; De Rango, Alessio; Gariano, Stefano L.; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2016-04-01

    GA-SAKe - the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel) - allows to forecast the timing of activation of landslides [1, 2], based on dates of landslide activations and rainfall series. The model can be applied to either single or set of similar landslides in a homogeneous context. Calibration of the model is performed through Genetic-Algorithm, and provides families of optimal, discretized solutions (kernels) that maximize the fitness function. The mobility functions are obtained through convolution of the optimal kernels with rain series. The shape of the kernel, including its base time, is related to magnitude of the landslide and hydro-geological complexity of the slope. Once validated, the model can be applied to estimate the timing of future landslide activations in the same study area, by employing measured or forecasted rainfall. GA-SAKe is here employed to analyse the historical activations of three rock slides in Calabria (Southern Italy), threatening villages and main infrastructures. In particular: 1) the Acri-Serra di Buda case, developed within a Sackung, involving weathered crystalline and metamorphic rocks; for this case study, 6 dates of activation are available; 2) the San Fili-Uncino case, developed in clay and conglomerate overlaying gneiss and biotitic schist; for this case study, 7 dates of activation are available [2]; 3) the San Benedetto Ullano-San Rocco case, developed in weathered metamorphic rocks; for this case study, 3 dates of activation are available [1, 3, 4, 5]. The obtained results are quite promising, given the high performance of the model against slope movements characterized by numerous historical activations. Obtained results, in terms of shape and base time of the kernels, are compared by taking into account types and sizes of the considered case studies, and involved rock types. References [1] Terranova O.G., Iaquinta P., Gariano S.L., Greco R. & Iovine G. (2013) In: Landslide

  1. Genes encoding critical transcriptional activators for murine neural tube development and human spina bifida: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spina bifida is a malformation of the neural tube and is the most common of neural tube defects (NTDs). The etiology of spina bifida is largely unknown, although it is thought to be multi-factorial, involving multiple interacting genes and environmental factors. Mutations in transcriptional co-activator genes-Cited2, p300, Cbp, Tfap2α, Carm1 and Cart1 result in NTDs in murine models, thus prompt us to investigate whether homologues of these genes are associated with NTDs in humans. Methods Data and biological samples from 297 spina bifida cases and 300 controls were derived from a population-based case-control study conducted in California. 37 SNPs within CITED2, EP300, CREBBP, TFAP2A, CARM1 and ALX1 were genotyped using an ABI SNPlex assay. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes to evaluate the risk for spina bifida. Results Several SNPs showed increased or decreased risk, including CITED2 rs1131431 (OR = 5.32, 1.04~27.30), EP300 rs4820428 (OR = 1.30, 1.01~1.67), EP300 rs4820429 (OR = 0.50, 0.26~0.50, in whites, OR = 0.7, 0.49~0.99 in all subjects), EP300 rs17002284 (OR = 0.43, 0.22~0.84), TFAP2A rs3798691 (OR = 1.78, 1.13~2.87 in Hispanics), CREBBP rs129986 (OR = 0.27, 0.11~0.69), CARM1 rs17616105 (OR = 0.41, 0.22~0.72 in whites). In addition, one haplotype block in EP300 and one in TFAP2A appeared to be associated with increased risk. Conclusions Modest associations were observed in CITED2, EP300, CREBBP, TFAP2A and CARM1 but not ALX1. However, these modest associations were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Searching for potential functional variants and rare causal mutations is warranted in these genes. PMID:20932315

  2. Case-Based Learning in Virtual Groups--Collaborative Problem Solving Activities and Learning Outcomes in a Virtual Professional Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Birgitta; Hasenbein, Melanie; Mandl, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the collaborative problem solving activities and learning outcomes of five groups that worked on two different complex cases in a virtual professional training course. In this asynchronous virtual learning environment, all knowledge management content was delivered virtually and collaboration took place through forums. To…

  3. Are Discussions about College between Parents and Their High School Children a College-Planning Activity? Making the Case and Testing the Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott M.; Myers, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Our research goals are to make the case that parent-student discussions about college planning should be seen as a distinct college-planning activity and to identify and test the relevant predictors of these discussions. Findings from over 4,000 parents and their high school children show that parent-student discussions are enhanced when both the…

  4. Designing Adult Education Activities: A Case of Civic Education Programmes by National Commission for Civic Education in the Ashaiman Municipality in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afriyie, Sally Adwoa

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the efficiency of the design of educational activities of the National Commission for Civic Education (NCCE) in Ashaiman municipality in Ghana. Using a descriptive case study design, data was collected from seven (7) Community Based Groups in Ashaiman. The results of the study indicated that to a large extent, there was…

  5. Fibrinogen Vicenza and Genova II: two new cases of congenital dysfibrinogenemia with isolated defect of fibrin monomer polymerization and inhibitory activity on normal coagulation.

    PubMed

    Rodeghiero, F; Castaman, G C; Dal Belin Peruffo, A; Dini, E; Galletti, A; Barone, E; Gastaldi, G

    1987-06-01

    Two new cases of congenital dysfibrinogenemia are presented in which defective fibrin monomer polymerization and inhibitory activity on normal coagulation were observed. They have been tentatively called fibrinogen Vicenza and Genova II. The first was discovered in a family with mild bleeding diathesis, the second in an asymptomatic family. In almost all reported cases of fibrinogens with defective fibrin monomer polymerization, additional functional or structural defects have been detected. In our cases, on the contrary, detailed investigations failed to show any other abnormality. Fibrinogen Genova II is apparently identical to fibrinogen Baltimore IV, whereas fibrinogen Vicenza is similar to fibrinogen Troyes and Genova I, but also exerts an evident inhibitory activity on normal coagulation and differs from fibrinogen Genova II and Baltimore IV showing a different kinetic pattern of fibrin monomer polymerization.

  6. Multi-method characterisation of an active landslide: Case study in the Pays d'Auge plateau (Normandy, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fressard, M.; Maquaire, O.; Thiery, Y.; Davidson, R.; Lissak, C.

    2016-10-01

    Shallow landslides are among the most frequent natural hazards in the Pays d'Auge plateau (Normandy, France) but no study has yet focused on the functioning of these phenomena at a detailed scale. This study aims to identify the structure and mechanical properties of a representative case study in the region. The main objective is to understand landslide dynamics and behaviour in order to assess triggering conditions and quantify triggering thresholds. The results will help complement the regional landslide hazard mapping based on landslide statistical susceptibility mapping and quantification of triggering thresholds. The landslide morphology and internal structure were identified using a multi-method approach. A morphodynamic map was produced in the field using cartographic GPS to depict the surface morphology and map the estimated landslide activity. These field measurements were completed by an analysis of all available aerial-photo images from the French National Geographic Institute (IGN) to identify the occurrence dates and possible landslide reactivations. The landslide structure was defined using multiple electrical tomography profiles, boreholes, augerings and penetration tests. Despite the overall low electrical resistivity of the landslide materials (i.e. ± < 80 Ω·m), the electrical profiles showed good agreement with the interpreted structure based on direct observations (augerings and penetration tests). The landslide slip surface, internal morphology and palaeotopography were identified. A finite slope model was used to calculate the landslide safety factor based on the internal structure and geotechnical data. The evolution of this safety factor according to the rainfall and the groundwater levels shows that the landslides are more likely to occur after long episodes of high cumulative precipitations with an important role being played by the preliminary conditions and the rise of the surficial groundwater table level.

  7. Interaction between peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma polymorphism and overweight on diabetic retinopathy in a Chinese case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Xin-Hua; Li, Ruo-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) and overweight were both associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR), so the aim of this study was to investigate the association of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PPAR γ with DR and additional role of gene-BMI interaction. Methods: A total of 500 patients with T2DM (236 men, 264 women), with a mean age of 54.3 ± 15.8 years old, were selected, including 247 diabetic retinopathy patients and 253 controls. Four SNPs were selected for genotyping in the case-control study: rs1805192, rs709158, rs3856806, rs4684847. Logistic regression model was used to examine the interaction between SNP and overweight on DR, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confident interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: The carriers of C allele of the rs1805192 polymorphism revealed decreased DR risk than those with Pro/Pro variants (Pro/Ala+Ala/Ala versus Pro/Pro, adjusted OR (95% CI)=0.86 (0.65-0.96), P=0.012), after adjusting for covariates. We also found that obese subjects with Pro/Ala or Ala/Ala variants genotype have lowest DR risk, compared to obese subjects with Pro/Pro genotype or non- obese subjects with Pro/Ala or Ala/Ala (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.32-0.63), after covariates adjustment. Conclusions: Our results support an important association between rs1805192 minor allele (Ala allele) of PPAR γ and DR, the interaction analysis shown a combined effect of Ala- BMI interaction on DR. PMID:26885119

  8. [Investigation of physical activity among adults].

    PubMed

    Meboniia, N M; Kalandadze, I L; Chachava, T D; Sadzhaia, M V

    2006-06-01

    Lack of physical activity as well as smoking, overweight, high blood cholesterol level and hypertension are independent risk factors for development of various chronic diseases. Lack of physical activity is a main cause of non-communicable diseases morbidity and mortality in about 23% of cases (WHO, 2002). Goal of the survey was the identification and characteristics of physical activity among adults. We conducted epidemiologic survey among the school-children and students in Tbilisi. Survey was carried out in 40 schools from all regions of Tbilisi and 9 state and private institutes. Schools were selected by randomized trail in each region of Tbilisi and in each school were questioned all teen-agers from 14-17 year old. For selecting group of survey was used method of "proportional probability of value". There were questioned 2 500 school children and 1000 students, 38% boys and 62% girls. The results of survey ascertained that 23,5%-39,5% of respondents are training or engaged in sport everyday, or several times per week; 17,2% - once in a month; 9,3% once in a year; or 10,5% - never. Adults are less informed about useful effect of physical activity. Respondents had different point of on the role of physical activity: some of them thought it controls weight; others - prevents development of different diseases; the rest thinks that it copes with psycho-emotional stress, and none of them precise about effectiveness of physical activity in all cases mentioned above. Propaganda of healthy life stile must be associated with the effectiveness of physical activity on health.

  9. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis of an informal education activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2011-10-01

    "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13 [1]. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held at several Science Festival in Italy (Perugia, Genova, Fiorano, Bologna) obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives incharge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherdmoons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to rebuild the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to

  10. Using group consciousness theories to understand political activism: case studies of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and Ingo Hasselbach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lauren E

    2010-12-01

    I describe and integrate several theories of group consciousness and collective action, along with 3 case studies of political activists. I have 2 goals: (1) to use the theories to help us understand something puzzling about each life and (2) to use the cases to complicate and expand the theories. Barack Obama's case raises the question of how someone with a politicized Black identity evolved into a politician working for all oppressed people and complicates racial identity development theory. Hillary Clinton's case raises the question of how a middle-class White girl raised in a conservative family became a prominent Democratic Party politician and complicates group consciousness theories by demonstrating the importance of generation and personality. Ingo Hasselbach's (a former German neo-Nazi leader) case illustrates relative deprivation theory and raises the question of whether theories developed to explain subordinate group consciousness can be applied to movements of dominant group consciousness.

  11. Using group consciousness theories to understand political activism: case studies of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and Ingo Hasselbach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lauren E

    2010-12-01

    I describe and integrate several theories of group consciousness and collective action, along with 3 case studies of political activists. I have 2 goals: (1) to use the theories to help us understand something puzzling about each life and (2) to use the cases to complicate and expand the theories. Barack Obama's case raises the question of how someone with a politicized Black identity evolved into a politician working for all oppressed people and complicates racial identity development theory. Hillary Clinton's case raises the question of how a middle-class White girl raised in a conservative family became a prominent Democratic Party politician and complicates group consciousness theories by demonstrating the importance of generation and personality. Ingo Hasselbach's (a former German neo-Nazi leader) case illustrates relative deprivation theory and raises the question of whether theories developed to explain subordinate group consciousness can be applied to movements of dominant group consciousness. PMID:21039526

  12. Lifetime physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Koo, Jocelyn; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of moderate physical activity and life patterns of activity in reducing endometrial cancer risk remains uncertain. Methods We assessed lifetime histories of activity from recreation, transportation, chores, and occupation and other risk factors in a population-based case-control study of endometrial cancer conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. The analysis was based on 472 newly diagnosed cases ascertained by the regional cancer registry and 443 controls identified by random-digit dialing who completed an in-person interview. Results Reduced risks associated with greater lifetime physical activity (highest vs. lowest tertile) were found for both total activity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43–0.87, ptrend = 0.01) and activity of moderate intensity (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.30–0.64, ptrend < 0.0001). Compared to women with low lifetime physical activity (below median), those with greater activity throughout life had the highest reduction in risk (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.44–0.88). Inverse associations were stronger in obese and overweight women, but differences were not statistically significantly different from those in normal weight women. Conclusion These findings suggest that physical activity in adulthood, even of moderate intensity, may be effective in lowering the risk of endometrial cancer, particularly among those at highest risk for this disease. Impact The results emphasize the importance of evaluating lifetime histories of physical activity from multiple sources, including both recreational and non-recreational activities of various intensities, in order to fully understand the relation between physical activity and disease risk. PMID:20406960

  13. [Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].

    PubMed

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.

  14. Using Muon Radiography to map the Bedrock Geometry underneath an active Glacier: A Case Study in the Central Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, muon radiography has been successfully applied to tackle geological issues and has enjoyed an increasing interest, mainly because this methodology enriches the geophysical arsenal by another shallow subsurface imaging tool that may give independent constraints on material density. Muons that originate from the collision of cosmic particles with Earth's atmosphere are able to penetrate the material in question and can finally be recorded by a detector. The irradiation intensity can then be inverted to the density of the traversed material. Various successful two-dimensional attempts have already been made to image e.g. magma chambers inside volcanoes (Lesparre et al., 2012; Nishiyama et al., 2014; Tanaka et al., 2005), but this method has yet to be applied for mapping the base of glaciers, where the density contrasts between ice and underlying bedrock are even greater than those between magma and host rock. While a high Alpine setup limits the possibilities to deploy traditional geophysical methods for surveying the base of glaciers (because of inaccessible terrain, poor infrastructure or the presence of water in the ice), muon radiography might prove to be a promising alternative. The muon intensity data from stereo observation can be related to the three-dimensional geometry of the interface between the glacier and its bedrock. Given a suitable input model, this relation can be solved within the framework of geophysical inverse problems. The final model then gives geologists invaluable information on erosional mechanisms underneath active glaciers, as this has not yet been observed. We test this methodology for a site within the Jungfrau region, situated in the central Swiss Alps. Our first goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, starting from a toy model in a first phase and continuing with real data in a second phase. For this purpose, we installed cosmic-ray detectors at two sites inside

  15. Essential activities and knowledge domains of case management: new insights from the CCMC role and functions study.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein

    2006-01-01

    The Commission for Case Manager Certification (CCMC) defines case management (CM) as "a collaborative process that assesses, plans, implements, coordinates, monitors, and evaluates the options and services required to meet an individual's health needs. [Case management] uses communication and available resources to promote quality, cost-effective outcomes." The practice of CM spans the entire health-care spectrum, including pre-acute, acute, and post-acute settings, and the involvement of varied care providers, such as nurses, social workers, rehabilitation counselors, physicians, and other allied health professionals. So what does it mean to practice as a case manager? What roles and job functions are performed and what knowledge is required of a professional in the field for effective practice? These highly relevant questions reflect the thinking of the CCMC commissioners when the latest Case Manager Role and Functions study was undertaken. The primary purpose of this research, which is conducted every 5 years by the CCMC, is to capture the current state of CM practice. This type of in-depth research is required to support an evidence-based certification examination such as the one offered by CCMC-the certified case manager (CCM) credential. Moreover, as the first and largest nationally accredited organization to certify US case managers, the CCMC recognizes its responsibility to undertake and promote scientifically conducted research in the field of CM.

  16. Active tuberculosis case finding and detection of drug resistance among HIV-infected patients: A cross-sectional study in a TB endemic area, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemayehu, Martha; Gelaw, Baye; Abate, Ebba; Wassie, Liya; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Bekele, Shiferaw; Kempker, Russell R.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often lack the classic symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, making the diagnosis difficult. Current practices in resource-limited settings often indicate that these co-infected patients are diagnosed when they clinically manifest disease symptoms, resulting in a delayed diagnosis and despite continued transmission. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis cases through active case finding and including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) among HIV-infected patients. Materials and methods A total of 250 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and above were evaluated in a cross-sectional design between February 2012 and November 2012. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Sputum samples were collected from all participants for acid fast bacilli (AFB) direct smear microscopy and Mycobacteria culture. A PCR-based RD9 deletion and genus typing, as well as first-line anti-TB drug susceptibility testing, was performed for all culture-positive isolates. Results Following active TB case finding, a total of 15/250 (6%) cases were diagnosed as TB cases, of whom 9/250 (3.6%) were detected by both smear microscopy and culture and the remaining 6/250 (2.4%) only by culture. All the 15 isolates were typed through RD9 typing of which 10 were Mycobacterium tuberculosis species; 1 belonged to Mycobacterium genus and 4 isolates were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary TB disease among the study participants was 4.4%, which implies the possibility of identifying even more undiagnosed cases through active case finding. A multivariate logistic regression showed a statistically significant association between the presence of pneumonia infection and the occurrence of TB (OR = 4.81, 95% CI (1.08–21.43), p = 0.04). In addition, all the isolates were sensitive to all first

  17. On coronal structures and their variability in active stars: The case of Capella observed with Chandra/LETGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, C.; Maggio, A.; Peres, G.

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of two X-ray spectra of Capella, taken eleven months apart with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) of the Chandra Observatory. We have studied variability of the coronal emission over different time scales, both in the whole X-ray band and in narrow temperature ranges identified by lines. The comparison of the two observations shows that the whole coronal emission of Capella in March 2000 was 3% higher than in February 2001; there also appears to be a tendency, albeit a marginal one, for the hottest lines to show the largest changes between the two observations. A detailed search for short-term variability (on time scales ranging from 102 to 104 s) in the emission of individual lines shows that in all cases the emission is compatible with a constant source; the firm upper limits of 5%-10% to the source variability on short time scales suggests that the intense X-ray emission is due to stable coronal structures and not to flaring activity. We have also determined the coronal thermal structure, as described with the emission measure distribution vs. temperature and with the help of plasma density, derived from the analysis of the O Vii, Ne Ix, Mg Xi and Si Xiii He-like ion triplets. The emission measure distribution, em(T), and the element abundances, have been reconstructed with the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method by \\citeauthor{KashyapDrake1998}; the em(T) presents a previously known sharp peak around log T=6.8-6.9, but we have also found evidence of a small amount of plasma at T>107 K. With the help of the em(T) and the density values we have estimated the pressure and volume of the emitting plasma at different temperatures, and we have derived information about the structure of individual loops and about the population of loops having different maximum temperatures. Our results indicate that loops with higher maximum temperature have higher pressure and smaller volume than lower temperature loops

  18. Association Between Polymorphisms of ADRBK1 Gene and Plasma Renin Activity in Hypertensive Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Li, Nanfang; Yao, Xiaoguang; Heizati, Mulalibieke; Zhang, Delian; Zhu, Qing; Chang, Guijuan; Zhang, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Background Renin is the first step of the RAS cascade, which is a major regulator of salt-volume homeostasis. Adrenergic beta receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1) plays important roles in regulating blood pressure via the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which plays an important role in Na+ reabsorption in the renal collecting duct. The present case-control study was designed to investigate the potential relationship between polymorphisms of ADRBK1 and plasma renin activity (PRA) in hypertension. Material/Methods We recruited 1831 hypertensive and 422 normotensive Han Chinese subjects. Sitting PRA (ng/mL/h) was measured using radioimmunoassay method. Hypertensive patients were classified into 4 renin categories via PRA quartile. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADRBK1 gene (rs1894111, rs4930416, rs7127431, rs12286664, and rs3730147) were identified via TaqMan polymerase chain reaction. Results Comparison of the hypertensive group and the control group showed significant differences in distribution of genotypes and alleles of rs1894111 (P<0.05). Moreover, distribution of the dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) in rs1894111 was lower in the hypertensive group than in the control group (P<0.05). Subjects were classified into 4 subgroups based on PRA quartile; the dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) of rs1894111 was significantly lower in the quartile 1 group (the group with the lowest PRA) than in the control group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) of rs1894111 was significantly different in the hypertensive group (OR=1.590, 95%CI=1.022–2.474, P<0.05), particularly in the quartile 1 group (OR=1.845, 95%CI=1.119–3.042, P<0.05), but not in the quartile 4 group. Conclusions The dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) of rs1894111 polymorphism in the ADRBK1 gene might be associated with low-renin hypertension in Han Chinese. PMID:27555048

  19. Association Between Polymorphisms of ADRBK1 Gene and Plasma Renin Activity in Hypertensive Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Li, Nanfang; Yao, Xiaoguang; Heizati, Mulalibieke; Zhang, Delian; Zhu, Qing; Chang, Guijuan; Zhang, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Renin is the first step of the RAS cascade, which is a major regulator of salt-volume homeostasis. Adrenergic beta receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1) plays important roles in regulating blood pressure via the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which plays an important role in Na+ reabsorption in the renal collecting duct. The present case-control study was designed to investigate the potential relationship between polymorphisms of ADRBK1 and plasma renin activity (PRA) in hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 1831 hypertensive and 422 normotensive Han Chinese subjects. Sitting PRA (ng/mL/h) was measured using radioimmunoassay method. Hypertensive patients were classified into 4 renin categories via PRA quartile. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADRBK1 gene (rs1894111, rs4930416, rs7127431, rs12286664, and rs3730147) were identified via TaqMan polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Comparison of the hypertensive group and the control group showed significant differences in distribution of genotypes and alleles of rs1894111 (P<0.05). Moreover, distribution of the dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) in rs1894111 was lower in the hypertensive group than in the control group (P<0.05). Subjects were classified into 4 subgroups based on PRA quartile; the dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) of rs1894111 was significantly lower in the quartile 1 group (the group with the lowest PRA) than in the control group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) of rs1894111 was significantly different in the hypertensive group (OR=1.590, 95%CI=1.022-2.474, P<0.05), particularly in the quartile 1 group (OR=1.845, 95%CI=1.119-3.042, P<0.05), but not in the quartile 4 group. CONCLUSIONS The dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT) of rs1894111 polymorphism in the ADRBK1 gene might be associated with low-renin hypertension in Han Chinese. PMID:27555048

  20. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  1. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  2. Physical activity and implications on well-being in mild Alzheimer's disease: A qualitative case study on two men with dementia and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Cedervall, Ylva; Aberg, Anna Cristina

    2010-05-01

    To improve the understanding of experiences of people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their significant others, related to the physical activity of the afflicted persons and its perceived importance. A qualitative case study design was used. The study comprised two men with mild AD and their wives. Data were collected by qualitative interviews and participant observations. Data analysis followed a thematic guideline as described by Braun and Clarke ( 2006 ). Three central themes of experiences related to physical activity in AD were identified: 1) physical activity as health reinforcement; 2) barriers to physical activity; and 3) adaptation strategies. Important motivations for outdoor walks were enjoyable experiences of nature, body movement, and positive attitudes toward physical activity. Several factors were experienced as barriers to physical activity (e.g., tiredness, difficulties in finding one's way, and "peculiar behavior"). Significant others made considerable adjustments in everyday life to enable their partners to retain a physically active lifestyle. The findings indicate that in persons with AD, physical activities such as outdoor walking can play an important part in everyday life by creating meaningful routines and improving experienced well-being and health.

  3. Dynamical parameter analysis of continuous seismic signals of Popocatépetl volcano (Central Mexico): A case of tectonic earthquakes influencing volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárraga, Marta; Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana; Carniel, Roberto; Martínez-Bringas, Alicia; García, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2012-06-01

    The continuous background seismic activity contains information on the internal state of a volcanic system. Here, we report the influence of major regional tectonic earthquakes (M > 5 in most cases) on such state, reflected as changes in the spectral and dynamical parameters of the volcano continuous seismic data. Although changes do not always occur, analysis of five cases of earthquake-induced variations in the signals recorded at Popocatépetl volcano in central México reveal significant fluctuations following the tectonic earthquakes. External visible volcanic activity, such as small to moderate explosions and ash emissions, were related to those fluctuations. We briefly discuss possible causes of the variations. We conclude that recognition of fluctuations in the dynamical parameters in volcano monitoring seismic signals after tectonic earthquakes, even those located in the far field, hundreds of kilometers away, may provide an additional criterion for eruption forecasting, and for decision making in the definition of volcanic alert levels.

  4. Co-segregation of Freiberg's infraction with a familial translocation t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2) ascertained by a child with cri du chat syndrome and brachydactyly type A1B.

    PubMed

    Myśliwiec, Marta; Panasiuk, Barbara; Dębiec-Rychter, Maria; Iwanowski, Piotr Sebastian; Łebkowska, Urszula; Nowakowska, Beata; Marcinkowska, Anna; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Midro, Alina T

    2015-02-01

    The identification of chromosomal breakpoints in association with human abnormal phenotypes can enable elucidation of gene function. We report on epiphyseal aseptic necrosis of the lesser head of the second metatarsal bone, known as Freiberg's infraction (FI), in two female carriers of the apparently balanced t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2) ascertained by a 16-year-old girl with cri-du-chat syndrome and unusual skeletal features in association with an unbalanced translocation der(5) t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2). Mapping of the chromosome breakpoints using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) narrowed them to the coding sequence of ADAMTS12 on chromosome 5p13.3 and SDK1 on 7p22.2. In addition, several skeletal abnormalities classified as brachydactyly type A1B (BDA1B) were present in the proband and in both carriers of t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2), suggesting a potential role of ADAMTS12 in the development of the BDA1B observed in this family. PMID:25756154

  5. Mild soaps and radiotherapy: a survey of the UK public to identify brands of soap considered mild and analysis of these to ascertain suitability for recommendation in radiotherapy departments.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Brown, P

    2011-05-01

    Cancer agencies recommend that patients use mild soap when undergoing external beam radiotherapy to minimise skin reactions. They define 'mild soap' as non-alkaline, lanolin free, unperfumed soap with a neutral pH. This study aimed to identify which soaps the UK public perceive as mild and ascertain if these were clinically mild and could potentially be recommended within radiotherapy departments. A survey of 237 participants identified eight top brands of mild soap, which were then tested for pH and analysed for potential irritants. All soaps were lanolin free and non-alkaline, with Simple and Johnson's the closest to pH 5.5. All contained fragrances except Simple and E45. Dove, Pears and Imperial Leather contained the highest concentration of fragrances. All soaps except E45 contained potential irritants. Only Simple and E45 fit the cancer agencies' definition of mild soap and could therefore be recommended for radiotherapy patients. Future research should identify current practices and recommendations in the UK as anecdotal evidence suggests large variations in skin care advice. Further scientific analysis could potentially identify cheaper brands that fit the definition of 'mild'. UK recommendations should be standardised and consistent with best practice to reduce skin reaction severity in radiotherapy patients.

  6. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups: a case study of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-shan; Fu, Hui-zhen; Qu, Xiao-yan

    2011-09-15

    Reliable and accurate determinations of the quantities and composition of wastes is required for the planning of municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was developed and employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in Beijing. The principle is that MSW is produced by consumption of consumer goods by residents in their daily activities: 'Maintenance' (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care), 'Subsistence' (providing the financial requirements) and 'Leisure' (social and recreational pursuits) activities. Three series of important parameters - waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure, consumer expenditure distribution to activities in unit time, and time assignment to activities by different resident groups - were determined using a statistical analysis, a sampling survey and the Analytic Hierarchy Process, respectively. Data for analysis were obtained from the Beijing Statistical Yearbook (2004-2008) and questionnaire survey. The results reveal that 'Maintenance' activity produced the most MSW, distantly followed by 'Leisure' and 'Subsistence' activities. In 2008, in descending order of MSW generation the different resident groups were floating population, non-civil servants, retired people, civil servants, college students (including both undergraduates and graduates), primary and secondary students, and preschoolers. The new estimation model, which was successful in fitting waste generation by different activities and resident groups over the investigated years, was amenable to MSW prediction.

  7. Anti-tumor activity of patient-derived NK cells after cell-based immunotherapy – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Valeria; Stangl, Stefan; Issels, Rolf; Gehrmann, Mathias; Wagner, Beate; Hube, Kathrin; Mayr, Doris; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Molls, Michael; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Background Membrane-bound heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) serves as a tumor-specific recognition structure for Hsp70-peptide (TKD) plus IL-2 activated NK cells. A phase I clinical trial has shown that repeated re-infusions of ex vivo TKD/IL-2-activated, autologous leukapheresis product is safe. This study investigated the maintenance of the cytolytic activity of NK cells against K562 cells and autologous tumor after 6 plus 3 infusions of TKD/IL-2-activated effector cells. Methods A stable tumor cell line was generated from the resected anastomotic relapse of a patient with colon carcinoma (pT3, N2, M0, G2). Two months after surgery, the patient received the first monthly i.v. infusion of his ex vivo TKD/IL-2-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). After 6 infusions and a pause of 3 months, the patient received another 3 cell infusions. The phenotypic characteristics and activation status of tumor and effector cells were determined immediately before and at times after each infusion. Results The NK cell ligands Hsp70, MICA/B, and ULBP-1,2,3 were expressed on the patient's anastomotic relapse. An increased density of activatory NK cell receptors following ex vivo stimulation correlated with an enhanced anti-tumoricidal activity. After 4 re-infusion cycles, the intrinsic cytolytic activity of non-stimulated PBMNC was significantly elevated and this heightened responsiveness persisted for up to 3 months after the last infusion. Another 2 re-stimulations with TKD/IL-2 restored the cytolytic activity after the therapeutic pause. Conclusion In a patient with colon carcinoma, repeated infusions of ex vivo TKD/IL-2-activated PBMNC initiate an intrinsic NK cell-mediated cytolytic activity against autologous tumor cells. PMID:19549307

  8. The calcineurin/NFAT pathway is activated in diagnostic breast cancer cases and is essential to survival and metastasis of mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Quang, C Tran; Leboucher, S; Passaro, D; Fuhrmann, L; Nourieh, M; Vincent-Salomon, A; Ghysdael, J

    2015-02-26

    Nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression has been associated with increased migratory/invasive properties of mammary tumor-derived cell lines in vitro. It is unknown, however, if NFAT activation actually occurs in breast cancer cases and whether the calcineurin/NFAT pathway is important to mammary tumorigenesis. Using a cohort of 321 diagnostic cases of the major subgroup of breast cancer, we found Cn/NFAT pathway activated in ER(-)PR(-)HER2(-) triple-negative breast cancer subtype, whereas its prevalence is less in other subgroups. Using a small hairpin RNA-based gene expression silencing approach in murine mammary tumor cell line (4T1), we show that not only NFAT1 but also NFAT2 and their upstream activator Cn are essential to the migratory and invasive properties of mammary tumor cells. We also demonstrate that Cn, NFAT1 and NFAT2 are essential to the tumorigenic and metastatic properties of these cells in mice, a phenotype which coincides with increased apoptosis in vivo. Finally, global gene expression analyses identified several NFAT-deregulated genes, many of them being previously associated with mammary tumorigenesis. In particular, we identified the gene encoding a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombonspondin motifs 1, as being a potential direct target of NFAT1. Thus, our results show that the Cn/NFAT pathway is activated in diagnostic cases of breast cancers and is essential to the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of mammary tumor cell line. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the Cn/NFAT pathway at different levels could be of therapeutical interest for breast cancer patients.

  9. The Impact of Institutional Culture on Student Activism: A Multi-Case Study in Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to the description and meaning of student activism within the context of Christian college environments and cultures, and is interpreted through the sociological concept of symbolic interactionism. The purpose of this study is to help fill the void in the literature on student activism at Christian colleges and universities,…

  10. EFL Learning through Language Activities outside the Classroom: A Case Study of English Education Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chusanachoti, Ruedeerath

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how Thai learners of English as a foreign language, engaged in English activities outside of classrooms to learn and practice the English language. Three research questions of this study include: (a) How do the participants perceive access and availability of out of class English activities in local environments?, (b) How do…

  11. Exploring Students' Emotional Responses and Participation in an Online Peer Assessment Activity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the social interactions among individuals of learning communities, including those individuals engaged in peer assessment activities, emotion may be a key factor in learning. However, research regarding the emotional response of learners in online peer assessment activities is relatively scarce. Detecting learners' emotion when they make…

  12. Twitter as a Teaching Practice to Enhance Active and Informal Learning in Higher Education: The Case of Sustainable Tweets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassens-Noor, Eva

    2012-01-01

    With the rise of Web 2.0, a multitude of new possibilities on how to use these online technologies for active learning has intrigued researchers. While most instructors have used Twitter for in-class discussions, this study explores the teaching practice of Twitter as an active, informal, outside-of-class learning tool. Through a comparative…

  13. Exploring the Relevance of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model in Adapted Physical Activity: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Paul M.; White, Katherine; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model (PSRM) in an adapted physical activity program. Although the PSRM was developed for use with underserved youth, scholars in the field of adapted physical activity have noted its potential relevance for children with disabilities. Using a…

  14. Changes in Muscle Activation Following Ankle Strength Training in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: An Electromyography Feasibility Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Jamie E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Foreman, Matthew H.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are likely to experience decreased participation in activities and less competence in activities of daily living. Studies of children with spastic CP have shown that strengthening programs produce positive results in strength, gait, and functional outcomes (measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure). No…

  15. Osteoporosis-related fracture case definitions for population-based administrative data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Population-based administrative data have been used to study osteoporosis-related fracture risk factors and outcomes, but there has been limited research about the validity of these data for ascertaining fracture cases. The objectives of this study were to: (a) compare fracture incidence estimates from administrative data with estimates from population-based clinically-validated data, and (b) test for differences in incidence estimates from multiple administrative data case definitions. Methods Thirty-five case definitions for incident fractures of the hip, wrist, humerus, and clinical vertebrae were constructed using diagnosis codes in hospital data and diagnosis and service codes in physician billing data from Manitoba, Canada. Clinically-validated fractures were identified from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Generalized linear models were used to test for differences in incidence estimates. Results For hip fracture, sex-specific differences were observed in the magnitude of under- and over-ascertainment of administrative data case definitions when compared with CaMos data. The length of the fracture-free period to ascertain incident cases had a variable effect on over-ascertainment across fracture sites, as did the use of imaging, fixation, or repair service codes. Case definitions based on hospital data resulted in under-ascertainment of incident clinical vertebral fractures. There were no significant differences in trend estimates for wrist, humerus, and clinical vertebral case definitions. Conclusions The validity of administrative data for estimating fracture incidence depends on the site and features of the case definition. PMID:22537071

  16. Influence of abiotic factors on cathemeral activity: the case of Eulemur fulvus collaris in the littoral forest of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M

    2006-01-01

    The role environmental factors play in influencing circadian rhythms in natural habitats is still poorly described in primates, especially for those taxa with an activity cycle extended over the 24-hour cycle. In this paper, we elucidate the importance of abiotic factors in entraining the activity of cathemeral primates, focussing on results from a long-term study of Eulemur fulvus collaris (collared brown lemur) in south-eastern Malagasy littoral forest. Two groups of lemurs were followed for 60 whole-day and 59 whole-night observation periods over 14 months. Diurnal and nocturnal observations were equally distributed among moon phases and seasons. Temperature and humidity were recorded hourly by automatic data loggers. The littoral forest has a climatic environment where rainfall and humidity are uncorrelated with temperature and photoperiod. Diurnal and nocturnal activity varied seasonally, with the former increasing significantly with extended day length and the latter increasing significantly with shortened day length. Dusk seemed to act as a primary zeitgeber for these lemurs, coordinating the onset of evening activity throughout the entire year. Lunar phase and the nocturnal luminosity index correlated positively with the duration of nocturnal activity and negatively with the length of diurnal activity. Temperature was positively associated with diurnal activity but did not seem to influence lemur rhythms at night. Finally, lemur nocturnal activity significantly decreased when levels of humidity and rainfall were high. Cathemeral biorhythm is triggered by zeitgebers and influenced by masking factors. The activity of collared brown lemurs appears to be seasonally influenced by photoperiod and directly modulated by nocturnal ambient luminosity. These results are discussed by comparing data from other cathemeral species living in various climatic situations.

  17. Methane transport from the active layer to lakes in the Arctic using Toolik Lake, Alaska, as a case study.

    PubMed

    Paytan, Adina; Lecher, Alanna L; Dimova, Natasha; Sparrow, Katy J; Kodovska, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros; Murray, Joseph; Tulaczyk, Slawomir; Kessler, John D

    2015-03-24

    Methane emissions in the Arctic are important, and may be contributing to global warming. While methane emission rates from Arctic lakes are well documented, methods are needed to quantify the relative contribution of active layer groundwater to the overall lake methane budget. Here we report measurements of natural tracers of soil/groundwater, radon, and radium, along with methane concentration in Toolik Lake, Alaska, to evaluate the role active layer water plays as an exogenous source for lake methane. Average concentrations of methane, radium, and radon were all elevated in the active layer compared with lake water (1.6 × 10(4) nM, 61.6 dpm⋅m(-3), and 4.5 × 10(5) dpm⋅m(-3) compared with 1.3 × 10(2) nM, 5.7 dpm⋅m(-3), and 4.4 × 10(3) dpm⋅m(-3), respectively). Methane transport from the active layer to Toolik Lake based on the geochemical tracer radon (up to 2.9 g⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1)) can account for a large fraction of methane emissions from this lake. Strong but spatially and temporally variable correlations between radon activity and methane concentrations (r(2) > 0.69) in lake water suggest that the parameters that control methane discharge from the active layer also vary. Warming in the Arctic may expand the active layer and increase the discharge, thereby increasing the methane flux to lakes and from lakes to the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming. More work is needed to quantify and elucidate the processes that control methane fluxes from the active layer to predict how this flux might change in the future and to evaluate the regional and global contribution of active layer water associated methane inputs.

  18. Methane transport from the active layer to lakes in the Arctic using Toolik Lake, Alaska, as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Paytan, Adina; Lecher, Alanna L.; Dimova, Natasha; Sparrow, Katy J.; Kodovska, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros; Murray, Joseph; Tulaczyk, Slawomir; Kessler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Methane emissions in the Arctic are important, and may be contributing to global warming. While methane emission rates from Arctic lakes are well documented, methods are needed to quantify the relative contribution of active layer groundwater to the overall lake methane budget. Here we report measurements of natural tracers of soil/groundwater, radon, and radium, along with methane concentration in Toolik Lake, Alaska, to evaluate the role active layer water plays as an exogenous source for lake methane. Average concentrations of methane, radium, and radon were all elevated in the active layer compared with lake water (1.6 × 104 nM, 61.6 dpm⋅m−3, and 4.5 × 105 dpm⋅m−3 compared with 1.3 × 102 nM, 5.7 dpm⋅m−3, and 4.4 × 103 dpm⋅m−3, respectively). Methane transport from the active layer to Toolik Lake based on the geochemical tracer radon (up to 2.9 g⋅m−2⋅y−1) can account for a large fraction of methane emissions from this lake. Strong but spatially and temporally variable correlations between radon activity and methane concentrations (r2 > 0.69) in lake water suggest that the parameters that control methane discharge from the active layer also vary. Warming in the Arctic may expand the active layer and increase the discharge, thereby increasing the methane flux to lakes and from lakes to the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming. More work is needed to quantify and elucidate the processes that control methane fluxes from the active layer to predict how this flux might change in the future and to evaluate the regional and global contribution of active layer water associated methane inputs. PMID:25775530

  19. Methane transport from the active layer to lakes in the Arctic using Toolik Lake, Alaska, as a case study.

    PubMed

    Paytan, Adina; Lecher, Alanna L; Dimova, Natasha; Sparrow, Katy J; Kodovska, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros; Murray, Joseph; Tulaczyk, Slawomir; Kessler, John D

    2015-03-24

    Methane emissions in the Arctic are important, and may be contributing to global warming. While methane emission rates from Arctic lakes are well documented, methods are needed to quantify the relative contribution of active layer groundwater to the overall lake methane budget. Here we report measurements of natural tracers of soil/groundwater, radon, and radium, along with methane concentration in Toolik Lake, Alaska, to evaluate the role active layer water plays as an exogenous source for lake methane. Average concentrations of methane, radium, and radon were all elevated in the active layer compared with lake water (1.6 × 10(4) nM, 61.6 dpm⋅m(-3), and 4.5 × 10(5) dpm⋅m(-3) compared with 1.3 × 10(2) nM, 5.7 dpm⋅m(-3), and 4.4 × 10(3) dpm⋅m(-3), respectively). Methane transport from the active layer to Toolik Lake based on the geochemical tracer radon (up to 2.9 g⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1)) can account for a large fraction of methane emissions from this lake. Strong but spatially and temporally variable correlations between radon activity and methane concentrations (r(2) > 0.69) in lake water suggest that the parameters that control methane discharge from the active layer also vary. Warming in the Arctic may expand the active layer and increase the discharge, thereby increasing the methane flux to lakes and from lakes to the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming. More work is needed to quantify and elucidate the processes that control methane fluxes from the active layer to predict how this flux might change in the future and to evaluate the regional and global contribution of active layer water associated methane inputs. PMID:25775530

  20. Active-learning strategies: the use of a game to reinforce learning in nursing education. A case study.

    PubMed

    Boctor, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    The majority of nursing students are kinesthetic learners, preferring a hands-on, active approach to education. Research shows that active-learning strategies can increase student learning and satisfaction. This study looks at the use of one active-learning strategy, a Jeopardy-style game, 'Nursopardy', to reinforce Fundamentals of Nursing material, aiding in students' preparation for a standardized final exam. The game was created keeping students varied learning styles and the NCLEX blueprint in mind. The blueprint was used to create 5 categories, with 26 total questions. Student survey results, using a five-point Likert scale showed that they did find this learning method enjoyable and beneficial to learning. More research is recommended regarding learning outcomes, when using active-learning strategies, such as games.

  1. Triple trouble--macrophage activation syndrome in a case of severe leptospirosis and scrub typhus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Diwan, A G; Shewale, Rahul; Iyer, Shivakumar; Nisal, Amit; Agrawa, Prakhar

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome is a potentially life threatening phenomenon characterised by aggressive proliferation of macrophages and T lymphocytes leading to haemophagocytosis of other blood cells and multi organ failure. Here we present a very unusual combination of leptospirosis and scrub typhus infection leading to macrophage activation syndrome. Scrub typhus associated with macrophage activation syndrome has rarely been reported in India. A 40 year old female presented with high grade fever, seizures, bodyache, arthralgia and severe breathlessness. Investigations revealed persistent thrombocytopenia, impaired liver function tests, renal dysfunction, leptospiral IgM ELISA positive and a positive Weil Felix test. There was evidence of haemophagocytosis in bone marrow. Macrophage activation syndrome if left untreated has been associated with rapidly fatal outcome and early treatment can help us save that one precious thing..called life..! PMID:25327097

  2. Human activity under high pressure: A case study on fluctuation scaling of air traffic controller's communication behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.

  3. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Philippa S.; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E.; Desai, Ashish P.; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J. Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management. PMID:26703719

  4. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E; Desai, Ashish P; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H

    2015-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management. PMID:26703719

  5. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E; Desai, Ashish P; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H

    2015-11-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  6. Case reports: Death of active duty soldiers following ingestion of dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA).

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michael J; Eichner, Amy; Cancio, Anthony; Bestervelt, Lori; Adams, Bruce D; Deuster, Patricia A

    2012-12-01

    Dietary supplements and their associated adverse events are not uncommon in the U.S. military, and selected dietary supplements have been associated with a number of nontraumatic deaths in service members. Specific ingredients and dietary supplement products in the civilian community are often associated with multiple adverse events and some have subsequently been removed from the marketplace; the most notable in the last decade is ephedra. We present case reports for two soldiers who were taking commercially available dietary supplements containing multiple ingredients to include the sympathomimetic, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA); both collapsed during physical exertion from cardiac arrest and ultimately died. A presentation of their clinical courses and a discussion of the history and pharmacology of dietary supplement ingredients, including DMAA, are provided. Our cases highlight concerns that DMAA in combination with other ingredients may be associated with significant consequences, reminiscent of previous adverse events from other sympathomimetic drugs previously removed from the market.

  7. Photo-onycholysis caused by an unusual beach game activity: a pediatric case of a side effect caused by doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Massimiliano; Venturi, Michela; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Photo-onycholysis caused by doxycycline has rarely been reported in children. We present the case of a boy who loved to play pinball while at the beach, holding tightly to the machine. He developed a photo-onycholysis predominantly on his thumbs while he was being treated with 20 mg/day of doxycycline, a low dose but enough to trigger the photoreaction. PMID:24015834

  8. Advocating for active living on the rural-urban fringe: a case study of planning in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sy; Dobson, Noelle; Fox, Karen Perl; Weigand, Lynn

    2008-06-01

    This case study is about the politics of incorporating active-living elements into a concept plan for a new community of about 68,000 people on the edge of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Development on the rural-urban fringe is ongoing in metropolitan areas around the United States. In this article, we evaluate the product of the concept-planning process from the standpoint of the extent to which environmental elements conducive to active living were included. We also analyze four issues in which challenges to the incorporation of active-living features surfaced: choices related to transportation facilities, the design and location of retail stores, the location of schools and parks, and the location of a new town center. Overall, the Damascus/Boring Concept Plan positions the area well to promote active living. Analyses of the challenges that emerged yielded lessons for advocates regarding ways to deal with conflicts between facilitating active living and local economic development and related tax-base concerns and between active-living elements and school-district planning autonomy as well as the need for advocates to have the capacity to present alternatives to the usual financial and design approaches taken by private- and public-sector investors.

  9. Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, K; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Hiraoka, M; Hayakawa, N; Oka, T; Hasai, H

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate 152Eu and 60Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. PMID:8083048

  10. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ovacik, Meric A.; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y.; Gaido, Kevin W.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  11. Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: Indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hiraoka, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Oka, Takamitsu

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. 18 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, K; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Hiraoka, M; Hayakawa, N; Oka, T; Hasai, H

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate 152Eu and 60Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

  13. Advocating for active living on the rural-urban fringe: a case study of planning in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sy; Dobson, Noelle; Fox, Karen Perl; Weigand, Lynn

    2008-06-01

    This case study is about the politics of incorporating active-living elements into a concept plan for a new community of about 68,000 people on the edge of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Development on the rural-urban fringe is ongoing in metropolitan areas around the United States. In this article, we evaluate the product of the concept-planning process from the standpoint of the extent to which environmental elements conducive to active living were included. We also analyze four issues in which challenges to the incorporation of active-living features surfaced: choices related to transportation facilities, the design and location of retail stores, the location of schools and parks, and the location of a new town center. Overall, the Damascus/Boring Concept Plan positions the area well to promote active living. Analyses of the challenges that emerged yielded lessons for advocates regarding ways to deal with conflicts between facilitating active living and local economic development and related tax-base concerns and between active-living elements and school-district planning autonomy as well as the need for advocates to have the capacity to present alternatives to the usual financial and design approaches taken by private- and public-sector investors. PMID:18469172

  14. Pathway modeling of microarray data: a case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP).

    PubMed

    Ovacik, Meric A; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y; Gaido, Kevin W; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  15. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and α-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of α-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to α-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that α-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  16. Observed internal structure of the MJO active convections in its termination stage: A case in CINDY/DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, M.; Yoneyama, K.

    2013-12-01

    The convectively active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is determined as the appearance and eastward propagation of a huge packet of the active convections. To understand MJO, it is important to recognize how the convectively active phase of the MJO initiated (in its eastern part) and terminated (in its western part). This study focuses on the structure in the termination stage of an event of MJO, which captured in November 2011 in the central Indian Ocean during CINDY/DYNAMO special observation period (SOP). The active period of the observed MJO event over the core sounding / radar array consisted of two characteristic periods: Former half (Nov.23-26) when vigorous convection appeared on and north of the equator, while latter half (Nov.27-29) when active convection extended toward south of the equator. In the latter half, the sounding array captured the thickening of the dry westerly layer and enhanced convergence along the front of this westerly layer. The humidity was also maximum along the slope. These features indicate that the active convection in the latter half appeared at the head of dry westerly airmass which proceeding eastward, and the convections are shut down afterward. The satellite microwave imagers indicated that the dry air came along equator in the speed of 10 m/s or slower. This speed well corresponds to that of western edge of the eastward-propagating cloud packet for the MJO. The mesoscale structure of the event is further investigated by utilizing data from Research Vessel "Mirai". On the latter half of Nov.28, R/V Mirai cruised under activating cloud band which elongated NNE-SSW direction. The continuous soundings from Mirai captured the head of the dry westerly in the northern edge of the cloud band. This well corresponds to the synoptic-scale feature. On the other hand, the cloud band was activated when the arc-shaped convective line, with low (< 7 km) echo top height, contacted to the cloud band. The arc-shaped line

  17. Conformational entropic maps of functional coupling domains in GPCR activation: A case study with beta2 adrenergic receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fan; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William, III; Dougherty, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Entropic effect in GPCR activation is poorly understood. Based on the recent solved structures, researchers in the GPCR structural biology field have proposed several ``local activating switches'' that consisted of a few number of conserved residues, but have long ignored the collective dynamical effect (conformational entropy) of a domain comprised of an ensemble of residues. A new paradigm has been proposed recently that a GPCR can be viewed as a composition of several functional coupling domains, each of which undergoes order-to-disorder or disorder-to-order transitions upon activation. Here we identified and studied these functional coupling domains by comparing the local entropy changes of each residue between the inactive and active states of the β2 adrenergic receptor from computational simulation. We found that agonist and G-protein binding increases the heterogeneity of the entropy distribution in the receptor. This new activation paradigm and computational entropy analysis scheme provides novel ways to design functionally modified mutant and identify new allosteric sites for GPCRs. The authors thank NIH and Sanofi for funding this project.

  18. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  19. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  20. Catalytic stimulation by restrained active-site floppiness--the case of high density lipoprotein-bound serum paraoxonase-1.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Moshe; Sussman, Joel L; Maxwell, Christopher I; Szeler, Klaudia; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-03-27

    Despite the abundance of membrane-associated enzymes, the mechanism by which membrane binding stabilizes these enzymes and stimulates their catalysis remains largely unknown. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a lipophilic lactonase whose stability and enzymatic activity are dramatically stimulated when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Our mutational and structural analyses, combined with empirical valence bond simulations, reveal a network of hydrogen bonds that connect HDL binding residues with Asn168--a key catalytic residue residing >15Å from the HDL contacting interface. This network ensures precise alignment of N168, which, in turn, ligates PON1's catalytic calcium and aligns the lactone substrate for catalysis. HDL binding restrains the overall motion of the active site and particularly of N168, thus reducing the catalytic activation energy barrier. We demonstrate herein that disturbance of this network, even at its most far-reaching periphery, undermines PON1's activity. Membrane binding thus immobilizes long-range interactions via second- and third-shell residues that reduce the active site's floppiness and pre-organize the catalytic residues. Although this network is critical for efficient catalysis, as demonstrated here, unraveling these long-rage interaction networks is challenging, let alone their implementation in artificial enzyme design.

  1. Hazard analysis of active tectonics through geomorphometric parameters to cultural heritage conservation: the case of Paphos in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, A. V.; Sarris, A.; Alexakis, D.; Agapiou, A.; Themistocleous, K.; Lysandrou, V.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2014-08-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, can have a large destructive effect on cultural heritage sites conservation. This study aims to assess from a geospatial perspective the risk from natural hazards for the archaeological sites and monuments and evaluate the potential tectonic activity impact on the cultural and historic heritage. Geomorphometric data derivatives that can be extracted from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide information relevant with active tectonics. The specific extracted tectonic information when being used on the basis of analytical hierarchy process and weighted linear combination approach can offer an important robust approach. The ranking of the derived information relatively to specific criteria of weights can enhance the interrelationships and assemblages over neotectonics aspects. The outcomes of that methodological framework can propose an assessment approach for the spatial distribution of neotectonic activity and can become a useful tool to assessing seismic hazard for disaster risk reduction. The risk assessment aspects of such a hazard are being interlinked with the archaeological sites in order to highlight and examine those that are exposed on ongoing tectonic activity and seismic hazard. Paphos area in Cyprus has been used as the test bed for the particular analysis. The results show an important number of archaeological sites being located within zones of high degree of neotectonic activity.

  2. Is there a relation between genetic susceptibility with cancer? A study about paraoxanase (PON1) enzyme activity in breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mustafa Oğuzhan; Sinan, Selma; Güler, Özen Özensoy; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-12-01

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1, EC 3.1.1.2) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated antioxidant enzyme that not only decreases oxidative stress, but it is also implicated in development of many cancers. Genetic information provides a means of identifying people who have an increased risk of cancer, thus this knowledge of cancer genetics helps to identify the ability to characterize malignancies leading to the development of new therapeutic approaches. Because of this reason, in this preliminary study we aimed to investigate the role of human serum PON1 enzyme activity and phenotypic distribution in 32 breast cancer (BC) patients (age range 28-82) and 35 cancer free (CF) control group (age range 21-67). PON1 enzyme was prepared from the serum pool of BC patients using hydrophobic interaction chromatography on L-tyrosine-9-aminophenanthrene-coupled Sepharose 4Bgel. The PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The basal activity of PON1 was statistically decreased in cancer cases compared to the control group. In addition, individuals were classified according to phenotyping of human PON1 Q and R types. In the cohort of BC patients, an increase in the frequency of the PON homozygote Q (AA) genotype was observed (31% in the BC group versus 14% in the CF controls). The frequency of the PON heterozygote QR (AB) genotype was 34.5% in the patients with BC and 37% in the CF group. The same trend was observed in PON homozygote R (BB) genotype frequency (BC cases 34.5% versus controls 49%). We determined that the kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme by Lineweaver-Burk method. We obtained Km and Vmax values of 0.227 mM and 62 U/mL min for the BC enzyme, compared with 0.775 mM and 206 U/mL min for the CF control enzyme. As a conclusion, it is clear from our results that while the PON1 AA allele frequency in BC cases is much higher, that of BB allele is much lower, in comparison with the control group. The

  3. Forward Modeling of Synthetic EUV/SXR Emission from Solar Coronal Active Regions: Case of AR 11117

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Allred, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in obtaining high spatial resolution images of the solar corona in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) with Hinode, TRACE, SDO and recent Hi-C missions and soft X-ray (SXR) bands opened a new avenue in understanding the solar coronal heating, the major goal of solar physics. The data from EUV/SXR missions suggest that solar corona is a non-uniform environment structured into active regions (AR) represented by bundles magnetic loops heated to temperatures exceeding 5 MK. Any viable coronal heating model should be capable of reproducing EUV and SXR emission from coronal active regions well as dynamic activity. Measurements of emission measures (EM) for ARs provide clues to time dependence of the heating mechanism: static versus impulsive. While static equilibrium coronal loop models are successful in reproducing SXR emission within an AR, they cannot adequately predict the bright EUV loops. Meantime, impulsive heating is capable in reproducing both EUV and SXR loop emission. The major goal of this paper is to construct realistic synthetic EM images of specific solar corona active region, AR 11117 by using our 1D fully non-linear time-dependent single-fluid hydrodynamic code. We first construct a magnetic skeleton for the entire active region using the HMI/SDO magnetogram for AR 11117 and populate magnetic field lines with plasma. We then parametrically specify impulsive heating of individual strands (flux tubes) comprising coronal loops. Next, we simulated the response of the entire active region (with LOS projection effects) to the heating function (volumetric heating rate) scaled with magnetic field and spatial scale parameters and find the best match between synthetic and actual (reconstructed) DEMs obtained by SDO.

  4. Physical activity completed when young has residual bone benefits at 94 years of age: a within-subject controlled case study.

    PubMed

    Warden, S J; Mantila Roosa, S M

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is recommended for skeletal health because bones adapt to mechanical loading. The young skeleton shows greatest plasticity to physical activity-related mechanical loads, but bones are most at risk of failure later in life. The discrepancy raises the question of whether the skeletal benefits of physical activity completed when young persist with aging. Here we present a unique case wherein the cortical bone benefit of physical activity completed over five decades earlier could be established within an individual aged in their tenth decade of life. Specifically, we compared bone properties at the midshaft humerus between the throwing and nonthrowing arms of a 94-year-old former Major League Baseball player who ceased throwing 55 years earlier. By performing analyses within-subject, the long-term skeletal benefit of physical activity completed when young could be assessed independent of inherited and systemic traits. Also, as the subject threw left-handed during his throwing career, but was right-hand dominant in all other activities throughout life, any lasting skeletal benefits in favor of the throwing arm could not be attributable to simple arm dominance. Analyses indicated that any cortical bone mass, area and thickness benefits of throwing-related physical activity completed when young were lost with aging, possibly due to accelerated intracortical remodeling. In contrast, the subject's throwing (nondominant) arm had greater total cross-sectional area and estimated strength (polar moment of inertia) than in his dominant arm, despite muscle indices favoring the latter. These data indicate that physical activity completed when young can have lasting benefits on bone size and strength, independent of the maintenance of bone mass benefits.

  5. Active and Passive Smoking and Risk of Narcolepsy in People with HLA DQB1*0602: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ton, Thanh G.N.; Longstreth, W.T.; Koepsell, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined the risk of narcolepsy associated with active and passive smoking among genetically susceptible individuals. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study in King County, Wash., USA. Between 2001 and 2005, we enrolled 67 cases through physicians and public outreach, and 95 controls through random-digit dialing. Subjects were aged between 18 and 50 years and positive for HLA DQB1*0602. All subjects were administered in-person interviews about their history of active and passive smoking. Results We observed an increased risk of narcolepsy associated with having lived with two or more household smokers (odds ratio, OR = 5.1; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.6, 12.1); with a grandparent or a sibling who smoked (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 8.3); with a non-family household member who smoked (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6, 8.6); and with an unrelated smoker for 1–2 years (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 9.0). The risk of narcolepsy was not associated with exposure to smoke at work or with active smoking before age 21 or before age of narcolepsy onset. Conclusion Passive smoking may be a risk factor for narcolepsy in subjects with HLA DQB1*0602. Future studies could help clarify whether passive smoking is an important etiologic component of narcolepsy among genetically susceptible individuals. PMID:19039244

  6. The Case for the Application of Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies In the Search for Undeclared Facilities and Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2013-06-01

    Undeclared nuclear facilities unequivocally remain the most difficult safeguards challenge facing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Recent cases of undeclared facilities revealed in Iran and Syria, which are NPT signatory States, show both the difficulty and the seriousness of this threat to nonproliferation. In the case of undeclared nuclear facilities, the most effective deterrent against proliferation is the application of Wide-Area Environmental Sampling (WAES); however, WAES is currently cost-prohibitive. As with any threat, the most effective countering strategy is a multifaceted approach. Some of the approaches applied by the IAEA include: open source analysis, satellite imagery, on-site environmental sampling, complementary access under the Additional Protocol (where in force), traditional safeguards inspections, and information provided by member States. These approaches, naturally, are focused on specific States. Are there other opportunities not currently within the IAEA purview to assess States that may provide another opportunity to detect clandestine facilities? In this paper, the author will make the case that the IAEA Department of Safeguards should explore the area of worldwide marine radioactivity studies as one possible opportunity. One such study was released by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in January 2005. This technical document focused on 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239/240Pu. It is clearly a challenging area because of the many sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world’s oceans and seas including: nuclear weapons testing, reprocessing, accidents, waste dumping, and industrial and medical radioisotopes, whose distributions change based on oceanographic, geochemical, and biological processes, and their sources. It is additionally challenging where multiple States share oceans, seas, and rivers. But with the application of modern science, historical sampling to establish baselines, and a focus on the most relevant

  7. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 3: Case study, knowledge additions and earth links from space crew systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A case study of knowledge contributions from the crew life support aspect of the manned space program is reported. The new information needed to be learned, the solutions developed, and the relation of new knowledge gained to earthly problems were investigated. Illustrations are given in the following categories: supplying atmosphere for spacecraft; providing carbon dioxide removal and recycling; providing contaminant control and removal; maintaining the body's thermal balance; protecting against the space hazards of decompression, radiation, and meteorites; minimizing fire and blast hazards; providing adequate light and conditions for adequate visual performance; providing mobility and work physiology; and providing adequate habitability.

  8. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-Based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student learning with sufficient flexibility and creativity. A set of pedagogical patterns for networked Second language (L2) learning, categorized and…

  9. Executive University Managers' Experiences of Strike and Protest Activity: A Qualitative Case Study of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Whitehead, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Strike and protest activity at South African universities continues to be prevalent nearly two decades after the dismantling of apartheid, although there has been a shift away from directing strikes and protests against the government (during the apartheid era), to directing them against higher education institutions and management (since the…

  10. The NASA "Why?" Files: The Case of the "Wright" Invention. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This lesson guide for instruction of students in grades 3-5 contains activities in mathematics, science, and technology. The NASA "Why?" Files is a series of instructional programs consisting of broadcast, print, and online elements. Emphasizing standards-based instruction, Problem-Based Learning, and science as inquiry, the series seeks to…

  11. Preadolescence Female Development through Sport and Physical Activity: A Case Study of an Urban After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Jennifer E.; Dover, Kydani M.; Clark, Brianna S.

    2009-01-01

    Youth development research has found that children become more engaged and benefit more from being incorporated as decision makers. Thus participation helps promote development and encourages engagement. Based in theories of engagement and free-choice learning, the current research focused on a program combining sport/physical activity, life…

  12. β-galactosidase at the membrane-water interface: a case of an active enzyme with non-native conformation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Julieta M; Nolan, Verónica; Perillo, María A

    2013-08-01

    Previously we demonstrated that Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (β-Gal) binds to zwitterionic lipid membranes improving its catalytic activity. To understand the activation mechanism from the protein perspective, here the thermal dependence of the catalytic activity was evaluated in conjunction with parameters derived from spectroscopy and calorimetry, in the presence and absence of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine vesicles. In solution, the native state of β-Gal exhibits a loose conformation according to the λmax of fluorescence emission, which is in the upper end of the emission range for most proteins. A non-two state thermal unfolding mechanism was derived from DSC experiments and supported by the sequential unfolding temperatures exhibited by fluorescence (55°C) and CD (60°C) spectroscopies. Quenching of β-Gal's intrinsic fluorescence, provided evidence for a novel and even looser folding for the lipid-bound protein. However, DSC data showed that the thermal unfolding in the presence of lipids occurred with a significant decrease in ΔH compared to what happened in solution, suggesting that only the population of non-bound protein molecules were involved in this process. Concluding, upon binding to a lipid-water interface β-Gal becomes trapped in a partially unfolded state, more active than that of the native protein in solution.

  13. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls: case series, review of the literature, and evaluation and management recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Ilana S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J; White, Andrew J; Merritt, Diane F

    2012-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers rarely occur in nonsexually active young girls. When present, they can cause significant physical and emotional distress for the patient and her parents, and prompt an evaluation for sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. With this review, we aim to further characterize acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls by reviewing the medical records of patients with this disorder and to offer an approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers based on our understanding and knowledge of this condition. We retrospectively review our understanding and knowledge of acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active girls at a pediatric hospital. A review of the recent literature on acute genital ulcers and a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers are also presented. Twelve patients presented with acute genital ulcers, 11 of which were hospitalized for evaluation and pain management. Extensive work-up failed to reveal a specific infectious or autoimmune etiology in all but one patient, who was diagnosed with acute mycoplasma pneumonia. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls likely represent a form of idiopathic vulvar aphthosis. Evaluation of a first episode of acute genital ulcers with mild prodromal symptoms should be limited. Treatment consists primarily of supportive care and symptom relief.

  14. Physical Activity in Schools: A Qualitative Case Study of Eight Norwegian Schools' Experiences with the Implementation of a National Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Torill; Samdal, Oddrun; Tjomsland, Hege

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past decades numerous policies, programmes and interventions have been undertaken to increase students' participation in physical activity in school. Research shows that intervention effects are mostly related to the way in which the program or policy is implemented, nevertheless, few studies have focused on the implementation…

  15. An Epistemological Analysis of the Evolution of Didactical Activities in Teaching-Learning Sequences: The Case of Fluids. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psillos, D.; Tselfes, Vassilis; Kariotoglou, Petros

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper we propose a theoretical framework for an epistemological modelling of teaching-learning (didactical) activities, which draws on recent studies of scientific practice. We present and analyse the framework, which includes three categories: namely, Cosmos-Evidence-Ideas (CEI). We also apply this framework in order to model a…

  16. Effects of stratified active layers on high-altitude permafrost warming: a case study on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xicai; Li, Yanping; Yu, Qihao; Shi, Xiaogang; Yang, Daqing; Roth, Kurt

    2016-07-01

    Seasonally variable thermal conductivity in active layers is one important factor that controls the thermal state of permafrost. The common assumption is that this conductivity is considerably lower in the thawed than in the frozen state, λt/λf < 1. Using a 9-year dataset from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in conjunction with the GEOtop model, we demonstrate that the ratio λt/λf may approach or even exceed 1. This can happen in thick (> 1.5 m) active layers with strong seasonal total water content changes in the regions with summer-monsoon-dominated precipitation pattern. The conductivity ratio can be further increased by typical soil architectures that may lead to a dry interlayer. The unique pattern of soil hydraulic and thermal dynamics in the active layer can be one important contributor for the rapid permafrost warming at the study site. These findings suggest that, given the increase in air temperature and precipitation, soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil architecture in those thick active layers must be properly taken into account in permafrost models.

  17. Effect of Active Learning Techniques on Students' Choice of Approach to Learning in Dentistry: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on empirical work, related to a techniques module, undertaken with the dental students of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. I will relate how a range of different active learning techniques (tutorials; question papers and mock tests) assisted students to adopt a deep approach to learning in…

  18. Mapping Research Activities and Technologies for Sustainability and Environmental Studies--A Case Study at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kurimoto, Shuji; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Umeda, Yasushi; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Systemic understanding of potential research activities and available technology seeds at university level is an essential condition to promote interdisciplinary and vision-driven collaboration in an attempt to cope with complex sustainability and environmental problems. Nonetheless, any such practices have been hardly conducted at universities…

  19. The Active Role of Instruments in Articulating Knowing and Knowledge: The Case of Animal Qualification Practices in Breeding Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labatut, Julie; Aggeri, Franck; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Bibe, Bernard; Girard, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of instruments defined as artefacts, rules, models or norms, in the articulation between knowing-in-practice and knowledge, in learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on a distributed, knowledge-intensive and instrumented activity at the core of any collective…

  20. Policymaking as a Multi-Layered Activity. A Case Study from the Higher Education Sector in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with policymaking in the higher education sector as an activity which happens on many levels, with many and varying interests involved. As the present thematic issue highlights, language is present in higher education policymaking, whether explicitly or implicitly. This special issue's initial claim is that "Policy is what…