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  1. Activated CD11b+ CD15+ Granulocytes Increase in the Blood of Patients with Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Kyle C.; Beatty, Kelly M.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Schoenfield, Lynn; Lathrop, Kira L.; Singh, Arun D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes increase in the blood of patients with uveal melanoma. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from the blood of patients with primary choroidal/ciliochoroidal uveal melanomas (six women, four men; age range, 46–91 years) and healthy control donors (14 women, 10 men; age range, 50 – 81 years). The expression of CD15 and CD68 on CD11b+ myeloid cells within PBMCs and primary uveal melanomas was evaluated by flow cytometry. CD3ζ chain expression by CD3ε+ T cells in PBMCs and within primary uveal melanomas was measured as an indirect indication of T-cell function. Results The percentage of CD11b+ cells in PBMCs of patients with uveal melanoma increased 1.8-fold in comparison to healthy donors and comprised three subsets: CD68 negative CD15+ granulocytes, which increased 4.1-fold; CD68− CD15− cells, which increased threefold; and CD68+ CD15low cells, which were unchanged. A significant (2.7-fold) reduction in CD3ζ chain expression on CD3ε+ T cells, a marker of T-cell dysfunction, was observed in PBMCs of patients with uveal melanoma in comparison with healthy control subjects and correlated significantly with the percentage of CD11b+ cells in PBMCs. CD3ζ chain expression on T cells within primary tumors was equivalent to CD3ζ expression in PBMCs of the same patient in four of five patients analyzed. Conclusions Activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes expand in the blood of patients with uveal melanoma and may contribute to immune evasion by ocular tumors by inhibiting T-cell function via decreasing CD3ζ chain expression. PMID:19369244

  2. Characterization of regulatory T cells identified as CD4+CD25highCD39+ in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chiacchio, T; Casetti, R; Butera, O; Vanini, V; Carrara, S; Girardi, E; Di Mitri, D; Battistini, L; Martini, F; Borsellino, G; Goletti, D

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) is a transcription factor whose expression characterizes regulatory T cells (Treg), but it is also present on activated T cells, thus hindering correct Treg identification. Using classical markers for Treg recognition, discordant results were found in terms of Treg expansion during active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Recently CD39 has been shown to be an accurate marker for Treg detection. The objectives of this study were: (i) to identify Treg expressing CD39 in patients with TB and to compare the results with those obtained by the standard phenotypic markers; (ii) to evaluate if Treg are expanded in vitro by exogenous interleukin (IL)-2 or by antigen-specific stimulation; and (iii) to characterize Treg function on the modulation of antigen-specific responses. We enrolled 13 patients with pulmonary TB and 12 healthy controls. Treg were evaluated by flow cytometry ex vivo and after antigen-specific in vitro stimulation using CD25, FoxP3, CD127 and CD39 markers. Results indicate that CD39+ cells within the CD4+CD25high cells have Treg properties (absence of interferon-γ production and transforming growth factor-β1 release upon stimulation). Ex vivo analysis did not show significant differences between TB patients and controls of Treg by classical or novel markers. In contrast, a significantly higher percentage of Treg was found in TB patients after antigen-specific stimulation both in the presence or absence of IL-2. Depletion of CD39+ Treg increased RD1-specific responses significantly. In conclusion, CD39 is an appropriate marker for Treg identification in TB. These results can be useful for future studies to monitor Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific response during TB. PMID:19438599

  3. Dominant enrichment of phenotypically activated CD38(+) HLA-DR(+) CD8(+) T cells, rather than CD38(+) HLA-DR(+) CD4(+) T cells, in HIV/HCV coinfected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Serafino, Sara; Giustini, Noemi; Cavallari, Eugenio Nelson; Bianchi, Luigi; Pavone, Paolo; Bellelli, Valeria; Turriziani, Ombretta; Antonelli, Guido; Stroffolini, Tommaso; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    HIV infection may enhance immune-activation, while little is known regarding the role of HCV infection. This study investigates the impact of HCV in HIV coinfected patients with undetectable viraemia under HAART on the levels of peripheral T cell's immune-activation. We determined T lymphocytes subsets to characterize immune-activation defined as CD38 and/or HLA-DR expression in chronic monoinfected HCV, HIV, and HIV/HCV coinfected subjects. One hundred and fifty six patients were divided into three groups: (i) 77 HIV+ patients; (ii) 50 HCV+ patients; and (iii) 29 coinfected HIV/HCV patients. The level of CD4(+) was significantly higher in HCV+ than in HIV+ or in coinfected HIV/HCV subjects. The frequencies of CD4(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(-) , CD4(+) CD38(-) /HLA-DR(+) and CD4(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(+) in HIV+ patients were comparable to those measured in coinfected patients, but statistically higher than those observed in HCV+ subjects. The percentage of CD8(+) was comparable in HIV-1+ patients and coinfected HIV/HCV but the results obtained in both groups were significantly higher compared to the results obtained in HCV patients. The level of CD8(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(-) showed values lower in HIV+ patients than in that monoinfected HCV and coinfected HIV/HCV patients. The frequencies of CD8(+) CD38(-) /HLA-DR(+) were higher in HIV+ patients compared to HCV+ and coinfected HIV/HCV patients. HIV/HCV coinfected group showed highest levels of CD8(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(+) . HIV plays a pivotal role to determine the immune activation in the host. The role of HCV needs of further investigations but our data show that HCV mainly influences the immune-activation of the pool of CD8, but also probably plays a supporting additive effect on CD4 immune-activation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1347-1356, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 positivity and response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Francesca; Bernasconi, Sergio; Porcu, Luca; Erba, Eugenio; Panini, Nicolò; Fruscio, Robert; Sina, Federica; Torri, Valter; Broggini, Massimo; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic/predictive role of both CD133 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression in human ovarian cancer remains elusive. This is an observational study that investigated the expression of CD133 and of ALDH enzymatic activity in fresh ovarian cancer samples and their association with different clinic-pathological patient' characteristics and explored their possible predictive/prognostic role. We analyzed the expression of CD133 and ALDH enzymatic activity in 108 human ovarian cancer samples. We found that among the total patients analyzed, 13% of them was completely negative for ALDH activity and 26% was negative for CD133 staining. Both markers were variably expressed within the samples and when both studied in the same tumor sample, no statistically significant correlation between ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 expression was found. No statistical significant correlation was found also between the percentage values of positive ALDH and CD133 cells and the number of serial passages patient's cultures underwent, suggesting that these markers do not confer by themselves a self-renewal growth advantage to the cultures. Lower levels of CD133 were associated with higher tumor grade. No correlation with response to therapy, progression free survival and overall survival was found. Our data suggest that neither ALDH enzymatic activity nor CD133 expression provide additional predictive/prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients.

  5. Functional profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in latently infected individuals and patients with active TB.

    PubMed

    Marín, Nancy D; París, Sara C; Rojas, Mauricio; García, Luis F

    2013-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important infectious diseases around the world. Several studies have focused on the identification of correlates of protection against TB. Most of them have concentrated on the study of IFN-γ due to its robust association with protection against TB. However, given the complexity of the immune response elicited after Mtb infection, other cytokines should also be considered. In the present study, we evaluated Th1 and Th17 responses and their association with the protection or development of active disease. Therefore, non infected individuals (nonTBi), latently infected individuals (LTBi) and patients with active TB (ATB) were studied. The evaluation of the number of cytokine producing cells by ELISPOT showed a higher number of IFN-γ-producing cells in ATB patients, but no differences were found regarding the number of IL-17 producing cells among studied groups. The evaluation of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-17 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 1 day and 6 days of stimulation with mycobacterial antigens suggests the presence of functional signatures associated with latency or active TB. The results presented herein suggest the possible use of the evaluation of Th1-type cytokines, such as IFN-γ and/or TNF-α, as a correlate of protection against TB; however, these results need to be validated for other groups.

  6. CD3+CD8+CD28− T Lymphocytes in Patients with Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The results of studies on the CD3+CD8+CD28− cells in SLE are inconsistent since several analyses describe CD3+CD8+CD28− as either immunosuppressive or cytotoxic. The aim of this study is to inquire whether the quantitative changes of CD3+CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes subpopulation are related to the clinical status of patients with lupus nephritis. Evaluation of Foxp3 expression on CD3+CD8+CD28− cells may shed some light on functional properties of these cells. 54 adult SLE patients and 19 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. There were 15 patients in inactive (SLEDAI ≤ 5) and 39 in active (SLEDAI > 5) phase of disease. We determined absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− and CD3+CD8+CD28−Foxp3+ subpopulations by flow cytometry. We observed a statistically significant increase in absolute count and percentage of CD3+CD8+CD28− in SLE patients compared to HC (p < 0.001). Moreover there was significant positive correlation between increasing absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− cells and disease activity measured by SLEDAI (rs = 0.281, p = 0.038). Active LN patients had increased absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− cells compared to HC. Positive correlation of CD3+CD8+CD28− number with disease activity, and lack of Foxp3 expression on these cells, suggests that CD3+CD8+CD28− lymphocytes might be responsible for an increased proinflammatory response in the exacerbation of SLE. PMID:27446964

  7. Infliximab reduces CD147, MMP-3, and MMP-9 expression in peripheral blood monocytes in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianlin; Xie, Baozhao; Li, Qiuxia; Xie, Xujing; Zhu, Shangling; Wang, Mingxia; Peng, Weixiang; Gu, Jieruo

    2013-01-05

    Recent studies have reported elevated expression levels in active rheumatoid arthritis patients of the cluster of differentiation (CD) 147 on CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes and as a result, CD147 may be a target for the development of a novel rheumatoid arthritis therapy. This report describes the inhibitory effects of infliximab on CD147 and metalloproteinases (MMP)-3 and MMP-9 overexpression in peripheral blood monocytes obtained from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis that were refractory to methotrexate therapy were randomized at a 4:1 ratio into groups A and B, respectively. Group A received three to four infusions of infliximab (3mg/kg) and group B participants received four infusions of placebo. Both groups were also treated with a stable background dose of methotrexate. The CD147 expression levels on CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes of rheumatoid arthritis patients was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of CD147, MMP-3, and, MMP-9 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assayed by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-9 in serum was measured by a multiplexed microsphere-based flow assay. Results showed that the expression of CD147 and MMP-9 mRNA in group A decreased compared to group B. Expression of CD147 on CD14(+) monocytes was reduced (P<0.05), and serum MMP-3 and -9 levels in group A were decreased by week 18. These data suggested that infliximab could inhibit CD147 expression on CD14(+) monocytes as well as reduce the levels of MMP-3 and MMP-9 in peripheral blood monocytes.

  8. Presence of CD3+CD8+Bcl-2(low) lymphocytes undergoing apoptosis and activated macrophages in lymph nodes of HIV-1+ patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bofill, M.; Gombert, W.; Borthwick, N. J.; Akbar, A. N.; McLaughlin, J. E.; Lee, C. A.; Johnson, M. A.; Pinching, A. J.; Janossy, G.

    1995-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 causes profound changes in the lymph nodes of infected patients. In particular, large numbers of CD8+CD45RO+ T cells infiltrate both the paracortex and the germinal centers. These cells contained the cytotoxic granule-associated protein TIA-1 but showed no detectable levels of perforin and shared the same characteristics of the expanded, activated, short-lived CD8+ population found during acute viral infections. These cells expressed low levels of Bcl-2 and are likely to be short-lived in vivo as evidenced by the direct observation of CD8+ apoptotic cells in the paracortical areas of the infected nodes. Changes in the paracortical nonlymphoid populations were also seen. There were reactive changes in the blood vessels, and the macrophage population was expanded and activated. Furthermore, apoptotic bodies were seen in the cytoplasm of the activated CD68+RFD-7+RFD-1+ macrophages pointing to the phagocytic capacity of these cells and their role in the clearance of the apoptotic cells from the tissues. These observations suggest that the persistance of CD8+ population in human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection is not a result of the presence of an abnormal CD8+ population but rather a result of an inappropriate over-stimulation of the CD8+ cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7778692

  9. IL-10 down-regulates costimulatory molecules on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-pulsed macrophages and impairs the lytic activity of CD4 and CD8 CTL in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, S; Aleman, M; Musella, R; Schierloh, P; Pasquinelli, V; Garcia, V; Abbate, E; Sasiain, M del C

    2004-10-01

    Activation of T cells requires both TCR-specific ligation and costimulation through accessory molecules during T cell priming. IFNgamma is a key cytokine responsible for macrophage activation during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection while IL-10 is associated with suppression of cell mediated immunity in intracellular infection. In this paper we evaluated the role of IFNgamma and IL-10 on the function of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and on the modulation of costimulatory molecules in healthy controls and patients with active tuberculosis (TB). gamma-irradiated-Mtb (i-Mtb) induced IL-10 production from CD14(+) cells from TB patients. Moreover, CD3(+) T cells of patients with advanced disease also produced IL-10 after i-Mtb stimulation. In healthy donors, IL-10 decreased the lytic activity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells whereas it increased gammadelta-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we found that the presence of IL-10 induced a loss of the alternative processing pathways of antigen presentation along with a down-regulation of the expression of costimulatory molecule expression on monocytes and macrophages from healthy individuals. Conversely, neutralization of endogenous IL-10 or addition of IFNgamma to either effector or target cells from TB patients induced a strong lytic activity mediated by CD8(+) CTL together with an up-regulation of CD54 and CD86 expression on target cells. Moreover, we observed that macrophages from TB patients could use alternative pathways for i-Mtb presentation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the presence of IL-10 during Mtb infection might contribute to mycobacteria persistence inside host macrophages through a mechanism that involved inhibition of MHC-restricted cytotoxicity against infected macrophages.

  10. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)-Related Hypertriglyceridemia Is Associated With Failure of Recovery of CD14lowCD16+ Monocyte Subsets in AIDS Patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Junyan; Zhao, Hongxin; Ma, Yaluan; Zhou, Haiwei; Hao, Yu; Li, Yanmei; Song, Chuan; Han, Ning; Liu, Xiangyi; Zeng, Hui; Qin, Mingzhao

    2015-07-01

    As cellular reservoirs, CD16 monocyte subsets play important roles in the progression of HIV infection. Previous studies have shown that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the percentages of CD14CD16 monocyte subsets, but did not recover the percentages of CD14CD16 subsets. Eighty-four chronic HIV-infected, HAART-naïve individuals and 55 HIV-negative subjects (31 without hyperlipidemia and 24 with hypertriglyceridemia) were enrolled. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4 T-cell counts, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were followed up for 48 weeks during HAART treatment in the longitudinal study. We found that mild hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-negative subjects and HIV-infected patients, naïve to HAART, did not affect the percentage of monocyte subsets. However, a failure of CD14CD16 subset recovery was observed in patients with HAART-related hypertriglyceridemia at 48 weeks. Thus, HAART-related hypertriglyceridemia altered homeostasis of monocyte subsets to antiviral therapy, which might further affect immune reconstitution.

  11. Reduced protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity of CD45 on peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Pang, M; Amano, K; Koide, J; Abe, T

    1997-07-01

    To disclose the mechanism of aberrant function of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in SLE, we focused on the catalytic function of CD45, and determined the CD45 PTPase activity in SLE patients. The sample population consisted of 32 SLE patients with different disease activity. PTPase activity of cell lysates immunoprecipitated by anti-CD45 MoAb was assayed against phosphotyrosine analogue PNPP, followed by measuring the release of para-nitro phenol at 410 nm. CD45 PTPase activity of PBL was significantly decreased in SLE patients, compared with that of normal controls and patients with systemic sclerosis (964 +/- 265, 1202 +/- 172, 1210 +/- 125, respectively; SLE versus normal, P<0.05). It was correlated with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score (r = 0.597, P = 0.0006), but not with the dose of prednisolone (r = 0.214, P = 0.2657), indicating that CD45 PTPase activity became reduced when the disease was active, but it was not affected by prednisolone. Moreover, it was not corrected by in vitro culture with or without stimulation. The expression of CD45 on PBL was comparable between normal and SLE, raising a possibility that it may be due to aberrant regulation of catalytic function of CD45 in SLE. Given the evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins by tyrosine kinases and phosphatases is one of the key biochemical events in the signal transduction pathway, the decreased CD45 PTPase activity in SLE may account for the defective signal transduction via TCR/CD3, leading to dysregulated effector function of the lymphocytes.

  12. Lenalidomide enhances antigen-specific activity and decreases CD45RA expression of T cells from patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Neuber, Brigitte; Herth, Isabelle; Tolliver, Claudia; Schoenland, Stefan; Hegenbart, Ute; Hose, Dirk; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Ho, Anthony D; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Hundemer, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the specific T cell response against the multiple myeloma Ag HM1.24 is enhanced by the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide (Revlimid). Ag-specific CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells against the HM1.24 Ag were expanded in vitro by dendritic cells in 29 healthy donors and 26 patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. Ag-specific activation was analyzed by IFN-γ, granzyme B, and perforin secretion using ELISA, ELISPOT assay, and intracellular staining, and generation of Ag-specific T cells was analyzed by tetramer staining. Expression of T cell maturation markers (CD45RA, CD45R0, CCR7, and CD28) was investigated by flow cytometry. We found that activation of HM1.24-specific T cells from healthy donors and patients with plasma cell dyscrasias was enhanced significantly by lenalidomide and furthermore that the impact of lenalidomide on T cells depends on the duration of the exposure. Notably, lenalidomide supports the downregulation of CD45RA on T cells upon activation, observed in healthy donors and in patients in vitro and also in patients during lenalidomide therapy in vivo. We showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that lenalidomide enhances the Ag-specific activation of T cells and the subsequent downregulation of CD45RA expression of T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Short communication: nuclear JAK3 and its involvement in CD4 activation in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Landires, Ivan; Núñez-Samudio, Virginia; Thèze, Jacques

    2013-05-01

    The subcellular localization of JAK3 was examined by quantitative image analysis. For the first time, JAK3 was found to be located in the nuclei of primary CD4 lymphocytes. A comparable quantity of JAK3 was recovered in CD4 lymphocytes from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients. By contrast, far more phosphorylated JAK3 (pJAK3) was found in the nuclei of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients than from healthy donors. The correlation detected between the quantity of pJAK3 in the nuclei of CD4 lymphocytes and the increase in HLA-DR at their surface suggests that pJAK3 may play a role in the deleterious immune activation characterizing HIV-infected patients.

  14. Altered E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and CD39 expression in platelets of sickle cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Lívia G; Doleski, Pedro H; Adefegha, Stephen A; Becker, Lara V; Ruchel, Jader B; Leal, Daniela B R

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolysis and vaso-occlusions caused by rigidly distorted red blood cells. Sickle cell crisis is associated with extracellular release of nucleotides and platelets, which are critical mediators of hemostasis participating actively in purinergic thromboregulatory enzymes system.This study aimed to investigate the activities of purinergic system ecto-enzymes present on the platelet surface as well as CD39 and CD73 expressions on platelets of SCA treated patients. Fifteen SCA treated patients and 30 health subjects (control group) were selected. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E-5'-NT) and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activities were measured in platelets isolated from these individuals. Results demonstrated an increase of 41 % in the E-NTPDase for ATP hydrolysis, 52% for ADP hydrolysis and 60 % in the E-ADA activity in SCA patients (P<0.05); however, a two folds decrease in the CD39 expression in platelets was observed in the same group (P<0.01). The increased E-NTPDase activity could be a compensatory mechanism associated with the low expression of CD39 in platelets. Besides, alteration of these enzymes activities suggests that the purinergic system could be involved in the thromboregulatory process in SCA patients.

  15. Higher percentage of CD3⁺CD154⁺ T lymphocytes predicts efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in active axial SpA patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiming; Lin, Qu; Liao, Zetao; Li, Qiuxia; Zhang, Fucheng; Wei, Qiujing; Cao, Shuangyan; Gu, Jieruo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate which subtypes of T lymphocytes (CD3(+)CD28(+) and CD3(+)CD154(+)) could predict clinical efficacy after TNF-α inhibitor treatment in active axial SpA patients. Patients who fulfilled Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria for axial SpA had a BASDAI of ≥40 mm. All patients received TNF-α inhibitor treatment for 12 weeks. ASAS20 was used to evaluate the effect of the treatment at week 12. We detected the percentage of CD3(+)CD28(+) and CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes on lymphocyte cells in the peripheral blood in patients and healthy controls. We evaluated whether the percentage of the above subtypes of T lymphocytes could predict clinical efficacy by ROC curve analysis. Fifty-eight healthy controls and 74 active axial SpA patients were included. Mean age was 26.28 ± 9.08 and 26.95 ± 8.13 years for healthy controls and patients, respectively (p = 0.767). The percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes was significantly higher in axial SpA patients than in healthy controls (1.62 ± 1.89 % vs 0.79 ± 0.52 %, p < 0.0005). At baseline, the percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes was significantly higher in HLA-B27((+)) patients than HLA-B27((-)) ones (HLA-B27(+) vs HLA-B27(-):1.77 ± 1.95 % vs 0.41 ± 0.27 %, p = 0.005). Compared with baseline, the percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes significantly decreased to 0.87 ± 0.49 % at week 12 (p < 0.0005). Moreover, we found higher percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes could predict clinical efficacy of SpA patients with TNF-α inhibitor treatment (AUC = 0.733, p = 0.014). High percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) is over-expressed on lymphocytes in peripheral blood of active SpA patients and can be down-regulated by TNF-α inhibitor therapy. High-percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes may predict clinical efficacy of TNF-α inhibitor treatment in active axial SpA patients.

  16. Transient expansion of activated CD8+ T cells characterizes tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients with HIV: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cell activation indicators have been reported to be a common phenomenon underlying diverse manifestations of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, we have found that a high frequency of circulating CD8+ T cells is a specific risk factor for mycobacterial IRIS. Therefore, we investigated whether CD8+ T cells from patients who develop TB IRIS were specifically activated. Methods We obtained PBMCs from HIV+ patients prior to and 4, 8, 12, 24, 52 and 104 weeks after initiating antiretroviral therapy. CD38 and HLADR expression on naive, central memory and effector memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Absolute counts and frequencies of CD8+ T cell subsets were compared between patients who developed TB IRIS, who developed other IRIS forms and who remained IRIS-free. Results TB IRIS patients showed significantly higher counts of naive CD8+ T cells than the other groups at most time points, with a contraction of the effector memory subpopulation occurring later in the follow-up period. Activated (CD38+ HLADR+) CD8+ T cells from all groups decreased with treatment but transiently peaked in TB IRIS patients. This increase was due to an increase in activated naive CD8+ T cell counts during IRIS. Additionally, the CD8+ T cell subpopulations of TB IRIS patients expressed HLADR without CD38 more frequently and expressed CD38 without HLADR less frequently than cells from other groups. Conclusions CD8+ T cell activation is specifically relevant to TB IRIS. Different IRIS forms may involve different alterations in T cell subsets, suggesting different underlying inflammatory processes. PMID:23688318

  17. Activated platelet chemiluminescence and presence of CD45+ platelets in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Zufar; Ivanova, Oxana; Kogan-Yasny, Victor; Ryzhkova, Evgeniya; Saburova, Olga; Vorobyeva, Inna; Vasilieva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that in 15% of acute myocardial infarction patients' platelets generate reactive oxygen species that can be detected with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of platelet-rich plasma within 8-10 days after acute myocardial infarction. This increase in generate reactive oxygen species production coincides with the emergence of CD45(+) platelets. The ability of platelets to carry surface leukocyte antigen implies their participation in exchange of specific proteins in the course of acute myocardial infarction. Future studies of CD45(+) platelets in peripheral blood of acute myocardial infarction patients in association with generate reactive oxygen species production may provide a new insight into the complex mechanisms of cell-cell interactions associated with acute myocardial infarction.

  18. Relationship of ethnicity and CD4 Count with glucose metabolism among HIV patients on Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV patients on HAART are prone to metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and diabetes. This study purports to investigate the relationship of ethnicity and CD4+ T cell count attained after stable highly-active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with glucose metabolism in hyperrtriglyceridemic HIV patients without a history of diabetes. Methods Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, endocrinologic, energy expenditure and metabolic measures were obtained in 199 multiethnic, healthy but hypertriglyceridemic HIV-infected patients [46% Hispanic, 17% African-American, 37% Non-Hispanic White (NHW)] on stable HAART without a history of diabetes. The relationship of glucose and insulin responses to ethnicity, CD4 strata (low (<300/cc) or moderate-to-high (≥ 300/cc)), and their interaction was determined. Results African-Americans had significantly greater impairment of glucose tolerance (P < 0.05) and HbA1c levels (P < .001) than either Hispanics or NHWs. In multivariate models, after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, HIV/HAART duration, smoking, obesity, glucose, insulin and lipids), African-Americans and Hispanics had significantly higher HbA1c and 2-hour glucose levels than NHW’s. Demonstrating a significant interaction between ethnicity and CD4 count (P = 0.023), African Americans with CD4 <300/cc and Hispanics with CD4 ≥300/cc had the most impaired glucose response following oral glucose challenge. Conclusions Among hypertriglyceridemic HIV patients on HAART, African-Americans and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Ethnicity also interacts with CD4+ T cell count attained on stable HAART to affect post-challenge glycemic response. PMID:23607267

  19. APL-1, an altered peptide ligand derived from human heat-shock protein 60, selectively induces apoptosis in activated CD4+ CD25+ T cells from peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Barberá, Ariana; Lorenzo, Noraylis; Garrido, Greta; Mazola, Yuliet; Falcón, Viviana; Torres, Ana María; Hernández, María Isabel; Hernández, María Victoria; Margry, Bram; de Groot, A Marit; van Roon, Joel; van der Zee, Ruurd; Broere, Femke; van Eden, Willem; Padrón, Gabriel; Domínguez, María del Carmen

    2013-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that affects primarily the joints. The induction of immune tolerance through antigen-specific therapies for the blockade of pathogenic CD4+ T cells constitutes a current focus of research. In this focus it is attempted to simultaneously activate multiple regulatory mechanisms, such as: apoptosis and regulatory T cells (Tregs). APL-1 is an altered peptide ligand derived from a novel CD4+ T-cell epitope of human heat-shock protein of 60kDa, an autoantigen involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Previously, we have reported that APL-1 induces CD4+ CD25(high)Foxp3+ Tregs in several systems. Here, we investigated the ability of APL-1 in inducing apoptosis in PBMCs from RA patients, who were classified as active or inactive according to their DAS28 score. APL-1 decreased the viability of PBMCs from active but not from inactive patients. DNA fragmentation assays and typical morphological features clearly demonstrated that APL-1 induced apoptosis in these cells. Activated CD4+ CD25+ T cells but not resting CD4+ CD25- T cells were identified as targets of APL-1. Furthermore, CD4+ T-cell responses to APL-1 were found to be dependent on antigen presentation via the HLA-DR molecule. Thus, APL-1 is a regulatory CD4+ T cell epitope which might modulate inflammatory immune responses in PBMCs from RA patients by inducing CD4+ CD25(high)Foxp3+ Tregs and apoptosis in activated CD4+ T cells. These results support further investigation of this candidate drug for the treatment of RA.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in the CD14 gene are associated with monocyte activation and carotid intima-media thickness in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yean K.; Shankar, Esaki M.; Westhorpe, Clare L.V.; Maisa, Anna; Spelman, Tim; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the relationship between innate immune activation and CVD, we investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4 and CD14 and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate measurement for CVD, in HIV-infected individuals on ART and HIV-uninfected controls as a cross-sectional, case-control study. We quantified the frequency of monocyte subsets (CD14, CD16), markers of monocyte activation (CD38, HLA-DR), and endothelial adhesion (CCR2, CX3CR1, CD11b) by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD163, sCD14, sCX3CL1, and sCCL2, were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of TLR4 and CD14 SNPs was also performed. The TT genotype for CD14/−260SNP but not the CC/CT genotype was associated with elevated plasma sCD14, and increased frequency of CD11b+CD14+ monocytes in HIV-infected individuals. The TT genotype was associated with lower cIMT in HIV-infected patients (n = 47) but not in HIV-uninfected controls (n = 37). The AG genotype for TLR4/+896 was associated with increased CX3CR1 expression on total monocytes among HIV-infected individuals and increased sCCL2 and fibrinogen levels in HIV-uninfected controls. SNPs in CD14/−260 and TLR4/+896 were significantly associated with different markers of systemic and monocyte activation and cIMT that differed between HIV-infected participants on ART and HIV-uninfected controls. Further investigation on the relationship of these SNPs with a clinical endpoint of CVD is warranted in HIV-infected patients on ART. PMID:27495090

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in the CD14 gene are associated with monocyte activation and carotid intima-media thickness in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yean K; Shankar, Esaki M; Westhorpe, Clare L V; Maisa, Anna; Spelman, Tim; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Crowe, Suzanne M; Lewin, Sharon R

    2016-08-01

    HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the relationship between innate immune activation and CVD, we investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4 and CD14 and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate measurement for CVD, in HIV-infected individuals on ART and HIV-uninfected controls as a cross-sectional, case-control study. We quantified the frequency of monocyte subsets (CD14, CD16), markers of monocyte activation (CD38, HLA-DR), and endothelial adhesion (CCR2, CX3CR1, CD11b) by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD163, sCD14, sCX3CL1, and sCCL2, were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of TLR4 and CD14 SNPs was also performed. The TT genotype for CD14/-260SNP but not the CC/CT genotype was associated with elevated plasma sCD14, and increased frequency of CD11b+CD14+ monocytes in HIV-infected individuals. The TT genotype was associated with lower cIMT in HIV-infected patients (n = 47) but not in HIV-uninfected controls (n = 37). The AG genotype for TLR4/+896 was associated with increased CX3CR1 expression on total monocytes among HIV-infected individuals and increased sCCL2 and fibrinogen levels in HIV-uninfected controls. SNPs in CD14/-260 and TLR4/+896 were significantly associated with different markers of systemic and monocyte activation and cIMT that differed between HIV-infected participants on ART and HIV-uninfected controls. Further investigation on the relationship of these SNPs with a clinical endpoint of CVD is warranted in HIV-infected patients on ART.

  2. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are elevated and display an active phenotype in patients with chronic HCV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Hartling, H J; Gaardbo, J C; Ronit, A; Knudsen, L S; Ullum, H; Vainer, B; Clausen, M R; Skogstrand, K; Gerstoft, J; Nielsen, S D

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood and liver tissue in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection and in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection. In a cross-sectional study were included 51 patients with chronic HCV infection, 24 patients with HIV/HCV co-infection and 24 healthy individuals. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ Tregs were determined using flow cytometry. Fibrosis was examined by transient elastography. Inflammation, fibrosis and Tregs were determined in liver biopsies from 12 patients. Increased frequency of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ Tregs was found in HIV/HCV co-infected patients [median: 6.4% (IQR: 5.7-6.9) and 1.0% (0.7-1.2), respectively] compared to HCV mono-infected patients [5.6% (4.2-6.3), P = 0.01 and 0.5% (0.3-0.7), P < 0.001, respectively]. Furthermore, HCV mono-infected patients had increased frequencies of Tregs compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). However, no associations between the frequency of Tregs and fibrosis were found. Furthermore, characterization of CD4⁺ Tregs using CD45RA demonstrated a higher frequency of activated Tregs in both HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients compared with healthy controls. Finally, number of intrahepatic Tregs was associated with both peripheral CD8⁺ Tregs and intrahepatic inflammation. In conclusion, HCV mono-infected patients and particularly HIV/HCV co-infected patients have increased the frequency of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ Tregs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, CD4⁺ Tregs in infected patients displayed an active phenotype. Tregs were not associated with fibrosis, but a positive correlation between intrahepatic Tregs and inflammation was found. Taken together, these results suggest a role for Tregs in the pathogenesis of chronic HCV infection.

  3. Pathophysiological relevance of the CD14 receptor in surgical patients: biological activity of endotoxin is regulated by the CD14 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hiki, N; Mimura, Y; Ogawa, T; Kojima, J; Hatao, F; Kaminishi, M

    2001-01-01

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPSs) are potent bacterial poisons, and they are always present in the intestine in considerable numbers. Stress, such that as a resulting from multiple injuries, burns, hypovolemia, hypoxia, intestinal ischemia, and surgery can lead to a breakdown of the gut barrier, allowing endotoxins to enter the systemic circulation via translocation. However, estimating the biological activity of translocated circulating endotoxins and identification of the mechanisms regulating their biological activities remain complex problems. CD14 has been found to exist as a soluble protein in the serum and as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein of myeloid lineage cells. It plays key roles in both LPS-induced activation and in LPS internalization by cells. In this article, we outline: (i) the biological activity of circulating endotoxin; and (ii) the role of membrane and/or soluble CD14 regulating the bioactivity of circulating endotoxin in a human model of postoperative endotoxemia.

  4. Higher Activation in CD4(+) T Cells But Similar Viral Control Among HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients on a Simplification Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J; Torres-Cornejo, Almudena; Gutierrez-Valencia, Alicia; Ruiz-Valderas, Rosa; Viciana, Pompeyo; López-Cortés, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection would affect the clinical and immunological outcome of HIV-infected patients following a simplification strategy. A prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients starting a ritonavir boosted darunavir monotherapy (mtDRV/rtv) was followed for 24 months. HCV infection was evaluated by HCV viremia and hepatic fibrosis. Immune activation was studied as HLA-DR CD38 coexpression on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and also the quantification of plasma sCD14 levels. Microbial translocation was studied by the plasma levels of 16S rDNA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 150 HIV-infected patients were enrolled in this study, including 46 individuals also infected with HCV (30.6%). HIV/HCV coinfection did not decrease mtDRV/rtv efficacy, since similar rates of HIV-1 intermittent viremia (HCV: 26.6% vs. no-HCV: 34.7%) and episodes of virological failure (HCV: 22.2% vs. no-HCV: 11.2%, p-value = 0.381) were found. No major differences were found between both groups at baseline, although higher HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)CD4(+) T cell counts were found in the coinfected group (HCV: 6.65% vs. no-HCV: 4.55%, p-value = 0.032); this difference was maintained in the 24 months of follow-up. After the 24-month follow-up, both groups, HIV-monoinfected patients and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, presented similar immune activation and microbial translocation profiles. In conclusion, the use of a simplified mtDRV/rtv strategy compromises neither HIV nor HCV viremic control in coinfected patients, although a higher immune activation of CD4(+) T cells was found.

  5. A relationship between CD4 count and oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in urban population

    PubMed Central

    Satyakiran, Gadavalli Vera Venkata; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Alexander, Glory; Rao, Saritha; Venugopal, Reshma; Hosthor, Sreelatha S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gradually destroys the body's immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. HIV infection causes a quantitative and qualitative depletion of CD4 lymphocyte count, which increases the risk of opportunistic infections. Thus, CD4 count is one of the key factors in determining both the urgency of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and the need of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and variations in the oral manifestations of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients on HAART therapy in urban population and their association with CD4 count. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted by screening eighty patients who were HIV positive in an urban location. Both adult and pediatric patients were screened for oral manifestations and simultaneously CD4 count was also evaluated. Patients with HIV infection for variable time period who are under HAART were considered. Statistical Analysis: Measures of central tendency were used to analyse the data. Results: HIV infection destroys the immune system of an individual, making the patient susceptible to various infections and malignancies. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, the scenario has changed drastically. We have observed that patients with CD4 counts between 164 and 1286 show relatively few oral manifestations. Long-term HAART therapy causes pigmentation, xerostomia and angular cheilitis but is taken up quite well by the patients. Conclusion: In this study, eighty patients with HAART from urban population showed very minimal oral findings because of good accessibility for treatment and awareness about HIV infections. The patients who were on long-standing HAART treatment also showed minimal oral manifestation such as pigmentation and xerostomia. Hence, we conclude that recognition, significance and treatment of these lesions in patients with HIV

  6. Identification of glypican-3-derived long peptides activating both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells; prolonged overall survival in cancer patients with Th cell response

    PubMed Central

    Sayem, Mohammad A.; Tomita, Yusuke; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Irie, Atsushi; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Senju, Satoru; Yuba, Eiji; Yoshikawa, Toshiaki; Kono, Kenji; Nakatsura, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    In a recent phase I clinical trial, a vaccine consisting of glypican-3 (GPC3)-derived CTL epitopes was found to be safe and induced measurable immune and clinical responses in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify GPC3-derived long peptides (GPC3-LPs) carrying promiscuous HLA class II-restricted T helper (Th) cell epitopes. Using a computer algorithm, we predicted GPC3-LPs that can bind to promiscuous HLA class II molecules. Their antigenicity for induction of specific CD4+ T cells in healthy donors or patients with HCC, before and after vaccination with GPC3-SPs, was proven by IFNγ enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Natural processing of these epitopes was confirmed by the immune response of helper T cells to dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with GPC3 proteins. Cross-presentation capacity was assessed in vitro using human DCs and LPs encapsulated in liposomes and in vivo in HLA-A2 transgenic mice (Tgm). All five LPs could induce Th1 cells and were presented by several frequently occurring HLA class II molecules in vitro. Four of them were likely to be naturally processed. One of the LPs encapsulated in liposomes was well cross-presented in vitro; it cross-primed CTLs in HLA-A2 Tgm. LP-specific and HLA class II-restricted CD4+ T-cell responses were observed in 14 of 20 HCC patients vaccinated with GPC3-SPs. Repeated vaccinations enhanced GPC3-LP-specific responses in 8 of 13 patients with HCC. Moreover, the presence of the specific Th cell was correlated with prolonged overall survival (OS). GPC3-LPs can be useful for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26942076

  7. The combination of milatuzumab, a humanized anti-CD74 antibody, and veltuzumab, a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, demonstrates activity in patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Christian, Beth A; Poi, Ming; Jones, Jeffrey A; Porcu, Pierluigi; Maddocks, Kami; Flynn, Joseph M; Benson, Don M; Phelps, Mitch A; Wei, Lai; Byrd, John C; Wegener, William A; Goldenberg, David M; Baiocchi, Robert A; Blum, Kristie A

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the anti-tumour activity observed in vitro and in vivo with combined anti-CD20 and anti-CD74 antibodies, we initiated a phase I/II trial of veltuzumab and milatuzumab in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients received an induction of veltuzumab 200 mg/m(2) weekly combined with escalating doses of milatuzumab at 8, 16 and 20 mg/kg weekly for 4 weeks. Patients without disease progression could receive an extended induction with treatment on weeks 12, 20, 28 and 36. A total of 35 patients enrolled on the study. Median age was 63 years, median number of prior therapies was 3, and 63% of patients were rituximab refractory. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the phase I study. Related grade 3-4 toxicities included lymphopenia, leucopenia, neutropenia, anaemia, infusion reactions, hyperglycaemia, fatigue and atrial tachycardia. Median weeks of therapy was 12 and 29% of patients completed all 36 weeks of therapy. The overall response rate was 24%, median duration of response was 12 months, and responses were observed at all dose levels and in 50% of patients refractory to rituximab. Combination therapy with veltuzumab and milatuzumab demonstrated activity in a population of heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed or refractory indolent NHL.

  8. CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" monocytes are associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Karol; Ludew, Dominik; Filip, Grzegorz; Filip, Magdalena; Sagan, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Piotr; Grudzien, Grzegorz; Sadowski, Jerzy; Jasiewicz-Honkisz, Barbara; Sliwa, Tomasz; Kapelak, Boguslaw; McGinnigle, Eilidh; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2017-02-23

    Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are key mechanisms of vascular disease. We hypothesised that heterogeneity of monocyte subpopulations may be related to the development of vascular dysfunction in coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we examined the relationships between monocyte subsets (CD14(++)CD16(-) "classical - Mon1", CD14(++)CD16(+) "intermediate - Mon2" and CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical - Mon3"), endothelial function and risk factor profiles in 130 patients with CAD undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. This allowed for direct nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability assessment using isometric tension studies ex vivo (acetylcholine; ACh- and sodium-nitropruside; SNP-dependent) in segments of internal mammary arteries. The expression of CD14 and CD16 antigens and activation markers were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry. Patients with high CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" and low CD14(++)CD16(-) "classical" monocytes presented impaired endothelial function. High frequency of CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" monocytes was associated with increased vascular superoxide production. Furthermore, endothelial dysfunction was associated with higher expression of activation marker CD11c selectively on CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes. Nonclassical and classical monocyte frequencies remained independent predictors of endothelial dysfunction when major risk factors for atherosclerosis were taken into account (β=0.18 p=0.04 and β=-0.19 p=0.03, respectively). In summary, our data indicate that CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" monocytes are associated with more advanced vascular dysfunction measured as NO- bioavailability and vascular reactive oxygen species production.

  9. Epitope mapping of ibalizumab, a humanized anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody with anti-HIV-1 activity in infected patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruijiang; Franco, David; Kao, Chia-Ying; Yu, Faye; Huang, Yaoxing; Ho, David D

    2010-07-01

    Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). With its unique specificity for domain 2 of CD4, this antibody potently and broadly blocks HIV-1 infection in vitro by inhibiting a postbinding step required for viral entry but without interfering with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-mediated immune function. In clinical trials, ibalizumab has demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity in patients without causing immunosuppression. Thus, a characterization of the ibalizumab epitope was conducted in an attempt to gain insight into the underlying mechanism of its antiviral activity as well as its safety profile. By studying mouse/human chimeric CD4 molecules and site-directed point mutants of CD4, amino acids L96, P121, P122, and Q163 in domain 2 were found to be important for ibalizumab binding, with E77 and S79 in domain 1 also contributing. All these residues appear to cluster on the interface between domains 1 and 2 of human CD4 on a surface opposite the site where gp120 and the MHC-II molecule bind on domain 1. Separately, the epitope of M-T441, a weakly neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody that competes with ibalizumab, was localized entirely within domain 2 on residues 123 to 125 and 138 to 140. The results reported herein not only provide an appreciation for why ibalizumab has not had significant adverse immunological consequences in infected patients to date but also raise possible steric hindrance mechanisms by which this antibody blocks HIV-1 entry into a CD4-positive cell.

  10. Evaluation of soluble CD200 levels in type 2 diabetic foot and nephropathic patients: Association with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Hasan Onur; Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Celik, Betul; Seyman, Derya; Tetik, Gulsum; Gursoy, Bensu; Kose, Sukran; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2014-01-01

    Background CD200 (OX-2) is a novel immune-effective molecule, existing in a cell membrane-bound form, as well as in a soluble form in serum (s OX-2), which acts to regulate inflammatory and acquired immune responses. Material/Methods We planned this study to evaluate the sOX-2 levels of type 2 diabetic foot (group B), and compare it with that of healthy controls (group A). The patient group had the following values: DM period: 27.9±10.3 year [mean ±SD], HbA1c: 9.52±2.44% [mean ±SD]. Results Blood samples for sCD200 measurement were always taken in the morning between 8 and 10 A.M.. The results were reported as means of duplicate measurements. Concentrations of sOX-2 in the serum samples were quantified using an ELISA kit. Serum hs-CRP levels were measured using an hs-CRP assay kit. The sOX-2 level in group B was 173.8±3.1 and in group A was 70.52±1.2 [p<0.0001). In subgroup analysis of T2DM-DFI patients, we noticed that sOX-2 levels were higher in WGS (Wagner grading system) I and II patients than in WGS III and IV patients. The HbA1c, BUN, creatinine, hs-CRP levels, and sedimentation rates were higher in the patient group (p<0.0001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.005, and p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions We suggest that there are vascular, immunologic, and neurologic components in DFI, whereas autoimmune diseases and inflammatory skin disorders have only an immunologic component. This is possibly evidence of a pro-inflammatory effect seen in DFI as a vascular complication. PMID:24964809

  11. Peripheral and site-specific CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients show distinct characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pieper, J; Johansson, S; Snir, O; Linton, L; Rieck, M; Buckner, J H; Winqvist, O; van Vollenhoven, R; Malmström, V

    2014-02-01

    Proinflammatory CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells are frequently found in the circulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but are less common in the rheumatic joint. In the present study, we sought to identify functional differences between CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from blood and synovial fluid in comparison with conventional CD28-expressing CD4(+) T cells. Forty-four patients with RA, displaying a distinct CD4(+) CD28(null) T cell population in blood, were recruited for this study; the methylation status of the IFNG locus was examined in isolated T cell subsets, and intracellular cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17) and chemokine receptor expression (CXCR3, CCR6 and CCR7) were assessed by flow cytometry on T cells from the two compartments. Circulating CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells were significantly more hypomethylated in the CNS-1 region of the IFNG locus than conventional CD4(+) CD28(+) T cells and produced higher levels of both IFN-γ and TNF after TCR cross-linking. CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from the site of inflammation expressed significantly more CXCR3 and CCR6 compared to their counterparts in blood. While IL-17A production could hardly be detected in CD4(+) CD28(null) cells from the blood, a significant production was observed in CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from synovial fluid. CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells were not only found to differ from conventional CD4(+) CD28(+) T cells in the circulation, but we could also demonstrate that synovial CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells showed additional effector functions (IL-17 coproduction) as compared to the same subset in peripheral blood, suggesting an active role for these cells in the perpetuation of inflammation in the subset of patients having a CD28(null) population.

  12. Expression of activated molecules on CD5(+)B lymphocytes in autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongli; Xu, Wenyan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huaquan; Fu, Rong; Wu, Yuhong; Qu, Wen; Wang, Guojin; Guan, Jing; Song, Jia; Xing, Limin; Shao, Zonghong

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the expression of activation molecules on CD5(+)B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)/Evans patients. The expression of CD80, CD86, and CD69 on CD5(+)B lymphocytes was detected using flow cytometry in 30 AIHA/Evans patients, 18 normal controls (NC) and nine chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. CD80 on CD5(+)B lymphocytes in untreated patients was higher than that in remission patients (P < 0.05), NC (P < 0.01) and CLL patients (P < 0.01). CD80 on CD5(+)B lymphocytes was higher than that on CD5(-)B lymphocytes in untreated patients (P > 0.05), but lower than those of CD5(-)B lymphocytes in remission patients and NC (P < 0.05). CD86 on CD5(+)B lymphocytes of untreated patients was higher than that of remission patients (P < 0.05), NC (P < 0.01). CD86 on CD5(+)B lymphocytes of CLL was higher than that of NC, remission (P < 0.05), and untreated patients (P > 0.05). CD80 and CD86 on CD5(+)B lymphocytes was negatively correlated with hemoglobin (HB), C3, C4 (P < 0.05) and positively correlated with reticulocyte (Ret) (P < 0.05). CD69 on CD5(+) and CD5(-)B lymphocytes of CLL was higher than those of AIHA/Evans patients and NC (P < 0.05). The active molecules on CD5(+)B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of AIHA/Evans patients differ from those on CD5(-) and clonal CD5(+)B lymphocytes.

  13. Differential activation of dendritic cells by toll-like receptors causes diverse differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells from allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Deifl, S.; Kitzmüller, C.; Steinberger, P.; Himly, M.; Jahn-Schmid, B.; Fischer, G. F.; Zlabinger, G. J.; Bohle, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background To avert the differentiation of allergen-specific Th2 cells in atopic individuals is a major goal in the prevention and therapy of IgE-mediated allergy. We aimed to compare different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists regarding their effects on antigen-presenting cells and the differentiation of naïve T cells from allergic patients. Methods Monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDC) from allergic patients were stimulated with Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 ligand), FSL-1 (TLR2/6 ligand), monophosphoryl lipid (MPL)-A, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, both TLR4 ligands), and flagellin (TLR5 ligand). Allergen uptake and upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD58, CCR7 and PD-L1 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Functional maturation of mdDC was tested in mixed leukocyte reactions, and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and members of the IL-12 family was assessed. TLR-ligand-activated mdDC were used to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells, and cytokine responses were assessed in supernatants and intracellularly. Results All TLR ligands except flagellin enhanced allergen uptake. All TLR ligands induced functional maturation of mdDC with differential expression of surface molecules and cytokines and promoted the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing T cells. LPS-matured mdDC exclusively induced Th1-like responses, whereas mdDC stimulated with the other TLR ligands induced both Th1- and Th0-like cells. Pam3CSK4 and flagellin additionally induced Th2-like cells. Th1-like responses were associated with higher expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules, PD-L1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-12p70. None of the TLR-ligand-stimulated mdDC induced IL-10- or IL-17-producing T cells. Conclusion Different TLR ligands differently influence T-cell responses due to varying activation of the three signals relevant for T-cell activation, that is, antigen presentation, co-stimulation and cytokine milieu. PMID:25093709

  14. CD26 Expression on T Helper Populations and sCD26 Serum Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Oscar J.; Varela-Calviño, Rubén; López-González, Tania; Calviño-Sampedro, Cristina; Viñuela, Juan E.; Mouriño, Coral; Hernández-Rodríguez, Íñigo; Rodríguez-López, Marina; Aspe de la Iglesia, Bruno; Pego, José María

    2015-01-01

    We studied dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, CD26) expression in different T helper cells and serum soluble DPP-IV/sCD26 levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, correlated these with disease activity score (DAS), and examined how they were affected by different therapies, conventional or biological (anti-TNF, anti-CD20 and anti-IL6R or Ig-CTLA4). The percentage of CD4+CD45R0+CD26- cells was greatly reduced in patients (up to 50%) when compared with healthy subjects. Three other subsets of CD4 cells, including a CD26high Th1-associated population, changed variably with therapies. Data from these subsets (frequency and staining density) significantly correlated with DAS28 or DAS28 components but different in each group of patients undergoing the different therapies. Th17 and Th22 subsets were implicated in RA as independent CCR4+ and CCR4- populations each, with distinct CD26 expression, and were targeted with varying efficiency by each therapy. Serum DPP-IV activity rather than sCD26 levels was lower in RA patients compared to healthy donors. DPP-IV and sCD26 serum levels were found related to specific T cell subsets but not to disease activity. We conclude that, according to their CD26 expression, different cell subsets could serve to monitor RA course, and an uncharacterized T helper CD26- subset, not targeted by therapies, should be monitored for early diagnosis. PMID:26177310

  15. Prevalence of interferon type I signature in CD14 monocytes of patients with Sjögren's syndrome and association with disease activity and BAFF gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Brkic, Zana; Maria, Naomi I; van Helden-Meeuwsen, Cornelia G; van de Merwe, Joop P; van Daele, Paul L; Dalm, Virgil A; Wildenberg, Manon E; Beumer, Wouter; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Versnel, Marjan A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of upregulation of interferon (IFN) type I inducible genes, the so called ‘IFN type I signature’, in CD14 monocytes in 69 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 44 healthy controls (HC) and correlate it with disease manifestations and expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF). Methods Expression of IFI44L, IFI44, IFIT3, LY6E and MX1 was measured using real time quantitative PCR in monocytes. Expression values were used to calculate IFN type I scores for each subject. pSS patients positive for the IFN type I signature (IFN score≥10) and patients negative for the signature (IFN score<10) were then compared for clinical disease manifestations and BAFF expression. A bioassay using a monocytic cell line was performed to study whether BAFF mRNA expression was inducible by IFN type I activity in serum of patients with pSS. Results An IFN type I signature was present in 55% of patients with pSS compared with 4.5% of HC. Patients with the IFN type I signature showed: (a) higher EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores; higher anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-La autoantibodies; higher rheumatoid factor; higher serum IgG; lower C3, lower absolute lymphocyte and neutrophil counts; (b)higher BAFF gene expression in monocytes. In addition, serum of signature-positive patients induced BAFF gene expression in monocytes. Conclusions The monocyte IFN type I signature identifies a subgroup of patients with pSS with a higher clinical disease activity together with higher BAFF mRNA expression. Such patients might benefit from treatment blocking IFN type I production or activity. PMID:22736090

  16. Activated myeloid dendritic cells accumulate and co-localize with CD3+ T cells in coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Atilla; Rowley, Anne; Schulte, Danica J; Doherty, Terence M; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Fishbein, Michael C; Kalelkar, Mitra; Cicha, Iwona; Schubert, Katja; Daniel, Werner G; Garlichs, Christoph D; Arditi, Moshe

    2007-08-01

    Emerging evidence implicating the participation of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells in various vascular inflammatory diseases such as giant cell arteritis, Takayasu's arteritis, and atherosclerosis led us to hypothesize that they might also participate in the pathogenesis of coronary arteritis in Kawasaki disease (KD). Coronary artery specimens from 4 patients with KD and 6 control patients were obtained. Immunohistochemical and computer-assisted histomorphometric analyses were performed to detect all myeloid DCs (S-100(+), fascin(+)), all plasmacytoid DCs (CD123(+)) as well as specific DC subsets (mature myeloid DCs [CD83(+)], myeloid [BDCA-1(+)] and plasmacytoid DC precursors [BDCA-2(+)]), T cells (CD3(+)), and all antigen-presenting cells (HLA-DR(+)). Co-localization of DCs with T cells was assessed using double immunostaining. Significantly more myeloid DCs at a precursor, immature or mature stage were found in coronary lesions of KD patients than in controls. Myeloid DC precursors were distributed equally in the intima and adventitia. Mature myeloid DCs were particularly abundant in the adventitia. There was a significant correlation between mature DCs and HLA-DR expression. Double immunostaining demonstrated frequent contacts between myeloid DCs and T cells in the outer media and adventitia. Plasmacytoid DC precursors were rarely found in the adventitia. In conclusion, coronary artery lesions of KD patients contain increased numbers of mature myeloid DCs with high HLA-DR expression and frequent T cell contacts detected immunohistochemically. This suggests that mature arterial myeloid DCs might be activating T cells in situ and may be a significant factor in the pathogenesis of coronary arteritis in KD.

  17. Interleukin-17- and interleukin-22-secreting myelin-specific CD4(+) T cells resistant to corticoids are related with active brain lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Wing, Ana Cristina; Hygino, Joana; Ferreira, Thais B; Kasahara, Taissa M; Barros, Priscila O; Sacramento, Priscila M; Andrade, Regis M; Camargo, Solange; Rueda, Fernanda; Alves-Leon, Soniza V; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. It is believed that immunological events in the early stages have great impact on the disease course. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells from MS patients in the early phase of the disease and correlate it to clinical parameters, as well as to the effect of in vitro corticoid treatment. Peripheral T cells from MS patients were stimulated with MBP with our without hydrocortisone for 5 days. The cytokines level were determined by ELISA. The number of active brain lesions was determined by MRI scans, and the neurological disabilities were assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. Our results demonstrated that MS-derived T cells responded to MBP by producing high levels of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cytokines. Although the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-17 and IL-22 was less sensitive to hydrocortisone inhibition, only IL-17 and IL-22 levels correlated with active brain lesions. The ability of hydrocortisone to inhibit IL-17 and IL-22 production by MBP-specific CD4(+) T cells was inversely related to the number of active brain lesions. Finally, the production of both cytokines was significantly higher in cell cultures from Afrodescendant patients and it was less sensitive to hydrocortisone inhibition. In summary, our data suggest that IL-17- and IL-22-secreting CD4(+) T cells resistant to corticoids are associated with radiological activity of the MS in early stages of the disease, mainly among Afrodescendant patients who, normally, have worse prognosis.

  18. Simultaneous activation of viral antigen-specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells using mRNA-electroporated CD40-activated autologous B-cells.

    PubMed

    Van den Bosch, Glenn A; Van Gulck, Ellen; Ponsaerts, Peter; Nijs, Griet; Lenjou, Marc; Apers, Ludwig; Kint, Ilse; Heyndrickx, Leo; Vanham, Guido; Van Bockstaele, Dirk R; Berneman, Zwi N; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it has become obvious that not only CD8 T-cells, but also CD4 T-helper cells are required for the induction of an effective, long-lasting cellular immune response. In view of the clinical importance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we developed 2 strategies to simultaneously reactivate viral antigen-specific memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells of CMV-seropositive and HIV-seropositive subjects using mRNA-electroporated autologous CD40-activated B cells. In the setting of HIV, we provide evidence that CD40-activated B cells can be cultured from HAART-naive HIV-1 seropositive patients. These cells not only express and secrete the HIV p24 antigen after electroporation with codon-optimized HIV-1 gag mRNA, but can also be used to in vitro reactivate Gag antigen-specific interferon-gamma-producing CD4 and CD8 autologous T-cells. For the CMV-specific approach, we applied mRNA coding for the pp65 protein coupled to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 to transfect CD40-activated B cells to induce CMV antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells. More detailed analysis of the activated interferon-gamma-producing CMV pp65 tetramer positive CD8 T-cells revealed an effector memory phenotype with the capacity to produce interleukin-2. Our findings clearly show that the concomitant activation of both CD4 and CD8 (memory) T-cells using mRNA-electroporated CD40-B cells is feasible in CMV and HIV-1-seropositive persons, which indicates the potential value of this approach for application in cellular immunotherapy of infectious diseases.

  19. Proliferation of weakly suppressive regulatory CD4+ T cells is associated with over-active CD4+ T-cell responses in HIV-positive patients with mycobacterial immune restoration disease.

    PubMed

    Seddiki, Nabila; Sasson, Sarah C; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Munier, Meeling; van Bockel, David; Ip, Susanna; Marriott, Debbie; Pett, Sarah; Nanan, Ralph; Cooper, David A; Zaunders, John J; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2009-02-01

    The role of Treg in patients with late-stage HIV disease, who commence combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and develop pathogen-specific immunopathology manifesting as immune restoration disease (IRD) remains unclear. We hypothesised that Treg could be defective in either numbers and/or function and therefore unable to ensure the physiological equilibrium of the immune system in patients with IRD. Phenotypic and functional CD4(+) T-cell subsets of eight late-stage HIV patients with nadir CD4 count <50 cells/microL, who developed mycobacterial IRD upon commencing cART were compared with six therapy naive HIV(+) patients (nadir CD4 count <50 cells/microL), who did not develop an IRD after cART. Mycobacterium-avium-specific CD4(+) T cells from IRD patients produced high levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 compared with controls (p<0.001). Surprisingly, we found a significant expansion of CD127(lo)Foxp3(+)CD25(+) Treg in IRD patients and a higher ratio of Treg to effector/memory subsets (p<0.001). In vitro suppression assays demonstrated reduced functional capacity of suppressor cells and diminished IL-10 secretion in IRD patients. Plasma levels of IL-7 were increased in patients and, interestingly, exogenous IL-7 and other cytokines strongly inhibited Treg suppression. These data suggest that despite substantial Treg expansion in IRD, their ability to induce suppression, and thereby downregulate aberrant immune responses, is compromised.

  20. Transient CD4/CD8 ratio inversion and aberrant immune activation during dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Chuan; Huang, Kao-Jean; Lin, Yee-Shin; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2002-10-01

    The immune status after dengue virus infection was studied in dengue patients from an outbreak of serotype 3 dengue virus infection in the southern part of Taiwan during November and December 1998. Consecutive blood samples from 29 dengue patients, of whom 21 had dengue fever and 8 had dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, were collected, and the immunophenotypes of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The early activation marker CD69 appeared on lymphocytes and monocytes at day 4 after the onset of fever, and declined afterward. However, a transient reverse in the CD4/CD8 ratio occurred at days 6-10 after the onset of fever. The CD4/CD8 ratio inversion was manifested in 10 of 29 dengue patients and was encountered more frequently in dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome than in dengue fever patients. Analysis of the clinical blood cell count of these 10 cases showed that increase of immature neutrophils developed at fever days 5-6, CD4(dim) or CD8(dim) monocytosis at days 6-7, and atypical lymphocytosis at days 8-10 after the onset of fever. Serum IL-6 was found at either day 7 or day 9-11. The PHA-stimulated T-cell response was depressed as well. These changes in immune parameters indicate aberrant immune activation during dengue virus infection and might be involved in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection.

  1. Functional defect of regulatory CD4(+)CD25+ T cells in the thymus of patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Balandina, Anna; Lécart, Sandrine; Dartevelle, Philippe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2005-01-15

    Thymus-derived CD4(+)CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for the maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance. Despite their critical role in the active suppression of experimental autoimmune disorders, little is known about their involvement in human autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a CD4+ T cell-dependent autoimmune disease and the thymus is assumed to be the initiation site. To identify possible defects in the Treg cells in MG, we analyzed CD4(+)CD25+ cells in thymi from patients with MG compared to those from healthy subjects. We found a normal CD4(+)CD25+ number but a severe functional defect in their regulatory activity together with a decreased expression of the transcription factor, Foxp3, which is essential for T-cell regulatory function. The phenotypic analysis of CD4(+)CD25+ thymocytes revealed an increased number of activated effector cells with strong Fas expression in patients with MG. However, whatever their level of Fas, CD4(+)CD25+ thymocytes from patients with MG remained unable to suppress the proliferation of responding cells, indicating that the impaired Treg cell function is not due to contamination by activated effector T cells. These data are the first to demonstrate a severe functional impairment of thymic Treg cells in MG, which could contribute to the onset of this autoimmune disease.

  2. [Changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in bone marrow of MDS and AA patients].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen-Yu; Tian, Xu; Li, Ying; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Song; Wang, Xie-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cheng, Nai-Yao

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in MDS and AA patients. A total of 25 cases MDS and 43 cases of AA (18 cases SAA and 25 cases of NSAA) from January 2010 to October 2013 in the Department of Hematology, affiliated hospital of Hebei United University were enrolled in this study. The complete blood count, bone marrow smears, bone marrow biopsy, karyotype analysis and bone marrow blood cell immune genotyping (mainly the proportion of CD34(+) cells, CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in nucleated cells) were carried out for all patients; the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in patients with MDS and AA (SAA NSAA) were compared; the differences of white blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration in patients with count of CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15% or <15% were analyzed. The results showed that the count of CD34(+) in MDS group was higher than that in AA (NSAA and SAA) group (P < 0.05). The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group was higher than that in SAA (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference between NSAA group and MDS group. In MDS group with CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15%, the platelet count was significantly higher than that in NSAA group (P < 0.05); and there was no statistical difference for leukocyte, platelet count and hemoglobin level between MDS and NSAA group with CD71(+)CD45(-) <15% (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the count of CD34(+) cells in MDS patients is significantly higher than that in AA and SAA patients. The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group is significantly higher than that of SAA group. The platelet count in MDS patients with CD71(+)CD45(-) cells ≥ 15% is significantly higher than that of the NSAA group.

  3. Circulating (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(-)IgD(-)CD27(high)CD38(high)) Plasmablasts: A Promising Cellular Biomarker for Immune Activity for Anti-PLA2R1 Related Membranous Nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka; Beukinga, Ingrid; Gu-Trantien, Chunyan; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Nortier, Joëlle; Pradier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a kidney specific autoimmune disease mainly mediated by anti-phospholipase A2 receptor 1 autoantibody (PLA2R1 Ab). The adequate assessment of chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab (RTX), efficacy is still needed to improve clinical outcome of patient with MN. We evaluated the modification of plasmablasts (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(-)IgD(-)CD27(high)CD38(high)), a useful biomarker of RTX response in other autoimmune diseases, and memory (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(+)IgD(-)CD27(+)CD38(-)) and naive (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(+)IgD(+)CD27(-)CD38(low)) B cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis in PLA2R1 related MN in one patient during the 4 years of follow-up after RTX. RTX induced complete disappearance of CD19(+) B cells, plasmablasts, and memory B cells as soon as day 15. Despite severe CD19(+) lymphopenia, plasmablasts and memory B cells reemerged early before naive B cells (days 45, 90, and 120, resp.). During the follow-up, plasmablasts decreased more rapidly than memory B cells but still remained elevated as compared to day 0 of RTX. Concomitantly, anti-PLA2R1 Ab increased progressively. Our single case report suggests that, besides monitoring of serum anti-PLA2R1 Ab level, enumeration of circulating plasmablasts and memory B cells represents an attractive and complementary tool to assess immunological activity and efficacy of RTX induced B cells depletion in anti-PLA2R1 Ab related MN.

  4. DNA-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly and Release of Pyrogenic Cytokines by CD14+ CD16+ CD64high CD32low Inflammatory Monocytes from Malaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirako, Isabella C.; Gallego-Marin, Carolina; Ataide, Marco A.; Andrade, Warrison A.; Gravina, Humberto; Rocha, Bruno C.; de Oliveira, Rosane B.; Pereira, Dhelio B.; Vinetz, Joseph; Diamond, Betty; Ram, Sanjay; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of circulating immunocomplexes (ICs) are found in patients with either infectious or sterile inflammation. We report that patients with either Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria have increased levels of circulating anti-DNA antibodies and ICs containing parasite DNA. Upon stimulation with malaria-induced ICs, monocytes express an NF-κB transcriptional signature. The main source of IC-induced proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-1β [IL-1β])in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute malaria patients was found to be a CD14+ CD16 (FcγRIIIA)+ CD64 (FcγRI)high CD32 (FcγRIIB)low monocyte subset. Monocytes from convalescent patients were predominantly of the classical phenotype (CD14+ CD16−) that produces high levels of IL-10 and lower levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in response to ICs. Finally, we report a novel role for the proinflammatory activity of ICs by demonstrating their ability to induce inflammasome assembly and caspase-1 activation in human monocytes. These findings illuminate our understanding of the pathogenic role of ICs and monocyte subsets and may be relevant for future development of immunity-based interventions with broad applications to systemic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26578679

  5. Activation of Blood CD3+CD56+CD8+ T Cells during Pregnancy and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrés, Clara; Fernández-Paredes, Lidia; Tejera-Alhambra, Marta; Alonso, Bárbara; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    A striking common feature of most autoimmune diseases is their female predominance, with at least twice as common among women than men in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), the prevailing MS clinical form with onset at childbearing age. This fact, together with the protective effect on disease activity during pregnancy, when there are many biological changes including high levels of estrogens and progesterone, puts sex hormones under the spotlight. The role of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in MS disease beginning and course is still to be elucidated. The uterine NK (uNK) cells are the most predominant immune population in early pregnancy, and the number and function of uNK cells infiltrating the endometrium are sex-hormones’ dependent. However, there is controversy on the role of estrogen or progesterone on circulating NK (CD56dim and CD56bright) and NKT cells’ subsets. Here, we show a significantly increased activation of CD3+CD56+CD8+ cells in pregnant MS women (MSP) compared with non-pregnant MS women (NPMS) (p < 0.001) and even with respect to healthy pregnant women (HP, p < 0.001), remaining increased even after delivery. The dynamics of expression of early activation marker CD69 on CD3+CD56+CD8+ cells showed a progressive statistically significant increase along the gestation trimesters (T) and at postpartum (PP) with respect to NPMS (1T: p = 0.018; 2T: p = 0.004; 3T: p < 0.001; PP: p = 0.001). In addition, early activation expression of CD69 on CD3+CD56+CD8+ cells was higher in MSP than HP in the first two trimesters of gestation (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively). NPMS showed significantly increased cytotoxic/regulatory NK ratio compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001). On the other hand, gender studies showed no differences between MS women and men in NK and CD3+CD56+CD8+ cells’ subsets. Our findings may add on the understanding of the regulatory axis in MS during pregnancy. Further studies

  6. Activation-induced cell death of memory CD8+ T cells from pleural effusion of lung cancer patients is mediated by the type II Fas-induced apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Morales-Fuentes, Jorge; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2012-07-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Pleural effusions, containing high numbers of mononuclear and tumor cells, are frequent in patients with advanced stages of lung cancer. We reported that in pleural effusions from primary lung cancer, the CD8+ T cell subpopulation, and particularly the terminally differentiated subset, is reduced compared to that of non-malignant effusions. We analyzed the participation of activation-induced cell death (AICD) and extrinsic pathways (type I or II) as mechanisms for the decrease in pleural effusion CD8+ T cell subpopulation. Pleural effusion or peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, from lung cancer patients, were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody and analyzed for (a) apoptosis by annexin-V-binding and TUNEL assay, (b) transcript levels of Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL by real-time RT-PCR, (c) expression of FasL and TRAIL, measured as integrated mean fluorescence intensities (iMFI) by flow cytometry, (d) expression of Bcl-2 and BIM molecules, measured as MFI, and (e) apoptosis inhibition using caspase-8 and -9 inhibitors. Pleural effusion CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, from cancer patients underwent AICD. Blocking FasL/Fas pathway protected from AICD. Upregulation of FasL and TRAIL expressions was found in pleural effusion CD8+ T cells, which also showed a subset of Bcl-2 low cells. In memory CD8+ T cells, AICD depended on both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Hence, in the pleural space of lung cancer patients, AICD might compromise the antitumor function of CD8+ T cells.

  7. CD19 CAR–T cells of defined CD4+:CD8+ composition in adult B cell ALL patients

    PubMed Central

    Turtle, Cameron J.; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Berger, Carolina; Gooley, Theodore A.; Cherian, Sindhu; Hudecek, Michael; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Melville, Katherine; Pender, Barbara; Budiarto, Tanya M.; Robinson, Emily; Steevens, Natalia N.; Chaney, Colette; Soma, Lorinda; Chen, Xueyan; Li, Daniel; Cao, Jianhong; Heimfeld, Shelly; Jensen, Michael C.; Riddell, Stanley R.; Maloney, David G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. T cells that have been modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have antitumor activity in B cell malignancies; however, identification of the factors that determine toxicity and efficacy of these T cells has been challenging in prior studies in which phenotypically heterogeneous CAR–T cell products were prepared from unselected T cells. METHODS. We conducted a clinical trial to evaluate CD19 CAR–T cells that were manufactured from defined CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets and administered in a defined CD4+:CD8+ composition to adults with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia after lymphodepletion chemotherapy. RESULTS. The defined composition product was remarkably potent, as 27 of 29 patients (93%) achieved BM remission, as determined by flow cytometry. We established that high CAR–T cell doses and tumor burden increase the risks of severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Moreover, we identified serum biomarkers that allow testing of early intervention strategies in patients at the highest risk of toxicity. Risk-stratified CAR–T cell dosing based on BM disease burden decreased toxicity. CD8+ T cell–mediated anti-CAR transgene product immune responses developed after CAR–T cell infusion in some patients, limited CAR–T cell persistence, and increased relapse risk. Addition of fludarabine to the lymphodepletion regimen improved CAR–T cell persistence and disease-free survival. CONCLUSION. Immunotherapy with a CAR–T cell product of defined composition enabled identification of factors that correlated with CAR–T cell expansion, persistence, and toxicity and facilitated design of lymphodepletion and CAR–T cell dosing strategies that mitigated toxicity and improved disease-free survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01865617. FUNDING. R01-CA136551; Life Science Development Fund; Juno Therapeutics; Bezos Family Foundation. PMID:27111235

  8. CD4⁺CD28null T lymphocytes resemble CD8⁺CD28null T lymphocytes in their responses to IL-15 and IL-21 in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Ainara; Moro-García, Marco A; Asensi, Víctor; Cartón, José A; López-Larrea, Carlos; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca

    2015-09-01

    HIV-infected individuals suffer from accelerated immunologic aging. One of the most prominent changes during T lymphocyte aging is the accumulation of CD28(null) T lymphocytes, mainly CD8(+) but also CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Enhancing the functional properties of these cells may be important because they provide antigen-specific defense against chronic infections. The objective of this study was to compare the responses of CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null) T lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients to the immunomodulatory effects of cytokines IL-15 and IL-21. We quantified the frequencies of CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null) T lymphocytes in peripheral blood from 110 consecutive, HIV-infected patients and 25 healthy controls. Patients showed increased frequencies of CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null). Both subsets were positively correlated to each other and showed an inverse correlation with the absolute counts of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Higher frequencies of HIV-specific and CMV-specific cells were found in CD28(null) than in CD28(+) T lymphocytes. Activation of STAT5 by IL-15 and STAT3 by IL-21 was higher in CD28(null) compared with CD28(+) T lymphocytes. Proliferation, expression of CD69, and IFN-γ production in CD28(null) T lymphocytes were increased after treatment with IL-15, and IL-21 potentiated most of those effects. Nevertheless, IL-21 alone reduced IFN-γ production in response to anti-CD3 stimulation but increased CD28 expression, even counteracting the inhibitory effect of IL-15. Intracytoplasmic stores of granzyme B and perforin were increased by IL-15, whereas IL-21 and simultaneous treatment with the 2 cytokines also significantly enhanced degranulation in CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null) T lymphocytes. IL-15 and IL-21 could have a role in enhancing the effector response of CD28(null) T lymphocytes against their specific chronic antigens in HIV-infected patients.

  9. Reduced CD5(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) and interleukin-10(+) regulatory B cells in active anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis permit increased circulating autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Aybar, L T; McGregor, J G; Hogan, S L; Hu, Y; Mendoza, C E; Brant, E J; Poulton, C J; Henderson, C D; Falk, R J; Bunch, D O

    2015-05-01

    Pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is B cell-dependent, although how particular B cell subsets modulate immunopathogenesis remains unknown. Although their phenotype remains controversial, regulatory B cells (Bregs ), play a role in immunological tolerance via interleukin (IL)-10. Putative CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) and CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD27(+) Bregs were evaluated in addition to their CD5(+) subsets in 69 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). B cell IL-10 was verified by flow cytometry following culture with CD40 ligand and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) DNA. Patients with active disease had decreased levels of CD5(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells and IL-10(+) B cells compared to patients in remission and healthy controls (HCs). As IL-10(+) and CD5(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells normalized in remission within an individual, ANCA titres decreased. The CD5(+) subset of CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells decreases in active disease and rebounds during remission similarly to IL-10-producing B cells. Moreover, CD5(+) B cells are enriched in the ability to produce IL-10 compared to CD5(neg) B cells. Together these results suggest that CD5 may identify functional IL-10-producing Bregs . The malfunction of Bregs during active disease due to reduced IL-10 expression may thus permit ANCA production.

  10. Circulating CD14+ monocytes in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, Sara; Meledin, Valery; Bar, Iris; Fabricant, Jacob; Gandelman, Gera; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is an active process sharing similarities with atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation. The pathophysiology of AS is notable for three cardinal components: inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Monocytes play a role in each of these processes. The role of circulating monocytes in AS is not clear. The aim of the present study was to study an association between circulating apoptotic and non apoptotic CD14+ monocytes and AS features. Methods We assessed the number of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes in 54 patients with significant AS (aortic valve area 0.74 ± 0.27 cm2) and compared them to 33 patients with similar risk factors and no valvular disease. The level of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Results There was no difference in the risk factor profile and known coronary or peripheral vascular diseases between patients with AS and controls. Patients with AS exhibited increased numbers of CD14+ monocytes as compared to controls (9.9% ± 4.9% vs. 7.7% ± 3.9%, P = 0.03). CD14+ monocyte number was related to age and the presence and severity of AS. In patients with AS, both CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes were inversely related to aortic valve area. Conclusions Patients with significant AS have increased number of circulating CD14+ monocytes and there is an inverse correlation between monocyte count and aortic valve area. These findings may suggest that inflammation is operative not only in early valve injury phase, but also at later developed stages such as calcification when AS is severe. PMID:26918018

  11. Modeling CD4+ cell count increase over a six-year period in HIV-1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    PubMed

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Etard, Jean-François; Diouf, Assane; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Guèye, Pape Mandoumbé; Sow, Papa Salif; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndoye, Ibra; Ecochard, René; Eric, Delaporte

    2009-06-01

    To assess the extents and determinants of long-term CD4 cell increases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), changes in CD4 cell counts were analyzed in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Senegalese using a mixed-effects model. After a median follow-up of 54 months, an average of 483 CD4 cells/mm3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 331; 680) was reached. The average asymptote level was approximately 421 cells/mm3 (95% CI = 390; 454) in patients with < 200 cells/mm3 at baseline and approximately 500 cells/mm3 in patients with > 200 cells/mm3. The independent predictors of long-term CD4 cell reconstitution were the baseline CD4 cell count and the monthly average viral load over the entire follow-up. This good long-term immune reconstitution, optimal in subjects with low average viral loads and > 200 CD4 cells/mm3 at baseline, argues in favor of the earliest possible access to ART and underlines the importance of strict compliance with the treatment.

  12. Decreased Frequencies of Peripheral Blood CD4+CD25+CD127-Foxp3+ in Patients with Graves' Disease and Graves' Orbitopathy: Enhancing Effect of Insulin Growth Factor-1 on Treg Cells.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Przemyslaw; Grubczak, Kamil; Kostecki, Jerzy; Ilendo-Poskrobko, Elzbieta; Moniuszko, Marcin; Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Rejdak, Robert; Reszec, Joanna; Mysliwiec, Janusz

    2017-02-21

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is characterized by orbital T cell infiltration. We evaluated the regulatory T (Treg) cell fractions induced with IGF-1 in Graves' disease (GD) with and without GO. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 13 patients with GD without eye manifestations; 10 patients with active GO; and 12 patients with nodular goiter (NG). All the patients from GD, GO, and NG were subclinical hyperthyroid. We analyzed the expression of Treg cell markers (CD4, CD25, CD127(-), Foxp3) on T cells and their ability to respond to IGF-1 stimulation. In patients with GD without GO, we found lowered percentages of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) cells, as compared to nodular goiter 1.77 vs. 5.42% (p=0.0276). Similarly, significantly reduced frequencies of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-)Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) cells were observed in GD patients as compared to nodular goiter patients with hyperthyreosis, (0.7 vs. 1.48%) (p=0.0071) and (14.5 vs. 37.2%) (p=0.0051), respectively. In GO with active GO, only the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) cells was found to be decreased versus nodular goiter (9.35 vs. 37.2) (p=0.0275). Stimulation of PBMC derived from GO patients with IGF-1 resulted in significant increase of frequency of both CD4(+) Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) Foxp3 cells. Decreased frequencies of peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-)Foxp3(+) in patients with GD and GO could be an useful marker of autoimmune process and perhaps a possible target for future therapies. This is the first study demonstrating Treg-enhancing effects of IGF-1. Thus IGF-1 can be accounted for modulating Treg cell-related action in GO.

  13. CD147 modulates the differentiation of T-helper 17 cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Jian; Li, Yu; Yin, Zhen-Jie; Lv, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The role of CD147 in regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cell-to-cell contact of activated CD14(+) monocytes with CD4(+) T cells, and the modulatory role of CD147 on T-helper 17 (Th17) cells differentiation in patients with RA. Twenty confirmed active RA patients and twenty normal controls were enrolled. CD4(+) T cells and CD14(+) monocytes were purified by magnetic beads cell sorting. Cells were cultured under different conditions in CD4(+) T cells alone, direct cell-to-cell contact co-culture of CD4(+) and CD14(+) cells, or indirect transwell co-culture of CD4(+) /CD14(+) cells in response to LPS and anti-CD3 stimulation with or without anti-CD147 antibody pretreatments. The proportion of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (defined as Th17 cells) was determined by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, and IL-1β in the supernatants of cultured cells were measured by ELISA. The optimal condition for in vitro induction of Th17 cells differentiation was co-stimulation with 0.1 μg/mL of LPS and 100 ng/mL of anti-CD3 for 3 days under direct cell-to-cell contact co-culture of CD4(+) and CD14(+) cells. Anti-CD147 antibody reduced the proportion of Th17 cells, and also inhibited the productions of IL-17, IL-6, and IL-1β in PBMC culture from RA patients. The current results revealed that Th17 differentiation required cell-to-cell contact with activated monocytes. CD147 promoted the differentiation of Th17 cells by regulation of cytokine production, which provided the evidence for pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for RA.

  14. Patient education workshop on CD-ROM: an innovative approach for staff education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jackie A; Lombardo, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an innovative patient education workshop on CD-ROM for use by staff educators and patient education coordinators. The CD-ROM allows nurses to gain an in-depth understanding of patient education practice. With the interactive, computerized format, nurses can complete the workshop on their computers and at their convenience. The CD-ROM format uses streaming video clips, audio, thought questions, case studies, and interactive practice activities to enhance learning.

  15. Circulating CD4+CD161+ T Lymphocytes Are Increased in Seropositive Arthralgia Patients but Decreased in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chalan, Paulina; Huitema, Minke G.; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Bijzet, Johan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Improved understanding of the immune events discriminating between seropositive arthralgia and clinical synovitis is of key importance in rheumatology research. Ample evidence suggests a role for Th17 cells in rheumatoid arthritis. We hypothesized that CD4+CD161+ cells representing Th17 lineage cells may be modulated prior to or after development of clinical synovitis. Therefore, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the occurrence of CD4+CD161+ T-cells in seropositive arthralgia patients who are at risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis and in newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients. In a prospective study, we evaluated the effect of methotrexate treatment on circulating CD4+CD161+ T-cells. Next, we assessed if these cells can be detected at the level of the RA joints. Precursor Th17 lineage cells bearing CD161 were found to be increased in seropositive arthralgia patients. In contrast, circulating CD4+CD161+T-cells were decreased in newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients. The decrease in CD4+CD161+ T-cells correlated inversely with C-reactive protein and with the 66 swollen joint count. Methotrexate treatment led to normalization of CD4+CD161+ T-cells and reduced disease activity. CD4+CD161+ T cells were readily detected in synovial tissues from both early and late-stage rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, synovial fluid from late-stage disease was found to be enriched for CD4+CD161+ T-cells. Notably, synovial fluid accumulated CD4+CD161+T-cells showed skewing towards the Th1 phenotype as evidenced by increased interferon-γ expression. The changes in peripheral numbers of CD4+CD161+ T-cells in seropositive arthralgia and early rheumatoid arthritis and the enrichment of these cells at the level of the joint predict a role for CD4+CD161+ T-cells in the early immune events leading to clinical synovitis. Our findings may add to the development of RA prediction models and provide opportunities for early intervention. PMID:24223933

  16. Cancer Immunology Miniatures: Immune activation and a 9-year ongoing complete remission following CD40 antibody therapy and metastasectomy in a patient with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bajor, David L.; Xu, Xiaowei; Torigian, Drew A.; Mick, Rosemarie; Garcia, Laura R.; Richman, Lee P.; Desmarais, Cindy; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Kalos, Michael; Vonderheide, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Direct immune activation via agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is a potentially complementary approach to therapeutic blockade of inhibitory immune receptors in cancer. Here, we provide genetic analysis of the immunological consequences associated with the use of an agonistic CD40 mAb in a patient with metastatic melanoma who responded, underwent a single metastasectomy, and then achieved a complete remission ongoing for more than 9 years after starting therapy. Tumor microenvironment after immunotherapy was associated with pro-inflammatory modulations and emergence of a de novo T-cell repertoire as detected by next-generation sequencing of T-cell receptors (TCR) in the tumor and blood. The de-novo T-cell repertoire identified in the post-treatment metastasectomy sample was also present – and in some cases expanded – in the circulation years after completion of therapy. Comprehensive study of this “exceptional responder” highlights the emerging potential of direct immune agonists in the next wave of cancer immunotherapies and a potential role for TCR deep sequencing in cancer immune assessment. PMID:25252722

  17. Immunogold detection of CD3 and CD4 antigens in patients with Mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, A A; Placek, W; Grzanka, A

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the distribution of CD3 and CD4 antigens at the ultrastructural level in tissue samples from mycosis fungoides patients using double-immunogold labeling. We observed clusters composed of CD3 and CD4 antigens on the plasma membrane and intracellular. There were also clusters only of one type of the antigen and we could observe more often CD4 than CD3. Labeling of CD3 and CD4 was not found in control cells incubated with non-immune serum. In conclusion, our ultrastructural studies not only visualized pattern distribution and relationship between CD3 and CD4 antigens but might also suggest that the type and form of distribution provides new clues to their possible translocation in mycosis fungoides cells.

  18. CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio increase during rituximab maintenance in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Johannes C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rituximab (RTX) is a B cell-depleting agent approved for the treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). RTX reduces antibody producing precursor plasma cells and inhibits B and T cells interaction. Infections related to T cell immunodeficiency are not infrequent during RTX treatment. Our study investigated CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio in GPA patients during the first two years of long-term RTX treatment. Methods A single centre cohort study of 35 patients who received median total cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide (CYC) of 15 g and were treated with RTX 2 g followed by retreatment with either 2 g once annually or 1 g biannually. Serum levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig) and lymphocytes subsets were recorded at RTX initiation and at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Low CD4 count and inverted CD4/CD8 ratio were defined as CD4 < 0.3 × 109/l and ratio < 1. Results The CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio decreased slightly following the initial RTX treatment and then increased gradually during maintenance treatment. While the proportion of patients with low CD4 cell count decreased from 43% at baseline to 18% at 24 months, the ratio remained inverted in 40%. Oral daily prednisolone dose at baseline, CYC exposure and the maintenance regimen did not influence the CD4 cell count and ratio. Being older (p = 0.012) and having a higher CRP (p = 0.044) and ESR (p = 0.024) at baseline significantly increased the risk of inverted CD4/CD8 ratio at 24 months. Inverted ratio at baseline associated with lower total Ig levels during the study. Conclusions Overall, the CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio increased during maintenance RTX therapy in GPA with no discernible impact of other immunosuppressive therapy. However the increase in CD4 was not followed by an increase in the CD4/CD8 ratio, especially in older patients. Inverted CD4/CD8 ratio associated with lower Ig levels, suggesting a more profound B cell depleting effect of RTX with a relative increase in CD8

  19. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome.

  20. B-cell activation with CD40L or CpG measures the function of B-cell subsets and identifies specific defects in immunodeficient patients.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Emiliano; Farroni, Chiara; Cascioli, Simona; Marcellini, Valentina; Scarsella, Marco; Giorda, Ezio; Piano Mortari, Eva; Leonardi, Lucia; Scarselli, Alessia; Valentini, Diletta; Cancrini, Caterina; Duse, Marzia; Grimsholm, Ola; Carsetti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Around 65% of primary immunodeficiencies are antibody deficiencies. Functional tests are useful tools to study B-cell functions in vitro. However, no accepted guidelines for performing and evaluating functional tests have been issued yet. Here, we report our experience on the study of B-cell functions in infancy and throughout childhood. We show that T-independent stimulation with CpG measures proliferation and differentiation potential of memory B cells. Switched memory B cells respond better than IgM memory B cells. On the other hand, CD40L, a T-dependent stimulus, does not induce plasma cell differentiation, but causes proliferation of naïve and memory B cells. During childhood, the production of plasmablasts in response to CpG increases with age mirroring the development of memory B cells. The response to CD40L does not change with age. In patients with selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD), we observed that switched memory B cells are reduced due to the absence of IgA memory B cells. In agreement, IgA plasma cells are not generated in response to CpG. Unexpectedly, B cells from SIgAD patients show a reduced proliferative response to CD40L. Our results demonstrate that functional tests are an important tool to assess the functions of the humoral immune system.

  1. Aberrant phenotypic expression of CD15 and CD56 identifies poor prognostic acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Minotti, Clara; Stefanizzi, Caterina; Raponi, Sara; Colafigli, Gioia; Latagliata, Roberto; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-02-01

    Limited information is available on the relationship between expression of some additional aberrant phenotypic features and outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. Here, we set out to assess the frequency of CD15 and CD56 expression, and their prognostic value in a large series of APL patients. One hundred and fourteen adult patients consecutively diagnosed with PML/RARα-positive APL and homogeneously treated with the AIDA induction schedule at a single institution were included in the study. Twelve (10.5%) and 9 (8%) of the 114 patients expressed CD15 and CD56, respectively. CD15 expression identified a subset of patients with a classic morphologic subtype (92%), a prevalent association with a bcr1 expression (67%) with an unexpectedly higher frequency of relapses (42% vs 20% for the CD15- patients, p=0.03) and a low overall survival (OS) (median OS at 5 years 58% vs 85% for the CD15- patients, p=0.01). CD56 expression was detected only in patients with a classic morphologic subtype, a prevalent bcr3 expression (67%), high incidence of differentiation syndrome (55%), higher frequency of relapse (34% vs 20% for the CD56- population, p=0.04) and a low OS (60% vs 85% for the CD56- population p=0.02). We hereby confirm the negative prognostic value of CD56 and we show that the same applies also to cases expressing CD15. These aberrant markers may be considered for the refinement of risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in APL patients.

  2. Recombinant human erythropoietin treatment of chronic renal failure patients normalizes altered phenotype and proliferation of CD4-positive T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Debska-Slizien, Alicja; Radzka, Monika; Witkowski, Jacek M; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Bryl, Ewa

    2010-03-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) receive recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) for the correction of anemia. However, rhEPO also has an immunomodulatory effect. Detailed changes of phenotype and function of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in CRF patients receiving rhEPO have not been reported yet; their study may bring insight into understanding of this immunomodulatory action of rhEPO. Two groups of CRF patients were included into the study: those treated; and those not receiving rhEPO. The expression of activation markers on CD4(+) lymphocytes was measured with flow cytometry, both ex vivo and in vitro. The kinetics of CD4(+) T lymphocytes proliferation was calculated using a dividing cells tracing method and numerical approach. Significantly higher percentages of CD4(+)CD95(+), CD4(+)HLA-DR(+) cells, and lower percentages of CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD4(+)CD28(+) cells were observed in both rhEPO-treated and untreated patients when compared with healthy controls. Changes in the proportions of CD4(+)CD28(+) and CD4(+)HLA-DR(+) subpopulations were dependent on the type of rhEPO, being more pronounced for rhEPObeta. CD4(+) lymphocytes from untreated patients exhibited decreased expression of CD28 and CD69 after stimulation in vitro, whereas the expression of these antigens on lymphocytes of rhEPO-treated patients was similar to that observed in healthy controls. Fewer CD4(+)CD28(+) T lymphocytes of untreated patients proliferated in vitro; these cells had longer G0-->G1 time, which negatively correlated with surface expression of CD28. Our study confirms that rhEPO treatment normalizes activation parameters of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and their proliferative capacity, which could explain earlier described immunomodulatory effects of rhEPO in patients suffering from CRF.

  3. Alterations in CD46-mediated Tr1 regulatory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Astier, Anne L.; Meiffren, Gregory; Freeman, Samuel; Hafler, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Loss of Treg function appears to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases. Attention has focused on defects of CD4+CD25high Tregs, and techniques have been developed to determine their function. In contrast, the role of Tr1 regulatory T cells, which secrete the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, in autoimmune disease has not been well assessed. CD46 is a newly defined costimulatory molecule for T cell activation, and CD46-costimulated human T cells induce a Tr1 Treg phenotype with considerable amounts of IL-10 secretion. Here, we examined the role of Tr1 cells in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by stimulating CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3 and -CD46 mAbs and measuring IL-10 secretion. There were striking defects in the induction of Tr1 cells with CD46 costimulation as measured by IL-10 but not IFN-γ secretion in patients with MS compared with healthy subjects. This loss of Tr1 cell–associated IL-10 secretion was specific to CD46 and not CD28 costimulation and was associated with an altered regulation of the CD46-Cy2 isoform that differentially regulates T cell function in a CD46-transgenic murine model. These data demonstrate a second major Treg defect in human autoimmune disease associated with the CD46 pathway. PMID:17099776

  4. CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in patients with toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Tamer Irfan; Eskandari, Gulcin; Guvenc, Ulas; Gunes, Gulcan; Tursen, Umit; Burak Cimen, M Y; Ikizoglu, Guliz

    2009-10-01

    The essential role played by CD25+CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in the control of immunity against some pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori is now well established. But their role in cutaneous fungal infections is still unknown. Onychomycosis is the chronic fungal infection of the nails, which is very common. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible relationship of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and onychomycosis. Peripheral blood samples were investigated for CD4+CD25+ Treg cells using flow cytometry analysis in 43 toenail onychomycosis patients and in 30 healthy controls. We have found that onychomycosis patients had a higher expression of CD25+CD4+ Treg cells than controls, with values of 8.45 +/- 4.47% versus 4.64 +/- 1.59%, respectively (P = 0.001). The results of this study suggests that increased numbers of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells may play a role in failure of clearance of dermatophytes from skin by preventing the protective inflammation which is leading to development of onychomycosis. Accordingly, we address the possibility that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells may play a role in immune pathogenesis of other superficial fungal infections.

  5. Immature immunosuppressive CD14+HLA-DR-/low cells in melanoma patients are Stat3hi and overexpress CD80, CD83, and DC-sign.

    PubMed

    Poschke, Isabel; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Hansson, Johan; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Kiessling, Rolf

    2010-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as key immune modulators in various tumor models and human malignancies, but their characteristics in humans remain to be unequivocally defined. In this study, we have examined circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSC in 34 advanced malignant melanoma (MM) patients. Their frequency is significantly increased and associated with disease activity. Contrary to the common notion that MDSC are a heterogeneous population of exclusively immature cells, we find the coexpression of markers associated with mature phenotype. We show for the first time the overexpression of CD80, CD83, and DC-Sign in human MDSC. Further, increased levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), an important regulator in MDSC development and function, were noted in MM-MDSC. Stat3 was altered toward an active, phosphorylated state in the HLA-DR(-) population of CD14(+) cells and was more reactive to activating stimuli in patients. Importantly, inhibition of Stat3 abolished their suppressive activity almost completely. The described MM-MDSC use arginase in conjunction with other yet undefined mechanisms to suppress CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Several observations suggest a redox imbalance in MDSC and indicate an important role of Stat3-dependent oxidative stress in MDSC-mediated T-cell suppression. These results emphasize the diversity of MDSC in human cancer and provide potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  6. CD4 T cell activation by B cells in human Leishmania (Viannia) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An effective adaptive immune response requires activation of specific CD4 T cells. The capacity of B cells to activate CD4 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) has not been evaluated. Methods CD4 T cell activation by B cells of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was evaluated by culture of PBMCs or purified B cells and CD4 T cells with Leishmania panamensis antigens. CD4 T cell and B cell activation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry and 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants with a bead-based capture assay. The effect of Leishmania antigens on BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin was evaluated in the Ramos human B cell line by targeting the antigen with anti-IgM-biotin and anti-biotin-ovalbumin-FITC. Results Culture of PBMCs from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with Leishmania antigens resulted in upregulation of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 as well as increased frequency of CD25hiCD127- cells among CD4 T cells. Concomitantly, B cells upregulated the costimulatory molecule CD86. These changes were not observed in PBMCs from healthy subjects, indicating participation of Leishmania-specific lymphocytes expanded in vivo. Purified B cells from these patients, when interacting with purified CD4 T cells and Leishmania antigens, were capable of inducing significant increases in CD25 and CD69 expression and CD25hiCD127- frequency in CD4 T cells. These changes were associated with upregulation of CD86 in B cells. Comparison of changes in CD4 T cell activation parameters between PBMC and B cell/CD4 T cell cultures showed no statistically significant differences; further, significant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 was induced in both types of cultures. Additionally, culture with Leishmania antigens enhanced BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin in Ramos human B cells. Conclusions The capacity of B cells specific for Leishmania antigens in peripheral blood of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients to

  7. Expansion of CD8+CD57+ T Cells in an Immunocompetent Patient with Acute Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    García-Muñoz, R.; Rodríguez-Otero, P.; Galar, A.; Merino, J.; Beunza, J. J.; Páramo, J. A.; Lecumberri, R.

    2009-01-01

    CD57+ T cells increase in several viral infections like cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, parvovirus, HIV and hepatitis C virus and are associated with several clinical conditions related to immune dysfunction and ageing. We report for the first time an expansion of CD8+ CD57+ T cells in a young patient with an acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Our report supports the concept that CD8+ CD57+ T cells could be important in the control of chronic phase of intracellular microorganisms and that the high numbers of these cells may reflect the continuing survey of the immune system, searching for parasite proliferation in the tissues. PMID:19946421

  8. Expansion of CD8+CD57+ T Cells in an Immunocompetent Patient with Acute Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, R; Rodríguez-Otero, P; Galar, A; Merino, J; Beunza, J J; Páramo, J A; Lecumberri, R

    2009-01-01

    CD57+ T cells increase in several viral infections like cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, parvovirus, HIV and hepatitis C virus and are associated with several clinical conditions related to immune dysfunction and ageing. We report for the first time an expansion of CD8+ CD57+ T cells in a young patient with an acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Our report supports the concept that CD8+ CD57+ T cells could be important in the control of chronic phase of intracellular microorganisms and that the high numbers of these cells may reflect the continuing survey of the immune system, searching for parasite proliferation in the tissues.

  9. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Islas-Vazquez, Lorenzo; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Galicia-Velasco, Miriam; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Camacho-Mendoza, Catalina; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP) TGF-β subset of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  10. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Islas-Vazquez, Lorenzo; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Galicia-Velasco, Miriam; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Camacho-Mendoza, Catalina; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP) TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:26582240

  11. Interleukin-37 Enhances the Suppressive Activity of Naturally Occurring CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Wei; Dong, Ning; Wu, Yao; Zhu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Chun-Ting; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for the suppression of autoimmunity and can control the immune-mediated pathology during the early phase of sepsis. Our previous data showed that silencing interleukin-37 (IL-37) in human CD4+CD25+ Tregs obviously reduced the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Here, we found that rhIL-37 stimulation markedly enhanced the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs isolated from naive C57BL/6 J mice in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with rhIL-37 could significantly upregulate the expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) on CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Also, rhIL-37 stimulation promoted the production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) but not IL-10 in the supernatants of cultured CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Pretreated CD4+CD25+ Tregs with rhIL-37 in the presence or absence of LPS were cocultured with CD4+CD25− T cells, ratio of IL-4/interferon-γ in the supernatants obviously increased in IL-37-stimulated groups. In addition, early administration of IL-37 significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Taken together, we concluded that rhIL-37 enhances the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs and might be a potential immunomodulator for the treatment of septic complications. PMID:27941849

  12. Bromelain treatment reduces CD25 expression on activated CD4+ T cells in vitro✩

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Eric R.; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda A.; McNamara, Jeff T.; Zhan, Lijun; Maulik, Nilanjana; Thrall, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    Bromelain (Br), an extract from pineapple stem with cysteine protease activity, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a number of inflammatory models. We have previously shown that Br treatment decreased activated CD4+ T cells and has a therapeutic role in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease. The current study was designed to determine the effect of Br on CD4+ T cell activation, specifically the expression of CD25 in vitro. CD25 is up regulated upon T cell activation, found as a soluble fraction (sCD25) and is a therapeutic target in inflammation, autoimmunity and allergy. Br treatment of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T cells reduced CD25 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. This reduction of CD25 was dependent on the proteolytic action of Br as the addition of E64 (a cysteine protease inhibitor) abrogated this response. The concentration of sCD25 was increased in supernatants of Br treated activated CD4+ T cells as compared to control cells, suggesting that Br proteolytically cleaved cell-surface CD25. This novel mechanism of action identifies how Br may exert its therapeutic benefits in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19162239

  13. Expression of CCR7 and CD45RA in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in cerebrospinal fluid of 134 patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Katherine M.; Gocke, Anne R.; Allie, Rameeza; Ntranos, Achilles; Grishkan, Inna V.; Pardo, Carlos; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated CD45RA and CCR7 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytes, both immediately ex vivo and after stimulation, from 134 patients with a variety of inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological diseases. Most inflammatory diseases had a higher CD4+: CD8+ ratio and higher percentage of effector memory T cells (TEM) than non-inflammatory controls, excluding active infection. Moreover, we found that patients with highly elevated cell counts in the CSF tended to have a lower percentage of central memory T cells (TCM) than patients with low or absent pleiocytosis, with a concomitant increase in TEM. We also found that samples with elevated IgG index or presence of oligoclonal bands had a significantly higher CD4+:CD8+ ratio than normal samples, consistent with increased CD4+ help for intrathecal IgG synthesis by B cells. PMID:22633193

  14. Dysfunctional phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are comparable in patients initiating ART during early or chronic HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Amu, Sylvie; Lantto Graham, Rebecka; Bekele, Yonas; Nasi, Aikaterini; Bengtsson, Carina; Rethi, Bence; Sorial, Sam; Meini, Genny; Zazzi, Maurizio; Hejdeman, Bo; Chiodi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is becoming a common clinical practice according to current guidelines recommending treatment to all HIV-1-infected patients. However, it is not known whether ART initiated during the early phase of infection prevents the establishment of abnormal phenotypic features previously reported in CD4+ and CD8+T cells during chronic HIV-1 infection. In this cross-sectional study, blood specimens were obtained from 17 HIV-1-infected patients who began ART treatment shortly after infection (early ART [EA]), 17 age-matched HIV-1-infected patients who started ART during chronic phase of infection (late ART [LA]), and 25 age-matched non-HIV-1-infected controls. At collection of specimens, patients in EA and LA groups had received ART for comparable periods of time. Total HIV-1 DNA was measured in white blood cells by quantitative PCR. The concentration of 9 inflammatory parameters and 1 marker of fibrosis, including sCD14 and β-2 microglobulin, was measured in plasma. Furthermore, expression of markers of abnormal immune activation (human leukocyte antigen - antigen D related [HLA-DR] and CD38), exhaustion (programmed death 1, CD28, CD57) and terminal differentiation (CD127) was measured on CD4+ and CD8+T cells. T-cell proliferation was measured through Ki67 expression. The copies of total HIV-1 DNA in blood were significantly lower (P = 0.009) in EA compared with that in LA group. Only the expression of HLA-DR on naïve CD4+ T cells distinguished EA from LA, whereas expression of 3 surface markers distinguished T-cell populations of HIV-1-infected patients from controls. These included HLA-DR distinguishing CD4+ T cells from EA compared with controls, and also CD38 and CD127 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively, distinguishing both groups of patients from controls. The sCD14 levels were significantly higher in EA patients, and β-2 microglobulin levels were higher in LA group compared with that in controls. Our

  15. Dysfunctional phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are comparable in patients initiating ART during early or chronic HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Amu, Sylvie; Lantto Graham, Rebecka; Bekele, Yonas; Nasi, Aikaterini; Bengtsson, Carina; Rethi, Bence; Sorial, Sam; Meini, Genny; Zazzi, Maurizio; Hejdeman, Bo; Chiodi, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is becoming a common clinical practice according to current guidelines recommending treatment to all HIV-1-infected patients. However, it is not known whether ART initiated during the early phase of infection prevents the establishment of abnormal phenotypic features previously reported in CD4+ and CD8+T cells during chronic HIV-1 infection. In this cross-sectional study, blood specimens were obtained from 17 HIV-1-infected patients who began ART treatment shortly after infection (early ART [EA]), 17 age-matched HIV-1-infected patients who started ART during chronic phase of infection (late ART [LA]), and 25 age-matched non-HIV-1-infected controls. At collection of specimens, patients in EA and LA groups had received ART for comparable periods of time. Total HIV-1 DNA was measured in white blood cells by quantitative PCR. The concentration of 9 inflammatory parameters and 1 marker of fibrosis, including sCD14 and β-2 microglobulin, was measured in plasma. Furthermore, expression of markers of abnormal immune activation (human leukocyte antigen - antigen D related [HLA-DR] and CD38), exhaustion (programmed death 1, CD28, CD57) and terminal differentiation (CD127) was measured on CD4+ and CD8+T cells. T-cell proliferation was measured through Ki67 expression. The copies of total HIV-1 DNA in blood were significantly lower (P = 0.009) in EA compared with that in LA group. Only the expression of HLA-DR on naïve CD4+ T cells distinguished EA from LA, whereas expression of 3 surface markers distinguished T-cell populations of HIV-1-infected patients from controls. These included HLA-DR distinguishing CD4+ T cells from EA compared with controls, and also CD38 and CD127 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively, distinguishing both groups of patients from controls. The sCD14 levels were significantly higher in EA patients, and β-2 microglobulin levels were higher in LA group compared with that in controls. Our results

  16. Complementary Dendritic Cell–activating Function of CD8+ and CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mailliard, Robbie B.; Egawa, Shinichi; Cai, Quan; Kalinska, Anna; Bykovskaya, Svetlana N.; Lotze, Michael T.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Storkus, Walter J.; Kalinski, Pawel

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) activated by CD40L-expressing CD4+ T cells act as mediators of “T helper (Th)” signals for CD8+ T lymphocytes, inducing their cytotoxic function and supporting their long-term activity. Here, we show that the optimal activation of DCs, their ability to produce high levels of bioactive interleukin (IL)-12p70 and to induce Th1-type CD4+ T cells, is supported by the complementary DC-activating signals from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Cord blood– or peripheral blood–isolated naive CD8+ T cells do not express CD40L, but, in contrast to naive CD4+ T cells, they are efficient producers of IFN-γ at the earliest stages of the interaction with DCs. Naive CD8+ T cells cooperate with CD40L-expressing naive CD4+ T cells in the induction of IL-12p70 in DCs, promoting the development of primary Th1-type CD4+ T cell responses. Moreover, the recognition of major histocompatibility complex class I–presented epitopes by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells results in the TNF-α– and IFN-γ–dependent increase in the activation level of DCs and in the induction of type-1 polarized mature DCs capable of producing high levels of IL-12p70 upon a subsequent CD40 ligation. The ability of class I–restricted CD8+ T cells to coactivate and polarize DCs may support the induction of Th1-type responses against class I–presented epitopes of intracellular pathogens and contact allergens, and may have therapeutical implications in cancer and chronic infections. PMID:11854360

  17. Soluble CD8 and CD25 in serum of patients after heart transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Wijngaard, P L; Van der Meulen, A; Gmelig Meyling, F H; De Jonge, N; Schuurman, H J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum cytokine levels and cytokine receptor levels in the diagnosis of acute rejection after heart transplantation, we measured soluble CD8 and soluble CD25 in the serum of heart transplant recipients. The results were compared with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) histopathology, lymphocyte activation by morphologic inspection of peripheral blood cells (cytoimmunologic monitoring), clinically manifested infections, and the maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Significantly increased levels were observed in cases of lymphocyte activation in cytoimmunologic monitoring indicative of either rejection or infection. In clinically documented cytomegalovirus (CMV), bacterial, and Pneumocystis carinii infections, increased levels of soluble CD25 were observed. Soluble CD8 was only increased in a single case of P. carinii infection. A statistically significant correlation was calculated between the levels of soluble CD8 and whole blood cyclosporin A level. Considering chemotherapy, the levels of soluble CD8 showed an inverse correlation with the daily dosage of azathioprine. In conclusion, the levels of soluble CD8 and CD25 are associated with lymphocyte activation in peripheral blood, but do not differentiate between lymphocyte activation indicative of rejection or infection. No relationship was observed between levels of soluble CD8 and CD25, and EMB histopathology. Therefore, the assessment of these two cell products has no diagnostic potential for monitoring acute rejection after heart transplantation. PMID:8082307

  18. CD8+CD122+CD49dlow regulatory T cells maintain T-cell homeostasis by killing activated T cells via Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Akane, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Seiji; Mak, Tak W; Shiku, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2016-03-01

    The Fas/FasL (CD95/CD178) system is required for immune regulation; however, it is unclear in which cells, when, and where Fas/FasL molecules act in the immune system. We found that CD8(+)CD122(+) cells, which are mostly composed of memory T cells in comparison with naïve cells in the CD8(+)CD122(-) population, were previously shown to include cells with regulatory activity and could be separated into CD49d(low) cells and CD49d(high) cells. We established in vitro and in vivo experimental systems to evaluate the regulatory activity of CD122(+) cells. Regulatory activity was observed in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(low) but not in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(high) cells, indicating that the regulatory cells in the CD8(+)CD122(+) population could be narrowed down to CD49d(low) cells. CD8(+)CD122(-) cells taken from lymphoproliferation (lpr) mice were resistant to regulation by normal CD122(+) Tregs. CD122(+) Tregs taken from generalized lymphoproliferative disease (gld) mice did not regulate wild-type CD8(+)CD122(-) cells, indicating that the regulation by CD122(+) Tregs is Fas/FasL-dependent. CD122(+) Tregs taken from IL-10-deficient mice could regulate CD8(+)CD122(-) cells as equally as wild-type CD122(+) Tregs both in vitro and in vivo. MHC class I-missing T cells were not regulated by CD122(+) Tregs in vitro. CD122(+) Tregs also regulated CD4(+) cells in a Fas/FasL-dependent manner in vitro. These results suggest an essential role of Fas/FasL as a terminal effector of the CD122(+) Tregs that kill activated T cells to maintain immune homeostasis.

  19. IL-15 promotes activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Souheil-Antoine; Freeman, Michael L.; Mudd, Joseph C.; Shive, Carey L.; Reynaldi, Arnold; Estes, Jacob D.; Deleage, Claire; Lucero, Carissa; Anderson, Jodi; Schacker, Timothy W.; Davenport, Miles P.; McCune, Joseph M.; Hunt, Peter W.; Lee, Sulggi A.; Debernardo, Robert L.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Canaday, David H.; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Sieg, Scott F.; Lederman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    In HIV-1–infected patients, increased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells are linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Here, we identified a bystander mechanism that promotes CD8 T cell activation and expansion in untreated HIV-1–infected patients. Compared with healthy controls, untreated HIV-1–infected patients have an increased population of proliferating, granzyme B+, CD8+ T cells in circulation. Vβ expression and deep sequencing of CDR3 revealed that in untreated HIV-1 infection, cycling memory CD8 T cells possess a broad T cell repertoire that reflects the repertoire of the resting population. This suggests that cycling is driven by bystander activation, rather than specific antigen exposure. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-15 induced a cycling, granzyme B+ phenotype in CD8+ T cells. Moreover, elevated IL-15 expression in the lymph nodes of untreated HIV-1–infected patients correlated with circulating CD8+ T cell counts and was normalized in these patients following antiretroviral therapy. Together, these results suggest that IL-15 drives bystander activation of CD8+ T cells, which predicts disease progression in untreated HIV-1–infected patients and suggests that elevated IL-15 may also drive CD8+ T cell expansion that is linked to increased morbidity and mortality in treated patients. PMID:27322062

  20. Increased STAT3 phosphorylation on CD27(+) B-cells from common variable immunodeficiency disease patients.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Antonio; Pons, Jaume; Lanio, Nallibe; Cunill, Vanesa; Frontera, Guillem; Crespí, Catalina; Matamoros, Núria; Ferrer, Joana M

    2015-12-01

    Maturation and differentiation of B-cells are driven by T-cells' help through IL-21/STAT3 axis in GC centers or through extrafollicular pathways, in a T-independent manner. B-cell differentiation is defective in common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) patients. We investigated if IL-21/STAT3 axis alterations could influence B-cell fate. We activated purified CVID B-cells with surrogate T-dependent (anti-CD40), T-independent (TLR-9 ligand) stimuli or through B-cell receptor engagement (anti-IgM) with or without IL-21. IL-21 mediated STAT3 activation was greater on CD27(-) than CD27(+) B-cells depending on the stimulus. IL-21 alone induced STAT3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3) only on CD27(-) B-cells and IL-21 induced higher pSTAT3 levels on CD27(-) than CD27(+) B-cells after anti-IgM or anti-CD40 activation. CVID CD27(+) B-cells showed selective STAT3 hyperphosphorylation after activation with anti-IgM or anti-CD40 alone and anti-IgM, anti-CD40 or ODN combined with IL-21. Increased STAT3 activation during immune responses could result in B-cell differentiation defects in CVID.

  1. Highly Expression of CD11b and CD32 on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Choi, Bunsoon; Suh, Chang-Hee; Han, Mi Hwa; Jung, Ju-Yang; Sayeed, Hasan M.; Kim, Ye Won; Sohn, Seonghyang

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated the potential role of several pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs; CD11b, CD11c, CD32, CD206, CD209, and dectin-1) in adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD). Methods: The study included 13 untreated AOSD patients, 19 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (as a disease control), and 19 healthy controls (HCs). The PRRs were quantified in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. The serum levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and IL-23 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Significantly higher mean frequencies of cells presenting CD11b and CD32 from whole blood were observed in patients with AOSD than in patients with RA or HC. The levels of IL-17, IL-18, and IL-23 were elevated in AOSD patients compared to HCs. CD11b frequencies from whole cells correlated with systemic scores, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, aspartate transaminase levels, interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels, and IL-18. Frequencies of CD209 from granulocytes were significantly correlated with systemic scores, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, LDH, IL-23, and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Conclusions: Elevated frequencies of circulating CD11b-positive cells and positive correlations with disease activity markers suggest that circulating CD11b-positive cells contribute to the pathogenesis of AOSD. PMID:28106835

  2. The Clinical Significance of CD169-Positive Lymph Node Macrophage in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Iwase, Hirotaka; Takeya, Motohiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The immune status of patients can impact on the clinical course of cancer. Lymph node (LN) macrophages play critical roles in anti-cancer immunity via the activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). In this study, the prognostic significance of CD169+ LN macrophages was examined in patients with breast cancer. For this purpose the number of CD169+ cells and their ratio relative to total macrophages (CD68+) in regional LNs (RLNs), as well as the number of CD8+ CTLs in tumor tissues, were investigated using immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 146 patients with breast cancer. The association of these data with clinicopathological factors was then analyzed. The number of cells positive for the pan-macrophage marker CD68 remained relatively uniform, while the number of CD169+ cells varied across all cases. Moreover, a high density of CD169+ cells correlated with early clinical stage and no LN metastasis, while a higher CD169+ to CD68+ ratio was significantly associated with small tumor size and a low Ki-67+ rate. There was also a significant correlation between the number of CD8+ CTLs and that of CD169+ macrophages in high grade breast cancer cases with a Ki-67 index greater than 40%. However, neither the density nor the ratio of CD169+ cells, nor the density of CD8+ CTLs, were associated with relapse-free survival, distant relapse-free survival, or breast cancer-specific survival. These findings suggest that CD169+ macrophages in RLNs might be a useful marker for assessing clinical stage, including LN states, in patients with breast cancer. PMID:27861544

  3. TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen–specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Pagliano, Ornella; Fourcade, Julien; Sun, Zhaojun; Wang, Hong; Sander, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M.; Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy; Maurer, Mark; Korman, Alan J.; Zarour, Hassane M.

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen–specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8+ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8+ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1+TIM-3+ TA-specific CD8+ T cells. PD-1+TIGIT+, PD-1–TIGIT+, and PD-1+TIGIT– CD8+ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand–expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade additively increased proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of both TA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD8+ TILs. Collectively, our results show that TIGIT and PD-1 regulate the expansion and function of TA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD8+ TILs in melanoma patients and suggest that dual TIGIT and PD-1 blockade should be further explored to elicit potent antitumor CD8+ T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:25866972

  4. Alterations in levels of CD28-/CD8+ suppressor cell precursor and CD45RO+/CD4+ memory T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Crucian, B; Dunne, P; Friedman, H; Ragsdale, R; Pross, S; Widen, R

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive peripheral blood immunophenotype analysis of 16 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients was performed by three-color flow cytometric analysis, and the results were compared with those for age-matched healthy controls. The cell subsets quantified included T cells (CD3+), B cells (CD19+), NK cells (CD56+), CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, cytotoxic (CD28+) and suppressor precursor (CD28-) CD8+ T cells, CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T cells (CD4+ and CD8+), and CD5+ T and B cells. Analysis of MS patients' peripheral blood revealed essentially normal levels of total T, B, and NK cells. In agreement with results obtained by other investigators, it was found that MS patients had an increased CD4/CD8 ratio, primarily due to a decrease in CD8+ T cells. MS patients were found to have a significantly decreased level of suppressor precursor (CD28-) CD8+ T cells compared with that of controls but to have normal levels of cytotoxic (CD28+) CD8+ T cells. These data indicate that MS patients do not have a general decrease in CD8+ T cells but that they have a specific decrease in the suppressor precursor subset only and normal levels of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. MS patients also had a significant increase in memory (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cells and displayed a trend towards a decrease in naive (CD45RA+) T cells in the peripheral blood. PMID:7697540

  5. A role for CD9 molecules in T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Costimulation mediated by the CD28 molecule plays an important role in optimal activation of T cells. However, CD28-deficient mice can mount effective T cell-dependent immune responses, suggesting the existence of other costimulatory systems. In a search for other costimulatory molecules on T cells, we have developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that can costimulate T cells in the absence of antigen-presenting cells (APC). The molecule recognized by this mAb, 9D3, was found to be expressed on almost all mature T cells and to be a protein of approximately 24 kD molecular mass. By expression cloning, this molecule was identified as CD9, 9D3 (anti-CD9) synergized with suboptimal doses of anti-CD3 mAb in inducing proliferation by virgin T cells. Costimulation was induced by independent ligation of CD3 and CD9, suggesting that colocalization of these two molecules is not required for T cell activation. The costimulation by anti-CD9 was as potent as that by anti-CD28. Moreover, anti-CD9 costimulated in a CD28- independent way because anti-CD9 equally costimulated T cells from the CD28-deficient as well as wild-type mice. Thus, these results indicate that CD9 serves as a molecule on T cells that can deliver a potent CD28- independent costimulatory signal. PMID:8760830

  6. Soluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Gremmel, Thomas; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is mainly generated by cleavage of CD40L from the surface of activated platelets, and therefore considered a platelet activation marker. Although the predictive value of sCD40L for ischemic events has been demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), studies on the association of sCD40L with cardiovascular outcomes in lower risk populations yielded heterogeneous results. We therefore sought to investigate factors influencing sCD40L levels, and the predictive value of sCD40L for long-term ischemic events in unselected, aspirin-treated patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. sCD40L was determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 682 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Two-year follow-up data were obtained from 562 patients. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was associated with significantly lower levels of sCD40L and lower platelet surface expressions of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa compared to aspirin monotherapy (all p≤0.01). Hypertension was linked to lower plasma concentrations of sCD40L, whereas female sex, increasing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hematocrit were associated with higher sCD40L concentrations (all p<0.05). sCD40L levels were similar in patients without and with the primary endpoint in the overall study population (p = 0.4). Likewise, sCD40L levels did not differ significantly between patients without and with the secondary endpoints (both p≥0.4). Similar results were obtained when only patients with angiographically-proven coronary artery disease (n = 459), stent implantation (n = 205) or ACS (n = 125) were analyzed. The adjustment for differences in patient characteristics by multivariate regression analyses did not change the results. ROC curve analyses did not reveal cut-off values for sCD40L for the prediction of the primary or secondary endpoints. In conclusion, plasma sCD40L levels are

  7. CD4:CD8 ratio as a frontier marker for clinical outcome, immune dysfunction and viral reservoir size in virologically suppressed HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Mehraj, Vikram; Vyboh, Kishanda; Cao, Wei; Li, Taisheng; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Absolute CD4 T cell count and plasma viral load have been established as predictors of HIV disease progression, and CD4 T cell count is used as an indicator for initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Following long-term therapy, patients generally present with significant CD4 T cell recovery contrasting with persistently elevated CD8 T cell counts, which leads to a partial restoration of CD4:CD8 ratio. This review focuses on the relevance of the CD4:CD8 ratio on clinical outcomes, immune dysfunction and HIV reservoir size in long-term treated patients. Method We conducted a comprehensive literature review of publications in English language using major electronic databases. Our search was focused on factors contributing to CD4:CD8 T cell ratio and clinical outcome in adult HIV-positive patients in the context of treated infection. Discussion Low CD4:CD8 ratio has been linked to ageing and acts as a predictor of mortality in the general population. This ratio may represent the combined effects of inflammation and immunological changes called “inflammaging.” Although the mechanisms underlying partial correction of the CD4:CD8 ratio and persistently elevated CD8 T cell count in long-term treated patients remain poorly understood, it has been recently indicated that patients with optimal CD4 T cell recovery and low CD4:CD8 ratio still harbour increased immune activation, an immune senescent phenotype and have a higher risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. This review reconsiders CD4:CD8 ratio in the light of advances in the understanding of immune dysfunction and examines its pathophysiological features and implications on clinical outcome and HIV reservoir size in long-term treated HIV-positive adults. Conclusion The CD4:CD8 ratio can contribute to the immunological evaluation of treated patients in a long-term follow-up and may be applied for monitoring both immune dysfunction and viral reservoir size in immune-based clinical trials. PMID:26130226

  8. CD4/CD8 ratio and CD8 counts predict CD4 response in HIV-1-infected drug naive and in patients on cART

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Rafael; Huang, Ruizhu; Ledergerber, Bruno; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Cavassini, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Hoffmann, Matthias; Rougemont, Mathieu; Günthard, Huldrych F; Held, Leonhard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plasma HIV viral load is related to declining CD4 lymphocytes. The extent to which CD8 cells, in addition to RNA viral load, predict the depletion of CD4 cells is not well characterized so far. We examine if CD8 cell count is a prognostic factor for CD4 cell counts during an HIV infection. A longitudinal analysis is conducted using data from the Swiss HIV cohort study collected between January 2000 and October 2014. Linear mixed regression models were applied to observations from HIV-1-infected treatment naive patients (NAIVE) and cART-treated patients to predict the short-term evolution of CD4 cell counts. For each subgroup, it was quantified to which extent CD8 cell counts or CD4/CD8 ratios are prognostic factors for disease progression. In both subgroups, 2500 NAIVE and 8902 cART patients, past CD4 cells are positively (P < 0.0001) and past viral load is negatively (P < 0.0001) associated with the outcome. Including additionally past CD8 cell counts improves the fit significantly (P < 0.0001) and increases the marginal explained variation 31.7% to 40.7% for the NAIVE and from 44.1% to 50.7% for the cART group. The past CD4/CD8 ratio (instead of the past CD8 level) is positively associated with the outcome, increasing the explained variation further to 41.8% for NAIVE and 51.9% for cART. PMID:27759638

  9. Fingolimod Increases CD39-Expressing Regulatory T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muls, Nathalie; Dang, Hong Anh; Sindic, Christian J. M.; van Pesch, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) likely results from an imbalance between regulatory and inflammatory immune processes. CD39 is an ectoenzyme that cleaves ATP to AMP and has been suggested as a novel regulatory T cells (Treg) marker. As ATP has numerous proinflammatory effects, its degradation by CD39 has anti-inflammatory influence. The purpose of this study was to explore regulatory and inflammatory mechanisms activated in fingolimod treated MS patients. Methods and Findings Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from relapsing-remitting MS patients before starting fingolimod and three months after therapy start. mRNA expression was assessed in ex vivo PBMCs. The proportions of CD8, B cells, CD4 and CD39-expressing cells were analysed by flow cytometry. Treg proportion was quantified by flow cytometry and methylation-specific qPCR. Fingolimod treatment increased mRNA levels of CD39, AHR and CYP1B1 but decreased mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-22 and FOXP3 mRNA in PBMCs. B cells, CD4+ cells and Treg proportions were significantly reduced by this treatment, but remaining CD4+ T cells were enriched in FOXP3+ cells and in CD39-expressing Tregs. Conclusions In addition to the decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells, our findings highlight additional immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by fingolimod. PMID:25411844

  10. Short Peptide Vaccine Induces CD4+ T Helper Cells in Patients with Different Solid Cancers.

    PubMed

    Gross, Stefanie; Lennerz, Volker; Gallerani, Elisa; Mach, Nicolas; Böhm, Steffen; Hess, Dagmar; von Boehmer, Lotta; Knuth, Alexander; Ochsenbein, Adrian; Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike; Forssmann, Ulf; Woelfel, Thomas; Kaempgen, Eckhart

    2016-01-01

    Previous cancer vaccination trials often aimed to activate CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses with short (8-10mer) peptides and targeted CD4(+) helper T cells (TH) with HLA class II-binding longer peptides (12-16 mer) that were derived from tumor antigens. Accordingly, a study of immunomonitoring focused on the detection of CTL responses to the short, and TH responses to the long, peptides. The possible induction of concurrent TH responses to short peptides was widely neglected. In a recent phase I vaccination trial, 53 patients with different solid cancers were vaccinated with EMD640744, a cocktail of five survivin-derived short (9- or 10-mer) peptides in Montanide ISA 51VG. We monitored 49 patients and found strong CD8(+) T-cell responses in 63% of the patients. In addition, we unexpectedly found CD4(+) TH cell responses against at least two of the five short peptides in 61% (23/38) of the patients analyzed. The two peptides were recognized by HLA-DP4- and HLA-DR-restricted TH1 cells. Some short peptide-reactive (sp)CD4 T cells showed high functional avidity. Here, we show that a short peptide vaccine is able to activate a specific CD4(+) T-cell repertoire in many patients, facilitating a strong combined CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell response.

  11. Defective circulating CD25 regulatory T cells in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jin; Heck, Susanne; Patel, Vivek; Levan, Jared; Yu, Yu; Bussel, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is characterized by the presence of antiplatelet autoantibodies as a result of loss of tolerance. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Decreased levels of peripheral Tregs in patients with ITP have been reported. To test whether inefficient production or reduced immunosuppressive activity of Tregs contributes to loss of tolerance in patients with chronic ITP, we investigated the frequency and function of their circulating CD4+CD25hi Tregs. We found a com-parable frequency of circulating CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ Tregs in patients and controls (n = 16, P > .05). However, sorted CD4+CD25hi cells from patients with chronic ITP (n = 13) had a 2-fold reduction of in vitro immunosuppressive activity compared with controls (n = 10, P < .05). The impaired suppression was specific to Tregs as shown by cross-mixing experiments with T cells from controls. These data suggest that functional defects in Tregs contribute to breakdown of self-tolerance in patients with chronic ITP. PMID:18420827

  12. Functional activation of lymphocyte CD44 in peripheral blood is a marker of autoimmune disease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Estess, P; DeGrendele, H C; Pascual, V; Siegelman, M H

    1998-01-01

    Interactions between complementary receptors on leukocytes and endothelial cells play a central role in regulating extravasation from the blood and thereby affect both normal and pathologic inflammatory responses. CD44 on lymphocytes that has been "activated" to bind its principal ligand hyaluronate (HA) on endothelium can mediate the primary adhesion (rolling) of lymphocytes to vascular endothelial cells under conditions of physiologic shear stress, and this interaction is used for activated T cell extravasation into an inflamed site in vivo in mice (DeGrendele, H.C., P. Estess, L.J. Picker, and M.H. Siegelman. 1996. J. Exp. Med. 183:1119-1130. DeGrendele, H.D., P. Estess, and M.H. Siegelman. 1997. Science. 278:672-675. DeGrendele, H.C., P. Estess, and M.H. Siegelman. 1997. J. Immunol. 159: 2549-2553). Here, we have investigated the role of lymphocyte-borne-activated CD44 in the human and show that CD44-dependent primary adhesion is induced in human peripheral blood T cells through T cell receptor triggering. In addition, lymphocytes capable of CD44/HA-dependent rolling interactions can be found resident within inflamed tonsils. In analysis of peripheral bloods of patients from a pediatric rheumatology clinic, examining systemic lupus erythematosus, and a group of chronic arthropathies, expression of CD44-dependent primary adhesion strongly correlates with concurrent symptomatic disease, with 85% of samples from clinically active patients showing elevated levels of rolling activity (compared with only 4% of inactive patients). These rolling interactions are predominantly mediated by T cells. The results suggest that circulating T lymphocytes bearing activated CD44 are elevated under conditions of chronic inflammation and that these may represent a pathogenically important subpopulation of activated circulating cells that may provide a reliable marker for autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disease activity. PMID:9739051

  13. Frequencies of PD-1- positive T CD3+CD4+, T CD3+CD8+ and B CD19+ lymphocytes in female patients with Graves' disease and healthy controls- preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pyzik, Aleksandra; Grywalska, Ewelina; Matyjaszek-Matuszek, Beata; Smoleń, Agata; Pyzik, Dawid; Roliński, Jacek

    2017-03-08

    PD-1 maintains tolerance and inhibits autoimmune responses. Graves' disease (GD) is one of the most frequent autoimmune diseases of unclear etiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage and absolute counts of PD-1 positive T and B cells in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with hyperthyroidism due to GD. The study group included 30 patients and the control group comprised of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Results showed significantly higher frequencies and absolute counts of PD-1 positive CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells and CD19+B cells in patients with GD in comparison to the healthy volunteers. Moreover, higher mean fluorescence intensity of PD-1 was found on CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells and CD19+B cells in the study group than in the control group. These results suggest that PD-1 protein might involved in the pathogenesis of GD.

  14. Intracellular IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ as the main characteristic of CD4+CD30+ T cells after allergen stimulation in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Magaña, Diana; Aguilar, Gustavo; Linares, Marisela; Ayala-Balboa, Julio; Santacruz, Concepción; Chávez, Raúl; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Garfias, Yonathan; Lascurain, Ricardo; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe form of allergic conjunctivitis, in which inflammatory infiltrates of the conjunctiva are characterized by CD3+ and CD30+ cells. Until today, the functional involvement of CD30+ T cells in VKC was unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the functional characteristics of CD30+ T cells after allergen stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with VKC. Methods Seventeen consecutive patients at the Institute of Ophthalmology with active forms of VKC were included. Results After allergen stimulation, we observed the frequency of CD30+ T cells increased compared with non-stimulated cells (p<0.0001). The CD30+ T cells responded to the specific allergen-inducing expression of intracellular interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) compared with the CD30- T cells (p<0.0001). Increased early secretion of soluble CD30 was observed in the supernatant of the cultured cells from patients with keratoconjunctivitis, compared with healthy controls (p=0.03). Blockage with IL-4 significantly diminished CD30 frequency in the allergen-stimulated cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that after allergenic stimulation, CD4+CD30+ cells are the most important source of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ. IL-4 acts as an activation loop that increases CD30 expression on T cells after specific stimulation. These findings suggest that CD4+CD30+ T cells are effector cells and play a significant role in the immune pathogenic response in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:25999672

  15. CD4+ T cell recovery beyond the first year of complete suppression of viral replication during highly active antiretroviral therapy is not influenced by CD8+ T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Benito, Jose M; Lopez, Mariola; Lozano, Sara; Ballesteros, Celia; Capa, Laura; Martinez, Pilar; Gonzalez-Lahoz, Juan; Soriano, Vincent

    2005-12-15

    CD38 expression on CD8(+) T cells was longitudinally assessed in 31 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with undetectable plasma viremia who had undergone highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for 12 months and were followed for a mean of 30 months thereafter. Overall, CD4(+)T cell counts increased during follow-up, whereas CD38 expression remained stable. However, a subset of patients showed declines in CD38 expression, and, conversely, another subset showed increases in CD38 expression. No association could be found between long-term gains in CD4(+) T cells and evolution of CD38 expression. Thus, activation of CD8(+) T cells does not seem to be associated with the extent of CD4(+) T cell recovery beyond the first year of successful HAART.

  16. Activation of human T lymphocytes: differential effects of CD3- and CD8-mediated signals.

    PubMed Central

    Samstag, Y; Emmrich, F; Staehelin, T

    1988-01-01

    T cells are activated physiologically by triggering the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. There is evidence that invariant accessory molecules on the T-cell membrane (CD8 and CD4) are involved in the major histocompatibility complex-restricted recognition process. Moreover, binding and crosslinking of these accessory molecules to the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex exerts a positive synergistic signal, as has been shown by stimulation with crosslinked antibodies. Here we demonstrate that stimulation mediated by immobilized anti-CD3/CD8 antibodies differs from stimulation mediated solely by anti-CD3. Whereas interleukin 2 receptor expression and interferon gamma production are seen to a similar extent in both cases, a second signal provided by the additional involvement of CD8 seems to be essential for interleukin 2 production and full interleukin 2 responsiveness in CD8+ T cells. This second signal is much more sensitive to inhibition by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C and cGMP/cAMP-dependent kinases. Our results also show that substantial modulation of the T-cell receptor complex and most likely CD3 phosphorylation are not essential for initiating the activation of resting T cells. Instead, we found a 22- to 24-kDa phosphoprotein whose strong phosphorylation correlated reliably with T-cell activation. Images PMID:2974160

  17. Characterization of Human CD8 T Cell Responses in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients from India.

    PubMed

    Chandele, Anmol; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Gunisetty, Sivaram; Singla, Mohit; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Akondy, Rama S; Kissick, Haydn Thomas; Nayak, Kaustuv; Reddy, Elluri Seetharami; Kalam, Haroon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Verma, Anil; Panda, HareKrushna; Wang, Siyu; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil; Ahmed, Rafi; Murali-Krishna, Kaja

    2016-12-15

    Epidemiological studies suggest that India has the largest number of dengue virus infection cases worldwide. However, there is minimal information about the immunological responses in these patients. CD8 T cells are important in dengue, because they have been implicated in both protection and immunopathology. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of HLA-DR(+) CD38(+) and HLA-DR(-) CD38(+) effector CD8 T cell subsets in dengue patients from India and Thailand. Both CD8 T cell subsets expanded and expressed markers indicative of antigen-driven proliferation, tissue homing, and cytotoxic effector functions, with the HLA-DR(+) CD38(+) subset being the most striking in these effector qualities. The breadth of the dengue-specific CD8 T cell response was diverse, with NS3-specific cells being the most dominant. Interestingly, only a small fraction of these activated effector CD8 T cells produced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) when stimulated with dengue virus peptide pools. Transcriptomics revealed downregulation of key molecules involved in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Consistent with this, the majority of these CD8 T cells remained IFN-γ unresponsive even after TCR-dependent polyclonal stimulation (anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28) but produced IFN-γ by TCR-independent polyclonal stimulation (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA] plus ionomycin). Thus, the vast majority of these proliferating, highly differentiated effector CD8 T cells probably acquire TCR refractoriness at the time the patient is experiencing febrile illness that leads to IFN-γ unresponsiveness. Our studies open novel avenues for understanding the mechanisms that fine-tune the balance between CD8 T cell-mediated protective versus pathological effects in dengue.

  18. Low-dose IL-2 selectively activates subsets of CD4+ Tregs and NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Masahiro; Matos, Tiago; Liu, Hongye; Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T.; Paul, Nicole E.; Murase, Kazuyuki; Whangbo, Jennifer; Alho, Ana C.; Nikiforow, Sarah; Cutler, Corey; Ho, Vincent T.; Armand, Philippe; Alyea, Edwin P.; Antin, Joseph H.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Lacerda, Joao F.; Soiffer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ regulatory T cells (CD4Tregs) play a critical role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. IL-2 supports the proliferation and survival of CD4Tregs and previous studies have demonstrated that IL-2 induces selective expansion of CD4Tregs and improves clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD. However, mechanisms for selective activation of CD4Tregs and the effects of low-dose IL-2 on other immune cells are not well understood. Using mass cytometry, we demonstrate that low concentrations of IL-2 selectively induce STAT5 phosphorylation in Helios+ CD4Tregs and CD56brightCD16– NK cells in vitro. Preferential activation and expansion of Helios+ CD4Tregs and CD56brightCD16– NK cells was also demonstrated in patients with chronic GVHD receiving low-dose IL-2. With prolonged IL-2 treatment for 48 weeks, phenotypic changes were also observed in Helios– CD4Tregs. The effects of low-dose IL-2 therapy on conventional CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells were limited to increased expression of PD-1 on effector memory T cells. These studies reveal the selective effects of low-dose IL-2 therapy on Helios+ CD4Tregs and CD56bright NK cells that constitutively express high-affinity IL-2 receptors as well as the indirect effects of prolonged exposure to low concentrations of IL-2 in vivo. PMID:27812545

  19. Analysis of the CD161-expressing cell quantities and CD161 expression levels in peripheral blood natural killer and T cells of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Lung; Lin, Shih-Chang

    2017-02-01

    Expressed on the cell surface of most of NK cells and some T cells, CD161 has been shown to deliver inhibitory signal in human NK cells. To determine whether the CD161-expressing cell quantities and the cell surface expression levels of CD161 in NK and T cells were altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, we analyzed the CD3, CD56 and CD161 expression patterns of peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis to identify different NK and T cell subpopulations. The cell surface expression levels of CD161 were estimated by the mean florescence intensities (MFIs) of CD161. It was found that SLE patients had lower frequencies of CD161+CD56+CD3- and CD161+CD56+CD3+ cells among the lymphocyte population than normal controls, whereas the frequencies of CD161-CD56+CD3- and CD161+CD56-CD3+ cells were not statistically different between two groups. In addition, SLE patients also had decreased absolute counts of all CD161-expressing NK cells and T cells and had reduced frequencies of CD161+ cells in CD56+CD3-, CD56+CD3+ and CD56-CD3+ cell populations. Moreover, SLE patients had reduced MFIs of CD161 in CD161+CD56+CD3+ and CD161+CD56-CD3+, but not CD161+CD56+CD3-, cell populations. Our results indicated that CD161-expressing cell frequency and the CD161 expression levels were reduced in some NK and T cell subpopulations of SLE patients, suggesting possible important role of CD161 and CD161-expressing immune cells in the SLE pathogenesis.

  20. Are increased frequency of macrophage-like and natural killer (NK) cells, together with high levels of NKT and CD4+CD25high T cells balancing activated CD8+ T cells, the key to control Chagas’ disease morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Vitelli-Avelar, D M; Sathler-Avelar, R; Massara, R L; Borges, J D; Lage, P S; Lana, M; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Dias, J C P; Elói-Santos, S M; Martins-Filho, O A

    2006-01-01

    The immunological response during early human Trypanosoma cruzi infection is not completely understood, despite its role in driving the development of distinct clinical manifestations of chronic infection. Herein we report the results of a descriptive flow cytometric immunophenotyping investigation of major and minor peripheral blood leucocyte subpopulations in T. cruzi-infected children, characterizing the early stages of the indeterminate clinical form of Chagas’ disease. Our results indicated significant alterations by comparison with uninfected children, including increased values of pre-natural killer (NK)-cells (CD3– CD16+ CD56–), and higher values of proinflammatory monocytes (CD14+ CD16+ HLA-DR++). The higher values of activated B lymphocytes (CD19+ CD23+) contrasted with impaired T cell activation, indicated by lower values of CD4+ CD38+ and CD4+ HLA-DR+ lymphocytes, a lower frequency of CD8+ CD38+ and CD8+ HLA-DR+ cells; a decreased frequency of CD4+ CD25HIGH regulatory T cells was also observed. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that simultaneous activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms in addition to suppression of adaptive cellular immune response occur during early events of Chagas’ disease. Comparative cross-sectional analysis of these immunophenotypes with those exhibited by patients with late chronic indeterminate and cardiac forms of disease suggested that a shift toward high values of macrophage-like cells extended to basal levels of proinflammatory monocytes as well as high values of mature NK cells, NKT and regulatory T cells, may account for limited tissue damage during chronic infection favouring the establishment/maintenance of a lifelong indeterminate clinical form of the disease. On the other hand, development of an adaptive cell-mediated inflammatory immunoprofile characterized by high levels of activated CD8+ cells and basal levels of mature NK cells, NKT and CD4+ CD25HIGH cells might lead to late chronic

  1. Levels of regulatory T cells CD69(+)NKG2D(+)IL-10(+) are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ana; Vitales-Noyola, Marlen; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Marazuela, Mónica

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). New subsets of CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes that behave as regulatory cells have been recently reported. The role of these immunoregulatory lymphocytes has not been previously explored in AITD. We analyzed by multi-parametric flow cytometry different Treg cell subsets in peripheral blood from 32 patients with AITD and 19 controls, and in thyroid tissue from seven patients. The suppressive activity was measured by an assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. We found a significant increased percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+), CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+), and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells, in peripheral blood from GD patients compared to controls. The increase in CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) T cells was especially remarkable in patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and a significant positive correlation between GO activity and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) or CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells was also found. In addition, these cells were increased in patients with a more severe and/or prolonged disease. Thyroid from AITD patients showed an increased proportion of CD69(+) regulatory T cells subpopulations compared to autologous peripheral blood. The presence of CD69(+), NKG2D(+), and IL-10(+) cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitro functional assays showed that CD69(+) Treg cells exerted an important suppressive effect on the activation of T effector cells in controls, but not in AITD patients. Our findings suggest that the levels of CD69(+) regulatory lymphocytes are increased in AITD patients, but they are apparently unable to down-modulate the autoimmune response and tissue damage.

  2. Patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells are killed by CD133-specific CAR T cells but induce the T cell aging marker CD57.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuekai; Prasad, Shruthi; Gaedicke, Simone; Hettich, Michael; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The AC133 epitope of CD133 is a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for many tumor entities, including the highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have developed an AC133-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and show that AC133-CAR T cells kill AC133+ GBM stem cells (GBM-SCs) both in vitro and in an orthotopic tumor model in vivo. Direct contact with patient-derived GBM-SCs caused rapid upregulation of CD57 on the CAR T cells, a molecule known to mark terminally or near-terminally differentiated T cells. However, other changes associated with terminal T cell differentiation could not be readily detected. CD57 is also expressed on tumor cells of neural crest origin and has been preferentially found on highly aggressive, undifferentiated, multipotent CSC-like cells. We found that CD57 was upregulated on activated T cells only upon contact with CD57+ patient-derived GBM-SCs, but not with conventional CD57-negative glioma lines. However, CD57 was not downregulated on the GBM-SCs upon their differentiation, indicating that this molecule is not a bona fide CSC marker for GBM. Differentiated GBM cells still induced CD57 on CAR T cells and other activated T cells. Therefore, CD57 can apparently be upregulated on activated human T cells by mere contact with CD57+ target cells.

  3. Neutrophil CD64 expression: a reliable diagnostic marker of infection in advanced cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Comolli, Giuditta; Torchio, Martina; Lenta, Elisa; Franceschetti, Benvenuto; Chiesa, Antonella; Calarota, Sandra A; Baldanti, Fausto; Scudeller, Luigia; Marone, Piero; Danova, Marco; Marco, Danova

    2015-07-01

    Infection and sepsis are major health problems in cancer patients. There is a need for the identification and validation of biomarkers to improve their early diagnosis and treatment. Emerging evidence showed that neutrophil CD64 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for systemic infection and sepsis in critically ill patients with various diseases but data on patients bearing solid tumors are still lacking. Using a dedicated flow cytometric assay we evaluated neutrophil CD64 expression in patients with advanced cancer without active infections to verify if it could be utilized as a reliable biomarker of early infections also in oncologic patients.

  4. Decreased Expression of T-Cell Costimulatory Molecule CD28 on CD4 and CD8 T Cells of Mexican Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Fernandez, German; Espinosa-Cueto, Patricia; Leyva-Meza, Rosario; Mancilla, Nathalie; Mancilla, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Patients with tuberculosis frequently develop anergy, a state of T-cell hyporesponsiveness in which defective T-cell costimulation could be a factor. To know if the expression of T-cell costimulatory molecules was altered in tuberculosis, we analyzed the peripheral blood T-cell phenotype of 23 Mexican patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. There was severe CD4 (P < .001) and CD8 (P < .01) lymphopenia and upregulation of costimulatory molecule CD30 on CD4 and CD8 T cells (P < .05); this increase was higher in relapsing tuberculosis. The main finding was severe downregulation of the major costimulatory molecule CD28 on both CD8 and CD4 T cells (P < .001). Depletion of the CD4/CD28 subset, a hitherto undescribed finding, is relevant because CD4 T cells constitute the main arm of the cell-mediated antimycobacterial immune response. PMID:22567259

  5. Antitumor activity of an anti-CD98 antibody.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Gregory M; Chinn, Lawrence; Cantor, Joseph M; Cairns, Belinda; Levashova, Zoia; Tran, Hoang; Velilla, Timothy; Duey, Dana; Lippincott, John; Zachwieja, Joseph; Ginsberg, Mark H; H van der Horst, Edward

    2015-08-01

    CD98 is expressed on several tissue types and specifically upregulated on fast-cycling cells undergoing clonal expansion. Various solid (e.g., nonsmall cell lung carcinoma) as well as hematological malignancies (e.g., acute myeloid leukemia) overexpress CD98. We have identified a CD98-specific mouse monoclonal antibody that exhibits potent preclinical antitumor activity against established lymphoma tumor xenografts. Additionally, the humanized antibody designated IGN523 demonstrated robust tumor growth inhibition in leukemic cell-line derived xenograft models and was as efficacious as standard of care carboplatin in patient-derived nonsmall lung cancer xenografts. In vitro studies revealed that IGN523 elicited strong ADCC activity, induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and inhibited essential amino acid transport function, ultimately resulting in caspase-3 and -7-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. IGN523 is currently being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial for acute myeloid leukemia (NCT02040506). Furthermore, preclinical data support the therapeutic potential of IGN523 in solid tumors.

  6. Central Muscarinic Cholinergic Activation Alters Interaction between Splenic Dendritic Cell and CD4+CD25- T Cells in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is based on vagus nerve (VN) activity that regulates macrophage and dendritic cell responses in the spleen through alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR) signaling. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients present dysautonomia with decreased vagus nerve activity, dendritic cell and T cell over-activation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether central activation of the CAP alters the function of dendritic cells (DCs) and sequential CD4+/CD25−T cell activation in the context of experimental colitis. Methods The dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice was used. Central, intracerebroventricular infusion of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist McN-A-343 was used to activate CAP and vagus nerve and/or splenic nerve transection were performed. In addition, the role of α7nAChR signaling and the NF-kB pathway was studied. Serum amyloid protein (SAP)-A, colonic tissue cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-23 in isolated splenic DCs, and cytokines levels in DC-CD4+CD25−T cell co-culture were determined. Results McN-A-343 treatment reduced colonic inflammation associated with decreased pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 colonic and splenic cytokine secretion. Splenic DCs cytokine release was modulated through α7nAChR and the NF-kB signaling pathways. Cholinergic activation resulted in decreased CD4+CD25−T cell priming. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of central cholinergic activation was abolished in mice with vagotomy or splenic neurectomy. Conclusions Suppression of splenic immune cell activation and altered interaction between DCs and T cells are important aspects of the beneficial effect of brain activation of the CAP in experimental colitis. These findings may lead to improved therapeutic strategies in the treatment of IBD. PMID:25295619

  7. Intracellular expression of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-stimulated CD4+ CD57+ T-cell subpopulation with memory phenotype in tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C; Linares, Marisela; Báez, Renata; Montaño, Luis F; Martínez-Cairo, Salvador; Gorocica, Patricia; Chávez, Raúl; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    In some chronic pathological conditions, antigen persistence activates and expands the CD4+ CD57+ T-cell subset. The host immune response against tuberculosis infection is maintained through the continuous presence of antigen-stimulated effector/memory helper T cells. To determine whether CD4+ CD57+ T cells were also expanded in human tuberculosis, we analysed (by flow cytometry) the phenotype of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from 30 tuberculosis patients and 30 healthy controls. We observed a significant increase in the CD4+ CD57+ T-cell subset in tuberculosis patients in comparison to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Most CD4+ CD57+ T cells exhibited a CD28− CD45RO+ CD62L− phenotype, which is associated with memory cells. In vitro, a higher number of antigen-stimulated CD4+ CD57+ T cells produced intracellular interferon-γ and interleukin-4 compared with antigen-stimulated CD4+ CD57− T cells (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that the majority of CD4+ CD57+ T cells correspond to a phenotype of activated memory T cells. PMID:14678204

  8. Low Double-Negative CD3+CD4−CD8− T Cells Are Associated with Incomplete Restoration of CD4+ T Cells and Higher Immune Activation in HIV-1 Immunological Non-Responders

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaofan; Su, Bin; Xia, Huan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhiying; Ji, Yunxia; Yang, Zixuan; Dai, Lili; Mayr, Luzia M.; Moog, Christiane; Wu, Hao; Huang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Failure of immune reconstitution increases the risk of AIDS or non-AIDS related morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients. CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells, which are usually described as double-negative (DN) T cells, display CD4-like helper and immunoregulatory functions. Here, we have measured the percentage of DN T cells in the immune reconstituted vs. non-immune reconstituted HIV-1-infected individuals. We observed that immunological non-responders (INRs) had a low number of DN T cells after long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the number of these cells positively correlated with the CD4+ T cell count. The ART did not result in complete suppression of immune activation recorded by the percentage of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells in INRs, and a strong inverse correlation was observed between DN T cells and immune activation. A low proportion of TGF-β1+DN T cells was found in INRs. Further mechanism study demonstrated that the level of TGF-β1-producing DN T cells and immune activation had a negative correlation after ART. Taken together, our study suggests that DN T cells control the immunological response in HIV-1-infected patients. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanism of immune reconstitution and could develop specific treatments to return the immune system to homeostasis following initiation of HIV-1 therapy. PMID:28018346

  9. Low Double-Negative CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T Cells Are Associated with Incomplete Restoration of CD4(+) T Cells and Higher Immune Activation in HIV-1 Immunological Non-Responders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofan; Su, Bin; Xia, Huan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhiying; Ji, Yunxia; Yang, Zixuan; Dai, Lili; Mayr, Luzia M; Moog, Christiane; Wu, Hao; Huang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Failure of immune reconstitution increases the risk of AIDS or non-AIDS related morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients. CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, which are usually described as double-negative (DN) T cells, display CD4-like helper and immunoregulatory functions. Here, we have measured the percentage of DN T cells in the immune reconstituted vs. non-immune reconstituted HIV-1-infected individuals. We observed that immunological non-responders (INRs) had a low number of DN T cells after long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the number of these cells positively correlated with the CD4(+) T cell count. The ART did not result in complete suppression of immune activation recorded by the percentage of CD38(+)HLA-DR(+)CD8(+) T cells in INRs, and a strong inverse correlation was observed between DN T cells and immune activation. A low proportion of TGF-β1(+)DN T cells was found in INRs. Further mechanism study demonstrated that the level of TGF-β1-producing DN T cells and immune activation had a negative correlation after ART. Taken together, our study suggests that DN T cells control the immunological response in HIV-1-infected patients. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanism of immune reconstitution and could develop specific treatments to return the immune system to homeostasis following initiation of HIV-1 therapy.

  10. Antibody Therapy Targeting CD47 and CD271 Effectively Suppresses Melanoma Metastasis in Patient-Derived Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Michael; Han, Arum; Lakatos, Anita; Sahoo, Debashis; Hachey, Stephanie J; Weiskopf, Kipp; Beck, Andrew H; Weissman, Irving L; Boiko, Alexander D

    2016-08-09

    The high rate of metastasis and recurrence among melanoma patients indicates the existence of cells within melanoma that have the ability to both initiate metastatic programs and bypass immune recognition. Here, we identify CD47 as a regulator of melanoma tumor metastasis and immune evasion. Protein and gene expression analysis of clinical melanoma samples reveals that CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal, correlates with melanoma metastasis. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD47 coupled with targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells strongly inhibits tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenografts. This therapeutic effect is mediated by drastic changes in the tumor and metastatic site immune microenvironments, both of whichwhich exhibit greatly increased density of differentiated macrophages and significantly fewer inflammatory monocytes, pro-metastatic macrophages (CCR2(+)/VEGFR1(+)), and neutrophils, all of which are associated with disease progression. Thus, antibody therapy that activates the innate immune response in combination with selective targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells represents a powerful therapeutic approach against metastatic melanoma.

  11. Differential modulation by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9)-THC) of CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in activated mouse splenic CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Crawford, Robert B; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2012-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids has been widely demonstrated in experimental animal models and in humans. CD40-CD40-ligand (L) interactions are among the most crucial initiators of inflammation. This study investigated the effects of ∆(9)-THC on CD40L expression in mouse splenic T cells after activation with various stimuli. Time course studies demonstrated that peak surface expression of CD40L by CD4(+) T cells after anti-CD3/CD28 or phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore (PMA/Io) occurred 8 h post activation. Peak CD40L mRNA levels were observed at 2 h post PMA/Io treatment and at 4 h post anti-CD3/CD28 treatment. Pretreatment with ∆(9)-THC significantly impaired the upregulation of CD40L induced by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level. By contrast, ∆(9)-THC did not affect PMA/Io-induced surface CD40L expression on CD4(+) T cells. Additionally, ∆(9)-THC also attenuated anti-CD3/CD28-induced CD40L expression on CD4(+) T cells derived from CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. We investigated whether the mechanism by which ∆(9)-THC suppressed CD40L expression involved putative cannabinoid activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Although activation of GR resulted in suppression of CD40L induction by anti-CD3/CD28, no interaction between ∆(9)-THC and GR was observed by a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ∆(9)-THC targets proximal T cell receptor-associated signaling in a cannabinoid receptor- and glucocorticoid receptor-independent manner. These findings identify suppression of CD40L expression as a novel part of the mechanism by which ∆(9)-THC exerts anti-inflammatory activity.

  12. Ublituximab (TG-1101), a novel glycoengineered anti-CD20 antibody, in combination with ibrutinib is safe and highly active in patients with relapsed and/or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: results of a phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Jeff P; Farber, Charles M; Mahadevan, Daruka; Schreeder, Marshall T; Brooks, Heather D; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Fanning, Suzanne; Klein, Leonard; Greenwald, Daniel R; Sportelli, Peter; Miskin, Hari P; Weiss, Michael S; Burke, John M

    2017-02-01

    Ibrutinib is effective in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); however, treatment resistance remains a problem. Ublituximab is a novel, glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed CLL. We report the results of a phase 2 study evaluating combination therapy with ibrutinib and ublituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg once daily. Ublituximab was administered on days 1, 8 and 15 of cycle 1 followed by day 1 of cycles 2-6. Response assessments were completed at cycles 3 and 6; patients then continued on ibrutinib monotherapy per standard of care. Forty-one of 45 enrolled patients were evaluable for efficacy. Safety was consistent with prior experience for each drug, with infusion reactions the most prevalent adverse event. Combination therapy resulted in an overall response rate (ORR) of 88% at 6 months. In the 20 patients with high-risk features (17p or 11q deletions or TP53 mutation) and evaluable for efficacy, the ORR was 95%, with three patients (15%) achieving negative minimal residual disease. Median time to response was 8 weeks. Ublituximab in combination with ibrutinib resulted in rapid and high response rates. The long-term clinical benefit of ublituximab will be defined by an ongoing phase 3 trial (NCT 02301156).

  13. Comparative study of CD4 and CD45RO T cells and CD20 B cells in cerebrospinal fluid of syphilitic meningitis and tuberculous meningitis patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Zhang, Qiao-Quan; Zhang, Kang; Xie, Yuan; Zhu, Hai-Qing; Lin, Xing-Jian; Di, Qing

    2016-09-01

    This study was to investigate the differences of lymphocyte in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with syphilis meningitis (SM) and tuberculous meningitis (TBM) for new diagnostic insights. Totally, 79 cases of SM and 45 cases of TBM were enrolled. In the CSF, the CD4, CD45RO or CD20 positive lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry. The proportion of CD4 T cells in the CSF lymphocytes in patients with SM was significantly higher than that in patients with TBM (p < 0.05). After medical therapy, there was a significantly decline trend of the CD4 T-cell proportion in both groups (p < 0.05). The proportion of CD45RO T cells in CSF lymphocytes of patients with SM was less than that of patients with TBM (p < 0.05). After medical therapy, the positive ratio of CD45RO T cells was increased in the CSF of both group patients (p < 0.05). The proportion of CD20B cells in the CSF lymphocytes was not obviously different between the two groups during every stage. In conclusion, there are strong differences of CD4 and CD45RO T-cell ratio, but not the CD20 B cells in the meningitis. CD4 and CD45RO T cells in CSF are a useful complement in differentially diagnosing SM and TBM; it contributes to further understand the pathogenesis and prognosis of SM and TBM.

  14. Essential role of CD11a in CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T-cells, particularly CD8+ T-cells, are major participants in obesity-linked adipose tissue inflammation. We examined the mechanisms of CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue and the role of CD11a, a beta2 integrin. CD8+ T-cells in adipose tissue of obese mice showed activated phe...

  15. Tuning of CD40-CD154 interactions in human B-lymphocyte activation: a broad array of in vitro models for a complex in vivo situation.

    PubMed

    Néron, Sonia; Nadeau, Philippe J; Darveau, André; Leblanc, Jean-François

    2011-02-01

    Naive and memory B-lymphocyte populations can be activated through the binding of CD154 to CD40, a receptor that is constitutively expressed on the surface of these cells. Models based on the in vitro stimulation of human B lymphocytes through CD40 have greatly contributed to our understanding of the human immune response in healthy individuals and patients suffering from immune disorders. The nature of the engineered CD40 ligands is as diverse as the in vitro models used in studies of CD40-activated B lymphocytes. Monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies, recombinant CD154 proteins, soluble CD154(+) membranes as well as CD154(+) cell lines have turned out to be very useful tools, and are still in use today. As for any receptor-ligand interaction, parameters such as duration and strength of contact, timing, affinity, and receptor density are major determinants of CD40 binding by CD154 or anti-CD40. Furthermore, variation in the intensity of CD40 stimulation has been shown to influence proliferation, differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion of human hybridomas, B-cell lines, tonsil and blood B lymphocytes. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the great diversity of CD40 agonists used in in vitro models of B-lymphocyte activation, with a particular emphasis on variations in the resulting strength of CD40 signaling generated by these models. A better understanding of these models could open up new avenues for the rational use of human B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells in cellular therapies.

  16. Altered expression of CD226 and CD96 on natural killer cells in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling-Di; Wei, Ji-Shu; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Xin-Chun; Guo, Song; Fu, Yue; Miao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The progression of pancreatic cancer (PC) is significantly associated with tumor immune escape, which may be associated with nature killer (NK) cell dysfunction. CD226, CD96, and TIGIT, which share the ligand CD155, play important roles in the regulation of NK cell function. The present study was conducted to investigate the roles of these molecules in NK cells from PC patients. Expression of these molecules on NK cells was detected from samples of 92 pancreatic cancer patients and 40 healthy controls. The expression of CD155 was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 88 pancreatic cancer tissues. The percentage of CD226+ and CD96+ NK cells was significantly lower in PC patients than in the healthy controls; however, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD226 and CD96 was not significantly different between the two groups. TIGIT expression on NK cells from PC patients was similar to that in the healthy controls. Additionally, the expression of CD226 was positively correlated with CD96. Further analysis demonstrated that the decrease in the percentage of CD226+ and CD96+ NK cells was associated with tumor histological grade and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the CD155 levels in PC tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues. Our results suggest that a lower percentage of CD226+ and CD96+ NK cells may contribute to tumor immune escape in PC patients; moreover, the use of NK cells with high CD226 and CD96 expression to treat PC cells with high CD155 expression may have potential and should be explored in the future. PMID:27626490

  17. CD4+ T cell activation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Verselis, S J; Goust, J M

    1987-02-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by CD4-enriched T cells from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and normal individuals stimulated with concanavalin A (conA) and/or autologous and allogeneic B lymphoid cell lines (B-LCL) was evaluated 24, 48 and 96 h after stimulation. ConA-stimulated CD4+ cells from MS patients did not produce significantly more IL-2 than normal CD4+ cells. In contrast, autologous B-LCL-induced IL-2 production by MS CD4+ cells significantly (P = 0.026) exceeded that produced by normal CD4+ cells identically stimulated after 24 h in culture. Differences in IL-2 production by CD4+ cells from MS patients reached highest significance using allogeneic B-LCL, whose stimulatory capacity was similar, whether established from normal individuals or MS patients. This increased IL-2 production in response to B-LCL may represent a supranormal response of CD4+ cells from MS patients to class II major histocompatibility (MHC)-associated stimuli. It suggests that the deficiency of suppressor T cell functions postulated to play a role in MS does not arise from a lack of IL-2 induction and might indicate that bursts of IL-2 production could play a role in MS.

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment responsiveness depends on the degree of CD8+ T cell activation in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Gong, Fang-Qi; Shang, Shi-Qiang; Hu, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) has become the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children and is also a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in adults. However, Kawasaki disease lacks specific laboratory diagnostic indices. Thus, this study analyzed the T cell activation profiles of Kawasaki disease and assessed their value in the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease and the prediction of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) sensitivity. We analyzed human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), CD69 and CD25 expression on peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the acute phase of KD. We compared the percentages of HLA-DR+/CD69+/CD25+ T cells in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations of IVIG-effective and IVIG-resistant groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the diagnostic value of the above parameters. The median percentage of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells and the median ratio of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells/CD8+CD25+ T cells were significantly elevated in the patient group compared with those in the control group during the acute phase of KD. Regarding the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, the area under the ROC curve was 0.939 for the percentage of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells. There was a significant difference in the ratio of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells/CD8+CD69+ T cells between IVIG-resistant patients and IVIG-sensitive patients. Regarding IVIG sensitivity, the area under the ROC curve was 0.795 for it. Excessive CD8+ T cell activation, as well as an imbalance between CD8+ T cell activation and inhibition, underlies the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease. The percentage of CD8+ HLA-DR+ T cells may be used as an index to diagnose Kawasaki disease. IVIG inhibits CD8+ T cell activation, but excessive CD8+ T cell activation may cause IVIG resistance. The ratio of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells/CD8+CD69+ T cells may be used as a predictor of IVIG sensitivity.

  19. Effects of baicalin in CD4 + CD29 + T cell subsets of ulcerative colitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng-Yan; Huang, Shao-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Ye, Hua; Chi, Hong-Gang; Zou, Ying; Lv, Ru-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of baicalin in ulcerative colitis (UC) with regard to the CD4+CD29+ T helper cell, its surface markers and serum inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of CD4+CD29+ cells in patients with UC. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect expression of GATA-3, forkhead box P3, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), and retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor C (RORC). Western blotting was used to analyze expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, phosphorylation of NF-κB (p-NF-κB) p65, STAT4, p-STAT4, STAT6 and p-STAT6. The concentrations of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in serum were determined by ELISA assay. RESULTS: The percentages of CD4+CD29+ T cells were lower in treatment with 40 and 20 μmol/L baicalin than in the treatment of no baicalin. Treatment with 40 or 20 μmol/L baicalin significantly upregulated expression of IL-4, TGF-β1 and IL-10, increased p-STAT6/STAT6 ratio, but downregulated expression of IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-6, RORC, Foxp3 and T-bet, and decreased ratios of T-bet/GATA-3, p-STAT4/STAT4 and p-NF-κB/NF-κB compared to the treatment of no baicalin. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that baicalin regulates immune balance and relieves the ulcerative colitis-induced inflammation reaction by promoting proliferation of CD4+CD29+ cells and modulating immunosuppressive pathways. PMID:25386078

  20. Lesional accumulation of CD163-expressing cells in the gut of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Franzè, Eleonora; Caruso, Roberta; Stolfi, Carmine; Sarra, Massimiliano; Cupi, Maria Laura; Caprioli, Flavio; Monteleone, Ivan; Zorzi, Francesca; De Nitto, Daniela; Colantoni, Alfredo; Biancone, Livia; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages displaying different markers of activation/differentiation infiltrate the inflamed gut of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but the role that each monocyte/macrophage subpopulation plays in the pathogenesis of IBD is not fully understood. The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163, a specific marker of monocytes/macrophages, has been associated with either anti-inflammatory or inflammatory functions of macrophages in several pathologies. In this study we examined the tissue distribution and function of CD163-expressing monocytes/macrophages in IBD. CD163 RNA and protein expression was more pronounced in IBD in comparison to normal controls, with no significant difference between Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. In IBD, over-expression of CD163 was restricted to areas with active inflammation and not influenced by current therapy. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the accumulation of CD163-expressing cells in IBD, mostly around and inside blood vessels, thus suggesting that these cells are partly recruited from the systemic circulation. Indeed, FACS analysis of circulating mononuclear cells showed that the fractions of CD163-positive monocytes were increased in IBD patients as compared to controls. Functionally, interleukin-6 up-regulated CD163 expression in lamina propria mononuclear cells and mucosal explants of normal subjects. In IBD blood and mucosal cell cultures, cross-linking of CD163 with a specific monoclonal anti-CD163 antibody enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis. These findings indicate that IBD mucosa is abundantly infiltrated with CD163-positive cells, which could contribute to amplify the inflammatory cytokine response.

  1. CD62LnegCD38+ expression on circulating CD4+ T cells identifies mucosally differentiated cells in protein fed mice and in human celiac disease patients and controls

    PubMed Central

    du Pré, M. Fleur; van Berkel, Lisette A.; Ráki, Melinda; van Leeuwen, Marieke A.; de Ruiter, Lilian F.; Broere, Femke; ter Borg, Mariëtte N.D.; Lund, Frances E.; Escher, Johanna C.; Lundin, Knut E. A.; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Kraal, Georg; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Samsom, Janneke N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify new markers of mucosal T cells to monitor ongoing intestinal immune responses in peripheral blood. Design Expression of cell-surface markers was studied in mice on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells in the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) after OVA feed. The effect of the local mucosal mediators retinoic acid (RA) and TGF-β on the induction of a mucosal phenotype was determined in in vitro T-cell differentiation assays with murine and human T cells. Tetramer stainings were performed to study gluten-specific T cells in the circulation of patients with celiac disease, a chronic small intestinal inflammation. Results In mice, proliferating T cells in MLN were CD62LnegCD38+ during both tolerance induction and abrogation of intestinal homeostasis. This mucosal CD62LnegCD38+ T-cell phenotype was efficiently induced by RA and TGF-β in mice, whereas for human CD4+ T cells RA alone was sufficient. The CD4+CD62LnegCD38+ T-cell phenotype could be used to identify T cells with mucosal origin in human peripheral blood, as expression of the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and β7 integrin were highly enriched in this subset whereas expression of cutaneous leukocyte associated antigen was almost absent. Tetramer staining revealed that gluten-specific T cells appearing in blood of treated celiac disease patients after oral gluten challenge were predominantly CD4+CD62LnegCD38+. The total percentage of circulating CD62LnegCD38+ of CD4 T cells was not an indicator of intestinal inflammation as percentages did not differ between pediatric celiac disease patients, inflammatory bowel disease patients and respective controls. However, the phenotypic selection of mucosal T cells allowed cytokine profiling as upon restimulation of CD62LnegCD38+ cells IL-10 and IFN-γ transcripts were readily detected in circulating mucosal T-cells. Conclusions By selecting for CD62LnegCD38+ expression which comprises 5–10% of the cells within

  2. Colon cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hun Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Hyeong Rok

    2015-04-01

    CD44 and CD133 mRNA expression as cancer stem cell markers in colorectal cancer were correlated with synchronous hepatic metastases and the clinicopathological factors, including patient survival. The CD44 and CD133 mRNA levels in 36 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas with synchronous hepatic metastasis were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, with normalization relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on samples with typical mRNA expression patterns to investigate protein expression. Both CD44 and CD133 gene expressions were highest in hepatic metastasis tissue, followed by colorectal cancer and normal mucosa. The differences were statistically significant among groups of normal mucosa, colorectal cancer and hepatic metastasis tissue. CD44 mRNA expression was significantly associated with the tumor location (P=0.019) and histology (P=0.026). With a median follow-up period of 38 months, the 5-year disease-free survival rate of the patients with high CD44 mRNA expression in the CD44 hepatic metastasis tissue group was significantly lower than that of the patients with low expression (P=0.002). While the mRNA expressions in groups of CD44 colorectal tumor, CD133 colorectal tumor, and CD133 hepatic metastasis tissue were not significant. CD44 and CD133 mRNA were highly correlatively co-expressed in colorectal cancer with hepatic metastases. CD44 expression was an independent factor associated with patient survival, while CD133 did not show this pattern. Thus, CD44 is a more reliable marker for predicting hepatic metastases and survival. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  3. Increased frequencies of CD11b(+) CD33(+) CD14(+) HLA-DR(low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells are an early event in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Berenice M; Loquai, Carmen; Gerwe, Alexander; Bacher, Nicole; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Grabbe, Stephan; Tuettenberg, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous cell population characterized by immunosuppressive activity. Elevated levels of MDSC in peripheral blood are found in inflammatory diseases as well as in malignant tumors where they are supposed to be major contributors to mechanisms of tumor-associated tolerance. We investigated the frequency and function of MDSC in peripheral blood of melanoma patients and observed an accumulation of CD11b(+) CD33(+) CD14(+) HLA-DR(low) MDSC in all stages of disease (I-IV), including early stage I patients. Disease progression and enhanced tumor burden did not result in a further increase in frequencies or change in phenotype of MDSC. By investigation of specific MDSC-associated cytokines in patients' sera, we found an accumulation of IL-8 in all stages of disease. T-cell proliferation assays revealed that MDSC critically contribute to suppressed antigen-specific T-cell reactivity and thus might explain the frequently observed transient effects of immunotherapeutic strategies in melanoma patients.

  4. T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), CD4+, CD8+, and their CD45RO+, and CD45RA+, subpopulations in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-HIV-co-infected patients during treatment with interferon alpha plus ribavirin: analysis in a population on effective antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Arizcorreta, A; Márquez, M; Fernández-Gutiérrez, C; Guzmán, E Pérez; Brun, F; Rodríguez-Iglesias, M; Girón-González, J A

    2006-11-01

    Interferon (IFN)-alpha induced CD4(+) T lymphopenia is a toxic effect of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected patients. To increase the knowledge about this secondary effect, we performed an analysis of the evolution of the T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and of their CD45RO(+) and CD45RA(+) subpopulations during the treatment of chronic hepatitis HCV with peginterferon alpha (pegIFN-alpha) + ribavirin. Twenty HCV/HIV-co-infected patients, with undetectable HIV load after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were treated with pegIFN-alpha + ribavirin. TRECs were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and their CD45RO(+) and CD45RA(+) subpopulations were analysed by two-colour flow cytometry. Median baseline CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were 592 mm(3) and 874 mm(3), respectively. Median baseline CD45RO(+) subpopulation was 48% for CD4(+) T and 57% for CD8(+) T lymphocytes. A progressive decrease in both T cell populations, as well as of their CD45RO(+) and CD45RA(+) subpopulations, was detected, with a difference between the baseline and nadir levels approaching 50%. The evolution of T cell populations and TRECs was independent of the response to the treatment. T lymphocytes and their subpopulations returned to baseline levels at 24 weeks after the end of treatment, with the exception of the T CD4(+) CD45RA(+) subpopulation. The ratio of CD4(+) CD45RO(+)/CD4(+) CD45RA(+) increased from 0.89 (baseline) to 1.44 (24 weeks after the end of the therapy). TRECs/ml did not return to the basal values. In conclusion, a significant reduction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and of their CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(+) subpopulations, in HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated with pegIFN-alpha was observed. Both subpopulations increased after the suppression of treatment, but the CD4(+) CD45RA subpopulation did not reach the basal levels as a

  5. Investigation of CTLA-4 and CD86 gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with brucellosis infection.

    PubMed

    Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Moghadampour, Mehdi; Najibi, Habib; Hadadi-Fishani, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    The protective immune response against Brucella involves T-cell-mediated immunity. T-lymphocyte receptors, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), bind the same ligands, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on antigen-presenting cells and regulate T cell activation. CD28 delivers stimulatory signals whereas CTLA-4 provides inhibitory signals for T cell activation. Here, we investigated the association of four polymorphisms in CTLA4 (+49A/G [rs231775] and -318 C/T [rs5742909]) and its ligand CD86 (+1057 G/A [rs1129055] and +2379G/C [rs17281995]) with brucellosis infection. The study included 153 Iranian patients with active brucellosis and 128 healthy individuals as the control group. Genotyping of the CTLA4 and CD86 variants was performed using tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, respectively. It was found that the CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele were present more frequently in cases than in controls and are therefore associated with an increased risk for brucellosis (-318 TT genotype; OR = 2.544, P = 0.002). Likewise, the CD86 +1057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele were associated with an increased risk of brucellosis (+1057 AA genotype; OR = 3.81, P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference between brucellosis patients and controls in the allele and genotype distributions of CTLA4, +49A/G (P = 0.859) and CD86, +2379G/C (P = 0.476) was found. In conclusion, CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele and the CD86 +057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele play roles as risk factors for developing brucellosis infection in Iran.

  6. Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, C; Schütt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Müller, F E; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W; Schönfeld, W

    1991-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident. PMID:1713813

  7. Analysis of CD28 and bcl-2 expression on peripheral blood and liver-infiltrating mononuclear cells in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Arima, Keiji; Masaki, Tsutomu; Deguchi, Akiihiro; Nakai, Seiji; Morishita, Asahiro; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Ohgi, Tomohiro; Ono, Masahiro; Yoshitake, Akira; Maeta, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yoshihiro; Kohi, Fumikazu; Nishioka, Mikio; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2006-07-01

    Because the underlying mechanism of hepatocellular damages in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) still remains unclear, analysis of CD28 and bcl-2 molecules, which are critical for T cell activation and survival, was performed in patients with AIH. The number of CD28(+)CD4(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in corticosteroid (CS)-treated patients was comparable to normal control individuals but decreased in untreated AIH patients. In contrast, the number of CD28(+)CD8(+) PBMC was decreased in both CS-treated and untreated AIH patients. Analysis of liver-infiltrating mononuclear cells (LIMC) showed that the number of CD28(+)CD4(+) and CD28(-)CD8(+) LIMC were positively correlated with the histology activity index score. Bcl-2(+)CD4(+) LIMC were observed in the portal area of the liver and the numbers fluctuated with disease activity during the time course after CS administration. By contrast, CD8(+) LIMC were shown not to express bcl-2. Taken collectively, these results suggest that bcl-2(+)CD28(+)CD4(+) and bcl-2(-)CD28(-)CD8(+) cells may play critical and distinct roles in hepatocellular damage in AIH.

  8. Percentage of Peripheral CD19+CD24hiCD38hi Regulatory B Cells in Neonatal Sepsis Patients and Its Functional Implication.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Ji, Zuoquan; Xue, Jiang

    2016-07-07

    BACKGROUND As a major cause of mortality in neonates, neonatal sepsis is often accompanied by immune dysfunctions, which are frequently caused by dysregulated T cell sub-populations. The role of regulatory B cells in neonatal sepsis, however, remains unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the percentage and functional variation of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells in peripheral blood of neonatal sepsis patients in an attempt to elucidate the role of these regulatory B cells in pathogenesis of sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Flow cytometry was used to quantify the percentage of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells from peripheral blood samples. The correlation between B cell percentage and C reactive protein (CRP) level was analyzed. Secretion level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and effects on the proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells were further analyzed. RESULTS The percentage of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells in neonatal sepsis patients was significantly higher compared to healthy controls (p<0.05), and was positively correlated with serum CRP level. The percentage of IL-10+ CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells was also higher in sepsis patients, and also had more potent inhibition on naïve CD4+ T cells (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS The elevation of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells in neonatal sepsis can inhibit body immune function and thus may participate in the pathogenesis of sepsis.

  9. The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, E; Carballido, J; Manzano, L; Moltó, L; Olivier, C; Alvarez-Mon, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA– DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25). © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098752

  10. CD39 modulates endothelial cell activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goepfert, C.; Imai, M.; Brouard, S.; Csizmadia, E.; Kaczmarek, E.; Robson, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD39 is the dominant vascular nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) that exerts major effects on platelet reactivity by the regulated hydrolysis of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The effects of NTPDases on endothelial cell (EC) activation and apoptosis remain unexplored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Recombinant replication-deficient adenoviruses were constructed with human CD39 cDNA (rAdCD39) or the bacterial beta-galactosidase (rAdbetagal). RESULTS: Intact human umbilical vein EC cultures infected with rAdCD39 had substantial and stable increases in NTPDase biochemical activity (14.50 +/- 3.50 Pi nmole/well/min), when contrasted with noninfected cells (0.95 +/- 0.002) and rAdbetagal infected cells (1.01 +/- 0.02; p<0.005). Increased NTPDase activity efficiently inhibited immediate type 2Y purinergic receptor (P2Y)-mediated EC activation responses viz. von Willebrand factor secretion in response to extracellular ATP. In addition, CD39 up-regulation blocked ATP-induced translocation of the transcription nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB to the cell nucleus, and abrogated transcription of mRNA encoding E-selectin, and consequent protein synthesis. CD39 also decreased the extent of apoptosis triggered by putative type-2X purinergic (P2X7) receptors in response to high concentrations of extracellular ATP in vitro. CONCLUSION: These properties of CD39 indicate primary vascular protective effects with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:10997340

  11. Modulation of CD147-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity: role of CD147 N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan; Luo, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Cui, Hong-Yong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2013-01-15

    Degradation of the basement membrane by MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) is one of the most critical steps in tumour progression. CD147 is a tumour-associated antigen that plays a key regulatory role for MMP activities. In the present study, mass spectrum analysis demonstrated that the purified native CD147 from human lung cancer tissue was N-glycosylated and contained a series of high-mannose and complex-type N-linked glycan structures. Moreover, native glycosylated CD147 existed exclusively as oligomers in solution and directly stimulated MMP production more efficiently than non-glycosylated prokaryotic CD147. The glycosylation site mutation results indicated that, among three N-glycan attachment sites, the N152Q mutants were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and unfolded protein response signalling was activated. This improper intracellular accumulation impaired its MMP-inducing activity. Increased β1,6-branching of N-glycans as a result of overexpression of GnT-V (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V) plays an important role in tumour metastasis. In the present study, we identified CD147 as a target protein of GnT-V and found that overexpression of GnT-V resulted in an elevated level of CD147 at the plasma membrane and in cell-conditioned medium, thereby increasing the induction of MMPs. The present study reveals the important role of N-glycosylation of CD147 in its biological function and implied that targeting aberrant β1,6-branching of N-glycans on CD147 would be valuable for the development of novel therapeutic modalities against carcinoma.

  12. CD16xCD33 bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) activates NK cells against primary MDS and MDSC CD33+ targets.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Michelle K; Ross, Julie A; Warlick, Erica D; Lund, Troy C; Verneris, Michael R; Wiernik, Andres; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Michael D; Lenvik, Alexander J; Litzow, Mark R; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Blazar, Bruce R; Weiner, Louis M; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Vallera, Daniel A; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2014-05-08

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders that can progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Although hematopoietic cell transplantation can be curative, additional therapies are needed for a disease that disproportionally afflicts the elderly. We tested the ability of a CD16xCD33 BiKE to induce natural killer (NK) cell function in 67 MDS patients. Compared with age-matched normal controls, CD7(+) lymphocytes, NK cells, and CD16 expression were markedly decreased in MDS patients. Despite this, reverse antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays showed potent degranulation and cytokine production when resting MDS-NK cells were triggered with an agonistic CD16 monoclonal antibody. Blood and marrow MDS-NK cells treated with bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) significantly enhanced degranulation and tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production against HL-60 and endogenous CD33(+) MDS targets. MDS patients had a significantly increased proportion of immunosuppressive CD33(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that negatively correlated with MDS lymphocyte populations and CD16 loss on NK cells. Treatment with the CD16xCD33 BiKE successfully reversed MDSC immunosuppression of NK cells and induced MDSC target cell lysis. Lastly, the BiKE induced optimal MDS-NK cell function irrespective of disease stage. Our data suggest that the CD16xCD33 BiKE functions against both CD33(+) MDS and MDSC targets and may be therapeutically beneficial for MDS patients.

  13. Elevated levels of peripheral blood CD14(bright) CD16+ and CD14(dim) CD16+ monocytes may contribute to the development of retinopathy in patients with juvenile onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ryba-Stanisławowska, Monika; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Juhas, Ulana; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to analyze the CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 in the context of their association with microvascular complications. 61 children with type 1 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in a study. CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were quantified in peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. At the time of sampling blood glucose concentration was taken along with biochemical measurement of renal function, CRP and glycosylated hemoglobin. The Spearman's correlations were used to compare the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict the development of microangiopathies. The flow cytometric analysis of monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of analyzed subjects revealed that the numbers of CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in the healthy individuals. As to the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict development of microangiopathies, it was shown that both CD16(+) subsets were associated with increased risk of retinopathy development, defined as retinopathy development value. Elevated levels of intermediate CD14(bright) CD16(+) and non-classical CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes predict development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  14. Overexpression of CD85j in TNBC patients inhibits Cetuximab-mediated NK-cell ADCC but can be restored with CD85j functional blockade.

    PubMed

    Roberti, María P; Juliá, Estefanía P; Rocca, Yamila S; Amat, Mora; Bravo, Alicia I; Loza, José; Coló, Federico; Loza, Carlos M; Fabiano, Verónica; Maino, Mercedes; Podhorzer, Ariel; Fainboim, Leonardo; Barrio, María M; Mordoh, José; Levy, Estrella M

    2015-05-01

    Clinical studies suggest that triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing tumors could benefit from therapy with Cetuximab, which targets EGFR. NK cells are the primary effectors of antibody (Ab)-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and thus play a role in Ab-based therapies. We have previously described diminished levels of Cetuximab-mediated ADCC in vitro in patients with advanced breast cancer. Here, we investigated the potential causes of this NK-cell functional deficiency. We characterized NK-cell activating/inhibitory receptors in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients and found CD85j inhibitory receptor overexpression. The capacity of NK cells to perform Cetuximab-triggered ADCC against TNBC cells correlated inversely with CD85j expression, even in the presence of the stimulatory cytokines IL-2 or IL-15. Hence, patients expressing high levels of CD85j had an impaired ability to lyse TNBC cells in the presence of Cetuximab. We also found that CD85j overexpression was associated with HLA-I and soluble HLA-G expression by tumors. A CD85j functional blockade with a CD85j antagonist Ab restored ADCC levels in breast cancer patients and reverted this negative effect. Our data suggest that strategies that overcome the hurdles of immune activation could improve Cetuximab clinical efficacy.

  15. Evaluation of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells during treatment of patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Hasanjani Roushan, M R; Bayani, M; Soleimani Amiri, S; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, M; Nouri, H R; Ebrahimpour, S

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) plays a critical role in the control of brucellosis. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a functional character in modulating the balance between host immune response and tolerance, which can eventually lead to chronic infection or relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the alteration of Tregs in cases of brucellosis before and after treatment. Thirty cases of acute brucellosis with the mean age of 41.03±15.15 years (case group) and 30 healthy persons with the mean age of 40.63±13.95 years (control group) were selected and assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood of all individuals. We analyzed the alteration of Treg cell count using flow cytometry for CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 markers. The level of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells was increased in active patients compared with controls (2.5±0.99% vs 1.6±0.84%, p= 0.0004), but it had declined in the treated cases (1.83±0.73%, p=0.02). The level of Tregs was elevated in three relapsed cases. The frequency of Tregs and Treg/Teff (effector T cell) ratio was correlated with inverse serum agglutination test (SAT) and, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) titers as markers of treatment in brucellosis. Based on our findings, we suggest that regulatory cells, such as CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells, may contribute to the development of infection processes involving immune responses in brucellosis, and evaluation of regulatory T-cell levels may be a potential diagnostic strategy for the treatment outcome in chronic and relapsed cases of brucellosis.

  16. Soluble CD73 in Critically Ill Septic Patients – Data from the Prospective FINNAKI Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, Suvi T.; Hollmén, Maija; Korhonen, Anna-Maija; Maksimow, Mikael; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Pettilä, Ville

    2016-01-01

    Background CD73 dephosphorylates adenosine monophosphate to adenosine that is an anti-inflammatory molecule inhibiting immune activation and vascular leakage. Therefore, CD73 could be an interesting mediator both in sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI). We aimed to explore the soluble CD73 (sCD73) levels and their evolution in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and, second, to scrutinize the potential association of sCD73 levels with AKI and 90-day mortality. Methods This was a post-hoc laboratory analysis of the prospective, observational FINNAKI study conducted in 17 Finnish ICU during 5 months in 2011–2012. Plasma samples of 588 patients admitted with severe sepsis/shock or with developing severe sepsis were analyzed at 0h (ICU admission) and 24h, and additionally, on day 3 or day 5 from a subset of the patients. Results The median [IQR] sCD73 levels at 0h were 5.11 [3.29–8.28] ng/mL and they decreased significantly from 0h to 4.14 [2.88–7.11] ng/mL at 24h, P<0.001. From 24h to Day 3 (n = 132) the sCD73 levels rose to 5.18 [2.98–8.83] ng/mL (P = 0.373) and from 24h to Day 5 (n = 224) to 5.52 [3.57–8.90] ng/mL (P<0.001). Patients with AKI had higher sCD73 values at 0h and at 24h compared to those without AKI. Non-survivors with severe sepsis, but not with septic shock, had higher CD73 levels at each time-point compared to survivors. After multivariable adjustments, sCD73 levels at 0h associated independently neither with the development of AKI nor 90-day mortality. Conclusions Compared to normal population, the sCD73 levels were generally low at 0h, showed a decrease to 24h, and later an increase by day 5. The sCD73 levels do not seem useful in predicting the development of AKI or 90-day mortality among patients with severe sepsis or shock. PMID:27732656

  17. Differential development of CD4 and CD8 cytotoxic T cells (CTL) in PBMC across the leprosy spectrum; IL-6 with IFN-gamma or IL-2 generate CTL in multibacillary patients.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, S; Finiasz, D M; Fink, S; Valdez, R; Bottasso, O; Balina, L M; Sasiain, M C

    1997-03-01

    In the present study we evaluated the contribution of CD4 and CD8 T cells on the antigen-specific cytotoxic activity induced by whole Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients and normal controls (N) as well as the modulation of this activity by some cytokines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from N or from leprosy patients were stimulated with antigen in the presence or absence of cytokines for 7 days. M. leprae-stimulated PBMC were depleted of CD4 or CD8 antigen-bearing cells and employed as effector cells in a 4-hr [31Cr]-release assay against autologous M. leprae-pulsed macrophages. Our results demonstrate that both CD4 and CD8 T cells contribute to M. leprae-induced cytotoxic activity, with differences observed in paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) patients. CD8-mediated cytotoxic activity is higher than that of CD4 cells in PB patients, while in MB patients CD4 cytotoxicity is predominant. Our data also demonstrate that the generation of CD4 and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can be modulated differentially by interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), or IL-2. Although MB patients developed the lowest CTL response, cytokines such as IL-6 plus IL-2 or IFN-gamma were able to generate both CD4 and CD8 cytotoxic T cells from MB patients. In PB patients, IL-6 plus IFN-gamma displayed the highest stimulation on CD8 effector cells. Thus, an important role may be assigned to IL-6, together with IL-2 or IFN-gamma, in the differentiation of M. leprae-specific CTL effector cells.

  18. SGN-CD33A: a novel CD33-targeting antibody-drug conjugate using a pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer is active in models of drug-resistant AML.

    PubMed

    Kung Sutherland, May S; Walter, Roland B; Jeffrey, Scott C; Burke, Patrick J; Yu, Changpu; Kostner, Heather; Stone, Ivan; Ryan, Maureen C; Sussman, Django; Lyon, Robert P; Zeng, Weiping; Harrington, Kimberly H; Klussman, Kerry; Westendorf, Lori; Meyer, David; Bernstein, Irwin D; Senter, Peter D; Benjamin, Dennis R; Drachman, Jonathan G; McEarchern, Julie A

    2013-08-22

    Outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unsatisfactory, and novel treatments are urgently needed. One strategy explores antibodies and their drug conjugates, particularly those targeting CD33. Emerging data with gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) demonstrate target validity and activity in some patients with AML, but efficacy is limited by heterogeneous drug conjugation, linker instability, and a high incidence of multidrug resistance. We describe here the development of SGN-CD33A, a humanized anti-CD33 antibody with engineered cysteines conjugated to a highly potent, synthetic DNA cross-linking pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer via a protease-cleavable linker. The use of engineered cysteine residues at the sites of drug linker attachment results in a drug loading of approximately 2 pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimers per antibody. In preclinical testing, SGN-CD33A is more potent than GO against a panel of AML cell lines and primary AML cells in vitro and in xenotransplantation studies in mice. Unlike GO, antileukemic activity is observed with SGN-CD33A in AML models with the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Mechanistic studies indicate that the cytotoxic effects of SGN-CD33A involve DNA damage with ensuing cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. Together, these data suggest that SGN-CD33A has CD33-directed antitumor activity and support clinical testing of this novel therapeutic in patients with AML.

  19. Brentuximab vedotin activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with CD30 undetectable by visual assessment of conventional immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Nancy L; Smith, Mitchell R; Siddiqi, Tanya; Advani, Ranjana H; O'Connor, Owen A; Sharman, Jeff P; Feldman, Tatyana; Savage, Kerry J; Shustov, Andrei R; Diefenbach, Catherine S; Oki, Yasuhiro; Palanca-Wessels, Maria Corinna; Uttarwar, Mayur; Li, Martha; Yang, Jing; Jacobsen, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    This phase 2 study evaluated brentuximab vedotin monotherapy in CD30-expressing DLBCL; after several patients with little to no CD30 achieved a complete remission (CR), the study evaluated treatment of DLBCL with undetectable CD30 (CD30u) by local visual immunohistochemistry (vIHC). Sixteen of 52 CD30u DLBCL patients (31%) had an objective response (6 CRs [12%]). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.4 months (range, 0.4-15.6) and median overall survival (OS) was 7.5 months (range, 0.7-18.6+). Subsequent CD30 expression quantitated by computer-assisted digital image analysis (cIHC) showed that 11 of 16 CD30u DLBCL responders had ≥1% CD30. Correlative analyses of CD30u and CD30-expressing DLBCL combined demonstrated that ≥1% CD30 expression by cIHC resulted in a trend toward a higher response rate and significantly longer median PFS and OS. A minimum CD30 expression threshold appears to be required for antitumor activity in DLBCL; however, other factors also likely contribute to activity. (NCT01421667).

  20. Activation of CD95 (APO-1/Fas) signaling by ceramide mediates cancer therapy-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Herr, I; Wilhelm, D; Böhler, T; Angel, P; Debatin, K M

    1997-01-01

    We report here that anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin lead to induction of the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) system of apoptosis and the cellular stress pathway which includes JNK/SAPKs. Ceramide, which accumulates in response to different types of cellular stress such as chemo- and radiotherapy, strongly induced expression of CD95-L, cleavage of caspases and apoptosis. Antisense CD95-L as well as dominant-negative FADD inhibited ceramide- and cellular stress-induced apoptosis. Fibroblasts from type A Niemann-Pick patients (NPA), genetically deficient in ceramide synthesis, failed to up-regulate CD95-L expression and to undergo apoptosis after gamma-irradiation or doxorubicin treatment. In contrast, JNK/SAPK activity was still inducible by doxorubicin in the NPA cells, suggesting that activation of JNK/SAPKs alone is not sufficient for induction of the CD95 system and apoptosis. CD95-L expression and apoptosis in NPA fibroblasts were restorable by exogenously added ceramide. In addition, NPA fibroblasts undergo apoptosis after triggering of CD95 with an agonistic antibody. These data demonstrate that ceramide links cellular stress responses induced by gamma-irradiation or anticancer drugs to the CD95 pathway of apoptosis. PMID:9321399

  1. TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Pagliano, Ornella; Fourcade, Julien; Sun, Zhaojun; Wang, Hong; Sander, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M; Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy; Maurer, Mark; Korman, Alan J; Zarour, Hassane M

    2015-05-01

    T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8⁺ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8⁺ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1⁺TIM-3⁺ TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells. PD-1⁺TIGIT⁺, PD-1⁻TIGIT⁺, and PD-1⁺TIGIT⁻ CD8⁺ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand-expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade additively increased proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of both TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ TILs. Collectively, our results show that TIGIT and PD-1 regulate the expansion and function of TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ TILs in melanoma patients and suggest that dual TIGIT and PD-1 blockade should be further explored to elicit potent antitumor CD8⁺ T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma.

  2. CD40 activation: lessons for HIV immunotherapy from malignancies?

    PubMed

    Le Dieu, Rifca; Gribben, John

    2005-09-01

    In HIV, the immune defects seen are due not only to a decrease in T-cell numbers, but also to qualitative impairment in T-cell function as well as decreased antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. These defects in cell-mediated immunity lead to increased level of infection, contributing to inability to clear the HIV virus, and an increased incidence of tumours. One of the major defects in HIV appears to be the failure of CD4 T cells to provide CD 154 (CD40 ligand)-mediated help, which is required for APC function. In lymphomas, activation through CD40 leads to increased APC activity and induction of immune responses against tumours. Such an effect may also be useful in HIV to increase response against the virus and improve immune surveillance of tumours.

  3. Urinary CD8+ T-cell counts discriminate between active and inactive lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe and frequent manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Early detection of initial renal manifestations and relapses during follow-up is pivotal to prevent loss of renal function. Apart from renal biopsies, current urinary and serological diagnostic tests fail to accurately demonstrate the presence of active LN. Previously, we demonstrated that effector memory T-cells (CD45RO+CCR7-;TEM) migrate into the urine during active LN. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of urinary T-cells in comparison with traditional markers of active LN. Methods T-cells in the urine during active LN and remission were investigated. Twenty-two, in most cases biopsy-proven, active LN patients and 24 SLE patients without active LN were enrolled and serial measurements were performed in 16 patients. Results Analysis of the urinary sediment in active renal disease showed an increased number of CD8+ T-cells and absence of these cells during remission. Enumerating T-cell counts in LN patients with a history of renal involvement was a superior marker of active LN in comparison to traditional markers, such as proteinuria and s-creatinine. Conclusions In conclusion, urinary T-cells, in particular CD8+ T cells, are a promising marker to assess renal activity in LN patients, in particular in those with prior renal involvement. PMID:23445537

  4. Characterization of CD4 and CD8 T cells producing IFN-γ in human latent and active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Cesar M; Marín, Nancy D; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-11-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) frequently have reduced IFN-γ production in response to mycobacterial antigens, compared to individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBi). However, it is not clear whether this reduced responsiveness is restricted to a particular T cell subset. Herein, PBMCs from 26 PTB patients, 30 household contacts (HHCs) of PTB, and 30 tuberculin positive (TST+) healthy subjects not recently exposed to PTB, were stained with CFSE and stimulated non-specific (PPD) for 120 h, and specific (CFP-10/ESAT-6) and latency (HSpX) mycobacterial antigens for 144 h and the percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells responding determined by flow cytometry, in addition to their memory phenotype by the CD45RO and CD27 expression. PTB had decreased frequency of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) precursor cells, as well as decreased number of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) cells in response to all antigens, whereas CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) cells were decreased in response to PPD and ESAT-6, but not to CFP-10 and HSpX. HHCs exhibited the highest precursor frequencies and IFN-γ responses, irrespective of the antigen employed. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) cell ratios showed that in response to PPD CD4(+) precursor and IFN-γ-producer cells are more frequent than their CD8(+) counterparts, and that PTB have a decreased CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)/CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) ratio in response to PPD, CFP-10, and ESAT-6. CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) cells exhibited a central memory phenotype (CD45RO(+)CD27(+)), irrespective of the group of subjects and the antigen used for stimulation. In conclusion, PTB patients had a decreased percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) precursor cells and CD4(+)IFN-γ(+). HHCs exhibited the highest frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) precursors and CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)-producing cells.

  5. Characterization of Human CD8 T Cell Responses in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients from India

    PubMed Central

    Chandele, Anmol; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Gunisetty, Sivaram; Singla, Mohit; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Akondy, Rama S.; Kissick, Haydn Thomas; Nayak, Kaustuv; Reddy, Elluri Seetharami; Kalam, Haroon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Verma, Anil; Panda, HareKrushna; Wang, Siyu; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil; Ahmed, Rafi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies suggest that India has the largest number of dengue virus infection cases worldwide. However, there is minimal information about the immunological responses in these patients. CD8 T cells are important in dengue, because they have been implicated in both protection and immunopathology. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of HLA-DR+ CD38+ and HLA-DR− CD38+ effector CD8 T cell subsets in dengue patients from India and Thailand. Both CD8 T cell subsets expanded and expressed markers indicative of antigen-driven proliferation, tissue homing, and cytotoxic effector functions, with the HLA-DR+ CD38+ subset being the most striking in these effector qualities. The breadth of the dengue-specific CD8 T cell response was diverse, with NS3-specific cells being the most dominant. Interestingly, only a small fraction of these activated effector CD8 T cells produced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) when stimulated with dengue virus peptide pools. Transcriptomics revealed downregulation of key molecules involved in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Consistent with this, the majority of these CD8 T cells remained IFN-γ unresponsive even after TCR-dependent polyclonal stimulation (anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28) but produced IFN-γ by TCR-independent polyclonal stimulation (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA] plus ionomycin). Thus, the vast majority of these proliferating, highly differentiated effector CD8 T cells probably acquire TCR refractoriness at the time the patient is experiencing febrile illness that leads to IFN-γ unresponsiveness. Our studies open novel avenues for understanding the mechanisms that fine-tune the balance between CD8 T cell-mediated protective versus pathological effects in dengue. IMPORTANCE Dengue is becoming a global public health concern. Although CD8 T cells have been implicated both in protection and in the cytokine-mediated immunopathology of dengue, how the balance is maintained between these opposing functions remains

  6. Prognostic value of CD44 and CD44v6 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Wei; Shao, Wei

    2014-08-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic value of CD44 in survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed a meta-analysis of relevant literature to aggregate the available survival results, using studies published in English until March 2014. Eligible studies dealt with CD44, CD44 standard form (CD44s) and CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6), assessment in NSCLC patients on primary lesions and reported survival data according to CD44 and CD44 isoforms expression. We aggregated 10 trials (5 trials for CD44v6, 3 trials for CD44, and 2 trials for CD44s) comprising 1,074 patients, in this meta-analysis. The combined hazard ratio (HR) with CD44v6 and CD44s was 2.39 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.69-3.37) and 1.64 (95 % CI 1.06-2.52), respectively. It associated high CD44v6 and CD44s expression with poor survival in NSCLC patients. However, CD44 overexpression did not significantly correlate with survival in patients with NSCLC (HR 1.44; 95 % CI 0.72-2.89). Our meta-analysis shows that CD44v6 and CD44s overexpression indicates poor prognosis for NSCLC patients. However, the high CD44 expression is not significantly correlated with survival for patients with NSCLC.

  7. Tumor-infiltrating CD14-positive myeloid cells and CD8-positive T-cells prolong survival in patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Vos van Steenwijk, P J; Ramwadhdoebe, T H; Goedemans, R; Doorduijn, E M; van Ham, J J; Gorter, A; van Hall, T; Kuijjer, M L; van Poelgeest, M I E; van der Burg, S H; Jordanova, E S

    2013-12-15

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is the influx of myeloid cells. In our study, we investigated the constitution of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and their relationship to other tumor-infiltrating immune cells, tumor characteristics and the disease-specific survival of patients with cervical cancer (CxCa). Triple-color immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was used to locate, identify and quantify macrophages (CD14), their maturation status (CD33) and their polarization (CD163) in a cohort of 86 patients with cervical carcinoma. Quantification of the numbers of myeloid cells revealed that a strong intraepithelial infiltration of CD14+ cells, and more specifically the population of CD14+CD33-CD163- matured M1 macrophages, is associated with a large influx of intraepithelial T lymphocytes (p = 0.008), improved disease-specific survival (p = 0.007) and forms an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.033). The intraepithelial CD8+ T-cell and regulatory T-cell (Treg) ratio also forms an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.010) and combination of these two factors reveals a further increased benefit in survival for patients whose tumor displays a dense infiltration with intraepithelial matured M1 macrophages and a high CD8 T-cell/Treg ratio, indicating that both populations of immune cells simultaneously improve survival. Subsequently, we made a heatmap including all known immune parameters for these patients, whereby we were able to identify different immune signatures in CxCa. These results indicate that reinforcement and activation of the intratumoral M1 macrophages may form an attractive immunotherapeutic option in CxCa.

  8. CD40-mediated NFκB activation in B cells is increased in multiple sclerosis and modulated by therapeutics1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ding; Ireland, Sara J.; Remington, Gina; Alvarez, Enrique; Racke, Michael K.; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.; Monson, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    CD40 interacts with CD40 ligand and plays an essential role in immune regulation and homeostasis. Recent research findings, however, support a pathogenic role of CD40 in a number of autoimmune diseases. We previously showed that memory B cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients exhibited enhanced proliferation with CD40 stimulation compared to healthy donors. In this study, we used a multi-parameter phosflow approach to analyze the phosphorylation status of NFκB and three major MAP kinases (P38, ERK and JNK), the essential components of signaling pathways downstream of CD40 engagement in B cells from MS patients. We found that memory and naïve B cells from RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients exhibited a significantly elevated level of phosphorylated NFκB (p-P65) following CD40 stimulation compared to healthy donor controls. Combination therapy with interferon beta-1a (Avonex) and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept) modulated the hyper-phosphorylation of P65 in B cells of RRMS patients at levels similar to healthy donor controls. Lower disease activity after the combination therapy correlated with the reduced phosphorylation of P65 following CD40 stimulation in treated patients. In addition, glatiramer acetate (GA) treatment also significantly reduced CD40-mediated P65 phosphorylation in RRMS patients, suggesting that reducing CD40-mediated p-P65 induction may be a general mechanism by which some current therapies modulate MS disease. PMID:27798157

  9. Poor survival in glioblastoma patients is associated with early signs of immunosenescence in the CD4 T-cell compartment after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Olesja; Odeberg, Jenny; Wolmer Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Skarman, Petra; Peredo, Inti; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Rahbar, Afsar; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are immunosuppressed and have a broad range of immunological defects in both innate and adaptive immune responses. GBMs are frequently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a virus capable of causing immunosuppression. In 42 HCMV-positive GBM patients in a clinical trial (VIGAS), we investigated T-cell phenotypes in the blood and assessed their relation to survival. Blood was collected before and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, and the frequency of T-cell subsets was compared with that in 26 age-matched healthy controls. GBM patients had lower levels of CD3 cells than the controls, but had significantly higher levels of CD4+CD28− T cells before and 3 and 12 weeks after surgery and increased levels of CD4+CD57+ and CD4+CD57+CD28+ T cells at all-time points. These T-cell subsets were associated with both immunosenescence and HCMV infection. GBM patients also had higher levels of γδ T cells at all-times after surgery and lower levels of CD4+CD25+ cells before and 3 weeks after surgery than healthy controls. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with higher levels of CD4+CD28− T cells (p = 0.025), CD4+CD57+ T (p = 0.025) cells, and CD4+CD28−CD57+CD28− T cells (p < 0.0004) at 3 weeks after surgery. Our findings indicate that signs of immunosenescence in the CD4+ compartment are associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCMV-positive GBMs and may reflect the HCMV activity in their tumors. PMID:26405601

  10. Poor survival in glioblastoma patients is associated with early signs of immunosenescence in the CD4 T-cell compartment after surgery.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Olesja; Odeberg, Jenny; Wolmer Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Skarman, Petra; Peredo, Inti; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Rahbar, Afsar; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-09-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are immunosuppressed and have a broad range of immunological defects in both innate and adaptive immune responses. GBMs are frequently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a virus capable of causing immunosuppression. In 42 HCMV-positive GBM patients in a clinical trial (VIGAS), we investigated T-cell phenotypes in the blood and assessed their relation to survival. Blood was collected before and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, and the frequency of T-cell subsets was compared with that in 26 age-matched healthy controls. GBM patients had lower levels of CD3 cells than the controls, but had significantly higher levels of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells before and 3 and 12 weeks after surgery and increased levels of CD4(+)CD57(+) and CD4(+)CD57(+)CD28(+) T cells at all-time points. These T-cell subsets were associated with both immunosenescence and HCMV infection. GBM patients also had higher levels of γδ T cells at all-times after surgery and lower levels of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells before and 3 weeks after surgery than healthy controls. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with higher levels of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells (p = 0.025), CD4(+)CD57(+) T (p = 0.025) cells, and CD4(+)CD28(-)CD57(+)CD28(-) T cells (p < 0.0004) at 3 weeks after surgery. Our findings indicate that signs of immunosenescence in the CD4(+) compartment are associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCMV-positive GBMs and may reflect the HCMV activity in their tumors.

  11. Study of Basic Coagulation Parameters among HIV Patients in Correlation to CD4 Counts and ART Status

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, D; Rachakatla, Praveen; Bharathi, K; Afroz, Tameem; Sagar, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is known to cause coagulation abnormalities by various mechanism, especially during its late course. Aim The objective of this study was to analyse platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time among HIV infected patients and to analyse these parameters with respect to their CD4 count and ART status. Materials and Methods A case control study was conducted with 120 HIV infected patients and 40 normal individuals. The blood samples were collected after obtaining consent from the subjects. The blood samples were processed for platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and CD4 count. The results were tabulated and analysed with statistical package. Results The platelet count was significantly decreased in HIV infected patients compared to controls. Though HIV patients with CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3 showed a decreased platelet count compared to those with CD4 count greater than 200cells/mm3, it was not statistically significant. Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) was significantly prolonged in HIV patients, but only aPTT showed significant inverse correlation with CD4 count. None of the parameters showed statistical significance on comparing HIV patients on ART with those not on ART. Conclusion Basic coagulation tests like platelet count, PT and especially aPTT can be used as prospective screening test to assess severity in HIV patients in resource limited settings where CD4 count is not available. PMID:27437222

  12. Glycoengineered CD20 antibody obinutuzumab activates neutrophils and mediates phagocytosis through CD16B more efficiently than rituximab.

    PubMed

    Golay, Josée; Da Roit, Fabio; Bologna, Luca; Ferrara, Claudia; Leusen, Jeanette H; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Introna, Martino

    2013-11-14

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a glycoengineered type 2 CD20 antibody with enhanced CD16A-binding and natural killer-mediated cytotoxicity. CD16B is highly homologous to CD16A and a major FcγR on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We show here that glycoengineered obinutuzumab or rituximab bound CD16B with approximately sevenfold higher affinity, compared with nonglycoengineered wild-type parental antibodies. Furthermore, glycoengineered obinutuzumab activated PMNs, either purified or in chronic lymphoblastic leukemia whole blood, more efficiently than wild-type rituximab. Activation resulted in a 50% increase in CD11b expression and 70% down-modulation of CD62L on neutrophils and in release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, and IL-8. Activation was not accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity, but led to up to 47% phagocytosis of glycoengineered anti-CD20 opsonized chronic lymphoblastic leukemia targets by purified PMNs. Significant phagocytosis was observed in whole blood, but only in the presence of glycoengineered antibodies, and was followed by up to 50% PMN death. Finally we show, using anti-CD16B and anti-CD32A Fab and F(ab')2 fragments, that both of these receptors are involved in PMN activation, phagocytosis, and cell death induced by glycoengineered antibodies. We conclude that phagocytosis by PMNs is an additional mechanism of action of obinutuzumab mediated through its higher binding affinity for CD16B.

  13. Expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25 (+) T regulatory cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Li, Xiang-Pei; Li, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Tao, Jin-Hui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Fang, Xuan; Ma, Qian; Yu, Ning

    2014-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with complex genetic predisposing factors involved. Ets-1 transcription factor plays an important role in the suppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and stable expression of FOXP3. To find its potential role in the pathogenesis of SLE, we investigate the mRNA expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from patients with SLE. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from 36 patients with SLE and 18 sex-and-age-matched healthy controls. The Ets-1 mRNA expression level was decreased in patients with SLE [0.225 (0.135, 0.337)] than healthy controls [0.528 (0.303, 0.681)] (P < 0.001). The expression levels of FOXP3 mRNA were lower in SLE patients [0.608 (0.272, 1.164)] than healthy controls [0.919 (0.690, 1.223)], but the difference was not significant (P = 0.106). Significant reduction in Ets-1 and FOXP3 expression was also found in new-onset SLE subgroup when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001). The level of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA was not significantly different in hyperactive and lower active SLE group when compared with inactive SLE group, respectively (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between SLE with lupus nephritis (LN) and SLE without LN either (P > 0.05). Associations of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression levels with major clinical and laboratory parameters of SLE patients were also analyzed. However, no significant association was found. Significant positive correlation was found between Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from SLE patients (r = 0.698, P < 0.001). Our results found that the expression levels of Ets-1 mRNA were decreased in SLE patients and Ets-1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of FOXP3. It indicated that Ets-1 may play an important role in the stable expression of FOXP3 in

  14. Association of CD30 transcripts with Th1 responses and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Sonia Y; Opelz, Gerhard; Rojas, Mauricio; Süsal, Caner; Alvarez, Cristiam M

    2016-05-01

    High serum sCD30 levels are associated with inflammatory disorders and poor outcome in renal transplantation. The contribution to these phenomena of transcripts and proteins related to CD30-activation and -cleavage is unknown. We assessed in peripheral blood of end-stage renal disease patients (ESRDP) transcripts of CD30-activation proteins CD30 and CD30L, CD30-cleavage proteins ADAM10 and ADAM17, and Th1- and Th2-type immunity-related factors t-bet and GATA3. Additionally, we evaluated the same transcripts and release of sCD30 and 32 cytokines after allogeneic and polyclonal T-cell activation. In peripheral blood, ESRDP showed increased levels of t-bet and GATA3 transcripts compared to healthy controls (HC) (both P<0.01) whereas levels of CD30, CD30L, ADAM10 and ADAM17 transcripts were similar. Polyclonal and allogeneic stimulation induced higher levels of CD30 transcripts in ESRDP than in HC (both P<0.001). Principal component analysis (PCA) in allogeneic cultures of ESRDP identified two correlation clusters, one consisting of sCD30, the Th-1 cytokine IFN-γ, MIP-1α, RANTES, sIL-2Rα, MIP-1β, TNF-β, MDC, GM-CSF and IL-5, and another one consisting of CD30 and t-bet transcripts, IL-13 and proinflammatory proteins IP-10, IL-8, IL-1Rα and MCP-1. Reflecting an activated immune state, ESRDP exhibited after allostimulation upregulation of CD30 transcripts in T cells, which was associated with Th1 and proinflammatory responses.

  15. Diclofenac induces basophil degranulation without increasing CD63 expression in sensitive patients

    PubMed Central

    Malbrán, A; Yeyati, E; Rey, G L; Galassi, N

    2007-01-01

    Diclofenac (Dc) induces an IgE-independent basophil (Ba) degranulation in susceptible individuals. CD63 Ba expression is utilized as an in vitro test for diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity. We tested the ability of Dc to induce CD63 Ba expression by flow cytometry (BAT) and Ba degranulation using light microscopy (HBDT) in patients sensitive to Dc. We studied 14 patients with diclofenac hypersensitivity, also two patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), and 12 normal controls. HBDT was performed by mononuclear cells toluidine blue staining. BAT determined CD63 expression in antiCD63/anti-IgE/anti-CD45-labelled whole blood. In each case, the percentage of activated Ba post-stimulation with 1 and 10 µg/ml Dc was determined. Positive controls included N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) peptide-induced activation. IgE-mediated Ba activation was induced with a Dp allergenic extract. With Dc 1 µg/ml, mean HBDT in Dc-susceptible individuals was 33·62 ± 18·35% and 8·49 ± 4·79% in controls (P = 0·0001). Mean BAT was 2·04 ± 1·68% and 1·93 ± 1·40% in controls (P = 0·8). Ba preincubation with Dc did not affect fMLP-induced CD63 expression, neither in Dc-sensitive individuals (P = 0·8) (n = 4) nor in subjects without Dc hypersensitivity (P = 0·25) (n = 4). Ba from the two patients sensitive both to Dc and Dp responded to Dp but not to Dc by BAT: Dc, 1·99 ± 0·78%; Dp: 60·87 ± 9·28%; but showed degranulation by HBDT: Dc, 30·53 ± 1·02%, Dp: 48·78 ± 22·17%. Dc induces Ba degranulation in sensitive patients in a way that does not induce CD63 expression and is different from IgE-mediated and fMLP-mediated degranulation. Our results suggest that CD63 expression is not a reliable diagnostic method for diclofenac allergy. PMID:17177968

  16. Intrahepatic CD4 T-Cell apoptosis is related to METAVIR score in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Roger, P-M; Chaillou, S; Breittmayer, J-P; Dahman, M; St Paul, M-C; Chevallier, P; Benzaken, S; Ticchioni, M; Bernard, A; Dellamonica, P; Tran, A

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to liver injury, which is thought to be immune-mediated. Apoptosis of hepatic T cells could influence histological damage. We quantified peripheral and intrahepatic T-cell apoptosis in 28 patients with chronic hepatitis C by using cytofluorometric techniques. METAVIR score and HCV plasma viral load were determined. Six liver biopsies, obtained from controls without chronic hepatitis during hepatobiliary surgery, served as controls. In patients, liver T-cell apoptosis was upregulated compared to peripheral T cells: 35 versus 7% for CD4+ and 56 versus 13% for CD8+ T cells (P < 0.001). Liver T-cell apoptosis levels from patients were increased compared to controls for both CD4+ (P = 0.041) and CD8+ T cells (P = 0.007). Nine patients exhibiting METAVIR scores A and F < or = 1 showed higher intrahepatic CD4+ T-cell apoptosis compared to the 19 patients with a higher METAVIR score (P = 0.001) and both histological activity and fibrosis were related to apoptosis level. There was also an inverse relationship between the level of intrahepatic CD8+ T-cell apoptosis and serum transaminase activity (P = 0.023). Our study shows immune compartmentalization, suggesting that the study of peripheral blood lymphocytes may not be fully relevant to the pathophysiology of HCV hepatitis, and that the severity of liver injury is inversely correlated with intrahepatic CD4+ T-cell apoptosis.

  17. Smoking reduces circulating CD26(hi)CD161(hi) MAIT cells in healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Börnsen, Lars; Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Romme Nielsen, Birgitte; Søndergaard, Helle B; von Essen, Marina R; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2017-02-08

    Upon chronic cigarette smoke exposure, inhaled antigens and irritants cause altered lung immune homeostasis. Circulating immune cells are affected, and smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing various disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was conducted to determine the impact of smoking on circulating immune cell subsets. Furthermore, we determined whether any smoking-associated changes were related to MS. With the use of flow cytometry, CFSE assays, and ELISpot assays, we analyzed circulating immune cell phenotypes and quantified antigen-induced proliferation and cytokine secretion in smokers and nonsmokers in a cohort of 100 healthy individuals (HI). In addition, we analyzed immune cell subsets associated with smoking in 2 independent cohorts of patients with MS. In HI smokers compared with nonsmokers, we found increased blood cell counts of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. These cells were not more proinflammatory, autoreactive, or EBV reactive compared with cells from nonsmokers. Phenotypic differences were seen in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and CD8(+) T cells as higher percentages of ICOS ligand (ICOSL)(+) pDCs and lower percentages of CD26(hi)CD161(hi) CD8(+) T cells and CCR6(+) CD8(+) T cells in smokers compared with nonsmokers. In supplemental analyses, we showed that CD26(hi)CD161(hi) CD8(+) T cells were mainly mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs). Comparable frequencies of ICOSL(+) pDCs, CCR6(+) CD8(+) T cells, and CD26(hi)CD161(hi) CD8(+) T cells were found between HI and MS patients who were nonsmokers. Our findings suggest general proinflammatory effects from smoking combined with skewing of specific cell populations in HI and MS patients. The function of these cell populations needs further investigation.

  18. CCR5 promoter activity correlates with HIV disease progression by regulating CCR5 cell surface expression and CD4 T cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anjali; Punke, Erin B; Sedano, Melina; Beauchamp, Bethany; Patel, Rima; Hossenlopp, Cassady; Alozie, Ogechika K; Gupta, Jayanta; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Garg, Himanshu

    2017-03-22

    CCR5 is the major co-receptor for HIV and polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene as well as promoter region that alter cell surface expression have been associated with disease progression. We determined the relationship between CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CD4 decline and other immunopathological features like immune activation and CD4+ T cell apoptosis in HIV patients. CCR5 promoter haplotype HHC was significantly associated with higher CD4 counts in patients. The relative promoter activity (RPA) of each haplotype was determined in vitro and combined promoter activity based on both alleles (CRPA) was assigned to each patients. Interestingly, CCR5 CRPA correlated inversely with CD4 counts and CD4:CD8 ratio specifically in viremic patients. In normal individuals, the CRPA correlated with the number of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood suggesting an effect on CCR5 expression. In a subset of high viremic patients harboring R5 tropic HIV, there was a strong correlation between CCR5 CRPA and both CD4 counts and CD4 T cell apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that, CCR5 promoter polymorphisms correlate with CD4 T cell loss possibly by regulating CD4 T cell apoptosis in HIV patients. Furthermore, assigning CRPAs to each patient is a new method of translating genotype to phenotype.

  19. Tyrosine kinase activity of CD4-associated p56lck may not be required for CD4-dependent T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, T L; Burakoff, S J

    1993-01-01

    The lymphoid-specific tyrosine kinase p56lck (Lck) is critical for the development and activation of T lymphocytes, and Lck kinase activity has been implicated in both T-cell antigen receptor/CD3- and CD4-mediated signaling. CD4-dependent T-cell activation has been demonstrated to be dependent upon the association of CD4 with Lck. To examine the role of the kinase activity of Lck in CD4-dependent T-cell activation, we have generated several kinase-deficient mutants of Lck. When transfected into CD4+ murine T-cell hybridoma cells, these mutants cause approximately 90% diminution in CD4-associated Lck kinase activity. Specifically, upon CD4 crosslinking there is decreased Lck autophosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of an exogenous substrate. When CD4 is crosslinked to the T-cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex, decreased phosphorylation of associated substrates is also observed. In spite of this striking inhibition of Lck kinase function, cells expressing the kinase-deficient mutants demonstrate normal or enhanced CD4-dependent antigen responsiveness. These data demonstrate that the level of Lck kinase activity does not correlate with its CD4-associated function and suggest that the kinase activity of Lck may not be required for CD4-mediated signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7505449

  20. CD4 T-Cell Responses in Primary HIV Infection: Interrelationship with Immune Activation and Virus Burden

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Mathieu F.; Didier, Céline; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Manea, Maria E.; Campa, Pauline; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Weiss, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Early events during primary HIV infection (PHI) are thought to influence disease outcome. Although a growing body of evidence suggests a beneficial role of HIV-specific CD4 help in HIV infection, it is unclear how early viral replication, systemic immune activation, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may shape CD4 T-cell responses during PHI, and whether HIV-specific CD4 responses contribute to the high immune activation observed in PHI. Twenty-seven patients with early PHI were included in a prospective longitudinal study and 12 of them received ART after enrollment. Fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used for measurement of ex vivo T-cell activation and of cytokine-producing CD4 T-cells following stimulation with PMA/ionomycin or HIV-1-gag-p24 antigen. Patients were segregated based on CD8 T-cell activation level (i.e., % HLA-DR+CD38+ CD8 T-cells) at baseline (BL). Patients with lower immune activation exhibited higher frequency of bulk CD4 T-cells producing IFN-γ or IL-17 and higher effector-to-regulatory cell ratios. No differences were found in HIV-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies. In contrast, segregation of patients based on plasma viral load (pVL) revealed that patients with higher pVL showed higher cytokine-producing HIV-specific CD4 responses. Of note, the frequency of IFN-γ+ HIV-specific CD4 T cells significantly diminished between BL and month 6 only in ART-treated patients. However, early treatment initiation was associated with better maintenance of HIV-specific IFN-γ+ CD4 T-cells. These data suggest that HIV-specific CD4 responses do not fuel systemic T-cell activation and are driven by viral replication but not able to contribute to its control in the early phase of infection. Moreover, our data also suggest a benefit of early treatment for the maintenance of HIV-specific CD4 T-cell help. PMID:27746782

  1. Effect of tiotropium bromide on expression of CD(8) (+)CD (25) (+)FoxP (3) (+) regulatory T cells in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianchu; Deng, Li; Xiong, Xianzhi; Wang, Pei; Xin, Jianbao; Ma, Wanli

    2011-08-01

    The expression of CD(8) (+)CD(25) (+)FoxP(3) (+) regulatory T cells (CD(8) (+)Tregs) in the peripheral blood of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the effect of muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist tiotropium bromide on the expression of CD(8) (+)Tregs were investigated. Twenty-three patients with moderate to severe stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All patients inhaled tiotropium bromide (18 μg daily) for 3 months. Before and after inhalation of tiotropium bromide, peripheral blood samples were collected from the patients, and T cells were labeled by three-color labeled monoclonal antibodies. Flow cytometry was used to detect the quantity and percentage of CD(8) (+)T cells, CD(8) (+)CD(25) (+)T cells, CD(8) (+)Tregs, CD(4) (+)T cells, CD(4) (+)CD(25) (+)T cells and CD(4) (+)CD(25) (+)FoxP(3) (+) regulatory T cells (CD(4) (+)Tregs) respectively. The percentage of CD(4) (+)T cells was increased from (27.82±2.18)% to (35.53±1.3)% (t=3.20, P=0.004) in the peripheral blood of patients with stable COPD after inhalation of tiotropium bromide for 3 months, that of CD(4) (+)CD(25) (+)T cells was decreased from (10.03 ±1.42)% to (4.21 ±0.65)% (t=3.78, P=0.001), and that of CD(8) (+)Tregs was increased from (8.41 ±1.68)% to (21.34 ±4.20)% (t=2.72, P=0.013). At baseline, CD(8) (+)T cells, CD(8) (+)CD(25) (+)T cells and CD(4) (+)Tregs were detectable in the peripheral blood, but no significant changes were observed after treatment. Linear correlation analysis revealed that the difference before and after treatment in CD(4) (+)T cells and CD(4) (+)CD(25) (+)T cells was negatively correlated with the ratio of change in CD(8) (+)Tregs before and after treatment (r=-0.61, P=0.013; r=-0.72, P=0.001 respectively). In the peripheral blood of patients with stable COPD, there was the expression of CD(8) (+)Tregs and CD(4) (+)Tregs. Muscarinic receptor antagonist, tiotropium bromide, can promote the amplification of CD(4) (+)T

  2. CD39 Expression on T Lymphocytes Correlates With Severity of Disease in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pulte, Dianne; Furman, Richard R.; Broekman, M. Johan; Drosopoulos, Joan H. F.; Ballard, Harold S.; Olson, Kim E.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Marcus, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell disorder, but it is also associated with abnormalities in T-lymphocyte function. In this study we examine changes in T-lymphocyte CD39 and CD73 expression in patients with CLL. Methods Blood samples were drawn from 34 patients with CLL and 31 controls. The cells were stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD39, and CD73 and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Overall, patients with CLL had a higher percentage of CD39+ T lymphocytes than did controls. The percentage of cells expressing CD39 was higher in both CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells. Higher CD3/CD39 expression was associated with a later disease stage. No correlations between T-lymphocyte CD39 levels and CD38 or Zap-70 expression were observed. In contrast, the percentage of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes that expressed CD73 was decreased in patients with CLL. Average B-lymphocyte CD73 expression was decreased in CLL because the majority of CLL clones were CD73. However a minority of CLL clones were CD73+, and patients with CD73+ clones tended to have earlier stage disease. Conclusion T-lymphocyte CD39 and CD73 expression may be useful prognostic markers in patients with CLL. Expression of CD73 on the malignant cell population in CLL may be a marker of better prognosis. PMID:21816376

  3. CD45RA-Foxp3(low) non-regulatory T cells in the CCR7-CD45RA-CD27+CD28+ effector memory subset are increased in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Fumichika; Saegusa, Jun; Nishimura, Keisuke; Miura, Yasushi; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kumagai, Shunichi; Morinobu, Akio

    2014-07-01

    Increased numbers of regulatory T (Treg) cells are found in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) compared with peripheral blood. However, Treg cells in RASF have been shown to have a decreased capacity to suppress T cells. Here we phenotypically classified CD4+ T cells in RASF into six subsets based on the expression of CD45RA, CCR7, CD27 and CD28, and demonstrated that the CCR7-CD45RA-CD27+CD28+ TEM subset was significantly increased in synovial fluid compared with peripheral blood. In addition, the proportion of Foxp3+ Treg cells in the CCR7-CD45RA-CD27+CD28+ TEM subset was significantly increased in RASF. Furthermore, most of the Foxp3+ Treg cells in RASF were non-suppressive CD45RA-Foxp3(low) non-Treg cells, and the frequency of the non-Treg cells in the CCR7-CD45RA-CD27+CD28+ TEM subset was significantly increased in RASF. Our findings suggest that the pro-inflammatory environment in RA joints may induce the increase of CD45RA-Foxp3(low) non-Treg cells in synovial fluid.

  4. Plasma levels of soluble CD27: a simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    DE MILITO, A; ALEMAN, S; MARENZI, R; SÖNNERBORG, A; FUCHS, D; ZAZZI, M; CHIODI, F

    2002-01-01

    Plasma levels of soluble CD27 (sCD27) are elevated in diseases characterized by T cell activation and are used as a marker of immune activation. We assessed the usefulness of determining plasma sCD27 as a marker for monitoring immune activation in HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A first cross-sectional examination of 68 HIV-1-infected and 18 normal subjects showed high levels of sCD27 in HIV-1 infection; plasma sCD27 was correlated to HIV-1 viraemia and inversely correlated to CD4+ T cell count. Twenty-six HIV-1-infected patients undergoing HAART were studied at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of therapy. Seven additional patients under HAART were analysed at baseline, during and after interruption of therapy. In the total population, HAART induced a significant and progressive reduction, but not a normalization, of plasma levels of sCD27 after 24 months. A full normalization of plasma sCD27 was observed in the virological responders (undetectable HIV-1 RNA at months 18 and 24) and also in patients with moderate immunodeficiency at baseline (CD4+ T cell count >200 cells/mm3). Changes in plasma neopterin paralleled the changes in sCD27 but only baseline sCD27 levels were predictive of a greater increase in CD4+ T cell count during the follow-up. Discontinuation of therapy resulted in a rapid increase of sCD27 plasma levels associated with viraemia rebound and drop in CD4+ T cell count. Our findings suggest that plasma sCD27 may represent an alternative and simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1-induced immune activation can be normalized by HAART in successfully treated patients where the disease is not advanced. PMID:11966765

  5. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively.

  6. Clinical Significance of Tissue Factor and CD13 Double-Positive Microparticles in Sirs Patients with Trauma and Severe Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Ogura, Hiroshi; Koh, Taichin; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Activated immune cells such as monocytes are key factors in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following trauma and sepsis. Activated monocytes induce almost all tissue factor (TF) expression contributing to inflammation and coagulation. TF and CD13 double-positive microparticles (TF/CD13MPs) are predominantly released from these activated monocytes. This study aimed to evaluate TF/CD13MPs and assess their usefulness as a biomarker of pathogenesis in early SIRS following trauma and sepsis. This prospective study comprising 24 trauma patients, 25 severe sepsis patients, and 23 healthy controls was conducted from November 2012 to February 2015. Blood samples were collected from patients within 24 h after injury and diagnosis of severe sepsis and from healthy controls. Numbers of TF/CD13MPs were measured by flow cytometry immediately thereafter. Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were calculated at patient enrollment. APACHE II and SOFA scores and International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnostic criteria algorithm were calculated at the time of enrollment of severe sepsis patients. Numbers of TF/CD13MPs were significantly increased in both trauma and severe sepsis patients versus controls and correlated significantly with ISS and APACHE II score in trauma patients and with APACHE II and ISTH DIC scores in severe sepsis patients. Increased numbers of TF/CD13MPs correlated significantly with severities in the acute phase in trauma and severe sepsis patients, suggesting that TF/CD13MPs are important in the pathogenesis of early SIRS following trauma and sepsis.

  7. Dermal Mesenchymal Stem Cells (DMSCs) Inhibit Skin-Homing CD8+ T Cell Activity, a Determining Factor of Vitiligo Patients’ Autologous Melanocytes Transplantation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ji-long; Lin, Fu-quan; Fu, Li-fang; Wang, Sui-quan; Guan, Cui-ping; Wang, Hong-lin; Xu, Aie

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated the efficiency of autologous melanocyte transplantation of 23 vitiligo patients by focusing on perilesional skin homing CD8+ T lymphocytes, and studied the potential effect of dermal mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) on CD8+ T cell activities in vitro. Out of 23 patients with the autologous melanocyte transplantation, 12 patients (52.17%) had an excellent re-pigmentation, 6 patients (26.09%) had a good re-pigmentation, 5 patients (21.74%) had a fair or poor re-pigmentation. CD8+ T cells infiltrating was observed in the perilesional vitiligo area of all patients. Importantly, the efficiency of the transplantation was closely associated with skin-homing CD8+ T cell activities. The patients with high number of perilesional CD8+ T cells or high level of cytokines/chemokines were associated with poor re-pigmentation efficiency. For in-vitro experiments, we successfully isolated and characterized human DMSCs and skin-homing CD8+ T cells. We established DMSCs and CD8+ T cell co-culture system, where DMSCs possessed significant inhibitory effects against skin homing CD8+ T lymphocytes. DMSCs inhibited CD8+ T cells proliferation, induced them apoptosis and regulated their cytokines/chemokines production. Our results suggest that vitiligo patients’ autologous melanocytes transplantation efficiency might be predicted by perilesional skin-homing CD8+ T cell activities, and DMSCs might be used as auxiliary agent to improve transplantation efficacy. PMID:23577097

  8. Influence of CD4+/CD25+ regulatory T cells on atherogenesis in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Meier, Rachel; Blanc, Edouard

    2008-08-01

    Atherosclerosis, which is influenced by both traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors and has been characterized as an inflammatory process, is considered to be the main cause of the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with chronic kidney disease. The inflammatory component of atherosclerosis can be separated into an innate immune response involving monocytes and macrophages that respond to the excessive uptake of lipoproteins and an adaptive immune response that involves antigen-specific T cells. Concurrent with the influx of immune cells to the site of atherosclerotic lesion, the role of the adaptive immune response gradually increases. One of those cells are represented by the CD4+/CD25+ Tregs, which play indispensable roles in the maintenance of natural self-tolerance and negative control of pathological, as well as physiological, immune responses. Altered self-antigens such as oxidized LDLs may induce the development of CD4+/CD25+ Tregs with atheroprotective properties. However, atherosclerosis may be promoted by an imbalance between regulatory and pathogenic immunity that may be represented by the low expression of the forkhead box transcription factor (Foxp3) in CD4+/CD25+ Tregs. Such a defect may break immunologic tolerance and alter both specific and bystander immune suppression, leading to exacerbation of plaque development. Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) display a cellular immune dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. Uremic solutes that accumulate during ESKD may be involved in these processes. In patients with ESKD and especially in those that are chronically hemodialyzed, oxidative stress induced by oxidized LDLs may increase CD4+/CD25+ Treg sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis as a consequence of specific dysregulation of IL-2 expression. This review will focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the influence of CD4+/CD25+ Tregs on atherogenesis in patients with ESKD, and the potential effect of

  9. A phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13 in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Achim; Sasse, Stephanie; Topp, Max S.; Eichenauer, Dennis A.; Hummel, Horst; Reiners, Katrin S.; Dietlein, Markus; Kuhnert, Georg; Kessler, Joerg; Buerkle, Carolin; Ravic, Miroslav; Knackmuss, Stefan; Marschner, Jens-Peter; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Borchmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    AFM13 is a bispecific, tetravalent chimeric antibody construct (TandAb) designed for the treatment of CD30-expressing malignancies. AFM13 recruits natural killer (NK) cells via binding to CD16A as immune effector cells. In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, 28 patients with heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma received AFM13 at doses of 0.01 to 7 mg/kg body weight. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and pharmacodynamics. Adverse events were generally mild to moderate. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Pharmacokinetics assessment revealed a half-life of up to 19 hours. Three of 26 evaluable patients achieved partial remission (11.5%) and 13 patients achieved stable disease (50%), with an overall disease control rate of 61.5%. AFM13 was also active in brentuximab vedotin–refractory patients. In 13 patients who received doses of ≥1.5 mg/kg AFM13, the overall response rate was 23% and the disease control rate was 77%. AFM13 treatment resulted in a significant NK-cell activation and a decrease of soluble CD30 in peripheral blood. In conclusion, AFM13 represents a well-tolerated, safe, and active targeted immunotherapy of Hodgkin lymphoma. A phase 2 study is currently planned to optimize the dosing schedule in order to further improve the therapeutic efficacy. This phase 1 study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01221571. PMID:25887777

  10. CD133+CD54+CD44+ circulating tumor cells as a biomarker of treatment selection and liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cun; Huang, Qiaorong; Meng, Wentong; Yu, Yongyang; Yang, Lie; Peng, Zhihai; Hu, Jiankun; Li, Yuan; Mo, Xianming; Zhou, Zongguang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM). Results The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis proved the association between the expression of CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation and the existence of CRC-LM (P<0.001). The combination of abdominal CT/MRI, CEA and the CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation showed increased detection and discrimination rate for liver metastasis, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 92.4%. Meanwhile, it also show accurate predictive value for liver metastasis (OR=2.898, 95% C.I.1.374–6.110). Materials and Method Flow cytometry and multivariate analysis was performed to detect the expression of cancer initiating cells the correlation between cellular subpopulations and liver metastasis in patients with CRC. The receiver operating characteristic curves combined with the area under the curve were generated to compare the predictive ability of the cellular subpopulation for liver metastasis with current CT and MRI images. Conclusions The identification, expression and application of CTC subpopulations will provide an ideal cellular predictive marker for CRC liver metastasis and a potential marker for further investigation. PMID:27764803

  11. Endotoxemia contributes to CD27+ memory B-cell apoptosis via enhanced sensitivity to Fas ligation in patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Yuan; Li, Yonghai; Kaplan, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral CD27+ memory B-cells become quantitatively reduced and dysfunctional in patients with cirrhosis through poorly characterized mechanisms. We hypothesized that the disappearance of CD27+ memory B-cells results from enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis caused by exposure to gut microbial translocation products. Using isolated naïve and memory B-cells from patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls, ex vivo and activation-induced sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis was assessed under relevant experimental conditions. We observed differential expression of CD95(Fas) in CD27+ B-cells from cirrhotic patients that was inversely correlated with peripheral CD27+ B-cell frequency. While memory B-cells from cirrhotic patients were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis ex vivo, Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)-ligation restored Fas-sensitivity. Sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis could be transferred to healthy donor memory B-cells by co-culturing these cells with plasma from cirrhotic patients, a sensitivity partially mediated by Fas and TLR4 signaling, and partially rescued via B-cell receptor crosslinking. We conclude that peripheral CD27+ memory B-cells in cirrhosis exhibit increased sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis in an activation-dependent manner to which endotoxin contributes, associated with reduced frequency of circulating memory B-cells. Destruction of this critical cell subset may contribute to the cirrhotic immunodeficiency state and heightened risk of systemic infections in advanced liver disease. PMID:27857173

  12. Functional requirements for interactions between CD84 and Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins and their contribution to human T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Tangye, Stuart G; Nichols, Kim E; Hare, Nathan J; van de Weerdt, Barbara C M

    2003-09-01

    Cell surface receptors belonging to the CD2 subset of the Ig superfamily of molecules include CD2, CD48, CD58, 2B4, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), Ly9, CD84, and the recently identified molecules NTB-A/Ly108/SLAM family (SF) 2000, CD84H-1/SF2001, B lymphocyte activator macrophage expressed (BLAME), and CRACC (CD2-like receptor-activating cytotoxic cells)/CS-1. Some of these receptors, such as CD2, SLAM, 2B4, CRACC, and NTB-A, contribute to the activation and effector function of T cells and NK cells. Signaling pathways elicited via some of these receptors are believed to involve the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing cytoplasmic adaptor protein SLAM-associated protein (SAP), as it is recruited to SLAM, 2B4, CD84, NTB-A, and Ly-9. Importantly, mutations in SAP cause the inherited human immunodeficiency X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), suggesting that XLP may result from perturbed signaling via one or more of these SAP-associating receptors. We have now studied the requirements for SAP recruitment to CD84 and lymphocyte activation elicited following ligation of CD84 on primary and transformed human T cells. CD84 was found to be rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated following receptor ligation on activated T cells, an event that involved the Src kinase Lck. Phosphorylation of CD84 was indispensable for the recruitment of SAP, which was mediated by Y(262) within the cytoplasmic domain of CD84 and by R(32) within the SH2 domain of SAP. Furthermore, ligating CD84 enhanced the proliferation of anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated human T cells. Strikingly, this effect was also apparent in SAP-deficient T cells obtained from patients with XLP. These results reveal a novel function of CD84 on human lymphocytes and suggest that CD84 can activate human T cells via a SAP-independent mechanism.

  13. Significance of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of Uygur patients in the acute and chronic phases of pigeon breeder’s lung

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Biqing; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Fengsen; Wu, Chao; Wang, Wenyi; Ding, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon breeder’s lung (PBL) is a type of lung inflammatory disease associated with the immune response to repeated pigeon-derived antigen exposure. The pathogenesis of PBL remains unclear. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from Uygur acute - and chronic-phase PBL patients and healthy subjects with pigeon contact. Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cell (Treg) activity in different phases of PBL was characterized by changes in Foxp3+CD4+ Treg, CD4+CD25+ T cell, and T lymphocyte subsets. Based on hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) diagnosis criteria, 32 PBL cases from January 2012 to December 2013 in the People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Respiratory Department were included. Lung high-resolution computed tomography was performed, and the cases were classified based on the HP phase into 15 acute-phase and 17 chronic-phase cases. The control group included 30 healthy subjects with Uygur pigeon contact. Blood samples were collected, and the T cell subsets were analyzed via flow cytometry. In both PBL groups, the Foxp3+CD4+ Treg and CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD3+ T cell percentages and CD4+/CD8+ ratios were significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.01). In the PBL groups, particularly the acute-phase group, the CD8+CD3+ T lymphocyte percentage was significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in CD4+CD25+ cells between the PBL groups. In peripheral blood from the PBL groups, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was positively correlated with the Foxp3+CD4+ Treg (r = 0.864, p < 0.05) and CD4+/CD25+ cell (r = 0.34, p < 0.05) percentages. Low Foxp3+CD4+ Treg expression or overconsumption may be a pathogenic factor in PBL. PMID:27448583

  14. Increased autophagy in CD4(+) T cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients results in T-cell hyperactivation and apoptosis resistance.

    PubMed

    van Loosdregt, Jorg; Rossetti, Maura; Spreafico, Roberto; Moshref, Maryam; Olmer, Merissa; Williams, Gary W; Kumar, Pavanish; Copeland, Dana; Pischel, Ken; Lotz, Martin; Albani, Salvatore

    2016-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease hallmarked by aberrant cellular homeostasis, resulting in hyperactive CD4(+) T cells that are more resistant to apoptosis. Both hyperactivation and resistance to apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenicity of CD4(+) T cells in the autoimmune process. A better knowledge of the mechanisms determining such impaired homeostasis could contribute significantly to both the understanding and the treatment of the disease. Here we investigated whether autophagy, is dysregulated in CD4(+) T cells of RA patients, resulting in disturbed T-cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that the rate of autophagy is significantly increased in CD4(+) T cells from RA patients, and that increased autophagy is also a feature of in vitro activated CD4(+) T cells. The increased apoptosis resistance observed in CD4(+) T cells from RA patients was significantly reversed upon autophagy inhibition. These mechanisms may contribute to RA pathogenesis, as autophagy inhibition reduced both arthritis incidence and disease severity in a mouse collagen induced arthritis mouse model. Conversely, in Atg5(flox/flox) -CD4-Cre(+) mice, in which all T cells are autophagy deficient, T cells showed impaired activation and proliferation. These data provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of RA and underscore the relevance of autophagy as a promising therapeutic target.

  15. Repeated intratumoral administration of ONCOS-102 leads to systemic antitumor CD8+ T-cell response and robust cellular and transcriptional immune activation at tumor site in a patient with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, L; Ranki, T; Joensuu, T; Jäger, E; Karbach, J; Wahle, C; Partanen, K; Kairemo, K; Alanko, T; Turkki, R; Linder, N; Lundin, J; Ristimäki, A; Kankainen, M; Hemminki, A; Backman, C; Dienel, K; von Euler, M; Haavisto, E; Hakonen, T; Juhila, J; Jäderberg, M; Priha, P; Vuolanto, A; Pesonen, S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are excellent immunotherapeutic agents with a unique ability to prime and boost immune responses. Recombinant adenoviruses cause immunogenic cancer cell death and subsequent release of tumor antigens for antigen presenting cells, resulting in the priming of potent tumor-specific immunity. This effect may be further enhanced by immune-stimulating transgenes expressed by the virus. We report a case of a 38-year-old female with Stage 3 metastatic micropapillary serous carcinoma of the ovary. She was treated in a Phase I study with a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF)-expressing oncolytic adenovirus, Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF (ONCOS-102). The treatment resulted in progressive infiltration of CD8+ lymphocytes into the tumor and concomitant systemic induction of several tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell populations. The patient was alive at the latest follow up more than 20 months after initiation of the study. PMID:26140248

  16. First-in-human phase I clinical trial of RG7356, an anti-CD44 humanized antibody, in patients with advanced, CD44-expressing solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Menke-van der Houven van Oordt, C. Willemien; Gomez-Roca, Carlos; van Herpen, Carla; Coveler, Andrew L.; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Verheul, Henk M. W.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Christen, Randolph; Rüttinger, Dominik; Weigand, Stefan; Cannarile, Michael A.; Heil, Florian; Brewster, Michael; Walz, Antje-Christine; Nayak, Tapan K.; Guarin, Ernesto; Meresse, Valerie; Le Tourneau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is overexpressed in various malignancies. Interactions between CD44 and hyaluronic acid are associated with poor prognosis, making CD44 an attractive therapeutic target. We report results from a first-in-human phase I trial of RG7356, a recombinant anti-CD44 immunoglobulin G1 humanized monoclonal antibody, in patients with advanced CD44-expressing solid malignancies. Sixty-five heavily pretreated patients not amenable to standard therapy were enrolled and received RG7356 intravenously biweekly (q2w) or weekly (qw) in escalating doses from 100 mg to 2,250 mg. RG7356 was well tolerated. Most frequent adverse events were fever, headache and fatigue. Dose-limiting toxicities included headache (1,500 mg q2w and 1,350 mg qw) and febrile neutropenia (2,250 mg q2w). The maximum tolerated dose with q2w dosing was 1,500 mg, but was not defined for qw dosing due to early study termination. Clinical efficacy was modest; 13/61 patients (21%) experienced disease stabilization lasting a median of 12 (range, 6–35) weeks. No apparent dose- or dose schedule-dependent changes in biological activity were reported from blood or tissue analyses. Tumor-targeting by positron emission tomography (PET) using 89Zr-labeled RG7356 was observed for doses ≥200 mg (q2w) warranting further investigation of this agent in combination regimens. PMID:27507056

  17. The imbalance between regulatory and IL-17-secreting CD4+ T cells in lupus patients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jilin; Yu, Jianning; Tao, Xiaojuan; Cai, Long; Wang, Julie; Zheng, Song Guo

    2010-11-01

    It has been well recognized that a deficit of numbers and function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells (Treg) is attributed to the development of some autoimmune diseases; however, there are controversial data regarding the suppressive effect of Treg cells on the T cell response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Additionally, IL-17-producing cells (Th17) have been recently emerged as a new pathogenic cell, but their role in lupus remains unclear. In this study, we studied the connection between Treg and Th17 cells in lupus patients. We observed that, while Treg or Th17 cells alone were not correlated to SLE development, the ratio of Treg to Th17 cells in active SLE patients is significantly lower than that in inactive SLE patients and healthy controls, and we also found corticosteroid treatment increased the ratio of Treg to Th17 cells in active SLE patients. Moreover, this ratio is inversely correlated with the severity of active SLE. The present study indicates that active SLE appears to exist as an imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells. Correction of this Treg/Th17 imbalance may have therapeutic impact for patients with SLE.

  18. Label-Free Proteomics Reveals Decreased Expression of CD18 and AKNA in Peripheral CD4+ T Cells from Patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Yang, Peizeng; Hou, Shengping; Li, Fuzhen; Kijlstra, Aize

    2011-01-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease. CD4+ T cells have been shown to be involved in autoimmune diseases including VKH syndrome. To screen aberrantly expressed membrane proteins in CD4+ T cell from patients with active VKH syndrome, blood samples were taken from five patients with active VKH syndrome and five healthy individuals. A label-free quantitative proteomic strategy was used to identify the differently expressed proteins between the two groups. The results revealed that the expression of 102 peptides was significantly altered (p<0.05) between two groups and matched amino acid sequences of proteins deposited in the international protein index (ipi.HUMAN.v3.36.fasta). The identified peptides corresponded to 64 proteins, in which 30 showed more than a 1.5-fold difference between the two groups. The decreased expression of CD18 and AKNA transcription factor (AKNA), both being three-fold lower than controls in expression identified by the label-free method, was further confirmed in an additional group of five active VKH patients and six normal individuals using the Western blot technique. A significantly decreased expression of CD18 and AKNA suggests a role for both proteins in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. PMID:21297967

  19. CD3zeta down-modulation may explain Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocyte anergy in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Tempestilli, Massimo; Turchi, Federica; Agrati, Chiara; Casetti, Rita; Cimini, Eleonora; Gioia, Cristiana; Martini, Federico

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explain the observed anergy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. CD3zeta expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma production by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects were analyzed. We demonstrated that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-infected patients expressed a lower level of CD3zeta than did Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from healthy donors. A direct correlation was found between CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production capability by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. However, activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate is able to restore CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production. Our findings may contribute to clarification of the molecular mechanisms of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell anergy found in HIV-positive patients.

  20. Rapid dendritic cell activation and resistance to allotolerance induction in anti-CD154-treated mice receiving CD47-deficient donor-specific transfusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Hui; Bronson, Roderick; Fu, Yaowen; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2014-03-01

    CD47-SIRPα signaling plays an important role in regulating macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) activation. Here we investigated the role of CD47 expression on donor cells in tolerance induction by combined treatment with donor-specific transfusion (DST) plus anti-CD154 mAb in a mouse model of fully MHC-mismatched heart allotransplantation. The majority of BALB/c recipient mice that received anti-CD154 and CD47(+/+) B6 splenocytes (DST) showed indefinite donor heart survival (median survival time, MST > 150 days). Donor heart survival was improved in anti-CD154-treated BALB/c mice that received CD47(+/-) (MST = 90 days) or CD47(-/-) B6 DST (MST = 42 days) when compared to the nontreated (MST = 7 days) and anti-CD154 alone-treated (MST = 15 days) controls, but significantly reduced when compared to mice receiving anti-CD154 plus CD47(+/+) B6 DST. Recipient mice treated with anti-CD154 plus CD47(-/-) or CD47(+/-) DST also showed significantly increased antidonor, but not anti-third-party, MLR responses compared to those receiving anti-CD154 and CD47(+/+) DST. Furthermore, CD47(-/-) DST induced rapid activation of CD11c(hi)SIRPα(hi)CD8α(-) DCs via a mechanism independent of donor alloantigens. These results demonstrated that CD47 expression on donor cells is essential to the success of tolerance induction by combined therapy with DST and CD40/CD154 blockade.

  1. PD-1 identifies the patient-specific CD8⁺ tumor-reactive repertoire infiltrating human tumors.

    PubMed

    Gros, Alena; Robbins, Paul F; Yao, Xin; Li, Yong F; Turcotte, Simon; Tran, Eric; Wunderlich, John R; Mixon, Arnold; Farid, Shawn; Dudley, Mark E; Hanada, Ken-Ichi; Almeida, Jorge R; Darko, Sam; Douek, Daniel C; Yang, James C; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2014-05-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8⁺ TILs and TCR β chain (TCRβ) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8⁺ lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8⁺ TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCRβ deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCRβ clonotypes in CD8⁺PD-1⁺ compared with CD8⁺PD-1- TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCRβ clonotypes in the CD8⁺ and the CD8⁺PD-1⁺ populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8⁺ TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment.

  2. CD4+ regulatory T cell responses induced by T cell vaccination in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jian; Zang, Ying C. Q.; Nie, Hong; Zhang, Jingwu Z.

    2006-01-01

    Immunization with irradiated autologous T cells (T cell vaccination) is shown to induce regulatory T cell responses that are poorly understood. In this study, CD4+ regulatory T cell lines were generated from patients with multiple sclerosis that received immunization with irradiated autologous myelin basic protein-reactive T cells. The resulting CD4+ regulatory T cell lines had marked inhibition on autologous myelin basic protein-reactive T cells and displayed two distinctive patterns distinguishable by the expression of transcription factor Foxp3 and cytokine profile. The majority of the T cell lines had high Foxp3 expression and secreted both IFN-γ and IL-10 as compared with the other pattern characteristic of low Foxp3 expression and predominant production of IL-10 but not IFN-γ. CD4+ regulatory T cell lines of both patterns expressed CD25 and reacted with activated autologous T cells but not resting T cells, irrespective of antigen specificity of the target T cells. It was evident that they recognized preferentially a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 61–73 of the IL-2 receptor α chain. T cell vaccination correlated with increased Foxp3 expression and T cell reactivity to peptide 61–73. The findings have important implications in the understanding of the role of CD4+ regulatory T cell response induced by T cell vaccination. PMID:16547138

  3. Melanoma Expressed-CD70 Is Regulated by RhoA and MAPK Pathways without Affecting Vemurafenib Treatment Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sarrabayrouse, Guillaume; Gallardo, Franck; Gence, Rémi; Tilkin-Mariamé, Anne-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    CD70 is a costimulatory molecule member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor family that is expressed on activated immune cells. Its ectopic expression has been described in several types of cancer cells including lymphomas, renal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. We have recently described its expression in a part of tumor cells from the vast majority of melanoma biopsies and human melanoma cell lines, and found that CD70 expression decreased over time as the disease progressed. Here, we show that RhoA, BRAF and Mitogen Activating Protein Kinase pathways are involved in the positive transcriptional regulation of CD70 expression in melanomas. Interestingly, the clinical inhibitor of the common BRAF V600E/D variants, Vemurafenib (PLX-4032), which is currently used to treat melanoma patients with BRAF V600E/D-mutated metastatic melanomas, decreased CD70 expression in human CD70+ melanoma cell lines. This decrease was seen in melanoma cells both with and without the BRAFV600E/D mutation, although was less efficient in those lacking the mutation. But interestingly, by silencing CD70 in CD70+ melanoma cell lines we show that PLX-4032-induced melanoma cell killing and its inhibitory effect on MAPK pathway activation are unaffected by CD70 expression. Consequently, our work demonstrates that CD70 ectopic expression in melanomas is not a valuable biomarker to predict tumor cells sensitivity to BRAF V600 inhibitors. PMID:26828592

  4. Melanoma Expressed-CD70 Is Regulated by RhoA and MAPK Pathways without Affecting Vemurafenib Treatment Activity.

    PubMed

    Pich, Christine; Teiti, Iotefa; Sarrabayrouse, Guillaume; Gallardo, Franck; Gence, Rémi; Tilkin-Mariamé, Anne-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    CD70 is a costimulatory molecule member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor family that is expressed on activated immune cells. Its ectopic expression has been described in several types of cancer cells including lymphomas, renal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. We have recently described its expression in a part of tumor cells from the vast majority of melanoma biopsies and human melanoma cell lines, and found that CD70 expression decreased over time as the disease progressed. Here, we show that RhoA, BRAF and Mitogen Activating Protein Kinase pathways are involved in the positive transcriptional regulation of CD70 expression in melanomas. Interestingly, the clinical inhibitor of the common BRAF V600E/D variants, Vemurafenib (PLX-4032), which is currently used to treat melanoma patients with BRAF V600E/D-mutated metastatic melanomas, decreased CD70 expression in human CD70+ melanoma cell lines. This decrease was seen in melanoma cells both with and without the BRAFV600E/D mutation, although was less efficient in those lacking the mutation. But interestingly, by silencing CD70 in CD70+ melanoma cell lines we show that PLX-4032-induced melanoma cell killing and its inhibitory effect on MAPK pathway activation are unaffected by CD70 expression. Consequently, our work demonstrates that CD70 ectopic expression in melanomas is not a valuable biomarker to predict tumor cells sensitivity to BRAF V600 inhibitors.

  5. Low CD4/CD8 Ratio Is Associated with Non AIDS-Defining Cancers in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: ANRS CO8 (Aproco/Copilote) Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hema, Mariam Noelie; Ferry, Tristan; Dupon, Michel; Cuzin, Lise; Verdon, Renaud; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Protopopescu, Camelia; Leport, Catherine; Raffi, François; Le Moing, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and morbidity in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods The APROCO/COPILOTE cohort enrolled patients initiating a protease inhibitor-containing ART in 1997–1999. The association between occurrence of first non AIDS-defining severe events (NADE) and time-dependent measures of immune restoration was assessed by 4 Cox models with different definitions of restoration, CD4+ cell counts (CD4), CD4/CD8 ratio, both CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio, or a composite variable (CD4< 500/mm3, CD4 > 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio < 1, CD4 > 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio > 1). Models adjusted on baseline characteristics and time-dependent viral load were compared using Akaike Information Criterion. Results We included 1227 patients. Median duration of follow-up was 9.2 years (IQR: 4.2–11.4). Median CD4 was 530/mm3 at 9 years. Median CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.3 (IQR: 0.2–0.5) at baseline and 0.6 (IQR: 0.4–0.9) after 9 years. Incidence of first NADE was 7.4/100 person-years, the most common being bacterial infections (21%), cardiovascular events (14%) and cancers (10%). For both bacterial infections and cardiovascular events, the CD4/CD8 ratio did not add predictive information to the CD4 cell count. However, low CD4/CD8 ratio was the best predictor of non-AIDS cancers (adjusted HR = 2.13 for CD4/CD8 < 0.5; 95% CI = 1.32–3.44). Conclusions CD4/CD8 ratio remains < 1 in most HIV-infected patients despite long-term CD4+ cell counts restoration on ART. A CD4/CD8 ratio < 0.5 could identify patients who require a more intensive strategy of cancer prevention or screening. PMID:27548257

  6. Identification of a novel inducible cell-surface ligand of CD5 on activated lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CD5 is a 67-kD glycoprotein that is expressed on most T lymphocytes and on a subset of mature B cells. Although its physiologic function is unknown, several lines of evidence suggest that CD5 may play a role in the regulation of T cell activation and in T cell-antigen presenting cell interactions. Using a CD5-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CD5Rg, for receptorglobulin) we have uncovered a new CD5 ligand (CD5L) expressed on the surface of activated splenocytes. Stimulation of murine splenocytes with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies induce transient expression of CD5L on B lymphocytes that lasts for approximately 72 h. Binding of CD5Rg to activated splenocytes is trypsin resistant and independent of divalent cations. However, it is pronase sensitive and dependent on N-linked glycosylation of CD5, since treatment of CD5Rg with PNGaseF on N-glycanase completely abrogates its ability to bind activated splenocytes. It addition to splenocytes, CD5L is expressed on activated murine T cell clones. Immunoprecipitation, antibody, and recombinant protein blocking studies indicate that CD5L is distinct from CD72, which has been proposed to be a CD5 ligand. To determine whether CD5-CD5L interaction might play a role in vivo, we tested the effect of CD5Rg in a murine model of antibody-mediated membranous glomerulonephritis. Injection of CD5Rg was found to abrogate development of the disease. Taken together, our results help identify a novel ligand of CD5 and propose a role for CD5 in the regulation of immune responses. PMID:9064341

  7. B cells from African American lupus patients exhibit an activated phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Laurence C.; Habte, Sium; Gonsiorek, Waldemar; Lee, Deborah; Banas, Dana; Holloway, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Mark; Stetsko, Dawn; Casano, Francesca; Kansal, Selena; Davis, Patricia M.; Carman, Julie; Zhang, Clarence K.; Abidi, Ferva; Furie, Richard; Nadler, Steven G.; Suchard, Suzanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune cells. African Americans tend to present with more severe disease at an earlier age compared with patients of European ancestry. In order to better understand the immunological differences between African American and European American patients, we analyzed the frequencies of B cell subsets and the expression of B cell activation markers from a total of 68 SLE patients and 69 normal healthy volunteers. We found that B cells expressing the activation markers CD86, CD80, PD1, and CD40L, as well as CD19+CD27–IgD– double-negative B cells, were enriched in African American patients vs. patients of European ancestry. In addition to increased expression of CD40L, surface levels of CD40 on B cells were lower, suggesting the engagement of the CD40 pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that CD40L expressed by B cells could lead to CD40 activation and internalization on adjacent B cells. To conclude, these results indicate that, compared with European American patients, African American SLE patients present with a particularly active B cell component, possibly via the activation of the CD40/CD40L pathway. These data may help guide the development of novel therapies. PMID:27699274

  8. Circumvention of regulatory CD4(+) T cell activity during cross-priming strongly enhances T cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Heit, Antje; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Lahl, Katharina; Neuenhahn, Michael; Schmitz, Frank; Anderl, Florian; Wagner, Hermann; Sparwasser, Tim; Busch, Dirk H; Kastenmüller, Kathrin

    2008-06-01

    Immunization with purified antigens is a safe and practical vaccination strategy but is generally unable to induce sustained CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens. Most efforts to improve the CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines have focused on co-administration of adjuvant to support cross-presentation and dendritic cell maturation. In addition, it has been shown that CD4(+) T cell help during the priming phase contributes to the generation of protective CD8(+) memory T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the depletion of CD4(+) T cells paradoxically enhances long-lasting CD8-mediated protective immunity upon protein vaccination. Functional and genetic in vivo inactivation experiments attribute this enhancement primarily to MHC class II-restricted CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which appear to physiologically suppress the differentiation process towards long-living effector memory T cells. Since, in functional terms, this suppression by Treg largely exceeds the positive effects of conventional CD4(+) T cell help, even the absence of all CD4(+) T cells or lack of MHC class II-mediated interactions on priming dendritic cells result in enhanced CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity. These findings have important implications for the improvement of vaccines against intracellular pathogens or tumors, especially in patients with highly active Treg.

  9. CD24 and CD44 mark human intestinal epithelial cell populations with characteristics of active and facultative stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gracz, Adam D.; Fuller, Megan K.; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias; Dunn, James C.Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Magness, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent seminal studies have rapidly advanced the understanding of intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) biology in murine models. However, the lack of techniques suitable for isolation and subsequent downstream analysis of IESCs from human tissue has hindered the application of these findings toward the development of novel diagnostics and therapies with direct clinical relevance. This study demonstrates that the cluster of differentiation genes CD24 and CD44 are differentially expressed across LGR5 positive “active” stem cells as well as HOPX positive “facultative” stem cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting enables differential enrichment of LGR5 cells (CD24−/CD44+) and HOPX (CD24+/CD44+) cells for gene expression analysis and culture. These findings provide the fundamental methodology and basic cell surface signature necessary for isolating and studying intestinal stem cell populations in human physiology and disease. PMID:23553902

  10. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (P<0.01). An overall positive correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (pre-HAART, r=0.73, P=0.0001; follow-up HAART, r=0.56, P=0.0001). The ROC curve between TLC and CD4 count showed that TLC ≤ 1200 cells/mm(3) could predict CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3) with a sensitivity of 71.12%, specificity of 66.35% at pre-HAART. After 12-month HAART, the optimum prediction for CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 was a TLC ≤ 1300 cells/mm(3), with a sensitivity of 63.27%, and a specificity of 74.84%. Further finding indicated that TLC change was positively correlated to CD4 change (r=0.77, P=0.0001) at the time point of 12-month treatment, and the best prediction point of TLC change for CD4 increasing was 135 cells/mm(3). TLC and its change can be used as a surrogate marker for CD4 count and its change of HIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  11. Targeted suppression of autoreactive CD8+ T-cell activation using blocking anti-CD8 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Mathew; Pearson, James A.; Gras, Stephanie; van den Berg, Hugo A.; Lissina, Anya; Llewellyn-Lacey, Sian; Willis, Mark D.; Dockree, Tamsin; McLaren, James E.; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Gostick, Emma; Robertson, Neil P.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Burrows, Scott R.; Price, David A.; Wong, F. Susan; Peakman, Mark; Skowera, Ania; Wooldridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    CD8+ T-cells play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. However, drugs that target the entire CD8+ T-cell population are not desirable because the associated lack of specificity can lead to unwanted consequences, most notably an enhanced susceptibility to infection. Here, we show that autoreactive CD8+ T-cells are highly dependent on CD8 for ligand-induced activation via the T-cell receptor (TCR). In contrast, pathogen-specific CD8+ T-cells are relatively CD8-independent. These generic differences relate to an intrinsic dichotomy that segregates self-derived and exogenous antigen-specific TCRs according to the monomeric interaction affinity with cognate peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I (pMHCI). As a consequence, “blocking” anti-CD8 antibodies can suppress autoreactive CD8+ T-cell activation in a relatively selective manner. These findings provide a rational basis for the development and in vivo assessment of novel therapeutic strategies that preferentially target disease-relevant autoimmune responses within the CD8+ T-cell compartment. PMID:27748447

  12. [Effect of a complex treatment, including glutargin and erbisol on the blood plasma content of protein P53, apoptotic markers of type II, activity of caspases and the level of sCD 117 in patients with autonomic-vascular dystonia].

    PubMed

    Krychun, I I

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that the blood content of protein P53 diminishes by 27%, the blood level of sTRAIL increases by 22%, sCD 117 increases by 44% in patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypertonic type that is accompanied by an increase of the activity of caspases-1 however the activity of caspases-3 and - 8 as well as the blood content of TNF-alpha do not change. Multimodality therapy using glutargin does not influence on the level of the blood plasma TNF-alpha and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8, normalizes the blood content of sTRAIL and sCD 117, however does not change the plasma concentration of protein P53 which remains lower by 35% than the control indices. In patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypotonic type the concentration of blood plasma protein P53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8 correspond to the control values against a background of an almost twofold increase of the plasma sCD 117 level. The use of erbisol in a complex of therapeutic agents does not change the activity of caspases-l,-3,-8 and does not influence on the blood content of protein p53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and diminishes the plasma level of sCD 117 up to control values. A considerable elevation of the blood content of type II apoptotic factors is characteristic of the mixed type of vegeto-vascular dystonia: the level of protein p53 increases 2,4 times, TNF-alpha - 1,9 times, sTRAIL - 2,3 times that is accompanied by an increased activity of caspase-1 - 4,1 times, caspase-3 - 3,3 times, caspase-8 - 3,8 times and an increase of the plasma concentration of sCD 117 - 3,5 times. The use of erbisol and glutargin in multimodality therapy normalizes the plasma concentration of TNF-alpha and diminishes the blood content of protein P53 by 33% and sTRAIL - by 42% which, nevertheless remains higher than the control value by 58% and 36% respectively. The combined effects of glutargin and erbisol in patients of this group are characterized by a

  13. Increase in TGF-β Secreting CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+ T Regulatory Cells in Anergic Lepromatous Leprosy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Chaman; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Nath, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Background Lepromatous leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae is associated with antigen specific T cell unresponsiveness/anergy whose underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. We investigated the role of CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in both skin lesions and M.leprae stimulated PBMC cultures of 28 each of freshly diagnosed patients with borderline tuberculoid (BT) and lepromatous leprosy (LL) as well as 7 healthy household contacts of leprosy patients and 4 normal skin samples. Methodology/Principle Findings Quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qPCR), immuno-histochemistry/flowcytometry and ELISA were used respectively for gene expression, phenotype characterization and cytokine levels in PBMC culture supernatants. Both skin lesions as well as in vitro antigen stimulated PBMC showed increased percentage/mean fluorescence intensity of cells and higher gene expression for FOXP3+, TGF-β in lepromatous (p<0.01) as compared to tuberculoid leprosy patients. CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells (Tregs) were increased in unstimulated basal cultures (p<0.0003) and showed further increase in in vitro antigen but not mitogen (phytohemaglutinin) stimulated PBMC (iTreg) in lepromatous as compared to tuberculoid leprosy patients (p<0.002). iTregs of lepromatous patients showed intracellular TGF-β which was further confirmed by increase in TGF-β in culture supernatants (p<0.003). Furthermore, TGF-β in iTreg cells was associated with phosphorylation of STAT5A. TGF-β was seen in CD25+ cells of the CD4+ but not that of CD8+ T cell lineage in leprosy patients. iTregs did not show intracellular IFN-γ or IL-17 in lepromatous leprosy patients. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that FOXP3+ iTregs with TGF-β may down regulate T cell responses leading to the antigen specific anergy associated with lepromatous leprosy. PMID:24454972

  14. CD27 Promotes Survival of Activated T Cells and Complements CD28 in Generation and Establishment of the Effector T Cell Pool

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Jenny; Xiao, Yanling; Borst, Jannie

    2003-01-01

    CD27, like CD28, acts in concert with the T cell receptor to support T cell expansion. Using CD27−/− mice, we have shown earlier that CD27 determines the magnitude of primary and memory T cell responses to influenza virus. Here, we have examined the relative contributions of CD27 and CD28 to generation of the virus-specific effector T cell pool and its establishment at the site of infection (the lung), using CD27−/−, CD28−/−, and CD27/CD28−/− mice. We find that primary and memory CD8+ T cell responses to influenza virus are dependent on the collective contribution of both receptors. In the primary response, CD27 and CD28 impact to a similar extent on expansion of virus-specific T cells in draining lymph nodes. CD27 is the principle determinant for accumulation of virus-specific T cells in the lung because it can sustain this response in CD28−/− mice. Unlike CD28, CD27 does not affect cell cycle activity, but promotes survival of activated T cells throughout successive rounds of division at the site of priming and may do so at the site of infection as well. CD27 was found to rescue CD28−/− T cells from death at the onset of division, explaining its capacity to support a T cell response in absence of CD28. PMID:14581610

  15. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Finley, Matthew J; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S; Weisel, John W; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2012-08-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of 'self-recognition'. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47 modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions. We appended a poly-lysine tag to the C-terminus of recombinant CD47 (CD47L) allowing for covalent linkage to the polymer. SIRPα1 expression was confirmed in isolated platelets. We then compared biocompatibility between CD47B and CD47L functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces and unmodified control PVC surfaces. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of blood cell attachment to CD47B and CD47L surfaces, via scanning electron microscopy, showed strikingly fewer platelets attached to CD47 modified surfaces compared to control. Flow cytometry analysis showed that activation markers for neutrophils (CD62L) and platelets (CD62P) exposed to CD47 modified PVC were equivalent to freshly acquired control blood, while significantly elevated in the unmodified PVC tubing. In addition, ethylene oxide gas sterilization did not inhibit the efficacy of the CD47 modification. In conclusion, CD47 modified PVC inhibits both the adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils.

  16. Donor CD19 CAR T cells exert potent graft-versus-lymphoma activity with diminished graft-versus-host activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Smith, Melody; James, Scott E; Davila, Marco L; Velardi, Enrico; Argyropoulos, Kimon V; Gunset, Gertrude; Perna, Fabiana; Kreines, Fabiana M; Levy, Emily R; Lieberman, Sophie; Jay, Hillary V; Tuckett, Andrea Z; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Tan, Lisa; Young, Lauren F; Takvorian, Kate; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Hanash, Alan M; Motta, Ana Carolina F; Murphy, George F; Liu, Chen; Schietinger, Andrea; Sadelain, Michel; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2017-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments to the success of allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells. CD19 is an attractive CAR target, which is expressed in most B cell malignancies, as well as in healthy B cells. Clinical trials using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable promise in various B cell malignancies. However, the use of allogeneic CAR T cells poses a concern in that it may increase risk of the occurrence of GVHD, although this has not been reported in selected patients infused with donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells after allo-HSCT. To understand the mechanism whereby allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells may mediate anti-lymphoma activity without causing a significant increase in the incidence of GVHD, we studied donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells in allo-HSCT and lymphoma models in mice. We demonstrate that alloreactive T cells expressing CD28-costimulated CD19 CARs experience enhanced stimulation, resulting in the progressive loss of both their effector function and proliferative potential, clonal deletion, and significantly decreased occurrence of GVHD. Concurrently, the other CAR T cells that were present in bulk donor T cell populations retained their anti-lymphoma activity in accordance with the requirement that both the T cell receptor (TCR) and CAR be engaged to accelerate T cell exhaustion. In contrast, first-generation and 4-1BB-costimulated CAR T cells increased the occurrence of GVHD. These findings could explain the reduced risk of GVHD occurring with cumulative TCR and CAR signaling.

  17. Loss of CD28 within CD4(+) T cell subsets from cervical cancer patients is accompanied by the acquisition of intracellular perforin, and is further enhanced by NKG2D expression.

    PubMed

    Escarra-Senmarti, Marta; Bueno-Topete, Miriam Ruth; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; Gomez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Gutierrez-Franco, Jorge; Vega-Magaña, Natali; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Pereira-Suarez, Ana Laura; Haramati, Jesse; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana

    2017-02-01

    CD28 is well characterized as an essential co-stimulatory receptor critical for activation, proliferation and survival processes in CD4(+) T cells. Populations of CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells, with apparently contradictory physiological roles, have recently been reported, along with the co-expression of the NK activating receptor NKG2D, in autoimmune diseases and chronic viral inflammation. Paradoxically, studies in cancer suggest that an expanded CD4(+)NKG2D(+) population may be armed with immunosuppressive properties. We have recently reported the existence of two separate CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cell populations, which were defined by the presence or absence of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28, with the CD4(+)CD28(null)NKG2D(+) population more frequently observed in women with cervical cancer. This has led to the present effort to further characterize this population and to determine if the loss of CD28 influences the acquisition of cytotoxic or regulatory markers. In the present work, a multicolor flow cytometry protocol was used to analyze the expression of cytotoxic and immunoregulatory markers on circulating CD4(+) T cells characterized by the presence or absence of CD28 and NKG2D in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma and age/gender-matched healthy controls. A noticeable expansion of CD4(+)CD28(null) cells, many of them NKG2D(+), were observed in selected cervical cancer samples. This CD4(+)CD28(null) T cell population was characterized by a lack of immunoregulatory markers, as well as very low basal levels of intracellular IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-10. Intracellular perforin, however, was found to be significantly increased in this CD4(+)CD28(null) population, and increases in the mean fluorescence intensity of perforin were found to be enhanced by the presence of NKG2D. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence of a strict link between the absence of CD28 and the expression of perforin, which is likewise enhanced by the expression of NKG2D

  18. The biological activity of human CD20 monoclonal antibodies is linked to unique epitopes on CD20.

    PubMed

    Teeling, Jessica L; Mackus, Wendy J M; Wiegman, Luus J J M; van den Brakel, Jeroen H N; Beers, Stephen A; French, Ruth R; van Meerten, Tom; Ebeling, Saskia; Vink, Tom; Slootstra, Jerry W; Parren, Paul W H I; Glennie, Martin J; van de Winkel, Jan G J

    2006-07-01

    We have previously defined a panel of fully human CD20 mAb. Most of these were unexpectedly efficient in their ability to recruit C1q to the surface of CD20-positive cells and mediate tumor lysis via activation of the classical pathway of complement. This complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) potency appeared to relate to the unusually slow off-rate of these human Abs. However, we now present epitope-mapping data, which indicates that all human mAb bind a novel region of CD20 that may influence CDC potency. Epitope mapping, using both mutagenesis studies and overlapping 15-mer peptides of the extracellular loops of CD20, defined the amino acids required for binding by an extensive panel of mouse and human mAb. Binding by rituximab and mouse CD20 mAb, had an absolute requirement for alanine and proline at positions 170 and 172, respectively, within the large extracellular loop of CD20. Surprisingly, however, all of the human CD20 mAb recognize a completely novel epitope located N-terminally of this motif, also including the small extracellular loop of CD20. Thus, although off-rate may influence biological activity of mAb, another critical factor for determining CDC potency by CD20 mAb appears to be the region of the target molecule they recognize. We conclude that recognition of the novel epitope cooperates with slow off-rate in determining the activity of CD20 Ab in activation of complement and induction of tumor cell lysis.

  19. CD19(+) CD20(-) CD27(hi) IL-s10-producing B cells are overrepresented in R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients in complete remission.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huiying; Li, Junguo; Feng, Zhenjun; Yuan, Joanna; Lu, Jie; Hu, Xiaoxia; Gao, Lei; Lv, Shuqing; Yang, Jianmin; Chen, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has resulted in significantly improved patient responses with longer event-free intervals and higher overall survival rates. However, since rituximab depletes all CD20-expressing cells, including noncancerous B cells, the effects of rituximab on the normal immunity of DLBCL patients under remission need to be examined. Here, we observed that DLBCL patients under remission contained significantly lower frequencies of total B cells, with a significantly overrepresented interleukin (IL)-10-producing B cell (B10) population in the peripheral blood. Further examination confirmed that a large fraction of B10 cells was CD20(-) CD27(hi) plasmablasts, possibly explaining the persistence of B10 cells after R-CHOP treatment. We also observed that the percentage of B10 cells in DLBCL patients in remission gradually reduced during the first year of achieving complete remission, primarily due to the replenishment of non-B10 B cells. Despite this, the percentage of B10 cells in DLBCL patients after 1 year of achieving complete remission was still higher than that in controls. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells cocultured with B10-enriched B cells secreted significantly lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-g and TNF-a, compared to those incubated with B10-depleted B cells. Together, our data observed a long-lasting overrepresentation of B10 cells in DLBCL patients under remission. Whether this change could impact on the overall anti-tumor immunity during remission requires further studies.

  20. Interleukin-10 receptor expression and signalling were down-regulated in CD4+ T cells of lupus nephritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, H D; Qi, Z M; Yang, L L; Qi, L; Zhang, N; Zhang, X L; Du, S Y; Jiang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-10 has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, a protective effect of IL-10 in SLE was also observed. Because the exact mechanism of IL-10 signalling in the pathogenesis of SLE is unclear, this study sought to assess the expression and signalling of interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) in peripheral leucocytes from patients with SLE. We used flow cytometry to examine the expression of IL-10R1 on different peripheral leucocytes from 28 SLE patients, of whom 14 had lupus nephritis (LN) and 14 were healthy controls. We also examined the effects of IL-10 on phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and STAT-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 13 SLE patients and seven healthy controls. Plasma cytokines were detected by flow cytometric bead array (CBA) techniques. Although IL-10R1 expression levels on each peripheral leucocyte subset from 28 SLE patients and 14 healthy controls were similar, the expression levels on CD4+ T cells from LN patients were significantly lower than on CD4+ T cells from controls and SLE patients without nephritis (P < 0·01). IL-10R1 expression levels on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were correlated negatively with the SLE disease activity index (P < 0·01). Additionally, the phosphorylation of STAT-3 was delayed and reduced in PBMCs from LN patients and active SLE patients. Plasma IL-10 levels were significantly higher in LN patients than controls. IL-10R1 expression on CD4+ T cells and signalling in PBMCs were down-regulated in LN patients, indicating that IL-10 and its receptor may have a special role in LN pathogenesis. PMID:21635228

  1. In vitro induction of specific CD8+ T lymphocytes by tumor-associated antigenic peptides in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Wataru; Hayashida, Jun-nosuke; Moriyama, Masahumi; Kitamura, Ryoji; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamada, Akira; Itoh, Kyogo; Nakamura, Seiji

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify candidate peptides for peptide-based specific immunotherapy of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Thirteen peptides were examined for in vitro induction of peptide-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte (CD8(+)TL) activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 patients with oral SCC. A correlation between the induction ability of CD8(+)TL and in vivo immune response of host was carried out immunohistochemically in 23 patients. Peptide-specific activities of CD8(+)TL for at least one peptide were detectable in 21/35 patients (60.0%). The potent peptides were SART-1(690) in 9/35 (25.7%), SART-2(93), and ART4(75) in 7/35 (20.0%), respectively. In the 9 patients with SART-1(690)-specific activity, the whole of activities was significantly inducible for more number of other peptides compared to that in 26 patients without the activity (P=0.035). Cellular responses in 7 patients with SART-1(690)-specific activity were significantly stronger than those in 16 patients without the activity (P=0.027). Furthermore, the number of CD3(+) T cells around the SCC was also significantly different between the 2 groups of patients (P=0.041). In conclusion, SART-1(690), SART-2(93), and ART4(75) could be applicable as peptide-based specific immunotherapies for the majority of patients with oral SCC.

  2. CD40 activation induces NREM sleep and modulates genes associated with sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gast, Heidemarie; Müller, Andreas; Lopez, Martin; Meier, Daniel; Huber, Reto; Dechent, Frieder; Prinz, Marco; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul; Birchler, Thomas; Fontana, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The T-cell derived cytokine CD40 ligand is overexpressed in patients with autoimmune diseases. Through activation of its receptor, CD40 ligand leads to a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFR1) dependent impairment of locomotor activity in mice. Here we report that this effect is explained through a promotion of sleep, which was specific to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep while REM sleep was suppressed. The increase in NREM sleep was accompanied by a decrease in EEG delta power during NREM sleep and by a decrease in the expression of transcripts in the cerebral cortex known to be associated with homeostatic sleep drive, such as Homer1a, Early growth response 2, Neuronal pentraxin 2, and Fos-like antigen 2. The effect of CD40 activation was mimicked by peripheral TNF injection and prevented by the TNF blocker etanercept. Our study indicates that sleep-wake dysregulation in autoimmune diseases may result from CD40 induced TNF:TNFR1 mediated alterations of molecular pathways, which regulate sleep-wake behavior.

  3. CD20-related signaling pathway is differently activated in normal and dystrophic circulating CD133(+) stem cells.

    PubMed

    Parolini, D; Meregalli, M; Belicchi, M; Razini, P; Lopa, R; Del Carlo, B; Farini, A; Maciotta, S; Bresolin, N; Porretti, L; Pellegrino, M; Torrente, Y

    2009-02-01

    Among the heterogeneous population of circulating hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors, we identified a subpopulation of CD133(+) cells displaying myogenic properties. Unexpectedly, we observed the expression of the B-cell marker CD20 in blood-derived CD133(+) stem cells. The CD20 antigen plays a role in the modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis through signaling pathways activation. Several observations suggest that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) could be involved in the etiology of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we show that a CD20-related signaling pathway able to induce an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) is differently activated after brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation of normal and dystrophic blood-derived CD133(+) stem cells, supporting the assumption of a "CD20-related calcium impairment" affecting dystrophic cells. Presented findings represent the starting point toward the expansion of knowledge on pathways involved in the pathology of DMD and in the behavior of dystrophic blood-derived CD133(+) stem cells.

  4. Upregulation of CD19⁺CD24(hi)CD38(hi) regulatory B cells is associated with a reduced risk of acute lung injury in elderly pneumonia patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Haihan; Xi, Jianjun; Li, Guang-Gang; Xu, Shumin; Wang, Chunmei; Cheng, Tingting; Li, Hongqiang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiandong; Bai, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication in elderly pneumonia patients who have a rapid progression, and is accompanied by a high mortality rate. Because the treatment options of ALI are limited to supportive care, identifying pneumonia patients who are at higher risk of ALI development is the emphasis of many studies. Here, we approach this problem from an immunological perspective by examining CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells, an important participant in acute and chronic inflammation. We find that elderly pneumonia patients have elevated CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell frequency compared to healthy individuals. This B cell population may express a higher level of IL-10, which has been was shown to suppress CD4(+) T cell-mediated proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) production, through an IL-10-dependent mechanism. We also observe that the frequency of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell is positively correlated with the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Tregs in peripheral blood. Moreover, consistent with CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell's anti-inflammatory role, we find that pneumonia patients who later developed ALI have reduced level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells. Together, our results demonstrated that CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in pneumonia patients possess regulatory function in vivo, and are associated with a reduced ALI risk.

  5. CD44 and CD24 coordinate the reprogramming of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells towards a cancer stem cell phenotype through STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao-An; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Hwang, John Jeng-Jong; Chi, Wei-Hsin; Shu, Chih-Hung; Ho, Ching-Yin; Li, Wing-Yin; Chen, Yann-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface proteins such as CD44 and CD24 are used to distinguish cancer stem cells (CSCs) from the bulk-tumor population. However, the molecular functionalities of CD24 and CD44, and how these two molecules coordinate in CSCs remain poorly understood. We found that nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells with high expression of CD44 and CD24 proteins presented with pronounced CSC properties. Accordingly, a subpopulation of NPC cells with co-expression of CD44 and CD24 were specially enriched in high-stage clinical samples. Furthermore, ectopically expressing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator Twist was able to upregulate the stemness factors, and vice versa. This indicates a reciprocal regulation of stemness and EMT. Intriguingly, we found that this reciprocal regulation was differentially orchestrated by CD44 and CD24, and only simultaneous silencing the expression of CD44 and CD24 led to a broad-spectrum suppression of CSC properties. Oppositely, overexpression of CD44 and CD24 induced the reprogramming of parental NPC cells into CSCs through STAT3 activation, which could be blunted by STAT3 inhibition, indicating that CD44 and CD24 collaboratively drive the reprogramming of NPC cells through STAT3-mediated stemness and EMT activation. Consequently, targeting of the CD44/CD24/STAT3 axis may provide a potential therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of NPC through repressing CSC activities. PMID:27521216

  6. Characterization of CD4+CD28null T cells in patients with coronary artery disease and individuals with risk factors for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Téo, Fábio Haach; de Oliveira, Rômulo Tadeu Dias; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Ferreira, Maria Carolina Salmora; Nadruz, Wilson; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Fernandes, Juliano de Lara; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerosis may contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation. A highly cytotoxic and inflammatory CD4(+) cell subset (CD4(+)CD28(null) cells) has been associated with inflammatory diseases, including acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize CD4(+)CD28(null) cells in individuals with risk factors for atherosclerosis and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In order to achieve this goal, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals with risk factors for atherosclerosis and patients with CAD were analyzed using flow cytometry to detect cytotoxic molecules and evaluate the expression of homing receptors and inflammatory cytokines in CD4(+) cell subsets. The cells were evaluated ex vivo and after stimulation in culture. We found no differences in the proportions of CD4(+)CD28(null) cells among the groups. Compared with the CD4(+)CD28(+) population, the ex vivo CD4(+)CD28(null) subset from all groups expressed higher levels of granzymes A and B, perforin, granulysin and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Individuals with risk factors and patients with ACS showed the highest levels of cytotoxic molecules. After stimulation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in the CD4(+)CD28(null) subset from these groups increased more than in the other groups. Stimulation with LPS decreased the expression of cytotoxic molecules by CD4(+)CD28(null) cells in all groups. In conclusion, our results show that risk factors for atherosclerosis may alter the CD4(+)CD28(null) cells phenotype, increasing their cytotoxic potential. Our findings also suggest that CD4(+)CD28(null) cells may participate in the early phases of atherosclerosis.

  7. Characterization of rabbit antithymocyte globulins-induced CD25+ regulatory T cells from cells of patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sewgobind, Varsha D K D; van der Laan, Luc J W; Kho, Marcia M L; Kraaijeveld, Rens; Korevaar, Sander S; van Dam, Thea; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Weimar, Willem; Baan, Carla C

    2010-03-27

    BACKGROUND.: Rabbit antithymocyte globulins (rATGs) are known to convert CD4CD25FoxP3 T cells from healthy individuals to CD4CD25FoxP3 T cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of rATG on the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) from blood cells of patients with end-stage renal disease who are candidates for transplantation and rATG-induction therapy. The induced Tregs were analyzed and compared with naturally occurring CD4CD25FoxP3T cells. METHODS.: The CD25 T cells of pretransplant patients (n=7) and healthy controls (n=4) were stimulated with rATG or control rabbit immunoglobulins for 24 hr. The phenotype of induced Tregs was examined by flow cytometry, and their function was studied in the conventional suppression assay. Further characterization was performed by mRNA analyses. RESULTS.: After 24 hr, the percentage of CD4CD25FoxP3CD127 T cells and CD8CD25FoxP3CD127 T cells became higher in the rATG-treated samples compared with the rabbit immunoglobulin-treated samples (P<0.01). The rATG-induced CD25T cells, whether CD4 or CD8 inhibited the allogeneic responses of CD25 effector T cells as vigorously as natural CD25T cells. However, the proportion of FoxP3 within the top 2% rATG-induced CD4CD25T-cells was lower than within the natural CD4CD25T-cells (11%+/-2% vs. 95%+/-5%, P<0.01). The mRNA-expression levels of interleukin-27, interleukin-10, interferon-gamma, perforin, and granzyme B were markedly higher compared with natural CD25T-cells (all P=0.03), whereas CTLA4 (P=0.03), transforming growth factor-beta (P=0.02), and RORgammat (P=0.04) were lower. CONCLUSION.: rATG allows the induction of Tregs from patient peripheral blood mononuclear cell in vitro. In comparison with natural Tregs, the rATG-induced Tregs are phenotypically distinct but have similar regulatory activities. rATG may beneficially contribute to the mechanisms that control alloreactivity.

  8. Maraviroc intensification in patients with suppressed HIV viremia has limited effects on CD4+ T cell recovery and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Jain, Sonia; Woelk, Christopher H; Witt, Mallory D; Sun, Xiaoying; Lada, Steven M; Spina, Celsa A; Goicoechea, Miguel; Rought, Steffney E; Haubrich, Richard; Dubé, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Addition of the CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc (MVC) to ongoing antiretroviral therapy increases CD4+ T cell counts in some virologically suppressed patients with suboptimal CD4+ T cell recovery. To understand the mechanisms by which MVC elicits increases in CD4+ T cell counts, the present study was undertaken to identify host factors (i.e. genes) that are modulated and are correlated with CD4+ T cell recovery during the 24weeks of MVC intensification in 32 subjects. Median changes of CD4+ T cell counts over 24weeks of MVC compared to baseline were 38cells/mm(3) (p<0.001). The median slope of CD4+ T cell recovery was 39cells/mm(3) per year before initiation of MVC and 76cells/mm(3) per year during MVC intensification, however, this increase was not statistically significant (p=0.33). Microarray analysis (N=31,426 genes) identified a single differentially expressed gene, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), which was modestly (1.44-fold, p<0.001) downregulated by MVC at week 24 compared to baseline. TNF differential expression was evaluated using an independent method of droplet digital PCR, but the difference was not significant (p=0.6). Changes in gene expression did not correlate with CD4+ T cell recovery or any changes in the CD4+ T cell maturation, proliferation and activation phenotypes. In summary, our data suggest that modest improvements of CD4+ T cell counts during MVC intensification cannot be explained by changes in gene expression elicited by MVC. However, the modest changes in T cell composition, including reduction of the percentages of Tregs, proliferating CD4+ T cells and senescent CD8+ T cells, suggest immunologically favorable effects of MVC.

  9. A Recombinant Bispecific CD20×CD95 Antibody With Superior Activity Against Normal and Malignant B-cells

    PubMed Central

    Nalivaiko, Kristina; Hofmann, Martin; Kober, Karina; Teichweyde, Nadine; Krammer, Peter H; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Jung, Gundram

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed to the B-cell-specific CD20-antigen are successfully used for the treatment of lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. Here, we compare the anti-B-cell activity of three different antibodies directed to CD20: (i) a chimeric, monospecific antibody, (ii) an Fc-optimized variant thereof, and (iii) a bispecific CD20×CD95-antibody in a newly developed recombinant format, termed Fabsc. The bispecific antibody specifically triggers the CD95 death receptor on malignant, as well as activated, normal B-cells. We found that the capability of this antibody to suppress the growth of malignant B-cells in vitro and in vivo and to specifically deplete normal, activated B-cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures was superior to that of the Fc-optimized monospecific antibody. This antibody in turn was more effective than its nonoptimized variant. Moreover, the bispecific antibody was the only reagent capable of significantly suppressing antibody production in vitro. Our findings imply that the bispecific CD20×CD95-antibody might become a new, prototypical reagent for the treatment of B-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. PMID:26581163

  10. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Wu, Menglin; Sun, Longhao; Li, Weidong; Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Xuening; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers’ roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers’ clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified and odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were analyzed as well. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger tests. Results: The meta-analysis included 26 studies involving 4729 patients. High expression of CD44 was associated with Lauren type (intestinal type) (OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.02–2.30]; P = 0.038) and lymphatic vessel invasion (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.06–1.76]; P = 0.021). CD133 overexpression was related to high TNM stage (III/IV) (OR, 3.18 [95% CI, 2.48–4.07]; P = 0.000), high depth of invasion (T3/T4) (OR, 2.97 [95% CI, 2.20–4.03]; P = 0.000), lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.82 [95% CI, 2.16–3.69]; P = 0.000), vascular invasion (OR, 6.71 [95% CI, 1.63–27.63]; P = 0.008), and distant metastasis (OR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.64–3.29]; P = 0.000). In addition, survival analysis demonstrated a significant association between CD44, as well as CD133 and poor 5-year overall survival (HR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.55–2.26]; P = 0.000; HR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.76–2.44]; P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133 correlates with several clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. Since the related features do not overlap, combined detection of CD44 and CD133 expression can be an especially effective tool for pathological diagnosis

  11. The Oncogenic Lung Cancer Fusion Kinase CD74-ROS Activates a Novel Invasiveness Pathway Through E-Syt1 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun Jung; Johnson, Hannah; Bronson, Roderick T.; de Feraudy, Sebastien; White, Forest; Charest, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer often present with metastatic disease and therefore have a very poor prognosis. The recent discovery of several novel ROS receptor tyrosine kinase molecular alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a therapeutic opportunity for the development of new targeted treatment strategies. Here, we report that the NSCLC-derived fusion CD74-ROS, which accounts for 30% of all ROS fusion kinases in NSCLC, is an active and oncogenic tyrosine kinase. We found that CD74-ROS expressing cells were highly invasive in vitro and metastatic in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of CD74-ROS kinase activity reversed its transforming capacity by attenuating downstrream signaling networks. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics, we uncovered a mechanism by which CD74-ROS activates a novel pathway driving cell invasion. Expression of CD74-ROS resulted in the phosphorylation of the extended synaptotagmin-like protein E-Syt1. Elimination of E-Syt1 expression drastically reduced invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo without modifying the oncogenic activity of CD74-ROS. Furthermore, expression of CD74-ROS in non-invasive NSCLC cell lines readily confered invasive properties that paralleled the acquisition of E-Syt1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings indicate that E-Syt1 is a mediator of cancer cell invasion and molecularly define ROS fusion kinases as therapeutic targets in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:22659450

  12. IL-7 modulates B cells survival and activation by inducing BAFF and CD70 expression in T cells.

    PubMed

    Sammicheli, Stefano; Ruffin, Nicolas; Lantto, Rebecka; Vivar, Nancy; Chiodi, Francesca; Rethi, Bence

    2012-06-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) promotes the maintenance and activation of peripheral T cells, whereas it does not act directly on mature B cells due to the lack of IL-7Rα expression on these. We report here that, in spite of the insensitivity of B cells to IL-7, high concentration of IL-7 can lead to increased B cell survival and antibody production in the presence of T cells, without the use of any further B cell stimulatory signal. IL-7 promoted B cell activation through inducing CD70 expression on resting T cells, particularly on CD4+ memory cells. The interaction of CD70 molecules with the B cell costimulatory receptor CD27 led to B cell proliferation, the accumulation of CD38 + CD20- plasmablasts and antibody production. In addition, IL-7 treatment induced BAFF secretion from resting peripheral T cells thereby promoting B cell survival. IL-7 levels can increase in lymphopenic conditions, in autoimmune diseases or in patients receiving T cell regenerative IL-7 therapy. Based on our findings high IL-7 levels can lead to increased B cell activation by inducing the B cell regulatory proteins CD70 and BAFF in resting T cells. Such activity might be beneficial in short term immune-stimulatory IL-7 therapies; permanently increased IL-7 levels, on the other hand, can contribute to impaired B cell tolerance.

  13. Polymorphism of CD44 influences the efficacy of CD34(+) cells mobilization in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska-Kaplon, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Hamara, Katarzyna; Robak, Marta; Wolska, Anna; Pluta, Agnieszka; Czemerska, Magdalena; Krawczynska, Anna; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Robak, Tadeusz; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, peripheral blood was the main source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous and allogeneic transplantation. The exact mechanisms of HSC mobilization are still not clear and the efficacy of the procedure is hardly predictable. Ligand-receptor interactions of adhesion molecules, such as SDF1/CXCR4, VLA4/VCAM-1, or CD44/osteopontin, play an important role in homing of HSC in the hematopoietic niche. There is some evidence that disruption of the ligand-receptor complex leads to the egress of HSCs to the peripheral blood. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of constitutive polymorphism of genes encoding cytokines and receptors present in the HSC niche and their impact on the efficacy of mobilization of HSCs in patients with hematological malignancies. We enrolled 110 patients (60 females and 50 males) in the study. The median age of the patients was 55 (range, 22 to 69) years. The group consisted of patients with multiple myeloma (n = 74), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 19), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 15), or acute myeloid leukemia (n = 2). The mobilization procedures comprised chemotherapy and subsequent granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 10 μg/kg daily. The poor mobilizers group was defined according to Italian National Bone Marrow Transplant Registry criteria: patients with peak CD34(+) in the peripheral blood < 20/μL or total yield < 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg body weight in maximum 3 aphereses. Genotyping was performed using standard PCR-based assays. The group of patients (N = 108) who achieved minimal threshold for collections (CD34(+) at least 10/μL) proceeded to apheresis. The median total yield of CD34(+) in this group was 5.6 × 10(6) cells/kg body weight, whereas the median number of cells collected during the first apheresis was 3.3 × 10(6) cells/kg body weight. Median number of days of G-CSF treatment before first apheresis was 10. Fifteen patients fulfilled the criteria for poor mobilizer. The

  14. CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Peter W.; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Hong, Marisa A.; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C.; Cerqueira, Natalia B.; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation–characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity—may influence vaccine response in this population. Methods We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. Results 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV–infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. Conclusions HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio. PMID:27941965

  15. Rationale for treating primary Sjögren's syndrome patients with an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody (Itolizumab).

    PubMed

    Le Dantec, Christelle; Alonso, Ruby; Fali, Tinhinane; Montero, Enrique; Devauchelle, Valérie; Saraux, Alain; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Renaudineau, Yves

    2013-07-01

    CD6 is a cell surface receptor expressed on the majority of T cells and a subset of B cells. When expressed, CD6 contributes to lymphocyte activation through its extracellular domain 1, while adhesion and cellular migration are related to the extracellular scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain (SRCR-D)-3 of CD6. Itolizumab, clone T1h, is a newly developed humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets CD6 SRCR-D1 and blocks immune activation. Itolizumab has been proposed to be effective in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and multiple sclerosis. In Sjögren's syndrome, the utilization of itolizumab as therapeutic option is reinforced by our recent observation that ALCAM, the CD6 ligand, is overexpressed and that CD6-positive T and B cells are detected within salivary glands from Sjögren's syndrome patients. In this study, itolizumab-positive target cells were characterized within both peripheral blood and salivary glands in order to provide rational for anti-CD6 treatment in Sjögren's syndrome.

  16. Immunological and histological evaluation of clinical samples from psoriasis patients treated with anti-CD6 itolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Aira, Lazaro E; López-Requena, Alejandro; Fuentes, Dasha; Sánchez, Liset; Pérez, Teresita; Urquiza, Aleida; Bautista, Heber; Falcón, Leopoldina; Hernández, Patricia; Mazorra, Zaima

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a prevalence of approximately 2–3% in the general population. The majority of diagnosed patients have plaque psoriasis, and about 20% have moderate-to-severe disease. Itolizumab, a new monoclonal antibody specific for the CD6 molecule mainly expressed on T lymphocytes, has demonstrated to inhibit in vitro ligand-induced proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We assessed the immunological and histopathological effect of the antibody using clinical samples taken from 26 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis included in a clinical trial. The precursor frequency of lymphocytes activated with anti-CD2/CD3/CD28 beads, as well as the number of interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting T cells after stimulation, were measured at different time points of the study. Serum cytokine levels and anti-idiotypic antibody response to itolizumab were also evaluated. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration and epidermis hyperplasia were studied in five patients. A significant reduction in T cell proliferation capacity and number of IFN-γ-producing T cells was found in treated patients. Serum levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-γ showed an overall trend toward reduction. No anti-idiotypic antibody response was detected. A significant reduction in the epidermis hyperplasia was observed in analyzed patients. These results support the relevance of the CD6 molecule as a therapeutic target for the treatment of this disease. PMID:24594862

  17. Immunological and histological evaluation of clinical samples from psoriasis patients treated with anti-CD6 itolizumab.

    PubMed

    Aira, Lazaro E; López-Requena, Alejandro; Fuentes, Dasha; Sánchez, Liset; Pérez, Teresita; Urquiza, Aleida; Bautista, Heber; Falcón, Leopoldina; Hernández, Patricia; Mazorra, Zaima

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a prevalence of approximately 2-3% in the general population. The majority of diagnosed patients have plaque psoriasis, and about 20% have moderate-to-severe disease. Itolizumab, a new monoclonal antibody specific for the CD6 molecule mainly expressed on T lymphocytes, has demonstrated to inhibit in vitro ligand-induced proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We assessed the immunological and histopathological effect of the antibody using clinical samples taken from 26 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis included in a clinical trial. The precursor frequency of lymphocytes activated with anti-CD2/CD3/CD28 beads, as well as the number of interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting T cells after stimulation, were measured at different time points of the study. Serum cytokine levels and anti-idiotypic antibody response to itolizumab were also evaluated. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration and epidermis hyperplasia were studied in five patients. A significant reduction in T cell proliferation capacity and number of IFN-γ-producing T cells was found in treated patients. Serum levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-γ showed an overall trend toward reduction. No anti-idiotypic antibody response was detected. A significant reduction in the epidermis hyperplasia was observed in analyzed patients. These results support the relevance of the CD6 molecule as a therapeutic target for the treatment of this disease.

  18. Low percentage of CD24hiCD27⁺CD19⁺ B cells decelerates gastric cancer progression in XELOX-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiao; Li, Wei; Luo, Feifei; Zhao, Naiqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Dan; Qian, Jiawen; Yu, Yiwei; Zheng, Xiujuan; Wang, Yan; Feng, Yi; Liu, Tianshu; Chu, Yiwei

    2015-06-01

    The XELOX regimen (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin) has been demonstrated as first-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer in China. However, the efficacy of XELOX varies in individuals. Some evidences indicate that the variable efficacy might be related to the distinct immune status not only in the tumor site but also in the systemic immune system, and further investigation is required. In this study, we collected 32 PBMC samples from 16 XELOX-treated patients with gastric cancer and analyzed the patterns of immune cells. At the end point, the proportion of CD24(hi)CD27(+)CD19(+) B cells in patients without progression revealed a significant decrease compared with that in patients with progression, but not other immune cells, such as T cells and NK cells. Furthermore, CD19(+) B cells were more sensitive to capecitabine plus oxaliplatin stimulation in vitro than other immune cells, displaying higher frequency of apoptosis in a dose-dependent way. Thus, our results suggested that the outcomes of XELOX chemotherapy were inversely correlated with peripheral B cell subsets, which might provide a more convenient method to predict gastric cancer progression of XELOX-treated patients.

  19. Altered frequency and phenotype of CD4+ forkhead box protein 3+ T cells and its association with autoantibody production in human immunodeficiency virus-infected paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, R J; Balbaryski, J; Barboni, G; Candi, M; Gaddi, E; Laucella, S

    2012-01-01

    The association between immune dysfunction and the development of autoimmune pathology in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is not clear. The frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells, as well as the presence of autoantibodies, were evaluated in a paediatric cohort of HIV-infected patients without clinical evidence of autoimmune disease. Lower absolute counts but higher percentages of total CD4+ forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ T cells were recorded in children with severe immunosuppression than in those without evidence of immunosuppression. The frequencies of classical CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells were not altered, whereas CD4+FoxP3+CD25- T cells were found increased significantly in patients with severe immunosuppression. Like classical regulatory T cells, CD4+FoxP3+CD25- T cells display higher cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) but lower CD127 expression compared with CD4+FoxP3–CD25+ T cells. An improvement in CD4+ T cell counts, along with a decrease in viral load, was associated with a decrease in CD4+FoxP3+CD25- T cells. The majority of the patients with severe immunosuppression were positive for at least one out of seven autoantibodies tested and displayed hypergammaglobulinaemia. Conversely, HIV-infected children without evidence of immunosuppression had lower levels of autoantibodies and total immunoglobulins. A decline in CD4+FoxP3+ T cell numbers or a variation in their phenotype may induce a raise in antigen exposure with polyclonal B cell activation, probably contributing to the generation of autoantibodies in the absence of clinical autoimmune disease. PMID:22471284

  20. Multifunctional human CD56low CD16low natural killer cells are the prominent subset in bone marrow of both healthy pediatric donors and leukemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, Helena; Nisti, Paolo; Morrone, Stefania; Pagliara, Daria; Bertaina, Alice; Locatelli, Franco; Santoni, Angela; Gismondi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    We phenotypically and functionally characterized a distinct CD56low natural killer cell subset based on CD16 expression levels in bone marrow and peripheral blood of healthy children and pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells are more abundant in bone marrow than in peripheral blood and that their frequency is further increased in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow and peripheral blood CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells compared with CD56lowCD16high natural killer cells express lower levels of killer inhibitory receptors, higher levels of CD27, CD127, CD122, CD25, but undetectable levels of CD57, suggesting that they have a higher proliferative and differentiation potential. Moreover, CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells display higher levels of CXCR4 and undetectable levels of CX3CR1 and can be consistently and rapidly mobilized in peripheral blood in response to CXCR4 antagonist. Unlike CD56lowCD16high, both bone marrow and peripheral blood CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells release IFNγ following cytokine stimulation, and represent the major cytotoxic natural killer cell population against K562 or acute lymphoblastic leukemia target cells. All these data suggest that CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells are multifunctional cells, and that the presence of hematologic malignancies affects their frequency and functional ability at both tumor site and in the periphery. PMID:25596273

  1. Multifunctional human CD56 low CD16 low natural killer cells are the prominent subset in bone marrow of both healthy pediatric donors and leukemic patients.

    PubMed

    Stabile, Helena; Nisti, Paolo; Morrone, Stefania; Pagliara, Daria; Bertaina, Alice; Locatelli, Franco; Santoni, Angela; Gismondi, Angela

    2015-04-01

    We phenotypically and functionally characterized a distinct CD56(low) natural killer cell subset based on CD16 expression levels in bone marrow and peripheral blood of healthy children and pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that CD56(low)CD16(low) natural killer cells are more abundant in bone marrow than in peripheral blood and that their frequency is further increased in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow and peripheral blood CD56(low)CD16(low) natural killer cells compared with CD56(low)CD16(high) natural killer cells express lower levels of killer inhibitory receptors, higher levels of CD27, CD127, CD122, CD25, but undetectable levels of CD57, suggesting that they have a higher proliferative and differentiation potential. Moreover, CD56(low)CD16(low) natural killer cells display higher levels of CXCR4 and undetectable levels of CX3CR1 and can be consistently and rapidly mobilized in peripheral blood in response to CXCR4 antagonist. Unlike CD56(low)CD16(high), both bone marrow and peripheral blood CD56(low)CD16(low) natural killer cells release IFNγ following cytokine stimulation, and represent the major cytotoxic natural killer cell population against K562 or acute lymphoblastic leukemia target cells. All these data suggest that CD56(low)CD16(low) natural killer cells are multifunctional cells, and that the presence of hematologic malignancies affects their frequency and functional ability at both tumor site and in the periphery.

  2. [Influence of dipyridamole on expression of PAC-1 and CD62p in patients with malignant lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ya-Jun; Li, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Hong-Xia; Kang, Li-Li; Zhu, Gui-Hua; Zhuang, Wan-Chuan

    2010-08-01

    This study was purposed to explore the expressions of platelet-activated markers PAC-1 and CD62p in peripheral blood of malignant lymphoma patients and the influence of dipyridamole on their expression. 32 lymphoma patients were divided into simple chemotherapy group (simple group) and chemotherapy plus dipyridamole group (combined group) randomly, and 15 healthy peoples were selected as control group. The dipyridamole of 100 mg/day was given to the patients in combined group. The expression levels of PAC-1, CD62p and fibrinogen (Fib) were detected by flow cytometry and magnetic bead method on day 0, 3, 7 and 14 of chemotherapy respectively. The results showed that the levels of PAC-1, CD62p and Fib in lymphoma patients were significantly higher than those in control group (p < 0.01, 0.05), moreover there was positive correlation between levels of PAC-1 and Fib (r = 0.549, p < 0.01). PAC-1 expression on day 0 and 3 of chemotherapy in simple group was higher than that on day 14 (p < 0.05, 0.01) and CD62p expression on day 3 of chemotherapy was higher than that on day 0, 7 and 14 (p < 0.05, 0.01). PAC-1 expression in combined group on day 14 of chemotherapy was lower than than on day 0 and 3 (p < 0.05, 0.01), and CD62p on day 14 was lower than that on day 3 of chemotherapy (p < 0.05); PAC-1 and CD62p expressions in combined group on day 3, 7 and 14 of chemotherapy were decreased than those in simple group, but Fib level was not changed significantly. It is concluded that the patients with malignant lymphoma usually accompany with platelet activation and hyperfibrinogenemia in peripheral blood. Applying dipyridamole routine dosage in chemotherapy can efficiently restrain platelet activation.

  3. Protection from type 1 diabetes by invariant NK T cells requires the activity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ly, Dalam; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Hussain, Shabbir; Delovitch, Terry L

    2006-09-15

    Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells regulate immune responses, express NK cell markers and an invariant TCR, and recognize lipid Ags in a CD1d-restricted manner. Previously, we reported that activation of iNKT cells by alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) protects against type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice via an IL-4-dependent mechanism. To further investigate how iNKT cells protect from T1D, we analyzed whether iNKT cells require the presence of another subset(s) of regulatory T cells (Treg), such as CD4+ CD25+ Treg, for this protection. We found that CD4+ CD25+ T cells from NOD.CD1d(-/-) mice deficient in iNKT cell function similarly in vitro to CD4+ CD25+ T cells from wild-type NOD mice and suppress the proliferation of NOD T responder cells upon alpha-GalCer stimulation. Cotransfer of NOD diabetogenic T cells with CD4+ CD25+ Tregs from NOD mice pretreated with alpha-GalCer demonstrated that activated iNKT cells do not influence the ability of T(regs) to inhibit the transfer of T1D. In contrast, protection from T1D mediated by transfer of activated iNKT cells requires the activity of CD4+ CD25+ T cells, because splenocytes pretreated with alpha-GalCer and then inactivated by anti-CD25 of CD25+ cells did not protect from T1D. Similarly, mice inactivated of CD4+ CD25+ T cells before alpha-GalCer treatment were also not protected from T1D. Our data suggest that CD4+ CD25+ T cells retain their function during iNKT cell activation, and that the activity of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs is required for iNKT cells to transfer protection from T1D.

  4. Elevated soluble CD40 ligand in diabetic patients with painless myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Qiu, Jianping; Zhang, Denghai; Qiu, Geng

    2011-01-01

    Because a useful biomarker for painless myocardial infarction (MI) has yet to be identified, the aim of this study was to identify a biomarker for diabetic patients with painless MI. A case-control design was used to compare inflammatory cytokine levels among 111 patients with diabetes mellitus, including 31 patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), 30 patients with painful MI, 20 patients with painless MI, and 30 age- and sex-matched patients without CHD (control group). In addition to baseline parameters, cytokine levels, including plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No differences in baseline characteristics were observed for patients with painless MI as compared to the other patient groups. Significantly higher sCD40L, HsCRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected in patients with MI, and markedly elevated sCD40L and IL-6 levels were observed in patients with painless MI as compared to those with painful MI. sCD40L may be a useful biomarker for painless MI in diabetic patients, which could reduce misdiagnosis and expedite treatment. Further studies are required to validate the diagnostic utility of this putative biomarker as well as investigate the mechanism by which sCD40L is elevated in these patients.

  5. Increased levels of soluble CD226 in sera accompanied by decreased membrane CD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Ran; Zhang, Yun; Jia, Wei; Song, Chaojun; Yang, Kun; Yang, Angang; Jin, Boquan

    2009-01-01

    Background As a cellular membrane triggering receptor, CD226 is involved in the NK cell- or CTL-mediated lysis of tumor cells of different origin, including freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor cell lines. Here, we evaluated soluble CD226 (sCD226) levels in sera, and membrane CD226 (mCD226) expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cancer patients as well as normal subjects, and demonstrated the possible function and origin of the altered sCD226, which may provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape and for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. Results Soluble CD226 levels in serum samples from cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (P < 0.001), while cancer patients exhibited lower PBMC mCD226 expression than healthy individuals (P < 0.001). CD226-Fc fusion protein could significantly inhibit the cytotoxicity of NK cells against K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, three kinds of protease inhibitors could notably increase mCD226 expression on PMA-stimulated PBMCs and Jurkat cells with a decrease in the sCD226 level in the cell culture supernatant. Conclusion These findings suggest that sCD226 might be shed from cell membranes by certain proteases, and, further, sCD226 may be used as a predictor for monitoring cancer, and more important, a possible immunotherapy target, which may be useful in clinical application. PMID:19490613

  6. Production of an active anti-CD20-hIL-2 immunocytokine in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Carla; Novelli, Flavia; Salzano, Anna M; Scaloni, Andrea; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Pioli, Claudio; Donini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CD20 murine or chimeric antibodies (Abs) have been used to treat non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and other diseases characterized by overactive or dysfunctional B cells. Anti-CD20 Abs demonstrated to be effective in inducing regression of B-cell lymphomas, although in many cases patients relapse following treatment. A promising approach to improve the outcome of mAb therapy is the use of anti-CD20 antibodies to deliver cytokines to the tumour microenvironment. In particular, IL-2-based immunocytokines have shown enhanced antitumour activity in several preclinical studies. Here, we report on the engineering of an anti-CD20-human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) immunocytokine (2B8-Fc-hIL2) based on the C2B8 mAb (Rituximab) and the resulting ectopic expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The scFv-Fc-engineered immunocytokine is fully assembled in plants with minor degradation products as assessed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Purification yields using protein-A affinity chromatography were in the range of 15-20 mg/kg of fresh leaf weight (FW). Glycopeptide analysis confirmed the presence of a highly homogeneous plant-type glycosylation. 2B8-Fc-hIL2 and the cognate 2B8-Fc antibody, devoid of hIL-2, were assayed by flow cytometry on Daudi cells revealing a CD20 binding activity comparable to that of Rituximab and were effective in eliciting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of human PBMC versus Daudi cells, demonstrating their functional integrity. In 2B8-Fc-hIL2, IL-2 accessibility and biological activity were verified by flow cytometry and cell proliferation assay. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a recombinant immunocytokine based on the therapeutic Rituximab antibody scaffold, whose expression in plants may be a valuable tool for NHLs treatment.

  7. Cytotoxic activity of CD4+ T cells against autologous tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Konomi, Y; Sekine, T; Takayama, T; Fuji, M; Tanaka, T

    1995-09-01

    The 51Cr-release assay is mostly applied to detecting the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells, and little is known about the activity of CD4+ T cells. Therefore, the correlation between the cytotoxic activity of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells and the incubation period with autologous tumor cells was analyzed by two methods. The incubation periods were 4 and 20 h (4 h and 20 h assay) for the 51Cr-release assay. Eight pairs of tumor cells and T cells were assayed. T cells were fractionated into CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by using magnetic beads and panning methods, and those cells were activated by culture with recombinant interleukin-2 and immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. In 6 out of 8 cases, no cytotoxic activity of CD4+ T cells was detected by the 4 h assay, whereas cytotoxic activity was detected in all cases in the 20 h assay. The cytotoxic activities in 20 h assay of CD4+ T cells were increased 67-fold in comparison with the activities in 4 h assay (range: 5-197). In the case of CD8+ T cells, cytotoxic activities were detected in 6 out of 8 cases in the 4 h assay. The lytic unit ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was calculated as 1.5 in the 20 h assay (range: 0.2- > 7.2) versus 0.4 in the 4 h assay (range: < 0.1-1.3). Cytotoxic activities in colorimetric assay using Crystal Violet with a 24 h incubation were similar to those in the 20 h 51Cr-release assay in all eight cases. These results indicate that CD4+ T cells have cytotoxic activity as strong as that of CD8+ T cells towards autologous tumor cells.

  8. Selective impairment of T lymphocyte activation through the T cell receptor/CD3 complex after cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Timón, M; Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-Contreras, J; Ramos-Amador, J T; Pacheco, A; Regueiro, J R

    1993-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is reported to cause transient immunosuppression in man. In this study we have analysed the effect of CMV on T lymphocyte function in 29 children diagnosed for acute CMV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from the patients showed a significant specific impairment in their proliferative response to enterotoxins A and C1, to concanavalin A and to the anti-CD3 MoAb OKT3. The impaired responses were corrected with exogenous IL-2. In contrast, stimulation using phytohaemagglutinin, as well as activation signals delivered through the surface molecules CD26 or CD28, elicited normal proliferative responses in CMV PBMC. The results indicate that the T cell anergy associated with CMV infection is restricted to the T cell receptor/CD3 activation pathway. PMID:8403514

  9. How, with whom and when: an overview of CD147-mediated regulatory networks influencing matrix metalloproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Grass, G. Daniel; Toole, Bryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of 23 zinc-dependent enzymes involved in various pathologic and physiologic processes. In cancer, MMPs contribute to processes from tumour initiation to establishment of distant metastases. Complex signalling and protein transport networks regulate MMP synthesis, cell surface presentation and release. Earlier attempts to disrupt MMP activity in patients have proven to be intolerable and with underwhelming clinical efficacy; thus targeting ancillary proteins that regulate MMP activity may be a useful therapeutic approach. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was originally characterized as a factor present on lung cancer cells, which stimulated collagenase (MMP-1) production in fibroblasts. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EMMPRIN was identical with several other protein factors, including basigin (Bsg), all of which are now commonly termed CD147. CD147 modulates the synthesis and activity of soluble and membrane-bound [membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs)] in various contexts via homophilic/heterophilic cell interactions, vesicular shedding or cell-autonomous processes. CD147 also participates in inflammation, nutrient and drug transporter activity, microbial pathology and developmental processes. Despite the hundreds of manuscripts demonstrating CD147-mediated MMP regulation, the molecular underpinnings governing this process have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes our present knowledge of the complex regulatory systems influencing CD147 biology and provides a framework to understand how CD147 may influence MMP activity. PMID:26604323

  10. How, with whom and when: an overview of CD147-mediated regulatory networks influencing matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Grass, G Daniel; Toole, Bryan P

    2015-11-24

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of 23 zinc-dependent enzymes involved in various pathologic and physiologic processes. In cancer, MMPs contribute to processes from tumour initiation to establishment of distant metastases. Complex signalling and protein transport networks regulate MMP synthesis, cell surface presentation and release. Earlier attempts to disrupt MMP activity in patients have proven to be intolerable and with underwhelming clinical efficacy; thus targeting ancillary proteins that regulate MMP activity may be a useful therapeutic approach. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was originally characterized as a factor present on lung cancer cells, which stimulated collagenase (MMP-1) production in fibroblasts. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EMMPRIN was identical with several other protein factors, including basigin (Bsg), all of which are now commonly termed CD147. CD147 modulates the synthesis and activity of soluble and membrane-bound [membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs)] in various contexts via homophilic/heterophilic cell interactions, vesicular shedding or cell-autonomous processes. CD147 also participates in inflammation, nutrient and drug transporter activity, microbial pathology and developmental processes. Despite the hundreds of manuscripts demonstrating CD147-mediated MMP regulation, the molecular underpinnings governing this process have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes our present knowledge of the complex regulatory systems influencing CD147 biology and provides a framework to understand how CD147 may influence MMP activity.

  11. Fcalpha receptor (CD89) mediates the development of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (Berger's disease). Evidence for pathogenic soluble receptor-Iga complexes in patients and CD89 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Launay, P; Grossetête, B; Arcos-Fajardo, M; Gaudin, E; Torres, S P; Beaudoin, L; Patey-Mariaud de Serre, N; Lehuen, A; Monteiro, R C

    2000-06-05

    The pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN), the most prevalent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide, involves circulating macromolecular IgA1 complexes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of the disease remain poorly understood. We report here the presence of circulating soluble FcalphaR (CD89)-IgA complexes in patients with IgAN. Soluble CD89 was identified as a glycoprotein with a 24-kD backbone that corresponds to the expected size of CD89 extracellular domains. To demonstrate their pathogenic role, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human CD89 on macrophage/monocytes, as no CD89 homologue is found in mice. These mice spontaneously developed massive mesangial IgA deposition, glomerular and interstitial macrophage infiltration, mesangial matrix expansion, hematuria, and mild proteinuria. The molecular mechanism was shown to involve soluble CD89 released after interaction with IgA. This release was independent of CD89 association with the FcRgamma chain. The disease was induced in recombination activating gene (RAG)2(-/-) mice by injection of serum from Tg mice, and in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-Tg mice by injection of patients' IgA. Depletion of soluble CD89 from serum abolished this effect. These results reveal the key role of soluble CD89 in the pathogenesis of IgAN and provide an in vivo model that will be useful for developing new treatments.

  12. Retreatment with brentuximab vedotin in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brentuximab vedotin is a CD30-directed antibody-drug conjugate. Retreatment with brentuximab vedotin monotherapy was investigated in patients with CD30-positive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) who relapsed after achieving complete or partial remission (CR or PR) with initial brentuximab vedotin therapy in a previous study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00947856). Methods Twenty-one patients with HL and 8 patients with systemic ALCL were retreated; 3 patients with systemic ALCL were retreated twice. Patients generally received brentuximab vedotin 1.8 mg/kg intravenously approximately every 3 weeks over 30 minutes as an outpatient infusion. The primary objectives of this study were to assess safety and to estimate antitumor activity of brentuximab vedotin retreatment. Results The objective response rate was 60% (30% CR) in HL patients and 88% (63% CR) in systemic ALCL patients. The estimated median duration of response for patients with an objective response was 9.5 months (range, 0.0+ to 28.0+ months) at the time of study closure. Of the 19 patients with objective response, 7 patients had not had an event of disease progression or death at the time of study closure; duration of response for these patients ranged from 3.5 to 28 months. Of the 11 patients with CR, 45% had response durations of over 1 year. Adverse events (AEs) occurring in ≥25% of patients during the retreatment period were generally similar in type and frequency to those observed in the pivotal trials of brentuximab vedotin monotherapy, with the exception of peripheral neuropathy, which is known to have a cumulative effect. Grade 3 or higher events were observed in 48% of patients; these were generally transient and managed by dose modifications or delays. Deaths due to AEs occurred in 3 HL patients; none were considered to be related to brentuximab vedotin retreatment. Discussion With the exception of a higher rate of peripheral motor neuropathy

  13. NSOM/QD-based direct visualization of CD3-induced and CD28-enhanced nanospatial coclustering of TCR and coreceptor in nanodomains in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liyun; Zeng, Gucheng; Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W

    2009-06-17

    Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2-4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and approximately 6-10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70-110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200-500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3-CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation.

  14. MHC-derived allopeptide activates TCR-biased CD8+ Tregs and suppresses organ rejection

    PubMed Central

    Picarda, Elodie; Bézie, Séverine; Venturi, Vanessa; Echasserieau, Klara; Mérieau, Emmanuel; Delhumeau, Aurélie; Renaudin, Karine; Brouard, Sophie; Bernardeau, Karine; Anegon, Ignacio; Guillonneau, Carole

    2014-01-01

    In a rat heart allograft model, preventing T cell costimulation with CD40Ig leads to indefinite allograft survival, which is mediated by the induction of CD8+CD45RClo regulatory T cells (CD8+CD40Ig Tregs) interacting with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). The role of TCR-MHC-peptide interaction in regulating Treg activity remains a topic of debate. Here, we identified a donor MHC class II–derived peptide (Du51) that is recognized by TCR-biased CD8+CD40Ig Tregs and activating CD8+CD40Ig Tregs in both its phenotype and suppression of antidonor alloreactive T cell responses. We generated a labeled tetramer (MHC-I RT1.Aa/Du51) to localize and quantify Du51-specific T cells within rat cardiac allografts and spleen. RT1.Aa/Du51-specific CD8+CD40Ig Tregs were the most suppressive subset of the total Treg population, were essential for in vivo tolerance induction, and expressed a biased, restricted Vβ11-TCR repertoire in the spleen and the graft. Finally, we demonstrated that treatment of transplant recipients with the Du51 peptide resulted in indefinite prolongation of allograft survival. These results show that CD8+CD40Ig Tregs recognize a dominant donor antigen, resulting in TCR repertoire alterations in the graft and periphery. Furthermore, this allopeptide has strong therapeutic activity and highlights the importance of TCR-peptide-MHC interaction for Treg generation and function. PMID:24789907

  15. Preserved Activity of CD20-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T Cells in the Presence of Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Rufener, Gregory A; Press, Oliver W; Olsen, Philip; Lee, Sang Yun; Jensen, Michael C; Gopal, Ajay K; Pender, Barbara; Budde, Lihua E; Rossow, Jeffrey K; Green, Damian J; Maloney, David G; Riddell, Stanley R; Till, Brian G

    2016-06-01

    CD20 is an attractive immunotherapy target for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting CD20 is a promising strategy. A theoretical limitation is that residual serum rituximab might block CAR binding to CD20 and thereby impede T cell-mediated anti-lymphoma responses. The activity of CD20 CAR-modified T cells in the presence of various concentrations of rituximab was tested in vitro and in vivo CAR-binding sites on CD20(+) tumor cells were blocked by rituximab in a dose-dependent fashion, although at 37°C blockade was incomplete at concentrations up to 200 μg/mL. T cells with CD20 CARs also exhibited modest dose-dependent reductions in cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity, but not proliferation, against lymphoma cell lines. At rituximab concentrations of 100 μg/mL, CAR T cells retained ≥50% of baseline activity against targets with high CD20 expression, but were more strongly inhibited when target cells expressed low CD20. In a murine xenograft model using a rituximab-refractory lymphoma cell line, rituximab did not impair CAR T-cell activity, and tumors were eradicated in >85% of mice. Clinical residual rituximab serum concentrations were measured in 103 lymphoma patients after rituximab therapy, with the median level found to be only 38 μg/mL (interquartile range, 19-72 μg/mL). Thus, despite modest functional impairment in vitro, the in vivo activity of CD20-targeted CAR T cells remains intact at clinically relevant levels of rituximab, making use of these T cells clinically feasible. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 509-19. ©2016 AACR

  16. CD4/CD8 ratio is a promising candidate for non-invasive measurement of liver fibrosis in chronic HCV-monoinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Feuth, Thijs; van Baarle, Debbie; van Erpecum, Karel J; Siersema, Peter D; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Arends, Joop E

    2014-07-01

    The extent of liver fibrosis is an important factor in prognosis and clinical decision-making in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We investigated CD4/CD8 ratio in HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, in order to reveal its relation with liver fibrosis. CD4/CD8 ratio in the peripheral blood was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of 19 HCV-monoinfected, 14 HIV/HCV-coinfected, ten HIV-monoinfected patients and 15 healthy controls. Liver fibrosis was assessed by transient elastography (n = 25) or by liver biopsy (n = 8). Coinfection with HIV was associated with decreased CD4/CD8 ratios in chronic HCV-infected patients, despite adequate antiretroviral treatment. Furthermore, HCV-monoinfected patients with F3-F4 liver fibrosis demonstrated much lower CD4/CD8 ratios than patients with F0-F2 fibrosis (1.4 versus 2.5, p = 0.023). Similarly, we observed a strong negative correlation between the CD4/CD8 ratio and liver stiffness measured by transient elastography (R = -0.78, p = 0.0006). ROC analysis revealed that CD4/CD8 ratio as a non-invasive marker for fibrosis is very promising (area under the curve 0.8). Although our study was performed with a relatively small number of patients, our findings suggest that the CD4/CD8 ratio is a promising candidate for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis in HCV-monoinfected patients.

  17. Neuromodulatory activities of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in a murine model of HIV-1 associated neurodegeneration1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianuo; Gong, Nan; Huang, Xiuyan; Reynolds, Ashley D.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 associated neurocognitive impairments are intrinsically linked to microglial immune activation, persistent viral infection, and inflammation. In the era of antiretroviral therapy more subtle cognitive impairments occur without adaptive immune compromise. We posit that adaptive immunity is neuroprotective serving both in eliminating infected cells through CD8+ cytotoxic T cell activities and by regulating the neuroinflammatory responses of activated microglia. For the latter, little is known. Thus, we studied the neuromodulatory effects of CD4+ regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+, Treg) or effector T cells (Teff) in HIV-1 associated neurodegeneration. A newly developed HIV-1 encephalitis mouse model system was employed wherein murine bone marrow-derived macrophages are infected with a full length HIV-1YU2/vesicular stomatitis viral pseudotype and injected into basal ganglia of syngeneic immunocompetent mice. Adoptive transfer of CD3-activated Treg attenuated astrogliosis and microglia inflammation with concomitant neuroprotection. Moreover, Treg-mediated anti-inflammatory activities and neuroprotection were associated with upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor expression and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and viral replication. Teff showed contrary effects. These results, taken together, demonstrate the importance of Treg in disease control and raise the possibility of their utility for therapeutic strategies. PMID:19265165

  18. High CD133 Expression Is Associated with Worse Prognosis in Patients with Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Huanran; Lv, Shengqing; Yang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    The CD133 antigen has been identified as a putative stem cell marker in gliomas. However, the prognostic significance of CD133 expression in glioblastoma patients remained controversial. A meta-analysis of published data was performed to comprehensively assess the prognostic role of CD133 expression in glioblastoma patients. Publications assessing the prognostic significance of CD133 expression in glioblastoma patients were identified in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to November 2014. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated using meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic significance of CD133 expression in glioblastoma. Ten studies with a total of 715 glioblastoma patients were included into the meta-analysis. Overall, high CD133 expression was associated with poorer overall survival in patients with glioblastoma (HR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.46-2.64, P < 0.001). In addition, high CD133 expression was also associated with poorer progression-free survival in patients with glioblastoma (HR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.43-2.88, P < 0.001). Meta-analyses of studies with high quality showed that high CD133 expression was associated with both poorer overall survival (HR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.77-3.23, P < 0.001) and poorer progression-free survival (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.60-2.94, P < 0.001) in patients with glioblastoma. Meta-analysis of studies with adjusted estimates further showed that high CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor of glioblastoma. High CD133 expression is associated with worse prognosis in patients with glioblastoma. More prospective studies with well-design are needed to confirm this finding.

  19. CD4(+) memory T cells retain surface expression of CD31 independently of thymic function in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders following autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Batorov, Egor V; Tikhonova, Marina A; Kryuchkova, Irina V; Sergeevicheva, Vera V; Sizikova, Svetlana A; Ushakova, Galina Y; Batorova, Dariya S; Gilevich, Andrey V; Ostanin, Alexander A; Shevela, Ekaterina Y; Chernykh, Elena R

    2017-03-14

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) causes severe and long-lasting immunodeficiency in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. The thymus begins to restore the T-cell repertoire approximately from the sixth month post-transplant. We assessed the dynamics of post-transplant recovery of CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells, "recent thymic emigrants" (RTEs), and a poorly described subtype of CD4(+)CD45RA(-)CD31(+) T cells in 90 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders following high-dose chemotherapy with AHSCT. Relative and absolute counts of CD4(+)CD31(+) naïve and memory T cells were evaluated before AHSCT, at the day of engraftment, and 6- and 12-month post-transplant. The pre-transplant count of CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells was lower than in healthy controls, and did not reach donors' values during the 12-month period. The pre-transplant number of CD4(+)CD45RA(-)CD31(+) T cells was higher than in healthy controls and was restored rapidly following AHSCT. Post-transplant mediastinal radiotherapy reduced counts of RTEs and elongated recovery period. Non-thymic tissue irradiation did not reduce this subset. The obtained data indicate that homeostatic proliferation may decrease the significance of CD31 expression on CD4(+)CD45RA(+) T cells as a marker of RTEs, and suggest that evaluation of RTEs recovery by flow cytometry requires an accurate gating strategy to exclude CD31(+) memory T cells.

  20. CD8+ T lymphocytes in lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Daniil, Zoe; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Kapotsis, George; Mathioudaki, Maria; Kollintza, Androniki; Karatza, Marilena; Milic-Emili, Joseph; Roussos, Charis; Papiris, Spyros A

    2005-01-01

    Background Several studies have implicated a role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of lung damage in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Parenchymal lung damage leads to defects in mechanics and gas exchange and clinically manifests with exertional dyspnea. Investigations of inflammatory cells in IPF have shown that eosinophils, neutrophils and CD8+ TLs may be associated with worse prognosis. We wished to investigate by quantitative immunohistochemistry infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils and T lymphocytes (TLs) subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+) in lung tissue of patients with IPF and their correlation with lung function indices and grade of dyspnoea. Methods Surgical biopsies of 12 patients with IPF were immunohistochemically stained with mouse monoclonal antibodies (anti-CD68 for macrophages, anti-elastase for neutrophils, and anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD8 for CD3+TLs, CD4+TLs, and CD8+TLs respectively). The number of positively stained cells was determined by observer-interactive computerized image analysis (SAMBA microscopic image processor). Cell numbers were expressed in percentage of immunopositive nuclear surface in relation to the total nuclear surface of infiltrative cells within the tissue (labeling Index). Correlations were performed between cell numbers and physiological indices [FEV1, FVC, TLC, DLCO, PaO2, PaCO2 and P(A-a)O2)] as well as dyspnoea scores assessed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Results Elastase positive cells accounted for the 7.04% ± 1.1 of total cells, CD68+ cells for the 16.6% ± 2, CD3+ TLs for the 28.8% ± 7, CD4+ TLs for the 14.5 ± 4 and CD8+ TLs for the 13.8 ± 4. CD8+TLs correlated inversely with FVC % predicted (rs = -0.67, p = 0.01), TLC % predicted (rs = -0.68, p = 0.01), DLCO % predicted (rs = -0.61, p = 0.04), and PaO2 (rs = -0.60, p = 0.04). Positive correlations were found between CD8+TLs and P(A-a)O2 (rs = 0.65, p = 0.02) and CD8+TLs and MRC score (rs = 0.63, p = 0.02). Additionally, CD68+ cells

  1. In vivo transmigrated monocytes from patients with stable coronary artery disease have a reduced expression of CD11b.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, J M; Dadfar, E; Held, C; Jacobson, S H; Lundahl, J

    2008-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by infiltration of monocyte derived cells in the intima of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that accumulation of these cells is caused partly by an altered monocyte transmigration process in CAD. To gain insight into this issue we applied the skin blister method that allows collection of in vivo transmigrated cells at sites of local inflammation. Nineteen patients with stable CAD and 19 matched controls were enrolled. Markers of inflammation and gradients of chemokines, as well as adhesion molecule expression and up-regulation capacity, were studied. The expression of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-10, was similar in patients and controls, indicating that patients were in a stable phase of the disease. Expression of adhesion molecules, CD11b and very late activation antigen-4, on peripheral monocytes did not differ between patients and controls. However, following in vivo transmigration, monocytes in patients with CAD had a significantly reduced expression and mobilization of CD11b. The effect on CD11b could not be reproduced by in vitro stimulation with blister fluid, representing a local inflammatory milieu, or in an in vitro system of transmigration. These findings point towards differences in monocyte CD11b expression and availability at an inflammatory site between patients with CAD and healthy controls.

  2. Anti-CD38 autoimmunity in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves' disease

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, A; Fallahi, P; Nesti, C; Pupilli, C; Marchetti, P; Takasawa, S; Okamoto, H; Ferrannini, E

    2001-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against human CD38 (an enzyme catalysing the interconversion of NAD+ and cyclic ADP-ribose) have been demonstrated recently in patients with type 2 diabetes. We tested 220 consecutive Caucasian patients with autoimmune chronic thyroiditis, 104 patients with Graves' disease, 220 subjects from the general population (control I) and 78 healthy control subjects not affected by thyroid autoimmune disorders (control II) for the presence of anti-CD38 autoimmunity. Using Western blot analysis and optical densitometry, a specific band corresponding to human recombinant CD38 was identified in the serum of several subjects. By defining anti-CD38 positivity as a standardized optical reading >3 s.d. higher than the mean value of control I, 10·4% of patients with thyroiditis and 7·7% of Graves' patients were anti-CD38 positive (P = 0·0009 versus 1·8% of control I). Similarly, 13·1% of patients with thyroiditis and 10·5% of Graves' patients had a standardized optical reading >3 s.d. higher than the mean value of the subjects not affected by thyroid autoimmune disorders (P = 0·002 versus 1·2% of control II). Anti-CD38 autoimmunity did not differ between euthyroid, hyperthyroid or hypothyroid patients or between patients with or without thyroid hypoechogenicity. Anti-CD38 autoantibodies were associated with higher levels of circulating antithyroid-peroxidase antibodies (P = 0·03) and they were more frequent in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy (P < 0·05). Anti-CD38 autoantibodies are a new autoimmune marker in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves' disease. The specific role of CD38 and its autoantibodies in the modulation of thyroid cell function or growth remains to be investigated. PMID:11737057

  3. Oestrogen up-regulates interleukin-21 production by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Shin, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Seon-Yeong; Her, Yang-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which abnormal immune responses are mediated by tissue-binding autoantibodies and immune complex deposition. Because most SLE patients are women of child-bearing age, oestrogen has been suggested to play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. One proposed role is to induce B-cell activation, culminating in increased autoantibody production. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been shown to be crucial in the differentiation of activated B cells into plasma cells. We therefore hypothesized that oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 production and induces subsequent B-cell activation in SLE patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from 22 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls. Expression levels of IL-21 and its receptor in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CD4(+) T cells were higher in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Exposure of CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients to 17β-oestradiol led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in IL-21 expression, which was abolished in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (MAPK kinase, p38, Jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitors. B cells from healthy controls showed increased antibody production when they were co-cultured with oestrogen-treated CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients. Treatment with IL-21 antibody abrogated the increased antibody production of the co-culture systems. This study revealed the association between oestrogen and IL-21 in SLE patients. Oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 expression of CD4(+) T cells via MAPK-dependent pathways in SLE patients, which in turn induces increased antibody production by B cells.

  4. Tetraspanin CD9 modulates human lymphoma cellular proliferation via histone deacetylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, Michael J.; Longhurst, Celia M.; Baker, Benjamin; Homayouni, Ramin; Speich, Henry E.; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Jennings, Lisa K.

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • CD9 is differentially expressed in human Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. • We found that CD9 expression promotes these cells proliferation. • CD9 expression also increases HDAC activity. • HDAC inhibition decreased both cell proliferation and importantly CD9 expression. • CD9 may dictate HDAC efficacy and play a role in HDAC regulation. - Abstract: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a type of hematological malignancy that affects two percent of the overall population in the United States. Tetraspanin CD9 is a cell surface protein that has been thoroughly demonstrated to be a molecular facilitator of cellular phenotype. CD9 expression varies in two human lymphoma cell lines, Raji and BJAB. In this report, we investigated the functional relationship between CD9 and cell proliferation regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in these two cell lines. Introduction of CD9 expression in Raji cells resulted in significantly increased cell proliferation and HDAC activity compared to Mock transfected Raji cells. The increase in CD9–Raji cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment. Pretreatment of BJAB cells with HDAC inhibitors resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous CD9 mRNA and cell surface expression. BJAB cells also displayed decreased cell proliferation after HDACi treatment. These results suggest a significant relationship between CD9 expression and cell proliferation in human lymphoma cells that may be modulated by HDAC activity.

  5. [CD200 protein, bad prognostic in patients with multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; García-Ruiz Esparza, M A; Padilla-González, Y; Pérez-Retiguin, F; Reyes-Maldonado, E; Maillet, D; Montiel-Cervantes, L A

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el mieloma múltiple (MM) es una gammopatía monoclonal caracterizada por la proliferación anormal de células plasmáticas malignas. La proteína CD200 se ha descrito como una proteína con funciones inmunosupresoras y que es un factor de mal pronóstico en algunas enfermedades malignas, incluyendo al MM. El objetivo de este artículo es determinar la cantidad de proteína CD200 en células plasmáticas de pacientes con MM de reciente diagnóstico y en linfocitos CD3+ de donadores sanos. Métodos: se estudiaron 35 pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de MM y 25 individuos sanos. Se usaron los anticuerpos monoclonales para CD38 (PeCyC5), CD138 (APC), y CD200 (PE). El análisis estadístico fue realizado con el programa SPSS 19v. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadísticas U de Mann Whitney, curvas de supervivencia de Kaplan y Meier y la prueba de log-rank. Resultados: las frecuencias de anemia, hipercalcemia, elevación de DHL, creatinina sérica y beta-2 microglobulina fueron de 68%, 34%, 20%, 22% y 45% respectivamente. El tratamiento administrado fue MPT 20, Tal-Dex 8, y VAD 7. Cinco pacientes lograron respuesta completa, 17 respuesta parcial, y 13 respuesta menor o falla al tratamiento. Conclusiones: el CD200 es un factor de mal pronóstico para supervivencia global en pacientes con mieloma múltiple. Los linfocitos CD3+ de medula ósea de pacientes con MM expresan en mayor proporción CD200 en comparación con sujetos sanos.

  6. Ex vivo expansion and long-term hematopoietic reconstitution ability of sorted CD34+CD59+ cells from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Juan; Han, Bing; Wu, Yong-Ji; Zhong, Yu-ping; Sun, Wan-ling

    2010-07-01

    Autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) remains difficult so far. To expand residual normal CD34(+)CD59(+) cells isolated from patients with PNH and observe the long-term hematopoietic reconstruction ability of the expanded cells both ex vivo and in vivo, CD34(+)CD59(+) cells from 13 PNH patients and CD34(+) cells from 11 normal controls were separated from bone marrow mononuclear cells first by immunomagnetic microbeads and then by flow cytometry autoclone sorting. The cells were then cultivated under different conditions. The long-term hematopoietic supporting ability of expanded CD34(+)CD59(+) cells was evaluated by long-term culture in semi-solid medium in vitro and long-term engraftment in irradiated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice in vivo. The best combination of hematopoietic growth factors for ex vivo expansion was SCF + IL-3 + IL-6 + FL + Tpo + Epo. The most suitable time for harvest was on day 7. CD34(+)CD59(+) PNH cells retained strong colony-forming capacity even after expansion. The survival rate, complete blood cell count recovery on day 90, and human CD45 expression in different organs were similar between the irradiated SCID mice transplanted with expanded CD34(+)CD59(+) PNH cells and those with normal CD34(+) cells (P > 0.05) both in primary and secondary transplantation. These data provided a new potential way of managing PNH with ABMT.

  7. A subset of CD45+/CD19 - cells in bone marrow may be associated with clinical outcomes of patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Seung-Tae; Ryu, Kyung Ju; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee; Ko, Young Hye; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma has features of both indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Repeated relapses leading to treatment failure in patients with mantle cell lymphoma might suggest the presence of cancer stem cells. A small cell population with CD45+/CD19 - was previously reported to represent cancer stem cells. We evaluated the clinical relevance of CD45+/CD19 - cells in bone marrow of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (n = 20). A CD45+/CD19 - cell population was observed in newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma, and its percentage correlated with tumor cells in bone marrow (r = 0.832, p = 0.001) and score on the simplified mantle cell lymphoma prognostic index (r = 0.675, p = 0.016). After treatment, CD45+/CD19 - cells decreased (mean: 0.012%), and CD45+/CD19 - cells (0.276%) were higher at relapse or progression than at diagnosis. In conclusion, a CD45+/CD19 - cell population in bone marrow aspirates correlated with the clinical outcome of patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

  8. High expression of CD39 in gastric cancer reduces patient outcome following radical resection

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Xue-Fei; Li, Jun; Dong, Jiang-Nan; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Li, Neng-Ping; Yun, Bei; Xia, Rong-Long; Qin, Jing; Sun, Yi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1), also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)39, is the rate-limiting enzyme in the generation of immunosuppressive adenosine and is important in tumor progression. The present study evaluated the expression of CD39+ and CD39+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in gastric cancer (GC), and determined their prognostic roles in patients with GC following radical resection. It was observed that CD39 was expressed at significantly higher rates in tumor tissues as compared with paired peritumoral tissues. Overexpression of tumor CD39 was correlated with overall survival (OS). Furthermore, CD39 expression in GC tissues exhibited a prognostic role in OS. The CD39+ FoxP3+/FoxP3+ ratio in tumor tissues was higher than that in paired peritumoral tissues, and CD39+ FoxP3+ Treg cells were a better prognostic indicator than FoxP3+ Treg cells for OS. Collectively, our study indicates that overexpression of CD39 in GC is a predictor of poor outcome for GC patients following radical resection. CD39+ FoxP3+ Treg cells are a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27895775

  9. CD5-CK2 Signaling Modulates Erk Activation and Thymocyte Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mier-Aguilar, Carlos A.; Cashman, Kevin S.; Raman, Chander; Soldevila, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    CD5 is well recognized for its importance in thymic selection. Although this property of CD5 has been attributed to its ITIM-domain dependent regulation of TCR-signal strength, the mechanism has not been established. A second major signaling domain within the cytoplasmic tail of CD5 is a CK2 binding/activation domain (CD5-CK2BD). Using a gene-targeted mouse in which the CD5-CK2BD is selectively ablated (CD5-ΔCK2BD), we determined that loss of function of CD5-CK2 signaling in a MHC-II selecting TCR transgenic (OT-II) mouse resulted in decrease in double positive (DP) thymocytes, which correlated with enhanced apoptosis. Remarkably, DP cells expressing high levels of CD5 and CD69 and single positive (CD4+SP) thymocytes were increased in CD5-ΔCK2BD mice indicating that CD5-CK2 signaling regulates positive selection and promotes survival. Consistent with this possibility, we determined that the activation and nuclear localization of ERK as well as apoptosis was greater in thymic populations from OTII CD5-ΔCK2BD mice than OTII CD5-WT mice following injection of OVA323-339-peptide. The mobilization of Ca2+, an early event of TCR activation, was not altered by the loss of CD5-CK2 signaling. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the CD5-CK2 signaling axis regulates positive selection by modulating activation of ERK and promoting survival independent of proximal TCR signals. PMID:28030587

  10. Activation of myeloid and endothelial cells by CD40L gene therapy supports T-cell expansion and migration into the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, E; Moreno, R; Milenova, I; Liljenfeldt, L; Dieterich, L C; Christiansson, L; Karlsson, H; Ullenhag, G; Mangsbo, S M; Dimberg, A; Alemany, R; Loskog, A

    2017-02-01

    CD40 is an interesting target in cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to stimulate T-helper 1 immunity via maturation of dendritic cells and to drive M2 to M1 macrophage differentiation. Pancreatic cancer has a high M2 content that has shown responsive to anti-CD40 agonist therapy and CD40 may thus be a suitable target for immune activation in these patients. In this study, a novel oncolytic adenovirus armed with a trimerized membrane-bound extracellular CD40L (TMZ-CD40L) was evaluated as a treatment of pancreatic cancer. Further, the CD40L mechanisms of action were elucidated in cancer models. The results demonstrated that the virus transferring TMZ-CD40L had oncolytic capacity in pancreatic cancer cells and could control tumor progression. TMZ-CD40L was a potent stimulator of human myeloid cells and T-cell responses. Further, CD40L-mediated stimulation increased tumor-infiltrating T cells in vivo, which may be due to a direct activation of endothelial cells to upregulate receptors for lymphocyte attachment and transmigration. In conclusion, CD40L-mediated gene therapy is an interesting concept for the treatment of tumors with high levels of M2 macrophages, such as pancreatic cancer, and an oncolytic virus as carrier of CD40L may further boost tumor killing and immune activation.

  11. HCV coinfection does not alter the frequency of regulatory T cells or CD8+ T cell immune activation in chronically infected HIV+ Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yan; Wei, Xiaoyan; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jiucong; Kang, Wenzhen; Sun, Yongtao

    2012-09-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) is a subset of CD4(+) T cells that play a critical role in regulating the immune responses. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with T cell abnormalities and alters effector T cell function. There are a large number of patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we evaluated the proportion of CD4(+) Treg cells expressing CD25 and FOXP3, and the status of immune activation of CD8(+) T cells in 60 Chinese patients chronically infected with HIV and/or HCV. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the level of Treg cells and immune activated CD8(+) T cells. We observed that the Treg level was upregulated in HIV infection and HCV infection could not enhance this kind of upregulation significantly. The level of Treg cells was negatively correlated with CD4(+) T cell counts and positively correlated with HIV viral loads. We observed considerably elevated CD38 and HLA-DR expression in CD8(+) T cells in HIV-infected subjects but not in HCV-infected patients in comparison to that in healthy controls. There is no significant difference concerning the proportion of CD8(+) T cells expressing CD38 or HLA-DR between HIV-1-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. After 12-week HAART, the proportion of Treg cells dropped, but still more than the level in healthy controls. HAART could reverse the abnormal immune activation of CD8(+) T cells. The decrease of Tregs did not alter the downregulation of HIV-1-specific CTL responses in these HIV-infected patients after HAART therapy. The level of HIV virus might be the key point for the decline of CTL responses.

  12. High interindividual variability in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and natalizumab concentration levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harrer, A; Pilz, G; Wipfler, P; Oppermann, K; Sellner, J; Hitzl, W; Haschke-Becher, E; Afazel, S; Rispens, T; van der Kleij, D; Trinka, E; Kraus, J

    2015-01-01

    Strongly decreased leucocyte counts and a reduced CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of natalizumab (NZB)-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients may have implications on central nervous (CNS) immune surveillance. With regard to NZB-associated progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy, we aimed at delineating a relationship between free NZB, cell-bound NZB, adhesion molecule (AM) expression and the treatment-associated shift in the CSF T cell ratio. Peripheral blood (PB) and CSF T cells from 15 NZB-treated MS patients, and CSF T cells from 10 patients with non-inflammatory neurological diseases and five newly diagnosed MS patients were studied. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), leucocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), NZB saturation levels, and T cell ratios were analysed by flow cytometry. NZB concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lower NZB saturation levels (P < 0·02) and a higher surface expression of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 (P < 0·001) were observed on CSF CD8 T cells. CSF T cell ratios (0·3–2·1) and NZB concentrations (0·01–0·42 µg/ml) showed a pronounced interindividual variance. A correlation between free NZB, cell-bound NZB or AM expression levels and the CSF T cell ratio was not found. Extremely low NZB concentrations and a normalized CSF T cell ratio were observed in one case. The differential NZB saturation and AM expression of CSF CD8 T cells may contribute to their relative enrichment in the CSF. The reduced CSF T cell ratio appeared sensitive to steady-state NZB levels, as normalization occurred quickly. The latter may be important concerning a fast reconstitution of CNS immune surveillance. PMID:25603898

  13. T-cell receptor. gamma. chain-CD3 complex: implication in the cytotoxic activity of a CD3/sup +/ CD4/sup -/ CD8/sup -/ human natural killer clone

    SciTech Connect

    Alarcon, B.; De Vries, J.; Pettey, C.; Boylston, A.; Yssel, H.; Terhorst, C.; Spits, H.

    1987-06-01

    A subset of human T cells has recently been described. These cells express the CD3 complex but they do not carry the classical T-cell receptor (TCR)-..gamma../-..beta.. heterodimer on their surface (WT31/sup -/ CD3/sup +/). Instead, they express a TCR-..gamma.. chain associated with another type of polypeptide termed TCR-delta. The authors report here that a T-cell clone with natural killer (NK)-like activity, WM-14, had a disulfide bridged TCR-..gamma.. homodimer associated with CD3 on its surface. The TCR-..gamma.. chains of WM-14 cells were present in three different glycosylation forms of 43, 40, and 38 kDa, but they appeared to contain the same polypeptide backbone. Since cytotoxicity by WM-14 could be inhibited by anti-CD3 antibodies, they concluded that the TCR-..gamma..-CD3 complex was involved in the NK-like unrestricted killer activity. Although normal CD3-..gamma.., CD3-delta, and CD3-element of chains were present in this clone, the association with the TCR-..gamma.. homodimer may be the cause of a complete processing of the N-linked oligosaccharides attached to the CD3-delta chain.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of the BD FACSPresto™ Near-Patient CD4 Counter in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Angira, Francis; Akoth, Benta; Omolo, Paul; Opollo, Valarie; Bornheimer, Scott; Judge, Kevin; Tilahun, Henok; Lu, Beverly; Omana-Zapata, Imelda; Zeh, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background The BD FACSPresto™ Near-Patient CD4 Counter was developed to expand HIV/AIDS management in resource-limited settings. It measures absolute CD4 counts (AbsCD4), percent CD4 (%CD4), and hemoglobin (Hb) from a single drop of capillary or venous blood in approximately 23 minutes, with throughput of 10 samples per hour. We assessed the performance of the BD FACSPresto system, evaluating accuracy, stability, linearity, precision, and reference intervals using capillary and venous blood at KEMRI/CDC HIV-research laboratory, Kisumu, Kenya, and precision and linearity at BD Biosciences, California, USA. Methods For accuracy, venous samples were tested using the BD FACSCalibur™ instrument with BD Tritest™ CD3/CD4/CD45 reagent, BD Trucount™ tubes, and BD Multiset™ software for AbsCD4 and %CD4, and the Sysmex™ KX-21N for Hb. Stability studies evaluated duration of staining (18–120-minute incubation), and effects of venous blood storage <6–24 hours post-draw. A normal cohort was tested for reference intervals. Precision covered multiple days, operators, and instruments. Linearity required mixing two pools of samples, to obtain evenly spaced concentrations for AbsCD4, total lymphocytes, and Hb. Results AbsCD4 and %CD4 venous/capillary (N = 189/ N = 162) accuracy results gave Deming regression slopes within 0.97–1.03 and R2 ≥0.96. For Hb, Deming regression results were R2 ≥0.94 and slope ≥0.94 for both venous and capillary samples. Stability varied within 10% 2 hours after staining and for venous blood stored less than 24 hours. Reference intervals results showed that gender—but not age—differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Precision results had <3.5% coefficient of variation for AbsCD4, %CD4, and Hb, except for low AbsCD4 samples (<6.8%). Linearity was 42–4,897 cells/μL for AbsCD4, 182–11,704 cells/μL for total lymphocytes, and 2–24 g/dL for Hb. Conclusions The BD FACSPresto system provides accurate, precise clinical

  15. Preparation of aminodextran-CdS nanoparticle complexes and biologically active antibody-aminodextran-CdS nanoparticle conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Sondi, I.; Siiman, O.; Koester, S.; Matijevic, E.

    2000-04-04

    Stable aqueous dispersions consisting of CdS nanoparticles having modal diameters, ranging between 2 and 8 nm, were prepared with amino-derivatized polysaccharides (aminodextrans, hence abbreviated as Amdex) as the stabilizing agents. The size, stability, and luminescence intensity of such dispersions were shown to be dependent on the types of the cadmium salts and aminodextrans used, as well as on the reactant concentrations. Specifically, it was demonstrated that the degree of substitution of amino groups in the aminodextran molecules greatly affected the properties of the dispersions; i.e., with higher degree of substitution, smaller CdS particles and higher luminescence intensity were achieved. It was also shown that the Amdex-CdS nanoparticle complexes could be activated and conjugated with antibody by conventional means. Molecular weight ranges of the Amdex and their complexes with CdS nanoparticles and the purity of antibody-Amdex-CdS nanoparticle conjugates were determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with Coomassie blue staining of resultant gel bands. The purified conjugate of the aminodextran-CdS nanoparticle complex with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody was mixed with a whole blood control, followed by indirect sheep antimouse antibody-phycoerythrin (SAM-PE) labeling of washed cells incubated with T4-5X-Amdex-CdS. Red blood cells were then lysed and quenched, and the resulting mixture, which was run on a flow cytometer with 488.0 nm argon ion laser excitation, suggested that the T4 antibody from the conjugate was present specifically on lymphocytes.

  16. Changes in T cell subsets identify responders to FcR non-binding anti-CD3 mAb (teplizumab) in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, James E; Vudattu, Nalini; Choi, Jinmyung; Cotsapas, Chris; Devine, Lesley; Raddassi, Khadir; Ehlers, Mario R; McNamara, James G; Harris, Kristina M; Kanaparthi, Sai; Phippard, Deborah; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby immune therapies affect progression of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not well understood. Teplizumab, an FcR non-binding anti-CD3 mAb, has shown efficacy in multiple randomized clinical trials. We previously reported an increase in the frequency of circulating CD8+ central memory (CD8CM) T cells in clinical responders, but the generalizability of this finding and the molecular effects of teplizumab on these T cells have not been evaluated. We analyzed data from 2 randomized clinical studies of teplizumab in patients with new and recent onset T1D. At the conclusion of therapy clinical responders showed a significant reduction in circulating CD4+ effector memory (CD4EM) T cells. Afterwards, there was an increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD8CM T cells. In vitro, teplizumab expanded CD8CM T cells by proliferation and conversion of non-CM T cells. Nanostring analysis of gene expression of CD8CM T cells from responders and non-responders vs placebo-treated control subjects identified decreases in expression of genes associated with immune activation and increases in expression of genes associated with T cell differentiation and regulation. We conclude that CD8CM T cells with decreased activation and regulatory gene expression are associated with clinical responses to teplizumab in patients with T1D. PMID:26518356

  17. Serum Soluble CD163 and its association with various disease parameters in patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Waleed Ahmed Salah Eldeen; Baraka, Eman Abd Elaleem; Elnady, Basant Mohammed; Gouda, Tahany Mahmoud; Fouad, Nehad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163) is a receptor that binds haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is mainly expressed on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in the blood as a soluble CD163 (sCD163). This study aimed to measure serum sCD163 levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to assess its association with the clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of the disease. Material and Methods We measured serum sCD163 levels in 24 patients with SSc and in 30 healthy controls. Complete history of the patients was recorded and thorough clinical, rheumatological, and dermatological examinations were performed. For SSc, the skin thickness score was scored according to the modified Rodnan skin score method and pulmonary involvement was assessed in all patients using high-resolution computed tomography and by performing pulmonary function tests. Results The mean serum sCD163 levels in patients with diffuse and limited SSc (61.64±19.57 and 60.8±21.43 ng/mL, respectively) demonstrated a highly statistically significant increase compared with the mean serum levels in healthy controls (36.97±16.37 ng/mL) (p<0.001). Patients with SSc having elevated serum sCD163 levels had significantly higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) than those with normal serum sCD163 levels (p<0.05). Furthermore, the serum sCD163 levels were significantly correlated with PASP (r=0.53, p<0.05) in patients with SSc. The mean serum sCD163 level in patients with SSc having digital ulceration (DU) (70.82±18.3 ng/mL) demonstrated a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) compared with that in SSC patients without DU (53.23±18.09 ng/mL). Conclusion The elevated serum sCD163 levels in patients with SSc and its association with pulmonary hypertension suggest a possible role of macrophages in the pathogenesis and vascular involvement of SSc. PMID:27733938

  18. Interview: glycolipid antigen presentation by CD1d and the therapeutic potential of NKT cell activation.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Natural Killer T cells (NKT) are critical determinants of the immune response to cancer, regulation of autioimmune disease, clearance of infectious agents, and the development of artheriosclerotic plaques. In this interview, Mitch Kronenberg discusses his laboratory's efforts to understand the mechanism through which NKT cells are activated by glycolipid antigens. Central to these studies is CD1d--the antigen presenting molecule that presents glycolipids to NKT cells. The advent of CD1d tetramer technology, a technique developed by the Kronenberg lab, is critical for the sorting and identification of subsets of specific glycolipid-reactive T cells. Mitch explains how glycolipid agonists are being used as therapeutic agents to activate NKT cells in cancer patients and how CD1d tetramers can be used to assess the state of the NKT cell population in vivo following glycolipid agonist therapy. Current status of ongoing clinical trials using these agonists are discussed as well as Mitch's prediction for areas in the field of immunology that will have emerging importance in the near future.

  19. CD4+ T Cells Are as Protective as CD8+ T Cells against Rickettsia typhi Infection by Activating Macrophage Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moderzynski, Kristin; Papp, Stefanie; Rauch, Jessica; Heine, Liza; Kuehl, Svenja; Richardt, Ulricke; Fleischer, Bernhard; Osterloh, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi is an intracellular bacterium that causes endemic typhus, a febrile disease that can be fatal due to complications including pneumonia, hepatitis and meningoencephalitis, the latter being a regular outcome in T and B cell-deficient C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice upon Rickettsia typhi infection. Here, we show that CD4+ TH1 cells that are generated in C57BL/6 mice upon R. typhi infection are as protective as cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. CD4+- as well as CD8+-deficient C57BL/6 survived the infection without showing symptoms of disease at any point in time. Moreover, adoptively transferred CD8+ and CD4+ immune T cells entered the CNS of C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice with advanced infection and both eradicated the bacteria. However, immune CD4+ T cells protected only approximately 60% of the animals from death. They induced the expression of iNOS in infiltrating macrophages as well as in resident microglia in the CNS which can contribute to bacterial killing but also accelerate pathology. In vitro immune CD4+ T cells inhibited bacterial growth in infected macrophages which was in part mediated by the release of IFNγ. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are as protective as CD8+ T cells against R. typhi, provided that CD4+ TH1 effector cells are present in time to support bactericidal activity of phagocytes via the release of IFNγ and other factors. With regard to vaccination against TG Rickettsiae, our findings suggest that the induction of CD4+ TH1 effector cells is sufficient for protection. PMID:27875529

  20. CD38+ CD58- is an independent adverse prognostic factor in paediatric Philadelphia chromosome negative B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Mian; Zhang, Le-Ping; Wang, Ya-Zhe; Lu, Ai-Dong; Chang, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Qin, Ya-Zhen; Lai, Yue-Yun; Kong, Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Yan-Rong

    2016-04-01

    To explore new risk predictors for a high risk of relapse in Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph-) B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) patients, 196 paediatric Ph- B-ALL patients (≤ 18 years) were retrospectively analysed. We mainly focus on investigating the prognostic value of CD38 and CD58 expression in leukemic blasts in these patients by four colour flow cytometry. The CD38+ CD58- group (n=16) had a higher relapse rate, a shorter 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) than the CD38+ CD58+ group (n=157; 31.3% vs 10.2%, P=0.04; 52.4% vs 92.3%, P<0.01; 32.5% vs 91.0%, P=0.01); CD38+ CD58- was an independent adverse prognostic predictor for relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.203; 95%CI, 0.063-0.656; P=0.01), 3-year EFS (HR, 0.091; 95%CI, 0.023-0.355; P<0.01) and OS (HR, 0.102; 95%CI, 0.026-0.3971; P<0.01) in this cohort, as determined by Cox multivariate analysis. We identified, for the first time, a higher risk population of paediatric Ph- B-ALL patients with CD38+ CD58- who had a higher relapse risk and a shorter survival. Our results may allow better risk stratification and individualized treatment.

  1. CD147 promotes melanoma progression through hypoxia-induced MMP2 activation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, W; Su, J; Wu, L; Yang, D; Long, T; Li, D; Kuang, Y; Li, J; Qi, M; Zhang, J; Chen, X

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia enhances MMP2 expression and the invasion and metastatic potential of melanoma cells. CD147 has been shown to induce MMP2 in multiple cancers. To investigate the role of CD147 in hypoxiainduced MMP2 activation, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in 206 normal and melanoma tissue samples, and analyzed the correlation between HIF1α and CD147. ChIP (chromosome Immunoprecipitation) in melanoma cell lines supports that HIF1α directly binds to CD147 promoter. Moreover, we made a series of deletion mutants of CD147 promoter, and identified a conserved HIF1α binding site. Point mutation in this site significantly decreased CD147 response to hypoxia. Importantly, knocking down CD147 attenuates MMP2 response to hypoxia in melanoma cell lines. MMP2 could not be efficiently activated by hypoxia in CD147 depletion cells. ELISA data showed that MMP2 secretion was reduced in CD147 depletion cells than control under hypoxia condition. To verify the data from cell culture model, we performed in vivo mouse xenograft experiment. IHC staining showed reduced MMP2 level in CD147 depleted xenografts compared to the control group, with the HIF1α level being comparable. Our study demonstrates a novel pathway mediated by CD147 to promote the MMP2 activation induced by hypoxia, and helps to understand the interplay between hypoxia and melanoma progression.

  2. Very Late Antigen-1 Marks Functional Tumor-Resident CD8 T Cells and Correlates with Survival of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Timothy; Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Baumgaertner, Petra; Bordry, Natacha; Cagnon, Laurène; Donda, Alena; Romero, Pedro; Verdeil, Grégory; Speiser, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    A major limiting factor in the success of immunotherapy is tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells, a process that remains poorly understood. In the present study, we characterized homing receptors expressed by human melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells. Our data reveal that P-selectin binding and expression of the retention integrin, very late antigen (VLA)-1, by vaccine-induced T cells correlate with longer patient survival. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD8+VLA-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are highly enriched in melanoma metastases in diverse tissues. VLA-1-expressing TIL frequently co-express CD69 and CD103, indicating tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) differentiation. We employed a mouse model of melanoma to further characterize VLA-1-expressing TIL. Our data show that VLA-1+ TRM develop in murine tumors within 2 weeks, where they exhibit increased activation status, as well as superior effector functions. In addition, in vivo blockade of either VLA-1 or CD103 significantly impaired control of subcutaneous tumors. Together, our data indicate that VLA-1+ TRM develop in tumors and play an important role in tumor immunity, presenting novel targets for the optimization of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28018343

  3. Increased expression of IRF4 and ETS1 in CD4+cells from patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, Sören; Barrenäs, Fredrik; Mobini, Reza; Andersson, Bengt A.; Chavali, Sreenivas; Egan, Brian S.; Hovig, Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Langston, Michael A.; Rogers, Gary; Wang, Hui; Benson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Background The transcription factor (TF) IRF4 is involved in the regulation of Th1, Th2, Th9 and Th17 cells, and animal studies have indicated an important role in allergy. However, IRF4 and its target genes have not been examined in human allergy. Methods IRF4 and its target genes were examined in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from patients with IAR using combined gene expression microarrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation chips (ChIP-chips), computational target prediction and RNAi knockdowns. Results IRF4 increased in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from patients with IAR and functional studies supported its role in Th2 cell activation. IRF4 ChIP-chip showed that IRF4 regulated a large number of genes relevant for Th cell differentiation. However, neither Th1 nor Th2 cytokines were the direct targets of IRF4. To examine if IRF4 induced Th2 cytokines via one or more down-stream TFs, we combined gene expression microarrays, ChIP-chips and computational target prediction and found a putative intermediary TF, namely ETS1 in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from allergic patients. ETS1 increased significantly in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from patients compared to controls. Gene expression microarrays before and after ETS1 RNAi knockdown showed that ETS1 induced Th2 cytokines as well as disease-related pathways. Conclusions Increased expression of IRF4 in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, leads to activation of a complex transcriptional program, including Th2 cytokines. PMID:21919915

  4. Regulation of AMPK Activation by CD36 Links Fatty Acid Uptake to β-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingyu; Pietka, Terri; Gross, Richard W.; Eckel, Robert H.; Su, Xiong; Stahl, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in muscle energy needs activate AMPK and induce sarcolemmal recruitment of the fatty acid (FA) translocase CD36. The resulting rises in FA uptake and FA oxidation are tightly correlated, suggesting coordinated regulation. We explored the possibility that membrane CD36 signaling might influence AMPK activation. We show, using several cell types, including myocytes, that CD36 expression suppresses AMPK, keeping it quiescent, while it mediates AMPK activation by FA. These dual effects reflect the presence of CD36 in a protein complex with the AMPK kinase LKB1 (liver kinase B1) and the src kinase Fyn. This complex promotes Fyn phosphorylation of LKB1 and its nuclear sequestration, hindering LKB1 activation of AMPK. FA interaction with CD36 dissociates Fyn from the protein complex, allowing LKB1 to remain cytosolic and activate AMPK. Consistent with this, CD36−/− mice have constitutively active muscle and heart AMPK and enhanced FA oxidation of endogenous triglyceride stores. The molecular mechanism described, whereby CD36 suppresses AMPK, with FA binding to CD36 releasing this suppression, couples AMPK activation to FA availability and would be important for the maintenance of cellular FA homeostasis. Its dysfunction might contribute to the reported association of CD36 variants with metabolic complications of obesity in humans. PMID:25157091

  5. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4+ T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electrophoresis and far-Western blotting, ALL recognized two prominent proteins associated to the lipid raft microdomains in CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells. By mass spectrometry, the peptide fragments from ALL-recognized proteins showed sequences with 33% homology to matricin (gi|347839 NCBInr) and 41% identity to an unnamed protein related to moesin (gi|74186081 NCBInr). Confocal microscopy analysis of CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells confirmed that staining by ALL colocalized with anti-moesin FERM domain antibody along the plasma membrane and in the intercellular contact sites. Our findings suggest that a moesin-like O-glycoprotein is the ALL-recognized molecule in lipid rats, which induces costimulatory signals on CD4+ T cells. PMID:26417436

  6. Interleukin 10 promotes immune response by increasing the survival of activated CD8(+) T cells in human papillomavirus 16-infected cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Yan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Xin-Yan

    2016-10-11

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific CD8(+) T cells are present in HPV-infected cervical cancer patients and have demonstrated potent antitumor properties. However, these cells cannot control tumor progression in most patients. To investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in suppressing or promoting CD8(+) T cell functions, we focused on interleukin 10 (IL-10), a pleiotropic cytokine with controversial roles in antitumor immunity. We found that compared to healthy controls, circulating CD8(+) T cells in HPV 16-infected cervical cancer patients expressed significantly higher levels of IL-10. Interestingly, these CD8(+) T cells from cervical cancer patients, but not those from healthy controls, responded to HPV 16 E6/E7 peptide stimulation by increasing IL-10 expression, demonstrating an antigen-specific IL-10 release. Addition of exogenous IL-10 improved the survival, but did not increase the proliferation, of peptide-stimulated CD8(+) T cells. CD8(+) T cells cultured in the presence of IL-10 also resulted in significantly higher interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and granzyme B concentration, primarily due to improved cell survival. In resected cervical tumors, the frequency of tumor-infiltrating IL-10(+) CD8(+) T cells was positively correlated with the frequency of tumor-infiltrating IFN-gamma(+) and granzyme B(+) CD8(+) T cells. Tumor-associated macrophages were more potent than peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages at inducing IL-10 expression in CD8(+) T cells, possibly explaining the elevated IL-10(+) CD8(+) T cell frequency in cervical cancer patients. Together, these results are consistent with an immunostimulatory role of IL-10, which promoted CD8(+) T cell response by increasing the survival of activated CD8(+) T cells.

  7. Soluble CD44: quantification and molecular repartition in plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Masson, D; Denis, M G; Denis, M; Blanchard, D; Loirat, M J; Cassagnau, E; Lustenberger, P

    1999-01-01

    Based on the important role of CD44 in tumour progression and metastasis, we evaluated, in a prospective study, plasma-soluble CD44 (sCD44) as a serum marker in colorectal cancer. Blood plasma specimens from 89 patients with colorectal neoplasm, 22 patients with a gastrointestinal disease and 23 healthy donors were analysed for quantitation (ELISA assay) and purification of sCD44. The concentration of sCD44, indicating the concentration of all isoforms, was significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer and intestinal disease than in normal individuals, but no significant differences were found between the two groups. We found no association between plasma levels and staging of the colorectal cancer patients according to Astler and Coller. A two-step batch purification combining ion exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography, followed by Western blot analysis, revealed a complex pattern with a major band corresponding to the standard form of CD44 and minor bands that may correspond to larger variant forms. No particular sCD44 isoform was clearly associated with anatomopathological or biological information. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471052

  8. Selection of transduced CD34+ progenitors and enzymatic correction of cells from Gaucher patients, with bicistronic vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Migita, M; Medin, J A; Pawliuk, R; Jacobson, S; Nagle, J W; Anderson, S; Amiri, M; Humphries, R K; Karlsson, S

    1995-01-01

    The gene transfer efficiency of human hematopoietic stem cells is still inadequate for efficient gene therapy of most disorders. To overcome this problem, a selectable retroviral vector system for gene therapy has been developed for gene therapy of Gaucher disease. We constructed a bicistronic retroviral vector containing the human glucocerebrosidase (GC) cDNA and the human small cell surface antigen CD24 (243 bp). Expression of both cDNAs was controlled by the long terminal repeat enhancer/promoter of the Molony murine leukemia virus. The CD24 selectable marker was placed downstream of the GC cDNA and its translation was enhanced by inclusion of the long 5' untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site. Virus-producing GP+envAM12 cells were created by multiple supernatant transductions to create vector producer cells. The vector LGEC has a high titer and can drive expression of GC and the cell surface antigen CD24 simultaneously in transduced NIH 3T3 cells and Gaucher skin fibroblasts. These transduced cells have been successfully separated from untransduced cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, based on cell surface expression of CD24. Transduced and sorted NIH 3T3 cells showed higher GC enzyme activity than the unsorted population, demonstrating coordinated expression of both genes. Fibroblasts from Gaucher patients were transduced and sorted for CD24 expression, and GC enzyme activity was measured. The transduced sorted Gaucher fibroblasts had a marked increase in enzyme activity (149%) compared with virgin Gaucher fibroblasts (17% of normal GC enzyme activity). Efficient transduction of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors (20-40%) was accomplished and fluorescence-activated cell sorted CD24(+)-expressing progenitors generated colonies, all of which (100%) were vector positive. The sorted, CD24-expressing progenitors generated erythroid burst-forming units, colony-forming units (CFU)-granulocyte, CFU-macrophage, CFU

  9. CD62L+ NKT cells have prolonged persistence and antitumor activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Gengwen; Courtney, Amy N.; Jena, Bipulendu; Heczey, Andras; Liu, Daofeng; Marinova, Ekaterina; Guo, Linjie; Xu, Xin; Torikai, Hiroki; Mo, Qianxing; Dotti, Gianpietro; Cooper, Laurence J.; Metelitsa, Leonid S.

    2016-01-01

    Vα24-invariant natural killer T cells (NKTs) localize to tumors and have inherent antitumor properties, making them attractive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) carriers for redirected cancer immunotherapy. However, clinical application of CAR-NKTs has been impeded, as mechanisms responsible for NKT expansion and the in vivo persistence of these cells are unknown. Here, we demonstrated that antigen-induced expansion of primary NKTs in vitro associates with the accumulation of a CD62L+ subset and exhaustion of CD62L– cells. Only CD62L+ NKTs survived and proliferated in response to secondary stimulation. When transferred to immune-deficient NSG mice, CD62L+ NKTs persisted 5 times longer than CD62L– NKTs. Moreover, CD62L+ cells transduced with a CD19-specific CAR achieved sustained tumor regression in a B cell lymphoma model. Proliferating CD62L+ cells downregulated or maintained CD62L expression when activated via T cell receptor alone or in combination with costimulatory receptors. We generated HLAnull K562 cell clones that were engineered to express CD1d and costimulatory ligands. Clone B-8-2 (HLAnullCD1dmedCD86high4-1BBLmedOX40Lhigh) induced the highest rates of NKT expansion and CD62L expression. B-8-2–expanded CAR-NKTs exhibited prolonged in vivo persistence and superior therapeutic activities in models of lymphoma and neuroblastoma. Therefore, we have identified CD62L as a marker of a distinct NKT subset endowed with high proliferative potential and have developed artificial antigen-presenting cells that generate CD62L-enriched NKTs for effective cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27183388

  10. Activated CD4+ T cells preferentially take up lipid microspheres, but resting cells do not.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K

    1995-01-01

    Lipid microspheres (LM) used as drug carriers increase the effectiveness and reduce the toxicity of incorporated drugs. The present study is designed to determine whether or not activated T lymphocytes, which were the cells chosen first from the 'inflammatory cells', can take up LM in vitro. LM were labelled with a fluorescent probe, DiI (DiI-LM), to examine the kinetics. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocytes principally took up DiI-LM, while lymphocytes and granulocytes did not. When PBMC were stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3 MoAb and IL-2, cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD16 incorporated DiI-LM. Purified CD4+ T cells, obtained by positive panning selection, were stimulated with this system. They were CD25, CD71, LFA-1-positive, and also showed an ability to take up DiI-LM, which resting cells did not. The findings were confirmed by flow cytometry and quantitative analysis of DiI. Confocal micrographs showed fluorescent granules from the probe in the cytoplasm of stimulated CD4+ T cells after incubation with DiI-LM. These results suggest that immunomodulatory agents incorporated into LM might selectively regulate the function of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells when these are activated. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7882572

  11. Basophil Activation Test identifies the patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria suffering the most active disease

    PubMed Central

    Curto‐Barredo, Laia; Yelamos, Jose; Gimeno, Ramon; Mojal, Sergi; Pujol, Ramon M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The basophil activation test showing CD63 up regulation could be a specific and sensitive in vitro complementary text to the in vivo autologous serum skin test for the activity assessment of the patients suffering autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria. The aim of this study is to define the basophil activation test as a useful tool in clinical practice in order to identify those patients with more active disease. Methods We screened 139 patients (96 women) diagnosed of chronic spontaneous urticaria using simultaneously autologous serum skin test and basophil activation test and their relationship with disease activity. Results Positive autologous serum skin test was found in 56.8%; from them, 31.6% were basophil activation test positive. Negative autologous serum skin test result was found in the 43.2% of the sample that showed negative CD63 expression results in all cases, except one. Patients with positive autologous serum skin test and positive CD63 by basophil activation test showed significant higher Urticaria Activity Score of 7 days (P = 0.004) and of 3 weeks (P = 0.001) than patients with positive autologous serum skin test and negative CD63 (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 26.57 ± 10.56 versus 18.40 ± 12.05 for the Urticaria Activity Score of 7 days and 56.47 ± 23.78 versus 39.88 ± 25.44 for the Urticaria Activity Score of 3 weeks). Conclusions The CD63 expression on basophils appears as a reliable in vitro marker, useful in clinical practice in combination with autologous serum skin test to define chronic spontaneous urticaria patients with the highest urticaria activity that impairs a normal life. PMID:27980778

  12. Cellular determinants for preclinical activity of a novel CD33/CD3 bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody, AMG 330, against human AML.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, George S; Gudgeon, Chelsea J; Harrington, Kimberly H; Dell'Aringa, Justine; Newhall, Kathryn J; Means, Gary D; Sinclair, Angus M; Kischel, Roman; Frankel, Stanley R; Walter, Roland B

    2014-01-23

    CD33 is a valid target for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but has proven challenging for antibody-drug conjugates. Herein, we investigated the cellular determinants for the activity of the novel CD33/CD3-directed bispecific T-cell engager antibody, AMG 330. In the presence of T cells, AMG 330 was highly active against human AML cell lines and primary AML cells in a dose- and effector to target cell ratio-dependent manner. Using cell lines engineered to express wild-type CD33 at increased levels, we found a quantitative relationship between AMG 330 cytotoxicity and CD33 expression; in contrast, AMG 330 cytotoxicity was neither affected by common CD33 single nucleotide polymorphisms nor expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, P-glycoprotein or breast cancer resistance protein. Unlike bivalent CD33 antibodies, AMG 330 did not reduce surface CD33 expression. The epigenetic modifier drugs, panobinostat and azacitidine, increased CD33 expression in some cell lines and augmented AMG 330-induced cytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate that AMG 330 has potent CD33-dependent cytolytic activity in vitro, which can be further enhanced with other clinically available therapeutics. As it neither modulates CD33 expression nor is affected by ABC transporter activity, AMG 330 is highly promising for clinical exploration as it may overcome some limitations of previous CD33-targeted agents.

  13. IL10 and PD-1 Cooperate to Limit the Activity of Tumor-Specific CD8+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaojun; Fourcade, Julien; Pagliano, Ornella; Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Sander, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M; Zarour, Hassane M

    2015-04-15

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors show great promise as therapy for advanced melanoma, heightening the need to determine the most effective use of these agents. Here, we report that programmed death-1(high) (PD-1(high)) tumor antigen (TA)-specific CD8(+) T cells present at periphery and at tumor sites in patients with advanced melanoma upregulate IL10 receptor (IL10R) expression. Multiple subsets of peripheral blood mononucleocytes from melanoma patients produce IL10, which acts directly on IL10R(+) TA-specific CD8(+) T cells to limit their proliferation and survival. PD-1 blockade augments expression of IL10R by TA-specific CD8(+) T cells, thereby increasing their sensitivity to the immunosuppressive effects of endogenous IL10. Conversely, IL10 blockade strengthened the effects of PD-1 blockade in expanding TA-specific CD8(+) T cells and reinforcing their function. Collectively, our findings offer a rationale to block both IL10 and PD-1 to strengthen the counteraction of T-cell immunosuppression and to enhance the activity of TA-specific CD8(+) T cell in advanced melanoma patients.

  14. Increased CD40 ligation and reduced BCR signalling leads to higher IL-10 production in B-cells from tolerant kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nova-Lamperti, Estefania; Chana, Prabhjoat; Mobillo, Paula; Runglall, Manohursingh; Kamra, Yogesh; McGregor, Reuben; Lord, Graham M.; Lechler, Robert I.; Lombardi, Giovanna; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased percentage of peripheral transitional B-cells producing IL-10 has been observed in patients tolerant to kidney allografts. In healthy volunteers, the balance between the CD40 and B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling modulated IL-10 production by B-cells, with stimulation via the BCR decreasing CD40-mediated-IL-10 production. In this study, we evaluate whether in tolerant kidney transplant patients the increased IL-10 production by B-cells was due to an altered CD40 and/or BCR signalling. Methods B-cells obtained from a new cohort of tolerant renal transplant recipients and those from age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers, were activated via CD40 and BCR, either alone or in combination. Results In tolerant patients we observed higher percentages of B-cells producing IL-10 after CD40 ligation and higher expression of CD40L on activated T-cells, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, B-cells from tolerant recipients had reduced ERK signalling following BCR-mediated activation compared to healthy controls. In keeping with this, combining BCR signalling with CD40 ligation did not reduce IL-10 secretion as was observed in healthy control transitional B-cells. Conclusion Altogether our data suggests that the altered response of B-cells in tolerant recipients may contribute to long-term stable graft acceptance. PMID:27472092

  15. CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity mediates pathology in the skin by inflammasome activation and IL-1β production

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Fernanda O.; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Clark, Megan L.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Beiting, Daniel P.; Brodsky, Igor E.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity plays a central role in enhancing disease severity in several conditions. However, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which immunopathology develops as a consequence of cytotoxicity. Using murine models of inflammation induced by the protozoan parasite leishmania, and data obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, we uncovered a previously unrecognized role for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release as a detrimental consequence of CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation. Critically, pharmacological blockade of NLRP3 or IL-1β significantly ameliorated the CD8+ T cell-driven immunopathology in leishmania-infected mice. Confirming the relevance of these findings to human leishmaniasis, blockade of the NLRP3 inflammasome in skin biopsies from leishmania-infected patients prevented IL-1β release. Thus, these studies link CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity with inflammasome activation and reveal novel avenues of treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, as well as other of diseases where CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity induces pathology. PMID:28192528

  16. Elevated PD-1 expression and decreased telomerase activity in memory T cells of patients with symptomatic Herpes Zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Zangeneh, Z; Golmoghaddam, H; Emad, M; Erfani, N; Doroudchi, M

    2014-11-16

    We investigated PD-1 levels on VZV-specific CD8+ T-cells of patients with zoster and the effect of PD-1 on the telomerase activity. CD3, CD8, CD137 and PD-1 expressions were analyzed on PBMCs from 9 symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic individuals. The effect of PD-1 blockade at the time of stimulation on the telomerase activity of non-senescent CD57-CD45RO+CD8+CD3+ memory T-cells was evaluated. PD-1 was elevated on CD8+ T-cells in patients. The frequency of PD-1+ and CD137- cells in total CD3+CD8+ T cells of patients was elevated compared to controls. Telomerase activity of non-senescent memory T-cells was lower than that of controls. Blockade of PD-1 at the time of stimulation increased telomerase activity of non-senescent memory T-cells, accompanied by increased CD137 expression. Low telomerase activity of the patients with reactivated zoster could be partially overcome by blocking PD-1 pathway.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi-induced immunosuppression: selective triggering of CD4+ T-cell death by the T-cell receptor-CD3 pathway and not by the CD69 or Ly-6 activation pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, M F; DosReis, G A

    1996-01-01

    In a model of experimental Chagas' disease induced with metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells undergo T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD) in vitro. CD4+ T cells from T. cruzi-infected mice also developed unresponsiveness in proliferative responses to TCR-CD3-mediated stimulation. A linear correlation was found between extent of proliferative unresponsiveness and loss of CD4+ T-cell viability. CD4+ T-cell activation through the CD69 or Ly-6 A/E pathway, on the other hand, did not result in proliferative unresponsiveness compared with controls. Lack of suppression in proliferation assays correlated with lack of AICD by cells stimulated through the CD69 or Ly-6 A/E pathway. Concomitant stimulation through CD69, however, did not rescue CD4+ T cells from CD3-induced death. Flow cytometry study of cells stimulated in vitro showed no defect in interleukin-2 receptor expression by CD4+ T cells from infected donors, which escaped TCR-mediated AICD. In vivo injection of anti-CD3 into acutely infected mice, but not into control mice, led to splenocyte DNA fragmentation and failed to increase splenic CD4+ T-cell numbers. These results show that TCR-CD3-mediated AICD is involved in CD4+ T-cell unresponsiveness in vitro following infection with T. cruzi. In addition, successful activation of these cells through the CD69 and Ly-6 pathways is due to differences in the inability of these stimuli to trigger AICD. Since TCR-CD3-mediated AICD can be induced in vivo in infected mice, these findings may be relevant for the onset of immunological disturbances in the host. PMID:8613360

  18. Evolution of the CD4 family: teleost fish possess two divergent forms of CD4 in addition to lymphocyte activation gene-3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laing, K.J.; Zou, J.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Phillips, R.; Secombes, C.J.; Hansen, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The T cell coreceptor CD4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Ig superfamily and is essential for cell-mediated immunity. Two different genes were identified in rainbow trout that resemble mammalian CD4. One (trout CD4) encodes four extracellular Ig domains reminiscent off mammalian CD4, whereas the other (CD4REL) codes for two Ig domains. Structural motifs within the amino acid sequences suggest that the two Ig domains of CD4REL duplicated to generate the four-domain molecule of CD4 and the related gene, lymphocyte activation gene-3. Here we present evidence that both of these molecules in trout are homologous to mammalian CD4 and that teleosts encode an additional CD4 family member, lymphocyte activation gene-3, which is a marker for activated T cells. The syntenic relationships of similar genes in other teleost and non-fish genomes provide evidence for the likely evolution of CD4-related molecules in vertebrates, with CD4REL likely representing the primordial form in fish. Expression of both CD4 genes is highest in the thymus and spleen, and mRNA expression of these genes is limited to surface IgM- lymphocytes, consistent with a role for T cell functionality. Finally, the intracellular regions of both CD4 and CD4REL possess the canonical CXC motif involved in the interaction off CD4 with p56LCK, implying that similar mechanisms for CD4 + T cell activation are present in all vertebrates. Our results therefore raise new questions about T cell development and functionality in lower vertebrates that cannot be answered by current mammalian models and, thus, is of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of cell-mediated immunity in gnathosomes. Copyright ?? 2006 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Circulating CD56dim natural killer cells and CD56+ T cells that produce interferon-γ or interleukin-10 are expanded in asymptomatic, E antigen-negative patients with persistent hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Conroy, M J; Mac Nicholas, R; Grealy, R; Taylor, M; Otegbayo, J A; O'Dea, S; Mulcahy, F; Ryan, T; Norris, S; Doherty, D G

    2015-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in spontaneous resolution or chronic infection, which can remain asymptomatic or can progress to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. The host immune response is thought to be a major determinant of the outcome of HBV infection and virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can mediate immunity against the virus and cause liver pathology. Antigen-nonspecific innate lymphocytes may also contribute to HBV infection and liver disease, therefore, we examined the frequencies, phenotypes, cytolytic activities and cytokine profiles of circulating natural killer (NK) cells, CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and CD56(+) T cells in 102 asymptomatic HBV-infected patients and compared them with those in 66 uninfected control subjects. NK cells expressing low levels of CD56 (CD56(dim)) and CD56(+) T cells were significantly expanded in the circulation of HBV-infected patients compared with control subjects. CD1d expression and iNKT cell frequencies were similar in both groups. Despite these expansions, we did not detect augmented natural or cytokine-induced cytotoxicity in the HBV-infected subjects. All lymphocyte populations studied produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) significantly more frequently when taken from HBV-infected patients compared with when taken from healthy controls. Additionally, NK cells from the patients more frequently produced interleukin-10. As our HBV-infected cohort consisted of asymptomatic patients with low viral loads, we propose that CD56(dim) NK cells and CD56(+) T cells control HBV infection by noncytolytic mechanisms.

  20. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  1. Substantial increase in the frequency of circulating CD4+NKG2D+ T cells in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The NKG2D receptor confers important activating signals to NK cells via ligands expressed during cellular stress and viral infection. This receptor has generated great interest because not only is it expressed on NK cells, but it is also seen in virtually all CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and is classically considered absent in CD4+ T cells. However, recent studies have identified a distinctive population of CD4+ T cells that do express NKG2D, which could represent a particular cytotoxic effector population involved in viral infections and chronic diseases. On the other hand, increased incidence of human papillomavirus-associated lesions in CD4+ T cell-immunocompromised individuals suggests that CD4+ T cells play a key role in controlling the viral infection. Therefore, this study was focused on identifying the frequency of NKG2D-expressing CD4+ T cells in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1. Additionally, factors influencing CD4+NKG2D+ T cell expansion were also measured. Results Close to 50% of patients with CIN 1 contained at least one of the 37 HPV types detected by our genotyping system. A tendency for increased CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and decreased NK cells was found in CIN 1 patients. The percentage of circulating CD4+ T cells co-expressing the NKG2D receptor significantly increased in women with CIN 1 versus control group. Interestingly, the increase of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells was seen in patients with CIN 1, despite the overall levels of CD4+ T cells did not significantly increase. We also found a significant increase of soluble MICB in CIN 1 patients; however, no correlation with the presence of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells was seen. While TGF-beta was significantly decreased in the group of CIN 1 patients, both TNF-alpha and IL-15 showed a tendency to increase in this group. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that the significant increase within the CD4+NKG2D+ T cell population in CIN 1 patients might be the result of a

  2. Chimeric antigen receptor-redirected CD45RA-negative T cells have potent antileukemia and pathogen memory response without graft-versus-host activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, W K; Suwannasaen, D; Throm, R E; Li, Y; Eldridge, P W; Houston, J; Gray, J T; Pui, C-H; Leung, W

    2015-02-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected cellular therapy is an attractive modality for cancer treatment. We hypothesized that allogeneic CAR-engineered CD45RA-negative T cells can control cancer and infection without the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We used CD19(+) MLL-rearranged leukemia as prototype because it is an aggressive and generally drug-resistant malignancy. CD45RA(-) cells that were transduced with anti-CD19 CAR containing 4-1BB and CD3ζ signaling domains effectively lysed MLL-rearranged leukemia cell lines and primary blasts in vitro. In a disseminated leukemia mouse model, CAR(+)CD45RA(-) cells significantly reduced leukemia burdens and prolonged overall survival without GVHD. CAR(+) cells were sustainable in blood, and all the treated mice remained leukemia-free even after they were re-challenged with leukemia cells. Despite the transduction process, CD45RA(-) cells retained recall activity both in vitro and in vivo against human pathogens commonly found in cancer patients. In comparison with CD45RA(+) cells, CD45RA(-) cells showed less allogeneic activity in mixed leukocyte reactions and in mouse models. Thus, the use of CAR(+)CD45RA(-) cells can separate GVHD from graft-versus-malignancy effect and infection control. These cells should also be useful in nontransplant settings and may be administered as off-the-shelf third-party cells.

  3. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2013-11-15

    We have previously reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4(+) T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ(9)-THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ(9)-THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4(+) T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ(9)-THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ(9)-THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ(9)-THC suppresses human T cell function.

  4. Changes in T-cell subsets identify responders to FcR-nonbinding anti-CD3 mAb (teplizumab) in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tooley, James E; Vudattu, Nalini; Choi, Jinmyung; Cotsapas, Chris; Devine, Lesley; Raddassi, Khadir; Ehlers, Mario R; McNamara, James G; Harris, Kristina M; Kanaparthi, Sai; Phippard, Deborah; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby immune therapies affect progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not well understood. Teplizumab, an FcR nonbinding anti-CD3 mAb, has shown efficacy in multiple randomized clinical trials. We previously reported an increase in the frequency of circulating CD8(+) central memory (CD8CM) T cells in clinical responders, but the generalizability of this finding and the molecular effects of teplizumab on these T cells have not been evaluated. We analyzed data from two randomized clinical studies of teplizumab in patients with new- and recent-onset T1D. At the conclusion of therapy, clinical responders showed a significant reduction in circulating CD4(+) effector memory T cells. Afterward, there was an increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD8CM T cells. In vitro, teplizumab expanded CD8CM T cells by proliferation and conversion of non-CM T cells. Nanostring analysis of gene expression of CD8CM T cells from responders and nonresponders versus placebo-treated control subjects identified decreases in expression of genes associated with immune activation and increases in expression of genes associated with T-cell differentiation and regulation. We conclude that CD8CM T cells with decreased activation and regulatory gene expression are associated with clinical responses to teplizumab in patients with T1D.

  5. Prostate stem cell antigen: Identification of immunogenic peptides and assessment of reactive CD8+ T cells in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Andrea; Schmitz, Marc; Stevanovic, Stefan; Weigle, Bernd; Hölig, Kristina; Füssel, Monika; Füssel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Wirth, Manfred P; Rieber, Ernst Peter

    2002-12-01

    Identification of TAAs recognized by CD8(+) CTLs paved the way for new concepts in cancer therapy. In view of the heterogeneity of tumors and their diverse escape mechanisms, CTL-based cancer therapy largely depends on an appropriate number of TAAs. In prostate cancer, the number of antigens defined as suitable targets of CTLs remains rather limited. PSCA is widely distributed in prostate cancer. In this report, we define immunogenic peptides of PSCA which are recognized by circulating CD8(+) T cells from prostate cancer patients and able to activate CTLs in vitro. Screening the amino acid sequence of PSCA for peptides containing a binding motif for HLA-A*0201 resulted in 8 candidate peptides. Specificity and affinity of peptide binding were verified in a competition assay. Frequencies of CD8(+) T lymphocytes reactive against selected epitopes were determined in the blood of prostate cancer patients using the ELISPOT assay. Increased frequencies were revealed for CD8(+) T cells recognizing the peptides ALQPGTALL and AILALLPAL. CTLs from prostate cancer patients were raised against these 2 peptides in vitro when presented by autologous DCs. They specifically recognized peptide-pulsed T2 target cells and prostate cancer cells that were HLA-A*0201- and PSCA-positive, indicating that these peptides were naturally generated by tumor cells. These data suggest that PSCA is a promising target for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  6. Rosiglitazone influences the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and CD14 receptor in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Štulc, T; Svobodová, H; Krupičková, Z; Doležalová, R; Marinov, I; Češka, R

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased inflammatory response, which may contribute to atherosclerosis progression. Experimental results demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of glitazones; their effect on leukocyte adhesion molecules has not been studied to date. We therefore studied the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on leukocyte surface expression of adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared our results with findings in healthy subjects. 33 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 32 healthy controls were included; patients were examined at baseline and after 5 months of rosiglitazone treatment (4 mg/d). Leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules LFA-1, CD18 and ICAM-1 was quantified using flow cytometry; in addition, CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) expression was analyzed as a marker of nonspecific immunity. The expression of examined molecules at baseline was higher in patients compared to controls. Despite only mild decrease in blood glucose, rosiglitazone treatment induced substantial decrease of CD18 and CD14 expression and borderline decrease of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression (on monocytes only). We thus observed improvement in the expression of leukocyte inflammatory markers after rosiglitazone treatment. This effect is supposed to be mediated by direct effect of rosiglitazone on PPAR-gamma receptors on leukocytes.

  7. CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X- linked hyper IgM syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiying; Upadhyaya, Bhaskar; Wu, Liming; Koh, Christopher; Santín-Durán, Mónica; Pittaluga, Stefania; Uzel, Gulbu; Kleiner, David; Williams, Ester; Ma, Chi A.; Bodansky, Aaron; Oliveira, Joao B.; Edmonds, Pamela; Hornung, Ronald; Wong, Duane W.; Fayer, Ronald; Fleisher, Tom; Heller, Theo; Prussin, Calman; Jain, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restoring class switch recombination in XHM B cells and inducing cytokine secretion by monocytes. CP-870,893 infusions were well tolerated and showed significant activity in vivo, decreasing leukocyte concentration in peripheral blood. Although specific antibody responses were lacking, frequent dosing in one subject primed T cells to secrete IFN-g and suppressed oocyst shedding in the stool. Nevertheless, relapse occurred after discontinuation of therapy. The CD40 receptor was rapidly internalized following binding with CP-870,893, potentially explaining the limited capacity of CP-870,893 to mediate immune reconstitution. This study demonstrates that CP-870,893 suppressed oocysts shedding in XHM patients with biliary cryptosporidiosis. The continued study of CD40 agonists in XHM is warranted. PMID:22459705

  8. Decreased frequencies and impaired functions of the CD31(+) subpopulation in Treg cells associated with decreased FoxP3 expression and enhanced Treg cell defects in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Zheng, Y; Yuan, X; Ma, Y; Xie, G; Wang, W; Chen, H; Shen, L

    2017-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common types of organ lesions caused by atherosclerosis, in which CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+) ) regulatory T cells (Treg ) play an atheroprotective role. However, Treg cell numbers are decreased and their functions are impaired in atherosclerosis; the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. CD31 plays an important part in T cell response and contributes to maintaining T cell tolerance. The immunomodulatory effects of CD31 are also implicated in atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that decreased frequencies of the CD31(+) subpopulation in Treg cells (CD31(+) Tr cells) correlated positively with decreased FoxP3 expression in CHD patients. Cell culture in vitro demonstrated CD31(+) Tr cells maintaining stable FoxP3 expression after activation and exhibited enhanced proliferation and immunosuppression compared with the CD31(-) subpopulation in Treg cells (CD31(-) Tr cells). We also confirmed impaired secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-10 in CD31(+) Tr cells of CHD patients. Further analysis revealed reduced phospho-SHP2 (associated with CD31 activation) and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (STAT-5) (associated with FoxP3 transcription) levels in CD31(+) Tr cells of CHD patients, suggesting that decreased FoxP3 expression in CD31(+) Tr cells might be because of attenuated SHP2 and STAT-5 activation. These data indicate that decreased frequencies and impaired functions of the CD31(+) Tr subpopulation associated with decreased FoxP3 expression give rise, at least in part, to Treg cell defects in CHD patients. Our findings emphasize the important role of the CD31(+) Tr subpopulation in maintaining Treg cell normal function and may provide a novel explanation for impaired immunoregulation of Treg cells in CHD.

  9. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when challenged with their antigens

  10. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2008-12-19

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old). These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT.

  11. Analysis of Ancestral and Functionally Relevant CD5 Variants in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Consuegra, Marta; Bonet, Lizette; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Armiger, Noelia; Caballero-Baños, Miguel; Arias, Maria Teresa; Benitez, Daniel; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; de Ramón, Enrique; Sabio, José Mario; García–Hernández, Francisco J.; Tolosa, Carles; Suárez, Ana; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Bosch, Elena; Martín, Javier; Lozano, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objective CD5 plays a crucial role in autoimmunity and is a well-established genetic risk factor of developing RA. Recently, evidence of positive selection has been provided for the CD5 Pro224-Val471 haplotype in East Asian populations. The aim of the present work was to further analyze the functional relevance of non-synonymous CD5 polymorphisms conforming the ancestral and the newly derived haplotypes (Pro224-Ala471 and Pro224-Val471, respectively) as well as to investigate the potential role of CD5 on the development of SLE and/or SLE nephritis. Methods The CD5 SNPs rs2241002 (C/T; Pro224Leu) and rs2229177 (C/T; Ala471Val) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in a total of 1,324 controls and 681 SLE patients of Spanish origin. In vitro analysis of CD3-mediated T cell proliferative and cytokine response profiles of healthy volunteers homozygous for the above mentioned CD5 haplotypes were also analyzed. Results T-cell proliferation and cytokine release were significantly increased showing a bias towards to a Th2 profile after CD3 cross-linking of peripheral mononuclear cells from healthy individuals homozygous for the ancestral Pro224-Ala471 (CC) haplotype, compared to the more recently derived Pro224-Val471 (CT). The same allelic combination was statistically associated with Lupus nephritis. Conclusion The ancestral Ala471 CD5 allele confers lymphocyte hyper-responsiveness to TCR/CD3 cross-linking and is associated with nephritis in SLE patients. PMID:25402503

  12. Epstein–Barr virus infection transforms CD25+ B cells into antibody-secreting cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Brisslert, Mikael; Rehnberg, Maria; Bokarewa, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection may initiate production of autoantibodies and development of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Here we outline phenotypic and functional changes in B cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related to EBV infection. The B-cell phenotype was analysed in blood and bone marrow (BM) of RA patients who had EBV transcripts in BM (EBV+, n = 13) and in EBV− (n = 22) patients with RA. The functional effect of EBV was studied in the sorted CD25+ and CD25− peripheral B cells of RA patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 9). Rituximab treatment results in enrichment of CD25+ B cells in peripheral blood (PB) of EBV+ RA patients. The CD25+ B-cell subset displayed a more mature phenotype accumulating IgG-expressing cells. It was also enriched with CD27+ and CD95+ cells in PB and BM. EBV stimulation of the sorted CD25+ B cells in vitro induced a polyclonal IgG and IgM secretion in RA patients, while CD25+ B cells of healthy subjects did not respond to EBV stimulation. CD25+ B cells were enriched in PB and synovial fluid of RA patients. EBV infection affects the B-cell phenotype in RA patients by increasing the CD25+ subset and by inducing their immunoglobulin production. These findings clearly link CD25+ B cells to the EBV-dependent sequence of reactions in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:23844744

  13. Entecavir promotes CD34⁺ stem cell proliferation in the peripheral blood and liver of chronic hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis patients.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bei; Zhao, Hong; Bai, Xue; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Lu, Jihua; Tang, Rong; Yin, Keshan; Gao, Peter; Liu, Baoling; Cheng, Jilin

    2014-11-01

    Entecavir (ETV) has been used for more than 2 decades in treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. It has shown significant anti-HBV effect and has led to histological improvement in the liver of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. In patients treated with ETV for over two years, reversal of cirrhosis to normal tissue has also been observed. However, the mechanisms of these tissue repairing or recovery processes are not yet clear. In order to determine the roles that bone marrow and liver stem/progenitor cells play in these processes, we evaluated the CD34⁺ and CD133⁺ stem/progenitor cells in peripheral blood from 292 patients and liver tissues from 43 patients who had received therapies with and without ETV. A significant increase in both CD34⁺ and CD133⁺ cells was found in CHB and cirrhosis patients compared to the healthy controls. In patients treated with ETV, CD34⁺ cells increased 2 and 4 fold in peripheral blood and liver tissues, respectively, while their CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ cells remained the same. On the other hand, CD133⁺ cells did not change or even slightly decreased with ETV treatment. Results from immunohistochemistry staining, real time RT-PCR, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay also revealed the same level of CD34⁺ cell increase and CD133⁺ cell decrease (or no change) in ETV treated patients, compared to patients without ETV therapies. Liver functions in patients with ETV treatment improved in general, but one liver cirrhosis patient with high expression of CD133 in liver tissue developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In summary, ETV may have differential effects on various stem cell subtypes. ETV-activated stem cells in bone marrow and liver tissues may contribute to the recovery from injuries caused by HBV infection. They also contribute to the regeneration of normal tissue and the recovery of normal liver function. Meanwhile, ETV does not activate stem cells that may participate in the initiation of HCC.

  14. Effects of active bufadienolide compounds on human cancer cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in mitogen-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; He, Jing; Kisoh, Keishi; Hayashi, Hideki; Tanaka, Sachiko; Si, Nan; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Hirano, Toshihiko; Bian, Baolin; Takagi, Norio

    2016-09-01

    The growth inhibitory effects of bufadienolide compounds were investigated in two intractable cancer cells, a human glioblastoma cell line U-87 and a pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990. Among four bufadienolide compounds, a dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in these cancer cells after treatment with gamabufotalin and arenobufagin. The IC50 values of the two compounds were 3-5 times higher in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than these values for both cancer cell lines. However, similar phenomena were not observed for two other bufadienolide compounds, telocinobufagin and bufalin. These results thus suggest that gamabufotalin and arenobufagin possess selective cytotoxic activity against tumor cells rather than normal cells. Moreover, a clear dose-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a well-known hallmark of necrosis, was observed in both cancer cells treated with gamabufotalin, suggesting that gamabufotalin-mediated cell death is predominantly associated with a necrosis-like phenotype. Of most importance, treatment with as little as 8 ng/ml of gamabufotalin, even an almost non-toxic concentration to PBMCs, efficiently downregulated the percentages of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulator T (Treg) cells in mitogen-activated PBMCs. Given that Treg cells play a critical role in tumor immunotolerance by suppressing antitumor immunity, these results suggest that gamabufotalin may serve as a promising candidate, as an adjuvant therapeutic agent by manipulating Treg cells to enhance the efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs and lessen their side-effects. These findings provide insights into the clinical application of gamabufotalin for cancer patients with glioblastoma/pancreatic cancer based on its cytocidal effect against tumor cells as well as its depletion of Treg cells.

  15. A clinical exploratory study with itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro C; Torres-Moya, Roberto; Reyes, Gil; Molinero, Claudino; Prada, Dinorah; Lopez, Ana M; Hernandez, Isabel M; Hernandez, Maria V; Martinez, Jose P; Hernandez, Xochel; Casaco, Angel; Ramos, Mayra; Avila, Yisel; Barrese, Yinet; Montero, Enrique; Hernandez, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CD6 is a co-stimulatory molecule, predominantly expressed on lymphocytes, that has been linked to autoreactive responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Fifteen patients were enrolled in a phase I, open-label, dose-finding study. Five cohorts of patients received a weekly antibody monotherapy with a dose-range from 0.1 to 0.8 mg/kg. Itolizumab showed a good safety profile, with no severe or serious adverse events reported so far. No signs or symptoms associated with immunosuppression were observed in the study. Objective clinical responses were achieved in more than 80% of patients after treatment completion, and these responses tend to be sustained afterwards. This clinical study constitutes the first evidence of the safety and positive clinical effect of a monotherapy using an anti-CD6 antibody in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. A clinical exploratory study with itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Pedro C.; Torres-Moya, Roberto; Reyes, Gil; Molinero, Claudino; Prada, Dinorah; Lopez, Ana M.; Hernandez, Isabel M.; Hernandez, Maria V.; Martinez, Jose P.; Hernandez, Xochel; Casaco, Angel; Ramos, Mayra; Avila, Yisel; Barrese, Yinet; Montero, Enrique; Hernandez, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CD6 is a co-stimulatory molecule, predominantly expressed on lymphocytes, that has been linked to autoreactive responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Fifteen patients were enrolled in a phase I, open-label, dose-finding study. Five cohorts of patients received a weekly antibody monotherapy with a dose-range from 0.1 to 0.8 mg/kg. Itolizumab showed a good safety profile, with no severe or serious adverse events reported so far. No signs or symptoms associated with immunosuppression were observed in the study. Objective clinical responses were achieved in more than 80% of patients after treatment completion, and these responses tend to be sustained afterwards. This clinical study constitutes the first evidence of the safety and positive clinical effect of a monotherapy using an anti-CD6 antibody in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24371585

  17. Access to CD4 Testing for Rural HIV Patients: Findings from a Cohort Study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Florian; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Bernasconi, Andrea; Makondo, Eliphas; Taziwa, Fabian; Moyo, Buhlebenkosi; Havazvidi, Liberty; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Manzi, Marcel; Khogali, Mohammed; Reid, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background CD4 cell count measurement remains an important diagnostic tool for HIV care in developing countries. Insufficient laboratory capacity in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is frequently mentioned but data on the impact at an individual patient level are lacking. Urban-rural discrepancies in CD4 testing have not been quantified to date. Such evidence is crucial for public health planning and to justify new yet more expensive diagnostic procedures that could circumvent access constraints in rural areas. Objective To compare CD4 testing among rural and urban HIV patients during the first year of treatment. Methods Records from 2,145 HIV positive adult patients from a Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) HIV project in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe, during 2011 and 2012 were used for a retrospective cohort analysis. Covariate-adjusted risk ratios were calculated to estimate the effects of area of residence on CD4 testing at treatment initiation, six and 12 months among rural and urban patients. Findings While the proportion of HIV patients returning for medical consultations at six and 12 months decreased at a similar rate in both patient groups, CD4 testing during consultations dropped to 21% and 8% for urban, and 2% and 1% for rural patients at six and 12 months, respectively. Risk ratios for missing CD4 testing were 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9), 9.2 (95% CI 5.5-15.3), and 7.6 (95% 3.7-17.1) comparing rural versus urban patients at treatment initiation, six and 12 months, respectively. Conclusions CD4 testing was low overall, and particularly poor in rural patients. Difficulties with specimen transportation were probably a major factor underlying this difference and requires new diagnostic approaches. Our findings point to severe health system constraints in providing CD4 testing overall that need to be addressed if effective monitoring of HIV patients is to be achieved, whether by alternative CD4 diagnostics or newly-recommended routine viral load testing. PMID

  18. Ibrutinib interferes with the cell-mediated anti-tumor activities of therapeutic CD20 antibodies: implications for combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Roit, Fabio Da; Engelberts, Patrick J.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Breij, Esther C.W.; Gritti, Giuseppe; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Introna, Martino; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Beurskens, Frank J.; Golay, Josée

    2015-01-01

    The novel Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib are promising drugs for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, either alone or in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. We investigated the possible positive or negative impact of these drugs on all known mechanisms of action of both type I and type II anti-CD20 antibodies. Pretreatment with ibrutinib for 1 hour did not increase direct cell death of cell lines or chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples mediated by anti-CD20 antibodies. Pre-treatment with ibrutinib did not inhibit complement activation or complement-mediated lysis. In contrast, ibrutinib strongly inhibited all cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab or obinutuzumab, either in purified systems or whole blood assays. Activation of natural killer cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by these cells, as well as phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils were inhibited by ibrutinib with a half maximal effective concentration of 0.3–3 μM. Analysis of anti-CD20 mediated activation of natural killer cells isolated from patients on continued oral ibrutinib treatment suggested that repeated drug dosing inhibits these cells in vivo. Finally we show that the phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib similarly inhibited the immune cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies, although the effects of this drug at 10 μM were weaker than those observed with ibrutinib at the same concentration. We conclude that the design of combined treatment schedules of anti-CD20 antibodies with these kinase inhibitors should consider the multiple negative interactions between these two classes of drugs. PMID:25344523

  19. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Manuel; Bonanno, Elena; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Baldi, Jacopo; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto; Tancredi, Virginia; Gasbarra, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology.

  20. Reduced frequency of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells and diminished FOXP3 expression in patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: a link to autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Genre, J; Errante, P R; Kokron, C M; Toledo-Barros, M; Câmara, N O S; Rizzo, L V

    2009-08-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by defective immunoglobulin production and often associated with autoimmunity. We used flow cytometry to analyze CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells and ask whether perturbations in their frequency in peripheral blood could underlie the high incidence of autoimmune disorders in CVID patients. In this study, we report for the first time that CVID patients with autoimmune disease have a significantly reduced frequency of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells in their peripheral blood accompanied by a decreased intensity of FOXP3 expression. Notably, although CVID patients in whom autoimmunity was not diagnosed had a reduced frequency of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells, FOXP3 expression levels did not differ from those in healthy controls. In conclusion, these data suggest compromised homeostasis of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells in a subset of CVID patients with autoimmunity, and may implicate Treg cells in pathological mechanisms of CVID.

  1. Risk factors, CD4 long-term evolution and mortality of HIV-infected patients who persistently maintain low CD4 counts, despite virological response to HAART.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Yolanda M; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Iribarren, José A; Viciana, Pompeyo; Parra, Jorge; Gomez-Sirvent, Juan L; Gutierrez, Félix; Blanco, José R; Vidal, Francesc; Leal, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    A proportion of HIV-patients does not normally restore their CD4 counts despite virological response to HAART. Those whose CD4 counts persistently remain closed to the critical threshold for opportunistic infections deserve special interest. To study the risk factors, the long-term CD4 counts evolution, and the risk of death of patients who persistently maintain low CD4 counts, despite virological response to HAART, within a multicenter, hospital-based cohort study. A total of 147 patients were selected from CoRIS-MD and classified into a "Low-Group" or a "High-Group", depending on their CD4 counts after two-years of effective HAART (threshold 250 cells/microL). Associated risk factors were analysed by logistic regression, the CD4 dynamics were evaluated over a total period of 7.70 years (IQR, 6.70-9.00), and mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard. A total of 40 patients (27%) were classified into the "Low-Group". The odds ratio for this group increased with age, being 4.56 (2.23-9.33) for over 40, and was also higher among IDU, 3.63 (1.04-12.68). Six years thereafter, among these patients, only a 30% exceeded 350 CD4 cells/microL and a 12% exceeded 500 CD4 cells/microL. Furthermore, the "Low-Group" had a death rate of 2.42 per 100 persons/year (95%CI, 1.01-5.81), although once adjusted by age the estimates were no longer significant [4.14 (0.87-19.72)]. Our results suggest that those HIV patients who have not overcome the critical threshold of 250 CD4 cells/microL after a two years period of virologically effective HAART do persist with the aforementioned failure of CD4 restoration for a much longer time.

  2. Fullerene modification CdSe/TiO2 and modification of photocatalytic activity under visible light

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    CdSe, CdSe-TiO2, and CdSe-C60/TiO2 composites were prepared using sol–gel method, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by measuring the degradation of rhodamine B solutions under visible light. The surface area, surface structure, crystal phase, and elemental identification of these composites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and UV-visible (vis) absorption spectrophotometry. XRD showed that the CdSe-C60/TiO2 composite contained a typical single and clear anatase phase. SEM of the CdSe-C60/TiO2 composites revealed a homogenous composition in the particles. EDX revealed the presence of C and Ti with strong Cd and Se peaks in the CdSe-C60/TiO2 composite. The degradation of dye was determined by UV–vis spectrophotometry. An increase in photocatalytic activity was observed and attributed to an increase in the photoabsorption effect by fullerene and the cooperative effect of the CdSe. The repeatability of photocatalytic activity was also tested in order to investigate the stability of C60 and CdS-C60/TiO2 composites. PMID:23618055

  3. CD4CD8αα lymphocytes, a novel human regulatory T cell subset induced by colonic bacteria and deficient in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Sarrabayrouse, Guillaume; Bossard, Céline; Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Jarry, Anne; Meurette, Guillaume; Quévrain, Elodie; Bridonneau, Chantal; Preisser, Laurence; Asehnoune, Karim; Labarrière, Nathalie; Altare, Frédéric; Sokol, Harry; Jotereau, Francine

    2014-04-01

    How the microbiota affects health and disease is a crucial question. In mice, gut Clostridium bacteria are potent inducers of colonic interleukin (IL)-10-producing Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Treg), which play key roles in the prevention of colitis and in systemic immunity. In humans, although gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with immune disorders, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In contrast with mice, the contribution of Foxp3 Treg in colitis prevention has been questioned, suggesting that other compensatory regulatory cells or mechanisms may exist. Here we addressed the regulatory role of the CD4CD8 T cells whose presence had been reported in the intestinal mucosa and blood. Using colonic lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from healthy individuals, and those with colon cancer and irritable bowel disease (IBD), we demonstrated that CD4CD8αα (DP8α) T lymphocytes expressed most of the regulatory markers and functions of Foxp3 Treg and secreted IL-10. Strikingly, DP8α LPL and PBL exhibited a highly skewed repertoire toward the recognition of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a major Clostridium species of the human gut microbiota, which is decreased in patients with IBD. Furthermore, the frequencies of DP8α PBL and colonic LPL were lower in patients with IBD than in healthy donors and in the healthy mucosa of patients with colon cancer, respectively. Moreover, PBL and LPL from most patients with active IBD failed to respond to F. prausnitzii in contrast to PBL and LPL from patients in remission and/or healthy donors. These data (i) uncover a Clostridium-specific IL-10-secreting Treg subset present in the human colonic LP and blood, (ii) identify F. prausnitzii as a major inducer of these Treg, (iii) argue that these cells contribute to the control or prevention of colitis, opening new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for IBD, and (iv) provide new tools to address the systemic impact of both these Treg and the

  4. CD133-Positive Membrane Particles in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Inflammatory and Degenerative Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bobinger, Tobias; May, Lisa; Lücking, Hannes; Kloska, Stephan P.; Burkardt, Petra; Spitzer, Philipp; Maler, Juan M.; Corbeil, Denis; Huttner, Hagen B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a frequently used diagnostic tool in a variety of neurological diseases. Recent studies suggested that investigating membrane particles enriched with the stem cell marker CD133 may offer new avenues for studying neurological disease. In this study, we evaluated the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in human CSF in neuroinflammatory and degenerative diseases. Methods: We compared the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in CSF samples collected from 45 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, parkinsonism, dementia, and cognitive impairment, chronic inflammatory diseases and 10 healthy adult individuals as controls. After ultracentrifugation of CSF, gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using anti-CD133 monoclonal antibody 80B258 were performed. Antigen-antibody complexes were detected using chemiluminescence. Results: The amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 was significantly increased in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (p < 0.001), parkinsonism (p = 0.011) as well as in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (p = 0.008). Analysis of CSF of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment revealed no significant change compared with healthy individuals. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases demonstrated significantly elevated levels in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (p = 0.023) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS; p = 0.010). Conclusion: Collectively, our study revealed elevated levels of membrane particle-associated CD133 in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, parkinsonism as well as relapsing-remitting and SPMS. Membrane glycoprotein CD133 may be of clinical value for several neurological diseases.

  5. Interleukin-19 impairment in active Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Elisabet; Garcia Planella, Esther; Zamora-Atenza, Carlos; Nieto, Juan Camilo; Gordillo, Jordi; Ortiz, Ma Angels; Metón, Isidoro; Serrano, Elena; Vegas, Esteban; García-Bosch, Orlando; Juárez, Cándido; Vidal, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    The exact function of interleukin-19 (IL-19) on immune response is poorly understood. In mice, IL-19 up-regulates TNFα and IL-6 expression and its deficiency increases susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. In humans, IL-19 favors a Th2 response and is elevated in several diseases. We here investigate the expression and effects of IL-19 on cells from active Crohn's disease (CD) patient. Twenty-three active CD patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included. mRNA and protein IL-19 levels were analyzed in monocytes. IL-19 effects were determined in vitro on the T cell phenotype and in the production of cytokines by immune cells. We observed that unstimulated and TLR-activated monocytes expressed significantly lower IL-19 mRNA in active CD patients than in HC (logFC = -1.97 unstimulated; -1.88 with Pam3CSK4; and -1.91 with FSL-1; p<0.001). These results were confirmed at protein level. Exogenous IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory effect on HC but not on CD patients. IL-19 decreased TNFα production in PBMC (850.7 ± 75.29 pg/ml vs 2626.0 ± 350 pg/ml; p<0.01) and increased CTLA4 expression (22.04 ± 1.55% vs 13.98 ± 2.05%; p<0.05) and IL-4 production (32.5 ± 8.9 pg/ml vs 13.5 ± 2.9 pg/ml; p<0.05) in T cells from HC. IL-10 regulated IL-19 production in both active CD patients and HC. We observed that three of the miRNAs that can modulate IL-19 mRNA expression, were up-regulated in monocytes from active CD patients. These results suggested that IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory role in this study. Defects in IL-19 expression and the lack of response to this cytokine could contribute to inflammatory mechanisms in active CD patients.

  6. Endogenous PMN sialidase activity exposes activation epitope on CD11b/CD18 which enhances its binding interaction with ICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Zhang, Lei; Almulki, Lama; Faez, Sepideh; Whitford, Melissa; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Cross, Alan S

    2011-08-01

    Diapedesis is a dynamic, highly regulated process by which leukocytes are recruited to inflammatory sites. We reported previously that removal of sialyl residues from PMNs enables these cells to become more adherent to EC monolayers and that sialidase activity within intracellular compartments of resting PMNs translocates to the plasma membrane following activation. We did not identify which surface adhesion molecules were targeted by endogenous sialidase. Upon activation, β2 integrin (CD11b/CD18) on the PMN surface undergoes conformational change, which allows it to bind more tightly to the ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on the EC surface. Removal of sialyl residues from CD18 and CD11b, by exogenous neuraminidase or mobilization of PMN sialidase, unmasked activation epitopes, as detected by flow cytometry and enhanced binding to ICAM-1. One sialidase isoform, Neu1, colocalized with CD18 on confocal microscopy. Using an autoperfused microflow chamber, desialylation of immobilized ICAM-1 enhanced leukocyte arrest in vivo. Further, treatment with a sialidase inhibitor in vivo reversed endotoxin-induced binding of leukocytes to ICAM-1, thereby suggesting a role for leukocyte sialidase in the cellular arrest. These data suggest that PMN sialidase could be a physiologic source of the enzymatic activity that removes sialyl residues on β2 integrin and ICAM-1, resulting in their enhanced interaction. Thus, PMN sialidase may be an important regulator of the recruitment of these cells to inflamed sites.

  7. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of three-dimensional ZnS/CdS composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shuling Li, Honglin; Yan, Lu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D urchin-like ZnS/CdS composites were synthesized via a two-step method. • The CdS nanoparticles were assembled on the thorns of 3D ZnS urchins. • The ZnS/CdS composites show excellent photocatalytic degradation activities. • The modification of CdS on ZnS is responsible for the enhanced property. - Abstract: Urchin-like ZnS/CdS semiconductor composites were successfully synthesized by combining solvothermal route with homogeneous precipitation process. The as-obtained samples were characterized by means of XRD, EDX, TEM, HR-TEM, ED and FE-SEM techniques. The results show that the as-obtained composites were comprised of the hexagonal structure ZnS and CdS, and CdS nanoparticles were assembled on the surfaces of the thorns of urchin-like ZnS. In addition, the optical properties and photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared ZnS/CdS composites toward some organic dyes (such as Methyl Orange, Pyronine B, Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) were separately investigated. It is found that the ZnS/CdS composites exhibit excellent photocatalytic degradation activity for these dyes under UV irradiation, as compared to corresponding pure ZnS urchins and commercial anatase TiO{sub 2} (P-25). This enhanced activity may be related to the modification of CdS nanoparticles on the surfaces of thorns of ZnS urchins and a tentative mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic degradation activities of the ZnS/CdS composite catalyst was proposed.

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis manifesting as a large abdominal cyst in a HIV-infected patient with a CD4 count greater than 400 cells/mm(3).

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Truett, April; R Wallace, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis usually occurs among HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts less than 100 cells/mm(3) and manifests as headaches, fevers, and mental status changes. We present an unusual case of cryptococcal meningitis in a 34-year-old HIV-positive man presenting as a large abdominal cyst at the ventriculoperitoneal shunt site despite receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for more than 5 years and having a CD4 count more than 400 cells/mm(3).

  9. Peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD25(+) regulatory T cells in alcoholic patients with Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Steveen Rios; Covre, Luciana Polaco; Stringari, Lorenzzo Lyrio; da Penha Zago-Gomes, Maria; Gomes, Daniel Cláudio Oliveira; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2017-03-01

    An increased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells has been reported in patients with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection, suggesting the contribution of these cells to worm survival. As Strongyloides infections have been found to be highly prevalent in chronic alcoholics, we investigated the effect of abusive ethanol ingestion on the induction of Treg cells in alcoholic patients with Strongyloides infection. Treg cells were assessed by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy non-alcoholic (control) and 14 alcoholic patients (alcoholic) without Strongyloides infection and five non-alcoholics (controlSs) and five chronic alcoholics (alcoholSs) with Strongyloides infection. The results showed significantly higher frequencies of Treg cells in the alcoholic, controlSs and alcoholSs group patients than in the control group patients. However, the frequencies of Treg cells did not differ between the alcoholSs and controlSs groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ethanol consumption induced an increase in the number of circulating Treg cells in chronic alcoholics in this study but was unable to potentiate the induction of these cells in alcoholics with Strongyloides infection.

  10. Interpretation of chest radiographs in AIDS patients: usefulness of CD4 lymphocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Shah, R M; Kaji, A V; Ostrum, B J; Friedman, A C

    1997-01-01

    Specific infections and neoplasms that are complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur within various CD4 lymphocyte count ranges. Knowledge of how these counts correlate with radiographic appearances of these entities can limit the differential diagnosis because certain conditions are uncommon above a specific count. In patients with CD4 lymphocyte counts above 200 cells/mm3 and radiographic findings of cavitary and noncavitary consolidation, bacterial pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the major diagnostic considerations. As the CD4 lymphocyte count falls, these infections are still common; however, cavitation is seen less frequently with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and unusual bacterial infections, including those caused by Rhodococcus equi and Nocardia asteroides, should be considered. In patients with counts below 200 cells/mm3, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common infection, usually manifesting radiographically as a reticular interstitial pattern. At CD4 lymphocyte counts of 50-200 cells/mm3, disseminated fungal infection and Kaposi sarcoma become prevalent. In patients with advanced AIDS and counts below 50 cells/mm3, radiographic nodular or reticular patterns may indicate AIDS-related lymphoma and cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections. When CD4 lymphocyte counts are applied to interpretation of chest radiographs in AIDS patients, the working differential diagnosis of a radiographic pattern can be tailored to the clinical situation of a given patient.

  11. Intrahepatic CD4+ cell depletion in hepatitis C virus/HIV-coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Canchis, P Wilfredo; Yee, Herman T; Fiel, M Isabel; Dieterich, Douglas T; Liu, Ruei-Che; Chiriboga, Luis; Jacobson, Ira M; Edlin, Brian R; Talal, Andrew H

    2004-09-01

    Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses, increases hepatic inflammation, accelerates hepatic fibrosis, and is associated with deceased treatment responses. We quantified intrahepatic lymphocyte and hepatocyte phenotypes in HCV-infected patients with (n = 38) and without (n = 41) HIV infection. A single pathologist counted positive cells in 5 portal and 5 lobular areas. Coinfected patients had 6.81 +/- 1.9 fewer CD4 cells per portal field (10.58 +/- 1.12 vs. 4.97 +/- 1.09 cells/high-power field [HPF]; P < 0.001) and 0.48 +/- 0.15 more apoptotic lymphocytes per lobular field (0.16 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.15 cell/HPF; P = 0.002) than monoinfected patients. The number of portal CD4 cells was not associated with the peripheral CD4 cell number. Portal and lobular CD8 cells did not differ between the 2 groups. Portal proliferative hepatocytes were increased in coinfected patients with HIV RNA levels of >400 copies/mL (1.13 +/- 0.32 cells/HPF; P = 0.01) compared with those with undetectable HIV RNA (0.46 +/- 0.09 cell/HPF) and monoinfected patients (0.45 +/- 0.08 cell/HPF). In conclusion, HIV coinfection is associated with fewer portal CD4 cells and increased lobular lymphocyte apoptosis that may impact on the natural history of HCV infection.

  12. Differentiation of CD133+ Stem Cells From Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Into Preneuron Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Héctor R.; Caro-Osorio, Enrique; Cruz-Vega, Delia E.; Hernández-Torre, Martin; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in quality of life and life expectancy have been observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients transplanted with CD133+ stem cells into their frontal motor cortices. However, questions have emerged about the capacity of cells from these patients to engraft and differentiate into neurons. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of CD133+ stem cells from 13 ALS patients to differentiate into neuron lineage. Stem cells were obtained through leukapheresis and cultured in a control medium or a neuroinduction medium for 2–48 hours. Expression of neuronal genes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical techniques. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that CD133+ stem cells from ALS patients incubated for 48 hours in a neuroinduction medium increased the detection of neuronal proteins such as nestin, β-tubulin III, neuronal-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. RT-PCR assays demonstrated an increase in the expression of β-tubulin III, nestin, Olig2, Islet-1, Hb9, and Nkx6.1. No correlation was found between age, sex, or ALS functional scale and the CD133+ stem cell response to the neuroinduction medium. We conclude that CD133+ stem cells from ALS patients, like the stem cells of healthy subjects, are capable of differentiating into preneuron cells. PMID:23341441

  13. Random migration contributes to cytotoxicity of activated CD8+ T-lymphocytes but not NK cells.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideya; Kiyota, Akifumi; Koya, Norihiro; Tanaka, Hiroto; Umebayashi, Masayo; Katano, Mitsuo; Morisaki, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    Activated lymphocytes have the ability to undergo non-directional cell movement known as random migration, although the biological role for this remains unclear. Herein, we investigated how random migration affects cytotoxicity of activated lymphocytes using time-lapse imaging analysis. The kinetics of random migration paralleled cytotoxicity in activated lymphocytes. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptor-1 (S1PR1) play an important role in lymphocyte migration. Phosphorylated FTY720 (FTYP), a structural analog of S1P, significantly inhibited random migration and cytotoxicity of activated CD3(+)NKG2D(+)CD8(+) T-lymphocytes but not CD3(-)NKG2D(+)CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells. In a mouse xenograft model, FTYP-treated activated lymphocytes exhibited lower cytotoxicity and less tumor infiltration for activated CD3(+)NKG2D(+) T-lymphocytes but not CD3(-)NKG2D(+) NK cells. These results suggest that random migration contributes to the cytotoxicity of activated CD8(+) T-cells but not of NK cells.

  14. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor IX (GSI) Impairs Concomitant Activation of Notch and wnt-beta-catenin Pathways in CD44(+) Gastric Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Barat, Samarpita; Chen, Xi; Cuong Bui, Khac; Bozko, Przemyslaw; Götze, Julian; Christgen, Matthias; Krech, Till; Malek, Nisar P; Plentz, Ruben R

    2017-02-03

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are associated with tumor resistance and are characterized in gastric cancer (GC). Studies have indicated that Notch and wnt-beta-catenin pathways are crucial for CSC development. Using CD44(+) CSCs, we investigated the role of these pathways in GC carcinogenesis. We performed cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion, tumorsphere, and apoptosis assays. Immunoblot analysis of downstream signaling targets of Notch and wnt-beta-catenin were tested after gamma-secretase inhibitor IX (GSI) treatment. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to determine CD44 and Hairy enhancer of split-1 (Hes1) expression in human GC tissues. CD44(+) CSCs were subcutaneously injected into NMR-nu/nu mice and treated with vehicle or GSI. GC patients with expression of CD44 and Hes1 showed overall reduced survival. CD44(+) CSCs showed high expression of Hes1. GSI treatment showed effective inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor sphere formation of CD44(+) CSCs, and induced apoptosis. Importanly, Notch1 was found to be important in mediating a crosstalk between Notch and wnt-beta-catenin in CD44(+) CSCs. Our study highlights a crosstalk between Notch and wnt-beta-catenin in gastric CD44(+) CSCs. Expression of CD44 and Hes1 is associated with patient overall survival. GSI could be an alternative drug to treat GC. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  15. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  16. CD40 Negatively Regulates ATP-TLR4-Activated Inflammasome in Microglia.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Sagar; Patel, Divyesh; Agrawal-Rajput, Reena

    2017-03-01

    During acute brain injury and/or sterile inflammation, release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) activates pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Microglial toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 activated by DAMPs potentiates neuroinflammation through inflammasome-induced IL-1β and pathogenic Th17 polarization which critically influences brain injury. TLR4 activation accompanies increased CD40, a cognate costimulatory molecule, involved in microglia-mediated immune responses in the brain. During brain injury, excessive release of extracellular ATP (DAMPs) is involved in promoting the damage. However, the regulatory role of CD40 in microglia during ATP-TLR4-mediated inflammasome activation has never been explored. We report that CD40, in the absence of ATP, synergizes TLR4-induced proinflammatory cytokines but not IL-1β, suggesting that the response is independent of inflammasome. The presence of ATP during TLR4 activation leads to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and caspase-1-mediated IL-1β secretion which was inhibited during CD40 activation, accompanied with inhibition of ERK1/2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Experiments using selective inhibitors prove indispensability of ERK 1/2 and ROS for inflammasome activation. The ATP-TLR4-primed macrophages polarize the immune response toward pathogenic Th17 cells, whereas CD40 activation mediates Th1 response. Exogenous supplementation of IFN-γ (a Th1 cytokine and CD40 inducer) results in decreased IL-1β, suggesting possible feedback loop mechanism of inflammasome inhibition, whereby IFN-γ-mediated increase in CD40 expression and activation suppress neurotoxic inflammasome activation required for Th17 response. Collectively, the findings indicate that CD40 is a novel negative regulator of ATP-TLR4-mediated inflammasome activation in microglia, thus providing a checkpoint to regulate excessive inflammasome activation and Th17 response during DAMP-mediated brain injury.

  17. Significance of CD34(-) and CD34(+) cell apoptosis and proliferation in bone marrow of patients with MDS and their impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Guo, Qing; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Hai-Feng; Han, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Zhuo

    2012-12-01

    Alteration in the balance between cell apoptosis and proliferation is one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The question of whether the excessive apoptosis and/or proliferation predominantly involve the subset of progenitor cells (CD34(+) cells) or mature cells (CD34(-) cells) remains a controversial issue. This study was purpose to analyze the apoptosis and proliferation status of CD34(+) and CD34(-) cells in bone marrow (BM) of patients with MDS, to investigate the pathogenesis of MDS and to determine the relation of apoptosis and proliferation status of CD34(+) and CD34(-) cells with prognosis of MDS. The proportion of CD34(+) cells, the apoptosis and proliferation ratio (A/P) of CD34(+) and CD34(-) cells in BM of 40 patients with MDS, including 20 cases of high-risk MDS and 20 cases of low-risk MDS, and 10 normal persons as control were detected by flow cytometry; the influence of CD34(+) and CD34(-) cell apoptosis and proliferation levels on prognosis of MDS was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis of survival. The results showed that the proportion of CD34(+) cells in BM of high-risk MDS patients was significantly higher than that in BM of low-risk MDS patients and in normal BM [(1.92 ± 0.10)%, (1.09 ± 0.04)%, (1.03 ± 0.05)% respectively]. The apoptotic rates (AR) of both CD34(+) and CD34(-) cells were significantly higher in low-risk MDS [(54.75 ± 2.18)%, (80.36 ± 1.68)%] than in high-risk MDS [(24.87 ± 2.69)%, (23.12 ± 1.23)%] and in normal BM [(18.51 ± 2.74)%, (20.98 ± 2.21)%]. When compared between CD34(+) cells and CD34(-) cells in low-risk MDS, a greater AR of CD34(-) cells was found. However, the higher proliferative rate of CD34(+) cells was observed in high-risk MDS. In low-risk MDS, a higher A/P ratio was found in CD34(-) cells than in CD34(+) cells; whereas this ratio was equalized or inverted in high-risk MDS. In addition, the survival and prognosis correlated significantly with AR

  18. Activation of human and mouse Kupffer cells by lipopolysaccharide is mediated by CD14.

    PubMed

    Su, Grace L; Goyert, Sanna M; Fan, Ming-Hui; Aminlari, Alireza; Gong, Ke Qin; Klein, Richard D; Myc, Andrzej; Alarcon, William H; Steinstraesser, Lars; Remick, Daniel G; Wang, Stewart C

    2002-09-01

    Upregulation of CD14 in Kupffer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several forms of liver injury, including alcoholic liver disease. However, it remains unclear whether CD14 mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling in this specialized liver macrophage population. In this series of experiments, we determined the role of CD14 in LPS activation of Kupffer cells by using several complementary approaches. First, we isolated Kupffer cells from human livers and studied the effects of anti-CD14 antibodies on LPS activation of these cells. Kupffer cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of LPS in the presence and absence of recombinant human LPS binding protein (LBP). With increasing concentrations of LPS, human Kupffer cell tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production (a marker for Kupffer cell activation) increased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence and absence of LBP. In the presence of anti-human CD14 antibodies, the production of TNF-alpha was significantly diminished. Second, we compared LPS activation of Kupffer cells isolated from wild-type and CD14 knockout mice. Kupffer cells from CD14 knockout mice produced significantly less TNF-alpha in response to the same amount of LPS. Together, these data strongly support a critical role for CD14 in Kupffer cell responses to LPS.

  19. CD200R/Foxp3-mediated signalling regulates microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Min-Hee; Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Baek, Hyunjung; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sena; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Hang-Rae; Lee, Sung Joong; Park, Jin Bong; Kim, Yonghyun; Kwon, O-Yu; Lee, Young Ho; Oh, Sang-Ha; Kim, Dong Woon

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of microglial functions have either beneficial or detrimental roles in specific physiological or pathological environments. However, the details of what transcriptional mechanisms induce microglia to take beneficial phenotypes remain unknown. Here, we report that Foxp3 is essential for beneficial outcome of the microglial response and depends upon signalling by the immunoglobulin CD200 through its receptor (CD200R). Foxp3 expression was up-regulated in microglia activated by excitotoxicity-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation. Suppression of CD200R prevented anti-inflammatory phenotype of microglia, but over-expression of Foxp3 enhanced it. Phosphorylation of STAT6, a downstream effector of CD200R, modulated transcription of Foxp3. Finally, CD200R/Foxp3-mediated signalling enhanced hippocampal neuronal viability and conferred a degree of neuroprotection, presumably by counteracting inducible nitric oxide synthase. We conclude that enhancement of Foxp3 through CD200R could be neuroprotective by targeting the microglia. PMID:27731341

  20. Association of Low Numbers of CD206-Positive Cells with Loss of ICC in the Gastric Body of Patients with Diabetic Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Cheryl; Gibbons, Simon J.; Mann, Inderjit S.; Froschauer, Lukas; Parkman, Henry P.; Harbison, Sean; Abell, Thomas L.; Snape, William J.; Hasler, William L.; McCallum, Richard W.; Sarosiek, Irene; Nguyen, Linda Anh B.; Koch, Kenneth L.; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A.; Kendrick, Michael L.; Shen, K. Robert; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence for specific cellular changes in the stomach of patients with diabetic (DG) and idiopathic (IG) gastroparesis. The most significant findings are loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), neuronal abnormalities and an immune cellular infiltrate. Studies done in diabetic mice have shown a cytoprotective effect of CD206+ M2 macrophages. Aim: Q uantify overall immune cellular infiltrate, identify macrophage populations and quantify CD206+ and iNOS+ cells. Investigate associations between cellular phenotypes and ICC. Methods Full thickness gastric body biopsies were obtained from non-diabetic controls (C), diabetic controls (DC), DG, and IG patients. Sections were labeled for CD45, CD206, Kit, iNOS and putative human macrophage markers (HAM56, CD68 and EMR1). Immunoreactive cells were quantified from the circular muscle layer. Results Significantly fewer ICC were detected in DG and IG tissues but there were no differences in the numbers of cells immunoreactive for other markers between patient groups. There was a significant correlation between the number of CD206+ cells and ICC in DG and DC patients but not in C and IG and a significant correlation between iNOS+ cells and ICC in the DC group but not the other groups. CD68 and HAM56 reliably labeled the same cell populations but EMR1 labeled other cell types. Conclusions Depletion of ICC and correlation with changes in CD206+ cell numbers in DC and DG patients suggests that in humans, like mice, CD206+ macrophages may play a cytoprotective role in diabetes. These findings may lead to novel therapeutic options, targeting alternatively activated macrophages. PMID:25041465

  1. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Matthias; Pantazis, Nikos; Martin, Genevieve E; Hickling, Stephen; Hurst, Jacob; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Christian B; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Nwokolo, Nneka; Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah; Phillips, Rodney; Frater, John

    2016-07-01

    The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122) recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 T cell count) and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count <350 cells/μl or initiation of antiretroviral therapy). To explore the functional significance of these markers, co-expression of Eomes, T-bet and CD39 was assessed. Expression of PD-1 on CD8 and CD38 CD8 T cells correlated with pVL and CD4 count at baseline, and predicted time to the trial endpoint. Lag-3 expression was associated with pVL but not CD4 count. For all exhaustion markers, expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells increased the strength of associations. In Cox models, progression to the trial endpoint was most marked for PD-1/CD38 co-expressing cells, with evidence for a stronger effect within 12 weeks from confirmed diagnosis of PHI. The effect of PD-1 and Lag-3 expression on CD8 T cells retained statistical significance in Cox proportional hazards models including antiretroviral therapy and CD4 count, but not pVL as co-variants. Expression of 'exhaustion' or 'immune checkpoint' markers in early HIV-1 infection is associated with clinical progression and is impacted by immune activation and the duration of infection. New markers to identify exhausted T cells and novel interventions to reverse exhaustion may inform the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches.

  2. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Stephen; Hurst, Jacob; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Christian B.; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Kinloch, Sabine; Babiker, Abdel; Nwokolo, Nneka; Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah; Phillips, Rodney; Frater, John

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122) recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 T cell count) and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count <350 cells/μl or initiation of antiretroviral therapy). To explore the functional significance of these markers, co-expression of Eomes, T-bet and CD39 was assessed. Expression of PD-1 on CD8 and CD38 CD8 T cells correlated with pVL and CD4 count at baseline, and predicted time to the trial endpoint. Lag-3 expression was associated with pVL but not CD4 count. For all exhaustion markers, expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells increased the strength of associations. In Cox models, progression to the trial endpoint was most marked for PD-1/CD38 co-expressing cells, with evidence for a stronger effect within 12 weeks from confirmed diagnosis of PHI. The effect of PD-1 and Lag-3 expression on CD8 T cells retained statistical significance in Cox proportional hazards models including antiretroviral therapy and CD4 count, but not pVL as co-variants. Expression of ‘exhaustion’ or ‘immune checkpoint’ markers in early HIV-1 infection is associated with clinical progression and is impacted by immune activation and the duration of infection. New markers to identify exhausted T cells and novel interventions to reverse exhaustion may inform the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27415828

  3. CD8+ T lymphocyte expansion, proliferation and activation in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Andréia Manso; Carvalho, Karina Inacio; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Villas-Boas, Lucy Santos; da Silva, Wanessa Cardoso; Rodrigues, Célia Luiza de Lima; Oliveira, Olímpia Massae Nakasone Peel Furtado; Levi, José Eduardo; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau Affonso; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque; Kallas, Esper George

    2015-02-01

    Dengue fever induces a robust immune response, including massive T cell activation. The level of T cell activation may, however, be associated with more severe disease. In this study, we explored the level of CD8+ T lymphocyte activation in the first six days after onset of symptoms during a DENV2 outbreak in early 2010 on the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Using flow cytometry we detected a progressive increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells in 74 dengue fever cases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 cases were thawed and evaluated using expanded phenotyping. The expansion of the CD8+ T cells was coupled with increased Ki67 expression. Cell activation was observed later in the course of disease, as determined by the expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR. This increased CD8+ T lymphocyte activation was observed in all memory subsets, but was more pronounced in the effector memory subset, as defined by higher CD38 expression. Our results show that most CD8+ T cell subsets are expanded during DENV2 infection and that the effector memory subset is the predominantly affected sub population.

  4. High Visible Photoelectrochemical Activity of Ag Nanoparticle-Sandwiched CdS/Ag/ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Zhang, Wu; Sun, Mingxuan; Li, Lequn; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada; Sun, Jian

    2017-01-11

    We report on the sensitizing of CdS-coated ZnO (CdS/ZnO) nanorods (NRs) by Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded between the CdS coating and the ZnO nanorod and the improved optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the Ag NP-sandwiched nanostructure CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs. The CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs were fabricated by growing Ag NPs on hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs and subsequently depositing CdS coatings followed by subsequent N2 annealing. The structure of the fabricated CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman backscattering, revealing that the ZnO NRs and the CdS coatings are both structured with hexagonal wurtzite and the Ag NPs contact well with ZnO and CdS. Optical properties were evaluated by measuring optical absorption and photoluminescence, showing that the Ag NPs behave well as sensitizers for optical property improvement and the CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs exhibit better photoresponse in a wide spectral region than CdS/ZnO because of plasmon-enhanced absorption due to the embedment of Ag NPs. The Ag NPs also serve as electron relays from CdS to ZnO, facilitating electron transfer from the CdS coatings to the ZnO NRs. The excellent photoresponse and efficient electron transfer make the CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs highly photoelectrochemically active. The CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs fabricated on indium-tin oxide present much better photoelectrochemical performance as photoanodes working in the visible region than CdS/ZnO NRs without Ag NPs. Under visible illumination, a maximum optical-to-chemical conversion efficiency of 3.13% is obtained for CdS/Ag/ZnO NR photoanodes against 1.35% for CdS/ZnO NR photoanodes.

  5. Altered Intracellular ATP Production by Activated CD4+ T-Cells in Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Gabrielli, Liliana; Chiereghin, Angela; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Background. The neonatal immune system is not fully developed at birth; newborns have adequate lymphocytes counts but these cells lack function. Objective. To assess the activity of T-cells and the influence of the main perinatal factors in very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Design. Blood samples from 59 preterm infants (21/59 were dizygotic twins) were collected at birth and at 30 days of life to measure CD4+ T-cell activity using the ImmuKnow™ assay. Fifteen healthy adults were included as a control group. Results. CD4+ T-cell activity was lower in VLBW infants compared with adults (p < 0.001). Twins showed lower immune activity compared to singletons (p = 0.005). Infants born vaginally showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity compared to those born by C-section (p = 0.031); infants born after prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes (pPROM) showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity at birth (p = 0.002) compared to infants born without pPROM. Low CD4+ T-cell activity at birth is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the first week of life (p = 0.049). Conclusions. Preterm infants show a lack in CD4+ T-cell activity at birth. Perinatal factors such as intrauterine inflammation, mode of delivery, and zygosity can influence the adaptive immune activation capacity at birth and can contribute to exposing these infants to serious complications such as NEC. PMID:28070527

  6. Ionizing Radiation Induces Macrophage Foam Cell Formation and Aggregation Through JNK-Dependent Activation of CD36 Scavenger Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Ikuo; Hotokezaka, Yuka; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Sumi, Tadateru; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Irradiated arteries of cancer patients can be associated with atherosclerosis-like lesions containing cholesterol-laden macrophages (foam cells). Endothelial cell damage by irradiation does not completely explain the foam cell formation. We investigated the possible underlying mechanisms for ionizing radiation (IR)-induced foam cell formation. Methods and Materials: Human peripheral blood monocytes were activated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then treated with varying doses of IR in vitro in the absence of endothelial cells. Scavenger receptor expression and foam cell formation of IR-treated macrophages were investigated in the presence or absence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. We also assessed the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated human monocytes (macrophages) for the foam cell formation. Results: We found that IR treatment of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated human peripheral blood monocytes resulted in the enhanced expression of CD36 scavenger receptors and that cholesterol accumulated in the irradiated macrophages with resultant foam cell formation in the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Furthermore, when cultured on collagen gels, human macrophages formed large foam cell aggregates in response to IR. Antibodies against CD36 inhibited the IR-induced foam cell formation and aggregation, indicating that the IR-induced foam cell formation and the subsequent aggregation are dependent on functional CD36. In addition, we found that IR of human macrophages resulted in c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and that c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition suppressed IR-induced CD36 expression and the subsequent foam cell formation and aggregation. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that IR-induced foam cell formation is mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent CD36 activation.

  7. Interleukin-15 stimulates macrophages to activate CD4+ T cells: a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Rückert, René; Brandt, Katja; Ernst, Martin; Marienfeld, Kathleen; Csernok, Elena; Metzler, Claudia; Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disease characterized by activation of monocytes/macrophages (MPhi), and by expansion of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells. We hypothesized that IL-15 plays a major role for this expansion of CD4(+) T cells and modulates the phenotype of monocytes/MPhi and their interaction with CD4(+) T cells. Here, we show that IL-15 enhances the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells from patients with RA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cocultures. To further dissect the underlying mechanisms, we employed MPhi from IL-15(-/-) or IL-15 transgenic mice. These were induced to differentiate or were stimulated with IL-15. Here we show that addition of IL-15 during differentiation of MPhi (into 'IL-15MPhi') and overexpression of IL-15 by MPhi from IL-15(tg) mice leads to increased levels of major histocompatibility complex class II expression. This resulted in enhanced stimulation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells in vitro and was accompanied by reduced messenger RNA expression in MPhi for immunosuppressive SOCS3. The proliferation rates of IL-15MPhi and IL-15(tg)MPhi were high, which was reflected by increased p27(Kip1) and reduced p21(Waf1) levels. In view of high serum and synovial levels of IL-15 in patients with RA, our data suggest the possibility that this excess IL-15 in RA may stimulate monocytes/MPhi to activate the characteristic autoreactive CD4(+) T cells in RA.

  8. Interleukin-15 stimulates macrophages to activate CD4+ T cells: a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rückert, René; Brandt, Katja; Ernst, Martin; Marienfeld, Kathleen; Csernok, Elena; Metzler, Claudia; Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disease characterized by activation of monocytes/macrophages (MΦ), and by expansion of autoreactive CD4+ T cells. We hypothesized that IL-15 plays a major role for this expansion of CD4+ T cells and modulates the phenotype of monocytes/MΦ and their interaction with CD4+ T cells. Here, we show that IL-15 enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells from patients with RA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cocultures. To further dissect the underlying mechanisms, we employed MΦ from IL-15−/− or IL-15 transgenic mice. These were induced to differentiate or were stimulated with IL-15. Here we show that addition of IL-15 during differentiation of MΦ (into ‘IL-15MΦ’) and overexpression of IL-15 by MΦ from IL-15tg mice leads to increased levels of major histocompatibility complex class II expression. This resulted in enhanced stimulation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vitro and was accompanied by reduced messenger RNA expression in MΦ for immunosuppressive SOCS3. The proliferation rates of IL-15MΦ and IL-15tgMΦ were high, which was reflected by increased p27Kip1 and reduced p21Waf1 levels. In view of high serum and synovial levels of IL-15 in patients with RA, our data suggest the possibility that this excess IL-15 in RA may stimulate monocytes/MΦ to activate the characteristic autoreactive CD4+ T cells in RA. PMID:18557790

  9. Increased levels of adenosine and ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73) activity precede renal alterations in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, C; Salinas, C; Gómez, D; Jaramillo, K; Pérez, G; Alarcón, S; Podestá, L; Flores, C; Quezada, C; San Martín, R

    The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been clearly established, making diagnosis and patient management difficult. Recent studies using experimental diabetic models have implicated adenosine signaling with renal cells dysfunction. Therefore, the study of the biochemical mechanisms that regulate extracellular adenosine availability during DN is of emerging interest. Using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats we demonstrated that urinary levels of adenosine were early increased. Further analyses showed an increased expression of the ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73), which hydrolyzes AMP to adenosine, at the renal proximal tubules and a higher enzymatic activity in tubule extracts. These changes precede the signs of diabetic kidney injury recognized by significant proteinuria, morphological alterations and the presence of the renal fibrosis markers alpha smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, collagen deposits and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. In the proximal tubule cell line HK2 we identified TGF-β as a key modulator of CD73 activity. Importantly, the increased activity of CD73 could be screened in urinary sediments from diabetic rats. In conclusion, the increase of CD73 activity is a key component in the production of high levels of adenosine and emerges as a new tool for the early diagnosis of tubular injury in diabetic kidney disease.

  10. Refractory platelet transfusion in a patient with CD36 deficiency due to pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Wei-Dong; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Xin-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Type I CD36 deficiency is defined by the absence of CD36 on both platelets and monocytes. Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is characterized by a false reduction in the number of platelets in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-anticoagulated blood. Here we report a rare case of concomitant CD36 deficiency and PTCP. The patient was a 7-year-old boy who suffered comminuted fractures of the left humeral condyle. In the pre-operative examination, he was found to have thrombopenia and assumed to have idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. After immunotherapy and platelet transfusion, the platelet count remained low, suggesting that the patient was refractory to platelet transfusion. Serum was collected for the detection of platelet antibodies, and antibodies against CD36 were found. Flow cytometry verified the absence of CD36 on both the platelets and monocytes of this patient. However, the platelet count was normal when capillary blood smears were analysed; in addition, platelet coagulation was noted under the microscope when EDTA-anticoagulated peripheral blood was used. The patient underwent surgery without platelet transfusion and recovered uneventfully.

  11. Anti-leukemic activity and tolerability of anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, E C; Dong, J; Cardoso, R; Zhang, X; Chin, D; Hawkins, R; Dinh, T; Zhou, M; Strake, B; Feng, P-H; Rocca, M; Santos, C Dos; Shan, X; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Shi, F; Kaiser, E; Millar, H J; Fenton, S; Swanson, R; Nemeth, J A; Attar, R M

    2017-02-24

    CD47, a broadly expressed cell surface protein, inhibits cell phagocytosis via interaction with phagocyte-expressed SIRPα. A variety of hematological malignancies demonstrate elevated CD47 expression, suggesting that CD47 may mediate immune escape. We discovered three unique CD47-SIRPα blocking anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with low nano-molar affinity to human and cynomolgus monkey CD47, and no hemagglutination and platelet aggregation activity. To characterize the anti-cancer activity elicited by blocking CD47, the mAbs were cloned into effector function silent and competent Fc backbones. Effector function competent mAbs demonstrated potent activity in vitro and in vivo, while effector function silent mAbs demonstrated minimal activity, indicating that blocking CD47 only leads to a therapeutic effect in the presence of Fc effector function. A non-human primate study revealed that the effector function competent mAb IgG1 C47B222-(CHO) decreased red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit and hemoglobin by >40% at 1 mg/kg, whereas the effector function silent mAb IgG2σ C47B222-(CHO) had minimal impact on RBC indices at 1 and 10 mg/kg. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting CD47 is an attractive therapeutic anti-cancer approach. However, the anti-cancer activity observed with anti-CD47 mAbs is Fc effector dependent as are the side effects observed on RBC indices.

  12. Interleukin-7 is required for CD4+ T cell activation and autoimmune neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Brian R.; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Farrar, Michael A.; Miller, Stephen D.; Sauer, Karsten; McGavern, Dorian B.; Kono, Dwight H.; Baccala, Roberto; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.

    2015-01-01

    IL-7 is known to be vital for T cell homeostasis but has previously been presumed to be dispensable for TCR-induced activation. Here, we show that IL-7 is critical for the initial activation of CD4+ T cells in that it provides some of the necessary early signaling components, such as activated STAT5 and Akt. Accordingly, short-term in vivo IL-7Rα blockade inhibited the activation and expansion of autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells and, when used to treat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), prevented and ameliorated disease. Our studies demonstrate that IL-7 signaling is a prerequisite for optimal CD4+ T cell activation and that IL-7R antagonism may be effective in treating CD4+ T cell-mediated neuroinflammation and other autoimmune inflammatory conditions. PMID:26319414

  13. CD39 expression on Treg and Th17 cells is associated with metabolic factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Cortés-Garcia, Juan Diego; Martínez-Leija, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Rivera, Jose Guillermo; Barajas-López, Carlos; González-Amaro, Roberto; Portales-Pérez, Diana Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases such as type two diabetes (T2D). CD39(+) Treg cells have been implicated as responsible for suppressing Th17 cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number and function of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+) Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from T2D patients and healthy control subjects. The Th17 cells were detected in PBMC under culture with human anti-CD3/CD28 and PMA/ionomycin and the levels of IL-17 were assessed by ELISA and qPCR. The T2D patients with obesity showed significantly lower percentages of CD39(+) Treg cells. A negative correlation between CD39(+) Treg cells and weight, and body mass index was detected. In contrast, the low levels of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells in overweight and obese T2D patients showed a positive correlation with glucose and HbA1c. Additionally, we found a subpopulation of Th17 cells that express CD39 and were correlated with glucose and HbA1c. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD39 on Treg cells and also in CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells from T2D patients is related to hyperglycemia as well as to overweight and obesity and therefore may participate as a modulator of the effector capacity of Th17 cells.

  14. CD107a as a marker of activation in chicken cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Wattrang, Eva; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Kjærup, Rikke B; Lundén, Anna; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate cell surface mobilisation of CD107a as a general activation marker on chicken cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Experiments comprised establishment of an in vitro model for activation-induced CD107a mobilisation and design of a marker panel for the detection of CD107a mobilisation on chicken CTL isolated from different tissues. Moreover, CD107a mobilisation was analysed on CTL isolated from airways of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)-infected birds direct ex vivo and upon in vitro stimulation. Results showed that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in combination with ionomycin was a consistent inducer of CD107a cell surface mobilisation on chicken CTL in a 4h cell culture model. In chickens experimentally infected with IBV, higher frequencies of CTL isolated from respiratory tissues were positive for CD107a on the cell surface compared to those from uninfected control chickens indicating in vivo activation. Moreover, upon in vitro PMA+ ionomycin stimulation, higher proportions of CTL isolated from the airways of IBV-infected chickens showed CD107a mobilisation compared to those from uninfected control chickens. Monitoring of CD107a cell surface mobilisation may thus be a useful tool for studies of chicken CTL cytolytic potential both in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Analysis of CD8+ Treg cells in patients with ovarian cancer: a possible mechanism for immune impairment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Ke, Xing; Zeng, Suyun; Wu, Meng; Lou, Jianfang; Wu, Lei; Huang, Peijun; Huang, Lei; Wang, Fang; Pan, Shiyang

    2015-09-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells may participate in mediating a suppressive microenvironment that blunts successful anti-tumor immunotherapy. Recent studies show that CD8(+) Treg cells might impede effective immune responses to established tumors. However, there is limited research regarding CD8(+) Treg cells in ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Here, we investigated CD8(+) Treg cells in OC patients and their in vitro induction. The immunohistochemistry of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed a significant correlation between the intratumoral CD8(+) T cells and the forkhead box p3 (Foxp3)(+) cells in the intraepithelial and stromal areas of advanced OC tissues. We examined the expression of Treg markers in CD8(+) T cells from the peripheral blood and fresh tumor tissues of OC patients using flow cytometry. Our results indicated an increase in the CD8(+) Treg cell subsets of OC patients compared with those in patients with benign ovarian tumors and healthy controls, including an increased expression of CD25, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and Foxp3 and decreased CD28 expression. To demonstrate whether the tumor microenvironment could convert CD8(+) effector T cells into suppressor cells, we used an in vitro transwell culturing system. Compared with the CD8(+) T cells cultured alone, the CD8(+) Treg cells induced in vitro by coculture with SK-OV-3/A2780 showed increased CTLA-4 and Foxp3 expression and decreased CD28 expression. In addition, the in vitro-induced CD8(+) Treg cells inhibited naı¨ve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation, which was partially mediated through TGF-β1 and IFN-γ. Our study suggests that CD8(+) Treg cells were increased in OC patients and could be induced in vitro, which may be the way that tumors limit antitumor immunity and evade immune surveillance.

  16. Analysis of CD8+ Treg cells in patients with ovarian cancer: a possible mechanism for immune impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuping; Ke, Xing; Zeng, Suyun; Wu, Meng; Lou, Jianfang; Wu, Lei; Huang, Peijun; Huang, Lei; Wang, Fang; Pan, Shiyang

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells may participate in mediating a suppressive microenvironment that blunts successful anti-tumor immunotherapy. Recent studies show that CD8+ Treg cells might impede effective immune responses to established tumors. However, there is limited research regarding CD8+ Treg cells in ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Here, we investigated CD8+ Treg cells in OC patients and their in vitro induction. The immunohistochemistry of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed a significant correlation between the intratumoral CD8+ T cells and the forkhead box p3 (Foxp3)+ cells in the intraepithelial and stromal areas of advanced OC tissues. We examined the expression of Treg markers in CD8+ T cells from the peripheral blood and fresh tumor tissues of OC patients using flow cytometry. Our results indicated an increase in the CD8+ Treg cell subsets of OC patients compared with those in patients with benign ovarian tumors and healthy controls, including an increased expression of CD25, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and Foxp3 and decreased CD28 expression. To demonstrate whether the tumor microenvironment could convert CD8+ effector T cells into suppressor cells, we used an in vitro transwell culturing system. Compared with the CD8+ T cells cultured alone, the CD8+ Treg cells induced in vitro by coculture with SK-OV-3/A2780 showed increased CTLA-4 and Foxp3 expression and decreased CD28 expression. In addition, the in vitro-induced CD8+ Treg cells inhibited naïve CD4+ T-cell proliferation, which was partially mediated through TGF-β1 and IFN-γ. Our study suggests that CD8+ Treg cells were increased in OC patients and could be induced in vitro, which may be the way that tumors limit antitumor immunity and evade immune surveillance. PMID:26166762

  17. CD4-Positive T Cells and M2 Macrophages Dominate the Peritoneal Infiltrate of Patients with Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Sayed M.; Abrahams, Alferso C.; Korte, Mario R.; Zietse, Robert; de Vogel, Lisette L.; Boer, Walther H.; Dendooven, Amélie; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a severe complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Previously, it has been shown that infiltrating CD4-positive T cells and M2 macrophages are associated with several fibrotic conditions. Therefore, the characteristics of the peritoneal cell infiltrate in EPS may be of interest to understand EPS pathogenesis. In this study, we aim to elucidate the composition of the peritoneal cell infiltrate in EPS patients and relate the findings to clinical outcome. Study Design, Setting, and Participants We studied peritoneal membrane biopsies of 23 EPS patients and compared them to biopsies of 15 PD patients without EPS. The cellular infiltrate was characterized by immunohistochemistry to detect T cells(CD3-positive), CD4-positive (CD4+) and CD8-positive T cell subsets, B cells(CD20-positive), granulocytes(CD15-positive), macrophages(CD68-positive), M1(CD80-positive), and M2(CD163-positive) macrophages. Tissues were analysed using digital image analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to investigate the survival in the different staining groups. Results The cellular infiltrate in EPS biopsies was dominated by mononuclear cells. For both CD3 and CD68, the median percentage of area stained was higher in biopsies of EPS as opposed to non-EPS patients (p<0.001). EPS biopsies showed a higher percentage of area stained for CD4 (1.29%(0.61-3.20)) compared to CD8 (0.71%(0.46-1.01), p = 0.04), while in the non-EPS group these cells were almost equally represented (respectively 0.28%(0.05-0.83) versus 0.22%(0.17-0.43), p = 0.97). The percentage of area stained for both CD80 and CD163 was higher in EPS than in non-EPS biopsies (p<0.001), with CD163+ cells being the most abundant phenotype. Virtually no CD20-positive and CD15-positive cells were present in biopsies of a subgroup of EPS patients. No relation was found between the composition of the mononuclear cell infiltrate and clinical outcome. Conclusions A

  18. Differentiation and activation of γδ T Lymphocytes: Focus on CD27 and CD28 costimulatory receptors.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Julie C; Silva-Santos, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    γδ T lymphocytes are major providers of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) at early stages of (auto)immune responses. We and others have recently described the phenotype and differentiation requirements of two distinct murine γδ T cell subsets producing either IFN-γ or IL-17. Here we summarize our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control γδ T cell differentiation, which is programmed in the thymus, and peripheral activation upon infection. We focus on the costimulatory receptors CD27 and CD28, which play independent and non-redundant roles in the physiology of γδ T cells in mice and in humans.

  19. IL-6 down-regulates HLA class II expression and IL-12 production of human dendritic cells to impair activation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yosuke; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Takahashi, Norihiko; Ohtake, Junya; Kaneumi, Shun; Sumida, Kentaro; Homma, Shigenori; Kawamura, Hideki; Minagawa, Nozomi; Shibasaki, Susumu; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-02-01

    Immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments critically affects the success of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we focused on the role of interleukin (IL)-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling cascade in immune regulation by human dendritic cells (DCs). IL-6-conditioned monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) impaired the presenting ability of cancer-related antigens. Interferon (IFN)-γ production attenuated by CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with IL-6-conditioned MoDCs corresponded with decreased DC IL-12p70 production. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD86 expression was significantly reduced in CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors by IL-6 treatment and was STAT3 dependent. Arginase-1 (ARG1), lysosomal protease, cathepsin L (CTSL), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) were involved in the reduction of surface HLA-DR expression. Gene expressions of ARG1, CTSL, COX2, and IL6 were higher in tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells compared with PBMCs isolated from colorectal cancer patients. Expression of surface HLA-DR and CD86 on CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells was down-regulated, and T cell-stimulating ability was attenuated compared with PBMCs, suggesting that an immunosuppressive phenotype might be induced by IL-6, ARG1, CTSL, and COX2 in tumor sites of colorectal cancer patients. There was a relationship between HLA-DR expression levels in tumor tissues and the size of CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell compartments. Our findings indicate that IL-6 causes a dysfunction in human DCs that activates cancer antigen-specific Th cells, suggesting that blocking the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway might be a promising strategy to improve cancer immunotherapy.

  20. High CD4+ T cell density is associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinglei; Hao, Chongli; Cheng, Guangzhou; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiang; Li, Chang; Qiu, Juhui; Ding, Kejia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of CD4+ T cells in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) tissues in situ. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of CD4+ T cells in 131 NMIBC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to estimate overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: NMIBC patients were divided into two groups based on the median frequency of CD4+ T cells (median, 1/×400 high resolution). On univariate analysis, CD4+ T cell density was inversely associated with overall survival (P = 0.01). In those patients with high CD4+ T density, 5-year OS rates was only 77%, compared with 86% in those with low density, respectively. Although CD4+ T cell density showed no prognostic significance for RFS (P = 0.36), 5-year RFS rates of patients with high CD4+ T density (58%) was lower than those of patients with low CD4+ T density (65%, respectively). By multivariate analysis, tumor infiltrating CD4+ T cell density emerged as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 2.75; P = 0.004). In addition, no association was found between CD4+ T cell density and any clinicopathological variables (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CD4+ T cells could potentially serve as a poor prognostic marker for patients with NMIBC. PMID:26617883

  1. Superior photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of CdS (core)-SiO2 (shell) nanostructures obtained by CdS photoetching and Au deposition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-07-01

    Core-shell morphology of silica (SiO2) coated CdS nanocomposites (SiO2@CdS) of different shapes have been made for better stability, luminescence and photochemical activity of CdS nanoparticles. A thin layer (thickness 1-1.4 nm) of SiO2 shell is deposited over CdS nanorods (CdS-NR) of aspect ratio = 21 and CdS nanospheres (CdS-NS) of size 6-8 nm by alkyl silane agents. Synthesized nanostructures were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra, HR-TEM, BET surface measurement, LB surface film, and absorption and photoluminescence analysis. Photoetching (PE) of CdS core led to blue shift of the absorbance onset of SiO2@CdS-NR along with the appearance of an exciton band at 485 nm due to the quantum confinement effect. Photodissolution of CdS core shifts the band gap energy from initial 2.4 to 2.6 eV for CdS-NR and 2.5 to 2.67 eV for CdS-NS. TEM images reveal the increase in aspect ratio of NR from 21 to 31 and decrease in the spherical core to 2.5 nm from 6-8 nm after PE. Photoetched SiO2@CdS-NC displayed highly intense fluorescence emission (SiO2@CdS-NS > SiO2@CdS-NR) than unetched SiO2@CdS-NC at 488 nm corresponding to band edge position. The Au (0.5 wt.%) deposition onto photoetched SiO2@CdS-NR(PE) composites highly enhanced the fluorescence intensity in comparison to 1 wt.% of Au and Ag loading. SiO2@CdS-NC(PE) displayed improved photocatalytic activity during benzaldehyde photooxidation under UV (125 W, Hg-arc, 10.4 mW/cm2) irradiation. Silica coating onto CdS particles improves the photostability and photoactivity of CdS upon long UV irradiation.

  2. CMV+ Serostatus Associates Negatively with CD4:CD8 Ratio Normalization in Controlled HIV-Infected Patients on cART

    PubMed Central

    Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Allavena, Clotilde; Duvivier, Claudine; Cano, Carla Eliana; Guillouet de Salvador, Francine; Rey, David; Dellamonica, Pierre; Cuzin, Lise; Cheret, Antoine; Hoen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among HIV-infected patients but its repercussion on the course of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after cART initiation remains elusive. The French Dat'AIDS cohort enrolled 5,688 patients on first-line cART, from which we selected patients who achieved HIV suppression for at least 12 months without modification of cART, and for whom CMV serostatus was available. Five hundred and three patients fulfilled the selection criteria (74% male, median age 43 yrs, 15.5% CDC stage C), of whom 444 (88.3%) were seropositive for CMV (CMV+). Multivariate analyses using mixed-linear models adjusted for the time from HIV suppression, sex, age, transmission risk group, duration of HIV follow-up, the interaction between time from HIV suppression and CMV+ serology, and the nadir CD4 count revealed a negative correlation between CMV+ and CD4:CD8 ratio (coeff. = -0.16; p = 0.001). This correlation was also observed among patients displaying optimal CD4 recovery (≥500 cells/mm3 at M12; coeff. = -0.24; p = 0.002). Hence, CMV+ serostatus antagonizes normalization of the CD4:CD8 ratio, although further analyses of the impact of co-morbidities that associate with CMV serostatus, like HCV infection, are needed to elucidate this antagonism formally. However, this might reflect a premature T cell senescence, thus advocating for a close monitoring of T cells in CMV co-infected patients. In addition, our results raise the question of the benefit of treatment for asymptomatic CMV co-infection in HIV-infected patients. PMID:27824907

  3. Modulating DNA methylation in activated CD8+ T cells inhibits regulatory T cell-induced binding of Foxp3 to the CD8+ T Cell IL-2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle M; Akaronu, Nnenna; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Hood, Sylvia F; Fogle, Jonathan E

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) activated during the course of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection suppress CD8(+) CTL function in a TGF-β-dependent fashion, inhibiting IFN-γ and IL-2 production and inducing G1 cell-cycle arrest. In this article, we describe the molecular events occurring at the IL-2 promoter leading to suppression of IL-2 production. These experiments demonstrate that Foxp3 induced by lentivirus-activated Tregs in the CD8(+) target cells binds to the IL-2 promoter, actively repressing IL-2 transcription. We further demonstrate that the chronic activation of CD8(+) T cells during FIV infection results in chromatin remodeling at the IL-2 promoter, specifically, demethylation of CpG residues. These DNA modifications occur during active transcription and translation of IL-2; however, these changes render the IL-2 promoter permissive to Foxp3-induced transcriptional repression. These data help explain, in part, the seemingly paradoxical observations that CD8(+) T cells displaying an activation phenotype exhibit altered antiviral function. Further, we demonstrate that blocking demethylation of CpG residues at the IL-2 promoter inhibits Foxp3 binding, suggesting a potential mechanism for rescue and/or reactivation of CD8(+) T cells. Using the FIV model for lentiviral persistence, these studies provide a framework for understanding how immune activation combined with Treg-mediated suppression may affect CD8(+) T cell IL-2 transcription, maturation, and antiviral function.

  4. Antiparasitic Treatment Induces an Improved CD8(+) T Cell Response in Chronic Chagasic Patients.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Jose; Pérez-Antón, Elena; Lasso, Paola; Egui, Adriana; Roa, Nubia; Carrilero, Bartolomé; González, John M; Thomas, M Carmen; Puerta, Concepción J; López, Manuel C; Cuéllar, Adriana

    2017-04-15

    Chagas disease is a chronic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, an intracellular protozoan parasite. Chronic chagasic patients (CCPs) have dysfunctional CD8(+) T cells that are characterized by impaired cytokine production, high coexpression of inhibitory receptors, and advanced cellular differentiation. Most patients diagnosed in the chronic phase of Chagas disease already exhibit heart involvement, and there is no vaccination that protects against the disease. Antiparasitic treatment is controversial as to its indication for this stage of the disease. There is a lack of biological markers to evaluate the effectiveness of antiparasitic treatment, and little is known about the effect of the treatment on CD8(+) T cells. Thus, the aim of the current study was to analyze the early effects of antiparasitic treatment on CD8(+) T cells from CCPs with asymptomatic clinical forms of disease. To evaluate the CD8(+) T cell subsets, expression of inhibitory receptors, and functionality of T cells in CCPs, PBMCs were isolated. The results showed that treatment of CCPs with the asymptomatic form of the disease induces an increase in the frequency of CD8(+) central memory T cells and terminal effector T cells, a decrease in the coexpression of inhibitory receptors, an improved Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell response exhibited by the individual production of IFN-γ or IL-2, and a multifunctional CD8(+) T cell profile of up to four functions (IFN-γ(+)IL-2(+)Perforin(+)Granzyme B(+)). These findings suggest that, in CCPs, antiparasitic treatment improved the quality of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses associated with a decrease in inhibitory receptor coexpression, which could serve as biomarkers for monitoring the effectiveness of antiparasitic treatment.

  5. Role of the frequency of blood CD4(+) CXCR5(+) CCR6(+) T cells in autoimmunity in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-yi; Wu, Zhen-biao; Ding, Jin; Zheng, Zhao-hui; Li, Xiao-yan; Chen, Li-na; Zhu, Ping

    2012-06-01

    The blood CD4(+) CXCR5(+) T cells, known as "circulating" Tfh, have been shown to efficiently induce naïve B cells to produce immunoglobulin. They play an important role in certain autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we show for the first time that the frequency of CD4(+) CXCR5(+) T cells is increased in pSS patients and positively correlated with autoantibodies in the blood. The concentration of Th17-like subsets (CD4(+) CXCR5(+) CCR6(+)) in pSS patients was found to be significantly higher than in healthy controls. Functional assays showed that activated Th17-like subtypes in the blood display the key features of Tfh cells, including invariably coexpressed PD-1, ICOS, CD40L and IL-21. Th17 subsets were found to highly express Bcl-6 protein and Th1 and Th2 were not. Bcl-6 is believed to be a master transforming factor for Tfh cell differentiation and facilitate B cell proliferation and somatic hypermutation within the germinal center. These data indicate that Th17 subsets of CD4(+) CXCR5(+) T cells in the blood may participate in the antibody-related immune responses and that high frequency of CD4(+) CXCR5(+) CCR6(+) Tfh cells in blood may be suitable biomarkers for the evaluation of the active immune stage of pSS patients. It might provide insights into the pathogenesis and perhaps help researchers identify novel therapeutic targets for pSS.

  6. CD200 attenuates methamphetamine-induced microglial activation and dopamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xia; Qiao, Dongfang; Wang, Aifeng; Tan, Xiaohui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Chao; Wang, Huijun

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the neuroprotective effect of cluster of differentiation molecule 200 (CD200) against methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity. In the in vitro experiment, neuron-microglia cultures were treated with METH (20 μmol/L), METH (20 μmol/L)+CD200-Fc (10 μg/mL) or CD200-Fc (10 μg/mL). Those untreated served as control. Microglia activation expressed as the ratio of MHC-II/CD11b was assessed by flow cytometry. The cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α) secreted by activated microglia were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the in vivo experiment, 40 SD rats were divided into control, METH, METH+CD200-Fc and CD200-Fc groups at random. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH (15 mg/kg 8 times at 12 h interval) in METH group, with METH (administered as the same dose and time as the METH group) and CD200-Fc (1 mg/kg at day 0, 2, 4 after METH injection) in METH+CD200-Fc group, with CD200-Fc (1 mg/kg injected as the same time as the METH+CD200-Fc group) or with physiological saline solution in the control group. The level of striatal dopamine (DA) in rats was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The microglial cells were immunohistochemically detected for the expression of Iba-1, a marker for microglial activation. The results showed that METH could increase the microglia activation in the neuron-microglia cultures and elevate the secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α, which could be attenuated by CD200-Fc. Moreover, CD200-Fc could partially reverse the striatal DA depletion induced by METH and reduce the number of activated microglia, i.e. Iba-1-positive cells. It was concluded that CD200 may have neuroprotective effects against METH-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglial activation and reversing DA depletion in striatum.

  7. CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T regulatory cell subsets in myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Siegfried; Keil, Thomas Oskar Philipp; Hoffmann, Sarah; Swierzy, Marc; Ismail, Mahmoud; Rückert, Jens Carsten; Alexander, Tobias; Meisel, Andreas

    2017-03-09

    Although myasthenia gravis (MG) is a classic autoantibody-mediated disease, T cells are centrally involved in its pathogenesis. In recent years a number of studies have analyzed the role of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in the disease with contradictory results. Here, the generation of Treg was significantly reduced in thymoma as compared to thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus tissue (p=0.0002). In the peripheral blood, Treg subsets classified according to CD49d, HELIOS and CD45RA expression changed after thymectomy and in the long-term course of immunosuppression. Compared to healthy volunteers the frequency of CD45RA(+)FoxP3(low) Treg was reduced in MG patients in general (p=0.037) and in particular in patients without immunosuppression (p=0.036). In our study, thymectomy and immunosuppressive treatment were associated with changes in Treg subpopulations. The reduced frequency of CD45RA(+)FoxP3(low) Treg we observed in MG patients might play a role in MG pathogenesis.

  8. Analysis of subsets of B cells, Breg, CD4Treg and CD8Treg cells in adult patients with primary selective IgM deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Ankmalika Gupta; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    Primary selective IgM deficiency (SIGMD) is a rare and recently IUIS-recognized primary immunodeficiency disease with increased susceptibility to infections, allergy, and autoimmune diseases. The pathogenesis of selective IgM remains unclear. The objective of the study was to understand the pathogenesis of selective IgM deficiency via a comprehensive analysis of subsets of B cells, naïve and memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and Breg, CD4Treg, and CD8Treg cells. Twenty adult patients with SIGMD (serum IgM 4 mg/dl-32 mg/dl) and age-and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. Naïve B cells, transitional B cells, marginal zone B cells, germinal center B cells, IgM memory B cells, switched memory B cells, plasmablasts, CD21low B cells, B1 cells, CXCR3+ naive and memory B cells; naïve, central memory, and effector memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CD4Treg, CD8Treg and Breg were phenotypically analyzed using multicolor flow cytometry. A significant increase in CD21low, IgM memory B cells, Breg and CD8Treg, and a significant decreased in germinal center B cells, and CXCR3+ naïve and memory B cells were observed in SIGMD. These alterations in subsets of B cells, and Breg and CD8Treg cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of SIGMD. PMID:27168952

  9. CD4 T cell control primary measles virus infection of the CNS: regulation is dependent on combined activity with either CD8 T cells or with B cells: CD4, CD8 or B cells alone are ineffective.

    PubMed

    Tishon, Antoinette; Lewicki, Hanna; Andaya, Abegail; McGavern, Dorian; Martin, Lee; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2006-03-30

    Measles virus (MV), one of the most infectious of human pathogens, still infects over 30 million humans and causes over 500,000 deaths each year [Griffin, D., 2001. Measles virus. In: Fields, B., Knipe, D., Howley, P. (Eds.), Fields Virology. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp. 1401-1442; ]. Death is primarily due to secondary microbial infections associated with the immunosuppression caused by MV. Studies of humans with genetic or acquired deficiencies of either the humoral or cellular arm of the immune system, and rodent models have implicated T cells in the control of the ongoing MV infection but the precise role and activities of the specific T cell subset or the molecules they produce is not clear. Using a transgenic mouse model in conjunction with depletion and reconstitution of individual B and T cell subsets alone or in combination, we show that neither CD4, CD8 nor B cells per se control acute MV infection. However, combinations of either CD4 T cells and B cells, or of CD4 and CD8 T cells are essential but CD8 T with B cells are ineffective. Interferon-gamma and neutralizing antibodies, but neither perforin nor TNF-alpha alone are associated with clearance of MV infection. TNF-alpha combined with interferon-gamma is more effective in protection than interferon alone. Further, the lack of an interferon-gamma response leads to persistence of MV.

  10. The CD40-CD40L system in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Burak; Lip, Gregory Y H; Snezhitskiy, Viktor; Shantsila, Eduard

    2011-08-01

    The CD40-CD40L system is a pathway which is associated with both prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. CD40 and its ligand were first discovered on the surface of activated T cells, but its presence on B cells, antigen-presenting cells, mast cells, and finally platelets, is evident. The soluble form of CD40L (sCD40L) is derived mainly from activated platelets and contributes to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Indeed, sCD40L has autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine activities, and it enhances platelet activation, aggregation, and platelet-leucocyte conjugation that may lead to atherothrombosis. It has even been suggested that sCD40L may play a pathogenic role in triggering acute coronary syndromes. Conversely, blockade of this pathway with anti-CD40L antibodies may prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Concentrations of sCD40L also predict risk of future cardiovascular disease in healthy women and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there are controversial and uncertain points over the application of this biomarker to clinical cardiology. In this review, we provide an overview of potential implications of CD40-CD40L signalling and sCD40L as a biomarker in patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases.

  11. Brief report: CD24 and CD44 mark human intestinal epithelial cell populations with characteristics of active and facultative stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gracz, Adam D; Fuller, Megan K; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias; Dunn, James C Y; Martin, Martin G; Magness, Scott T

    2013-09-01

    Recent seminal studies have rapidly advanced the understanding of intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) biology in murine models. However, the lack of techniques suitable for isolation and subsequent downstream analysis of IESCs from human tissue has hindered the application of these findings toward the development of novel diagnostics and therapies with direct clinical relevance. This study demonstrates that the cluster of differentiation genes CD24 and CD44 are differentially expressed across LGR5 positive "active" stem cells as well as HOPX positive "facultative" stem cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting enables differential enrichment of LGR5 (CD24-/CD44+) and HOPX (CD24+/CD44+) cells for gene expression analysis and culture. These findings provide the fundamental methodology and basic cell surface signature necessary for isolating and studying intestinal stem cell populations in human physiology and disease.

  12. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A R; Sondel, Paul M; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L

    2015-08-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy.

  13. The Nrf2 activator tBHQ inhibits T cell activation of primary human CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Turley, Alexandra E; Zagorski, Joseph W; Rockwell, Cheryl E

    2015-02-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of antioxidant, detoxification, and cell stress genes. It is activated by oxidative stress and a number of exogenous compounds, one of which is tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a widely used food preservative. Nrf2 modulates immune responses in numerous rodent models of inflammation, but its effects on human immune cells are not well characterized. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of the Nrf2 activator tBHQ on early events of T cell activation in primary human cells. Treatment with tBHQ induced mRNA expression of the Nrf2 target genes HMOX-1, GCLC, and NQO1, and also increased NRF2 mRNA expression, albeit to a lesser extent than the other target genes. tBHQ decreased production of the cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at both the protein and mRNA levels after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to an even greater extent in isolated CD4 T cells. Likewise, tBHQ decreased induction of CD25 and CD69 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and this decrease was even more marked in isolated CD4 T cells. In addition, tBHQ inhibited induction of NFκB DNA binding in anti-CD3/anti-CD28-activated PBMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that tBHQ inhibits activation of primary human CD4 T cells, which correlates with activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NFκB DNA binding. Although these studies suggest the food additive tBHQ negatively impacts T cell activation, further studies will be needed to fully elucidate the effect of tBHQ on human immune responses.

  14. Activation-induced CD154 expression abrogates tolerance induced by apoptotic cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    The decision to generate a productive immune response or tolerance often depends on the context in which T cells first see Ag. Using a classical system of tolerance induction, we examined the immunological consequence of Ag encountered in the presence of naïve or activated apoptotic cells. Naïve apoptotic cells induced tolerance when injected i.v.; however, previously activated apoptotic cells induced immunity. Further analysis revealed a key role for CD154, as tolerance resulted after i.v. injection of either naïve or activated apoptotic CD154−/− T cells, while co-injection of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb with naïve apoptotic T cells induced robust immunity. DC fed activated apoptotic T cells in vitro produced IL-12p40 in a CD154-dependent manner, and the use of IL-12p40−/− mice or mAb-mediated neutralization of IL-12 revealed a link between CD154, IL-12, and the ability of activated apoptotic T cells to induce immunity rather than tolerance. Collectively these results show that CD154 expression on apoptotic T cells can determine the outcome of an immune response to Ag recognized within the context of the apoptotic cells, and suggest the balance between naïve and activated apoptotic T cells may dictate whether a productive immune response is encouraged. PMID:19841180

  15. Tumors induce a subset of inflammatory monocytes with immunosuppressive activity on CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Giovanna; Dolcetti, Luigi; Serafini, Paolo; De Santo, Carmela; Marigo, Ilaria; Colombo, Mario P; Basso, Giuseppe; Brombacher, Frank; Borrello, Ivan; Zanovello, Paola; Bicciato, Silvio; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2006-10-01

    Active suppression of tumor-specific T lymphocytes can limit the efficacy of immune surveillance and immunotherapy. While tumor-recruited CD11b+ myeloid cells are known mediators of tumor-associated immune dysfunction, the true nature of these suppressive cells and the fine biochemical pathways governing their immunosuppressive activity remain elusive. Here we describe a population of circulating CD11b+IL-4 receptor alpha+ (CD11b+IL-4Ralpha+), inflammatory-type monocytes that is elicited by growing tumors and activated by IFN-gamma released from T lymphocytes. CD11b+IL-4Ralpha+ cells produced IL-13 and IFN-gamma and integrated the downstream signals of these cytokines to trigger the molecular pathways suppressing antigen-activated CD8+ T lymphocytes. Analogous immunosuppressive circuits were active in CD11b+ cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These suppressor cells challenge the current idea that tumor-conditioned immunosuppressive monocytes/macrophages are alternatively activated. Moreover, our data show how the inflammatory response elicited by tumors had detrimental effects on the adaptive immune system and suggest novel approaches for the treatment of tumor-induced immune dysfunctions.

  16. TTF-1- and/or CD56-positive Circulating Tumor Cells in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Stoltidis, Dimitris; Kotsakis, Athanasios; Dermitzaki, Eleftheria-Kleio; Koinis, Fillipos; Lagoudaki, Eleni; Koutsopoulos, Anastasios; Politaki, Eleni; Apostolaki, Stella; Souglakos, John; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the phenotypic CTCs heterogeneity (TTF-1+ and/or CD56+) in SCLC patients and correlate it with the CellSearch. Peripheral blood was obtained from 108 consecutive patients. CTCs were detected by CellSearch and double-immunofluorescence using anti-CD45, anti-TTF-1 and anti-CD56 antibodies. Before chemotherapy TTF-1+/CD45−, CD56+/CD45− and TTF-1+/CD56+ CTCs were detected in 66(61.1%), 55(50.9%) and 46(42.6%) patients, respectively; 60.2% of patients were CellSearch+. Among the 22 patients with 0 CTCs/7.5 ml on CellSearch, TTF-1+/CD45−, CD56+/CD45− and TTF-1+/CD56+ CTCs were detected in 8(36.4%), 6(27.3) and 6(27.3%) patients, respectively; no CK+/EpCAM+ or TTF1+/EpCAM+ CTCs were detected in these patients. One-chemotherapy cycle decreased both the number of positive patients (p < 0.001) and their CTC number (p < 0.001), irrespectively of their phenotype and the detection method. The incidence and number of the different CTC subpopulations on PD, was significantly increased at their baseline levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the increased number of CTCs at baseline and on PD were significantly associated with decreased PFS (p = 0.048) and OS (p = 0.041), respectively. There is an important CTC heterogeneity in such patients according to the expression of TTF-1 and CD56 which could detect EpCAM− CTC subpopulations and, thus, undetectable by CellSearch. These CTC subpopulations are dynamically correlated with treatment efficacy and disease-progression. PMID:28349943

  17. Tetraspanin CD9 regulates osteoclastogenesis via regulation of p44/42 MAPK activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, TacGhee; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Je-Yoel; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa . E-mail: baekjh@snu.ac.kr

    2006-08-18

    Tetraspanin CD9 has been shown to regulate cell-cell fusion in sperm-egg fusion and myotube formation. However, the role of CD9 in osteoclast, another multinucleated cell type, is not still clear. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD9 in osteoclast differentiation. CD9 was expressed in osteoclast lineage cells and its expression level increased during the progression of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. KMC8, a neutralizing antibody specific to CD9, significantly suppressed RANKL-induced multinucleated osteoclast formation and the mRNA expression of osteoclast differentiation marker genes. To define CD9-regulated osteoclastogenic signaling pathway, MAPK pathways were examined. KMC8 induced long-term phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, but not of p38 MAPK. Constitutive activation of p44/42 MAPK by overexpressing constitutive-active mutant of MEK1 almost completely blocked osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that CD9 expressed on osteoclast lineage cells might positively regulate osteoclastogenesis via the regulation of p44/42 MAPK activity.

  18. Immune activation induces immortalization of HTLV-1 LTR-Tax transgenic CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Swaims, Alison Y.; Khani, Francesca; Zhang, Yingyu; Roberts, Arthur I.; Devadas, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Although the pathogenesis of these disorders is poorly understood, it involves complex interactions with the host immune system. Activation of infected T cells may play an important role in disease pathogenesis through induction of the oncogenic HTLV-1 Tax transactivator protein. To test this hypothesis, we employed transgenic mice in which Tax is regulated by the HTLV-1 LTR. T-cell receptor stimulation of LTR-Tax CD4+ T cells induced Tax expression, hyper-proliferation, and immortalization in culture. The transition to cellular immortalization was accompanied by markedly increased expression of the antiapoptotic gene, mcl-1, previously implicated as important in T-cell survival. Immortalized cells exhibited a CD4+CD25+CD3− phenotype commonly observed in ATL. Engraftment of activated LTR-Tax CD4+ T cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγ null mice resulted in a leukemia-like phenotype with expansion and tissue infiltration of Tax+, CD4+ lymphocytes. We suggest that immune activation of infected CD4+ T cells plays an important role in the induction of Tax expression, T-cell proliferation, and pathogenesis of ATL in HTLV-1–infected individuals. PMID:20634377

  19. Pertussis toxin activates adult and neonatal naive human CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tonon, Sandrine; Badran, Bassam; Benghiat, Fleur Samantha; Goriely, Stanislas; Flamand, Véronique; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Willems, Fabienne; Goldman, Michel; De Wit, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTX) is known to be mitogenic for T lymphocytes, but its direct action on naive human T cells has not been specified. Herein, we show that PTX induces the proliferation of purified adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) T cells independently of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PTX directly induces TNF-alpha and IL-2 mRNA expression, modulates the level of several cell surface receptors and induces Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) protein accumulation in naive CD4(+) T cells. Addition of autologous dendritic cells was found to be required for the production of high levels of IFN-gamma by PTX-stimulated naive T cells. These effects of PTX occurred in conjunction with activation of NF-kappaB and NFAT transcription factors. Overall, responses of neonatal CD4(+) T cells to PTX were similar to those of adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) naive T cells except for their blunted CD40 ligand up-regulation. We suggest that the adjuvant properties of PTX during primary cell-mediated immune responses involve a direct action on naive T lymphocytes in addition to activation of antigen-presenting cells.

  20. Mesoporous CdS-pillared H2Ti3O7 nanohybrids with efficient photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bizhou; Zhou, Yi; He, Liwen; Yang, Weiwei; Chen, Yilin; Gao, Bifen

    2015-04-01

    Heterostructured CdS-pillared H2Ti3O7 nanohybrids were prepared by the self-assembly of exfoliated trititanate nanosheets and CdS nanosol particles under the electrostatic interactions. It was revealed that the present nanohybrids were mesoporous with specific surface areas of about 90 m2 g-1. The nanohybrids exhibited high photocatalytic activity and good recurrence stability in the H2 evolution from water splitting. When the preparation molar ratio of H2Ti3O7/CdS was 2:1, the nanohybrid reached a high H2-evolution rate of 1523 μmol h-1 g-1 under a 300 W Xe lamp irradiation, which was 13 times higher than the bare CdS. Apart from the wider spectral responsive range, the superior photocatalytic performance of the nanohybrids was predominantly attributed to the efficient photogenerated charge separation between the trititanate nanosheets and the encapsulated CdS nanoparticles.

  1. Low Frequency of Circulating CD8+ T Stem Cell Memory Cells in Chronic Chagasic Patients with Severe Forms of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Jose; Lasso, Paola; Pavia, Paula; Rosas, Fernando; Roa, Nubia; Valencia-Hernández, Carlos Andrés; González, John Mario; Puerta, Concepción J.; Cuéllar, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background CD8+ T cells have been shown to play a crucial role in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Memory CD8+ T cells can be categorised based on their distinct differentiation stages and functional activities as follows: stem cell memory (TSCM), central memory (TCM), transitional memory (TTM), effector memory (TEM) and terminal effector (TTE) cells. Currently, the immune mechanisms that control T. cruzi in the chronic phase of the infection are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterise the CD8+ T cell subsets that could be participating in the control of T. cruzi infection, in this study, we compared total and T. cruzi-specific circulating CD8+ T cells with distinctive phenotypic and functional features in chronic chagasic patients (CCPs) with different degrees of cardiac dysfunction. We observed a decreased frequency of total TSCM along with an increased frequency of TTE in CCPs with severe disease. Antigen-specific TSCM cells were not detectable in CCPs with severe forms of the disease. A functional profile of CD8+ T cell subsets among CCPs revealed a high frequency of monofunctional CD8+ T cells in the most severe patients with IFN-γ+- or TNF-α+-producing cells. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that CD8+ TSCM cells may be associated with the immune response to T. cruzi and outcome of Chagas disease, given that these cells may be involved in repopulating the T cell pool that controls infection. PMID:25569149

  2. Effect of prolonged discontinuation of successful antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ T cell decline in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: implications for intermittent therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Tebas, Pablo; Henry, Keith; Mondy, Kristin; Deeks, Steven; Valdez, Herman; Cohen, Cal; Powderly, William G

    2002-09-15

    This study evaluates the change in CD4(+) T cell counts among patients who achieved complete viral suppression and subsequently discontinued highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We included 72 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients with plasma HIV RNA loads of <500 copies/mL for at least 3 months who then discontinued therapy for at least 12 weeks. The median CD4(+) T decay while off HAART was 16 cells/mm(3)/month (interquartile range, -6 to -34 cells/month). The mean follow-up after therapy ended was 45 weeks. The slope of the CD4(+) T cell decay was inversely correlated with the increase of CD4(+) T cells while receiving HAART, baseline virus load, CD4(+) T cell count at the time therapy was discontinued, age, and duration HIV RNA levels were undetectable. In a multiple regression analysis model, the increase of CD4(+) T cells while receiving therapy and age were independently associated with the rate of CD4(+) T cell loss.

  3. The autophagy machinery restrains iNKT cell activation through CD1D1 internalization.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christian W; Loi, Monica; Ewert, Svenja; Quast, Isaak; Theiler, Romina; Gannagé, Monique; Münz, Christian; De Libero, Gennaro; Freigang, Stefan; Lünemann, Jan D

    2017-03-15

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells with powerful immune regulatory functions that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1D protein. While iNKT-cell-activating glycolipids are currently being explored for their efficacy to improve immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancer, little is known about the mechanisms that control CD1D antigen presentation and iNKT cell activation in vivo. CD1D molecules survey endocytic pathways to bind lipid antigens in MHC class II containing compartments (MIICs) before recycling to the plasma membrane. Autophagosomes intersect with MIICs and autophagy-related proteins are known to support antigen loading for increased CD4(+) T cell immunity. Here, we report that mice with dendritic cell (DC)-specific deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 showed better CD1D1-restricted glycolipid presentation in vivo. These effects led to enhanced iNKT cell cytokine production upon antigen recognition and lower bacterial loads during Sphingomonas paucimobilis infection. Enhanced iNKT cell activation was independent of receptor-mediated glycolipid uptake or costimulatory signals. Instead, loss of Atg5 in DCs impaired clathrin-dependent internalization of CD1D1 molecules via the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) and, thus, increased surface expression of stimulatory CD1D1-glycolipid complexes. These findings indicate that the autophagic machinery assists in the recruitment of AP2 to CD1D1 molecules resulting in attenuated iNKT cell activation, in contrast to the supporting role of macroautophagy in CD4(+) T cell stimulation.

  4. Novel CD28 antagonist mPEG PV1-Fab’ mitigates experimental autoimmune uveitis by suppressing CD4+ T lymphocyte activation and IFN-γ production

    PubMed Central

    Papotto, Pedro Henrique; Marengo, Eliana Blini; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Carvalho, Karina Inácio; de Carvalho, Ana Eduarda Zulim; Castillo-Mendez, Sheyla; Jank, Carina Calixto; Vanhove, Bernard; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune Uveitis is an important chronic inflammatory disease and a leading cause of impaired vision and blindness. This ocular autoimmune disorder is mainly mediated by T CD4+ lymphocytes poising a TH1 phenotype. Costimulatory molecules are known to play an important role on T cell activation and therefore represent interesting therapeutical targets for autoimmune disorders. CD28 is the prototypical costimulatory molecule for T lymphocytes, and plays a crucial role in the initiation, and maintenance of immune responses. However, previous attempts to use this molecule in clinical practice achieved no success. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of mPEG PV1-Fab’ (PV1), a novel selective CD28 antagonist monovalent Fab fragment in the treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU). Here, we showed that PV1 treatment decreases both average disease score and incidence of EAU. A decrease in the activation profile of both T CD4+ and T CD8+ eye-infiltrating lymphocytes was evidenced. In the periphery, T CD4+ cells from PV1-treated mice also showed a decrease in their activation status, with reduced expression of CD69, CD25, and PD-1 molecules. This suppression was not dependent on Treg cells, as both their frequency and absolute number were lower in PV1-treated mice. In addition, frequency of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells was significantly lower in PV1-treated group, but not of IL-17-producing T cells. Moreover, after specific restimulation, PV1 blockade selectively blocked IFN-γ production by CD4+ lymphocytes Taken together, our data suggest that mPEG PV1-Fab’ acts mainly on IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells and emphasize that this specific CD28 blockade strategy is a potential specific and alternative tool for the treatment of autoimmune disorders in the eye. PMID:28248972

  5. The effect of CD47 modified polymer surfaces on inflammatory cell attachment and activation

    PubMed Central

    Stachelek, Stanley J.; Finley, Matthew J.; Alferiev, Ivan S.; Wang, Fengxiang; Tsai, Richard; Eckells, Edward C.; Tomczyk, Nancy; Connolly, Jeanne M.; Discher, Dennis E.; Eckmann, David M.; Levy, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    CD47 is a transmembrane protein that is a marker of “self”. CD47 binding to its cognate receptor in leukocytes and macrophages, signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), causes inhibition of inflammatory cell attachment. We hypothesized that immobilization of recombinant CD47 on polymeric surfaces would reduce inflammation. Recombinant CD47 was appended to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polyurethane (PU) surfaces via photoactivation chemistry. Cell culture studies showed that CD47 immobilization significantly reduced human neutrophil (HL-60) and human monocyte derived macrophage (MDM) (THP-1) attachment to PVC and PU respectively. A neutralizing antibody, directed against SIRPα, inhibited THP-1 and HL-60 binding to PU and PVC surfaces respectively. This antibody also increased the level of SIRPα tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby indicating a direct role for SIRPα mediated signaling in preventing inflammatory cell attachment. Studies using human blood in an ex vivo flow-loop showed that CD47 modified PVC tubing significantly reduced cell binding and neutrophil activation compared to unmodified tubing or poly-2-methoxy-ethylacrylate (PMEA) coated tubing. In ten-week rat subdermal implants, CD47 functionalized PU films showed a significant reduction in markers of MDM mediated oxidative degradation compared to unmodified PU. In conclusion, CD47 functionalized surfaces can resist inflammatory cell interactions both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21429575

  6. GITR ligand-costimulation activates effector and regulatory functions of CD4{sup +} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Hanna; Cao, Yujia; Iwai, Hideyuki; Piao, Jinhua; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Amagasa, Teruo; Azuma, Miyuki

    2008-05-16

    Engagement of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) enables the costimulation of both CD25{sup -}CD4{sup +} effector (Teff) and CD25{sup +}CD4{sup +} regulatory (Treg) cells; however, the effects of GITR-costimulation on Treg function remain controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of GITR ligand (GITRL) binding on the respective functions of CD4{sup +} T cells. GITRL-P815 transfectants efficiently augmented anti-CD3-induced proliferation and cytokine production by Teff cells. Proliferation and IL-10 production in Treg were also enhanced by GITRL transfectants when exogenous IL-2 and stronger CD3 stimulation was provided. Concomitant GITRL-costimulation of Teff and Treg converted the anergic state of Treg into a proliferating state, maintaining and augmenting their function. Thus, GITRL-costimulation augments both effector and regulatory functions of CD4{sup +} T cells. Our results suggest that highly activated and increased ratios of Treg reverse the immune-enhancing effects of GITRL-costimulation in Teff, which may be problematic for therapeutic applications using strong GITR agonists.

  7. A High Level of Soluble CD40L Is Associated with P. aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Galindo-Rodríguez, Gabriela; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Villarreal-Villarreal, César Daniel; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the concentration of sCD40L, a product of platelet activation, correlates with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airway of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to determine its possible clinical association. Methods Sixty patients with CF, ranging in age from 2 months to 36 years, were studied. The demographics, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype, spirometry measurements, radiographic and tomographic scans, platelet count in peripheral blood, sCD40L, IL-6, TNF-α and ICAM1 data were collected. Infection-colonization of the airway was evaluated using sputum and throat swab cultures; the levels of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies (Anti-PaAb) were evaluated. Results Patients with CF and chronic colonization had anti-PaAb values of 11.6 ± 2.1 ELISA units (EU) and sCD40L in plasma of 1530.9 ±1162.3 pg/mL; those with intermittent infection had 5.7 ± 2.7 EU and 2243.6 ± 1475.9 pg/mL; and those who were never infected had 3.46 ± 1.8 EU (p≤0.001) and 1008.1 ± 746.8 pg/mL (p≤0.01), respectively. The cutoff value of sCD40L of 1255 pg/mL was associated with an area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97), reflecting P. aeruginosa infection with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 89%. Lung damage was determined using the Brasfield Score, the Bhalla Score, and spirometry (FVC%, FEV1%) and found to be significantly different among the groups (p≤0.001). Conclusion Circulating sCD40L levels are increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and P. aeruginosa infection. Soluble CD40L appears to reflect infection and provides a tool for monitoring the evolution of lung deterioration. PMID:28030642

  8. Smoking activates cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and causes survivin release in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wasén, Caroline; Turkkila, Minna; Bossios, Apostolos; Erlandsson, Malin; Andersson, Karin M; Ekerljung, Linda; Malmhäll, Carina; Brisslert, Mikael; Töyrä Silfverswärd, Sofia; Lundbäck, Bo; Bokarewa, Maria I

    2017-03-01

    CD8(+) T cells have an emerging role in RA. Resent research indicates a causal relationship between the non-exhausted state of CD8(+) T cells, defined by lost function of PD-1, and development of arthritis. We investigated how smoking contributes to the non-exhausted phenotype of CD8(+) T cells and cause survivin release to serum. We compared serum survivin levels between smokers and non-smokers in 252 RA and 168 healthy subjects. Nicotine effects on CD8(+) T cells were studied in peripheral blood of smoking women, bone marrow of nicotine treated mice and in sorted CD8 spleen cells in vitro using flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Smoking increased the frequency of survivin release in serum of healthy women (OR 3.64, p = 0.025) and in RA patients (OR 1.98, p = 0.039). CD8(+) T cells of smokers gained a non-exhausted PD-1 deficient phenotype. Expression of the cytotoxic marker CD107 correlated to survivin levels in serum. In the experimental setting, nicotine exposure led to an accumulation of non-exhausted PD-1(-)IL-7R(+) CD8(+) T cells in the bone marrow that is abundant with survivin producing cells. The production of the cytolytic protein perforin in bone marrow correlated to serum survivin levels. In vitro stimulation of nicotinic receptors on murine CD8(+) T cells induced repressive transcription factors T-bet and Blimp-1 in support of the non-exhausted phenotype. We conclude that nicotine contributes to autoimmunity by supporting the non-exhausted state of CD8(+) T cells resulting in the release of survivin. This presents a new mechanism by which smoking may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA.

  9. Serum IL8 and mRNA level of CD11b in circulating neutrophils are increased in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with active interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Chen, Jie; Yan, Qingran; Guo, Qiang; Bao, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess serum IL8 and the potential activity of circulating neutrophils on relative messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and their relationship with disease activity in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). We studied 18 CADM patients and compared them with 18 classic dermatomyositis (DM) patients and 18 healthy control subjects. Serum IL8 level and mRNA expressions of neutrophils (chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 (CXCR1), cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b), cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1), interleukin-18 (IL18)) were detected. The overproduction of serum IL8 level was most significant in the CADM group with active period. The mRNA expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were greatly increased in the neutrophils in patients with CADM compared with DM or healthy controls. Up-expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were detected in the neutrophils in CADM patients of active period compared with remission period. A positive correlation was found between CD11b mRNA level and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score, in CADM associated with ILD. Serum IL8 level and mRNA levels of CD11b, MCL1, and IL18 in circulating neutrophils are related with the disease activity of CADM-ILD. The mRNA level of CD11b is positively correlated with HRCT score in CADM-ILD.

  10. CD56brightCD16- NK Cells Produce Adenosine through a CD38-Mediated Pathway and Act as Regulatory Cells Inhibiting Autologous CD4+ T Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Fabio; Horenstein, Alberto L; Chillemi, Antonella; Quarona, Valeria; Chiesa, Sabrina; Imperatori, Andrea; Zanellato, Silvia; Mortara, Lorenzo; Gattorno, Marco; Pistoia, Vito; Malavasi, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies suggested that human CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells may play a role in the regulation of the immune response. Since the mechanism(s) involved have not yet been elucidated, in the present study we have investigated the role of nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes that regulate the extracellular balance of nucleotides/nucleosides and produce the immunosuppressive molecule adenosine (ADO). Peripheral blood CD56(dim)CD16(+) and CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells expressed similar levels of CD38. CD39, CD73, and CD157 expression was higher in CD56(bright)CD16(-) than in CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cells. CD57 was mostly expressed by CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cells. CD203a/PC-1 expression was restricted to CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells produce ADO and inhibit autologous CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Such inhibition was 1) reverted pretreating CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells with a CD38 inhibitor and 2) increased pretreating CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells with a nucleoside transporter inhibitor, which increase extracellular ADO concentration. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells isolated from the synovial fluid of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients failed to inhibit autologous CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Such functional impairment could be related to 1) the observed reduced CD38/CD73 expression, 2) a peculiar ADO production kinetics, and 3) a different expression of ADO receptors. In contrast, CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells isolated from inflammatory pleural effusions display a potent regulatory activity. In conclusion, CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells act as "regulatory cells" through ADO produced by an ectoenzymes network, with a pivotal role of CD38. This function may be relevant for the modulation of the immune response in physiological and pathological conditions, and it could be impaired during autoimmune/inflammatory diseases.

  11. Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage show higher levels of DR+ activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens.

    PubMed

    Kuon, R J; Schaumann, J; Goeggl, T; Strowitzki, T; Sadeghi, M; Opelz, G; Daniel, V; Toth, B

    2015-11-01

    In 50% of recurrent miscarriages (RM) the cause remains unknown and standardized immunological diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic RM (iRM) is yet not established. In this prospective case-control study, out of 220 RM patients screened, 97 iRM patients were identified and compared to 26 healthy controls without a previous pregnancy or blood transfusion in order to identify deregulated immunological parameters. Blood levels of lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokines and neopterin were determined by FACS, ELISA, and Luminex technique. Lymphocyte function was studied by in-vitro lympocyte proliferation tests. As compared to controls, patients had significantly higher proportions of activated CD3+DR+, CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ lymphocytes, elevated levels of neopterin and a lower in-vitro proliferation of lymphocytes (all p<0.05). Within the iRM patients higher proportions of CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes correlated with higher proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ T-lymphocytes and lower CD16+CD56+ NK-cells. Further, it was associated with lower absolute numbers of CD19+ B-lymphocytes, CD3+CD25+ T-lymphocytes and CD45+ total lymphocytes (all p<0.05). In addition we found decreased in-vitro lymphocyte proliferation in iRM patients with high CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes (p<0.05). In summary patients with iRM showed increased activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens in-vitro. The inverse relationship of increased DR but decreased CD25 expression on CD3+ T-cells and the decreased in-vitro proliferation characterize an immunological disorder with similarities to T-cell exhaustion in patients with HIV and cancer. These abnormalities potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of iRM and might be a target for future immunomodulatory therapies.

  12. Spatial distribution of FoxP3+ and CD8+ tumour infiltrating T cells reflects their functional activity

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Matthias; JeΔberger, Jonas; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Haderlein, Marlen; Hecht, Markus; Hartmann, Arndt; Fietkau, Rainer; Distel, Luitpold V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulatory and cytotoxic T cells are key players in the host's anticancer immune response. We studied the spatial distribution of FoxP+ and CD8+ cells to identify potential interactions. Methods In 202 patients 103 pre-radiochemotherapy biopsies and 153 post-radiochemotherapy tumour specimens of advanced rectal cancer were available and an immunohistochemical double staining of FoxP3+ and CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes was performed to investigate cell density and cell-to-cell distances. Results FoxP3+ cells decreased after radiochemotherapy by a factor of 3 while CD8+ cells remained nearly unchanged. High epithelial (p=0.033) and stromal (p=0.009) FoxP3+ cell density was associated with an improved overall survival. Cell-to-cell distances of randomly distributed cells were simulated and compared to observed cell-to-cell distances. Observed distances shorter than the simulated, random distances were hypothesized to represent FoxP3+ cells actively interacting with CD8+ cells. Epithelial short distances were associated with a favourable prognosis while the opposite was true for the stromal compartment. Conclusion The analysis of cell-to-cell distances may offer a tool to predict outcome, maybe by identifying functionally active, interacting infiltrating inflammatory cells in different tumour compartments. PMID:27494875

  13. Chimpanzees Immunized with Recombinant Soluble CD4 Develop Anti-Self CD4 Antibody Responses with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Lord, Carol I.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1992-06-01

    In view of the efficiency with which human immunodeficiency virus replication can be blocked in vitro with anti-CD4 antibodies, the elicitation of an anti-CD4 antibody response through active immunization might represent a useful therapeutic strategy for AIDS. Here we demonstrate that immunization of chimpanzees with recombinant soluble human CD4 elicited an anti-CD4 antibody response. The elicited antibody bound self CD4 on digitonin-treated but not freshly isolated lymphocytes. Nevertheless, this antibody blocked human immunodeficiency virus replication in chimpanzee and human lymphocytes. These observations suggest that immunization with recombinant soluble CD4 from human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans may be feasible and therapeutically beneficial.

  14. CD44v6 expression is related to mesenchymal phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Seiya; Okabe, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Masayuki; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Baba, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Youhei; Kurashige, Junji; Miyamoto, Yuji; Baba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is a cancer stem cell marker in many tumors, and is one of the CD44 isoforms.CD44v6 has been reported to correlate with tumor progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. However, the relevance of CD44s and CD44v6 to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the clinical importance of CD44s and CD44v6 and their relevance to EMT in 113 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer treated by curative resection. The relevance of CD44v6 knockdown to the phenotype of colon cancer cells was examined using small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for CD44v6 in vitro. CD44v6 expression showed a significant inverse correlation with E-cadherin expression (P=0.0007) and a positive correlation with vimentin expression (P=0.0096). A multivariate analysis showed that high CD44v6 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P=0.01, HR=3.05) and overall survival (P=0.025, HR=3.16). The clinical significance and the relevance of CD44s expression to EMT markers was noted to a lesser extent compared to CD44v6 expression. The knockdown of CD44v6 decreased vimentin expression, cell invasion and HGF-induced cell migration, but conferred only a slight effect on E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells (HCT116 and LoVo). CD44v6 is related to poor outcome of patients with colorectal cancer via upregulation of the mesenchymal phenotype.

  15. Bacterial community structure and activity in different Cd-treated forest soils.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Anna; Hartmann, Martin; Blaser, Peter; Widmer, Franco; Schulin, Rainer; Frey, Beat

    2006-11-01

    In this study we compared indicators of Cd bioavailability (water extracts, Lakanen extracts, free ions) and ecotoxicity in forest soils with contrasting physico-chemical characteristics. Soil samples were treated with CdCl(2) solutions (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mM) and incubated for 30 days. Microbial activity indexes (acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, basal respiration) and changes in bacterial community structure using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting were investigated. The Cd concentrations measured ranged from 1% to 37% of the total additions in water extracts, to higher levels in Lakanen extracts. Effects of Cd were observed at bioavailable concentrations exceeding United Nations/European Economic Commission UN/ECE guidelines for total Cd in the soil solution. Basal respiration was the most affected index, while enzymatic activities showed variable responses to the Cd treatments. We also noticed that soils with pH higher than 6.7 and clay content higher than 50% showed inhibition of basal respiration but no marked shift in bacterial community structure. Soils with lower pH (pH <5.8) with less clay content (<50%) showed in addition strong changes in the bacterial community structure. Our results provide evidence for the importance of relating the effects of Cd on the soil communities to soil properties and to bioavailability.

  16. Three different patterns of CD4 recovery in a cohort of Chinese HIV patients following antiretroviral therapy - a five-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Naftalin, Claire M; Wong, Ngai Sze; Chan, Denise P C; Wong, Ka Hing; Reidpath, Daniel D; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-10-01

    To explore the heterogeneity of CD4 responses following highly active antiretroviral therapy, the patterns of CD4 recovery of HIV-1-infected Chinese patients who have been on their first antiretroviral regimen for ≥5 years were analysed. The CD4 trajectories were traced, smoothed and differentiated into three defined profiles. Half (56.3%) were 'satisfactory responders', with CD4 gain of >100 cells/μL and a peak of >350 cells/μL, plateauing before the end of Year 5. Thirty-three (24.4%) were 'continuing responders' whose CD4 rise persisted at Year 4-5. The remaining 26 (19.3%) were 'poor responders'. Presentation with AIDS before therapy was common not just among 'poor' but also paradoxically the 'continuing' responders. While a majority had responded well to antiretroviral therapy, older patients and those with AIDS diagnosis before initiation of therapy may never achieve a satisfactory level even with effective treatment. Categorization of HIV patients by their CD4 trajectory may support the prediction of immunological outcome over time, and ultimately inform treatment choices.

  17. Role of the frequency of blood CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} CCR6{sup +} T cells in autoimmunity in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue-yi; Wu, Zhen-biao; Ding, Jin; Zheng, Zhao-hui; Li, Xiao-yan; Chen, Li-na; Zhu, Ping

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The frequency of CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} CCR6{sup +} T cells increased in pSS patients and positively correlated with autoantibodies in the blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} CCR6{sup +} T cells in blood invariably coexpressed PD-1, ICOS, CD40L, Bcl-6 and secreted IL-21 after stimulated by PHA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} CCR6{sup +} Tfh cells in blood may be suitable biomarkers for the evaluation of the active immune stage of pSS patients. -- Abstract: The blood CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} T cells, known as 'circulating' Tfh, have been shown to efficiently induce naieve B cells to produce immunoglobulin. They play an important role in certain autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we show for the first time that the frequency of CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} T cells is increased in pSS patients and positively correlated with autoantibodies in the blood. The concentration of Th17-like subsets (CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} CCR6{sup +}) in pSS patients was found to be significantly higher than in healthy controls. Functional assays showed that activated Th17-like subtypes in the blood display the key features of Tfh cells, including invariably coexpressed PD-1, ICOS, CD40L and IL-21. Th17 subsets were found to highly express Bcl-6 protein and Th1 and Th2 were not. Bcl-6 is believed to be a master transforming factor for Tfh cell differentiation and facilitate B cell proliferation and somatic hypermutation within the germinal center. These data indicate that Th17 subsets of CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} T cells in the blood may participate in the antibody-related immune responses and that high frequency of CD4{sup +} CXCR5{sup +} CCR6{sup +} Tfh cells in blood may be suitable biomarkers for the evaluation of the active immune stage of pSS patients. It might provide insights into the pathogenesis and perhaps help researchers identify novel therapeutic targets for pSS.

  18. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in HIV Patients with Ruptured Abdominal Aneurysm and Low CD4

    PubMed Central

    Orrapin, Saritphat; Arworn, Supapong; Reanpang, Termpong

    2016-01-01

    We report two HIV infected patients with ruptured abdominal aneurysm by using endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) technique. A 59-year-old Thai man had a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and a 57-year-old man had a ruptured iliac artery aneurysm. Both patients had a CD4 level below 200 μ/L indicating a low immune status at admission. They were treated by EVAR. Neither patient had any complications in 3 months postoperatively. EVAR may have a role in HIV patients with ruptured abdominal aneurysm together with very low immunity. PMID:27703834

  19. The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor constitutes an alternative activation pathway for a subset of CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Gumá, Mónica; Busch, Lisa K; Salazar-Fontana, Laura I; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Morte, Carles; García, Pilar; López-Botet, Miguel

    2005-07-01

    The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) specific for HLA-E is coupled to the KARAP/DAP12 adapter in a subset of NK cells, triggering their effector functions. We have studied the distribution and function of this KLR in T lymphocytes. Like other NK cell receptors (NKR), CD94/NKG2C was predominantly expressed by a CD8(+) T cell subset, though TCRgammadelta(+) NKG2C(+) and rare CD4(+) NKG2C(+) cells were also detected in some individuals. Coculture with the 721.221 HLA class I-deficient lymphoma cell line transfected with HLA-E (.221-AEH) induced IL-2Ralpha expression in CD94/NKG2C+ NK cells and a minor subset of CD94/NKG2C(+) T cells, promoting their proliferation; moreover, a similar response was triggered upon selective engagement of CD94/NKG2C with a specific mAb. CD8(+) TCRalphabeta CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, that displayed different combinations of KIR and CD85j receptors, expressed KARAP/DAP12 which was co-precipitated by an anti-CD94 mAb. Specific engagement of the KLR triggered cytotoxicity and cytokine production in CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, inducing as well IL-2Ralpha expression and a proliferative response. Altogether these results support that CD94/NKG2C may constitute an alternative T cell activation pathway capable of driving the expansion and triggering the effector functions of a CTL subset.

  20. Tumor-Induced CD8+ T-Cell Dysfunction in Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and one of the most common types of cancers. The limited success of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes have highlighted the need to develop new therapies like antitumor immunotherapy. CD8+ T-cells represent a major arm of the cell-mediated anti-tumor response and a promising target for developing T-cell-based immunotherapies against lung cancer. Lung tumors, however, have been considered to possess poor immunogenicity; even so, lung tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell clones can be established that possess cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells. This paper will focus on the alterations induced in CD8+ T-cells by lung cancer. Although memory CD8+ T-cells infiltrate lung tumors, in both tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and malignant pleural effusions, these cells are dysfunctional and the effector subset is reduced. We propose that chronic presence of lung tumors induces dysfunctions in CD8+ T-cells and sensitizes them to activation-induced cell death, which may be associated with the poor clinical responses observed in immunotherapeutic trials. Getting a deeper knowledge of the evasion mechanisms lung cancer induce in CD8+ T-cells should lead to further understanding of lung cancer biology, overcome tumor evasion mechanisms, and design improved immunotherapeutic treatments for lung cancer. PMID:23118782

  1. Tumor-induced CD8+ T-cell dysfunction in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and one of the most common types of cancers. The limited success of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes have highlighted the need to develop new therapies like antitumor immunotherapy. CD8+ T-cells represent a major arm of the cell-mediated anti-tumor response and a promising target for developing T-cell-based immunotherapies against lung cancer. Lung tumors, however, have been considered to possess poor immunogenicity; even so, lung tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell clones can be established that possess cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells. This paper will focus on the alterations induced in CD8+ T-cells by lung cancer. Although memory CD8+ T-cells infiltrate lung tumors, in both tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and malignant pleural effusions, these cells are dysfunctional and the effector subset is reduced. We propose that chronic presence of lung tumors induces dysfunctions in CD8+ T-cells and sensitizes them to activation-induced cell death, which may be associated with the poor clinical responses observed in immunotherapeutic trials. Getting a deeper knowledge of the evasion mechanisms lung cancer induce in CD8+ T-cells should lead to further understanding of lung cancer biology, overcome tumor evasion mechanisms, and design improved immunotherapeutic treatments for lung cancer.

  2. Assessment of immunosuppressive activity of human mesenchymal stem cells using murine antigen specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunosuppressive activity. They do not induce allospecific T cell responses, making them promising tools for reducing the severity of graft versus host disease (GVHD) as well as treating various immune diseases. Currently, there is a need in the MSC field to develop a robust in vitro bioassay which can characterize the immunosuppressive function of MSCs. Methods Murine clonal CD4 and CD8 T cells were stimulated with cognate peptide antigen and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the absence or presence of human MSCs, different aspects of T cell activation were monitored and analyzed using flow cytometery, real time RT-PCR and cytokine measurement. Results Human MSCs (hMSCs) can alter multiple aspects of murine T cell activation induced by stimulation with specific antigen, including: reduced proliferation, inhibited or stimulated cell surface marker expression (CD25, CD69, CD44 and CD62L), inhibited mRNA expression of transcription factors (T-bet and GATA-3) and decreased cytokine expression (interferon-gamma, interleukin-10). Disappearance of activation-induced cluster formation and decreased apoptosis of CD8 T cells were also observed. Moreover, the effects are specific to MSCs; incubating the T cells with non-MSC control cell lines had no effect on T cell proliferation and activation. Conclusions Clonal murine T cells can be used to measure, characterize, and quantify the in vitro immunosuppressive activity of human MSCs, representing a promising approach to improve bioassays for immunosuppression. PMID:24406271

  3. Prime, Shock, and Kill: Priming CD4 T Cells from HIV Patients with a BCL-2 Antagonist before HIV Reactivation Reduces HIV Reservoir Size

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Nathan W.; Sainski, Amy M.; Dai, Haiming; Natesampillai, Sekar; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Bren, Gary D.; de Araujo Correia, Maria Cristina Miranda; Sampath, Rahul; Rizza, Stacey A.; O'Brien, Daniel; Yao, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding how some HIV-infected cells resist the cytotoxicity of HIV replication is crucial to enabling HIV cure efforts. HIV killing of CD4 T cells that replicate HIV can involve HIV protease-mediated cleavage of procaspase 8 to generate a fragment (Casp8p41) that directly binds and activates the mitochondrial proapoptotic protein BAK. Here, we demonstrate that Casp8p41 also binds with nanomolar affinity to the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, which sequesters Casp8p41 and prevents apoptosis. Further, we show that central memory CD4 T cells (TCM) from HIV-infected individuals have heightened expression of BCL-2 relative to procaspase 8, possibly explaining the persistence of HIV-infected TCM despite generation of Casp8p41. Consistent with this hypothesis, the selective BCL-2 antagonist venetoclax induced minimal killing of uninfected CD4 T cells but markedly increased the death of CD4 T cells and diminished cell-associated HIV DNA when CD4 T cells from antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed HIV patients were induced with αCD3/αCD28 to reactivate HIV ex vivo. Thus, priming CD4 T cells from ART suppressed HIV patients with a BCL-2 antagonist, followed by HIV reactivation, achieves reductions in cell-associated HIV DNA, whereas HIV reactivation alone does not. IMPORTANCE HIV infection is incurable due to a long-lived reservoir of HIV+ memory CD4 T cells, and no clinically relevant interventions have been identified that reduce the number of these HIV DNA-containing cells. Since postintegration HIV replication can result in HIV protease generation of Casp8p41, which activates BAK, causing infected CD4 T cell death, we sought to determine whether this occurs in memory CD4 T cells. Here, we demonstrate that memory CD4 T cells can generate Casp8p41 and yet are intrinsically resistant to death induced by diverse stimuli, including Casp8p41. Furthermore, BCL-2 expression is relatively increased in these cells and directly binds and inhibits Casp8p41's

  4. LXR activation inhibits chemokine-induced CD4-positive lymphocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Daniel; Vasic, Dusica; Heinz, Philipp; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Hausauer, Angelina; Hombach, Vinzenz; Marx, Nikolaus

    2010-07-01

    Migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes into the vessel wall is a critical step in atherogenesis. Recent data suggest that CD4-positive lymphocytes express the nuclear transcription factors Liver-X-Receptor (LXR) alpha and beta with an effect of LXR activators on TH1-cytokine release from these cells. However, the role of LXR in lymphocyte migration remains currently unexplored. Therefore, the present study investigated whether LXR activation might modulate chemokine-induced migration of these cells. Stimulation of CD4-positive lymphocytes with SDF-1 leads to a 2.5 +/- 0.8-fold increase in cell migration (P < 0.05; n = 12). Pretreatment of cells with the LXR activator T0901317 reduces this effect in a concentration-dependent manner to a maximal 0.9 +/- 0.4-fold induction at 1 micromol/L T0901317 (P < 0.05 compared to SDF-1-treated cells; n = 12). Similar results were obtained with the LXR activator GW3965. The effect of LXR activators on CD4-positive lymphocyte migration was mediated through an early inhibition of chemokine-induced PI-3 kinase activity as determined by PI-3 kinase activity assays. Downstream, T0901317 inhibited activation of the small GTPase Rac and phosphorylation of the myosin light chain (MLC). Moreover, LXR activator treatment reduced f-actin formation as well as ICAM3 translocation to the uropod of the cell, thus interfering with two important steps in T cell migration. Transfection of CD4-positive lymphocytes with LXRalpha/beta siRNA abolished T0901317 inhibitory effect on MLC phosphorylation and ICAM3 translocation. LXR activation by T0901317 or GW3965 inhibits chemokine-induced migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes. Given the crucial importance of chemokine-induced T cell migration in early atherogenesis, LXR activators may be promising tools to modulate this effect.

  5. Reduced frequency of memory T cells and increased Th17 responses in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Marín, Nancy D; París, Sara C; Rojas, Mauricio; García, Luis F

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic and functional alterations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis T cell subsets have been reported in patients with active tuberculosis. A better understanding of these alterations will increase the knowledge about immunopathogenesis and also may contribute to the development of new diagnostics and prophylactic strategies. Here, the ex vivo phenotype of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and the frequency and phenotype of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)- and interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells elicited in short-term and long-term cultures following CFP-10 and purified protein derivative (PPD) stimulation were determined in noninfected persons (non-TBi), latently infected persons (LTBi), and patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). Phenotypic characterization of T cells was done based on the expression of CD45RO and CD27. Results show that ATB had a reduced frequency of circulating CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CD27(+) T cells and an increased frequency of CD4(+) CD45RO(-) CD27(+) T cells. ATB also had a higher frequency of circulating IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells than did LTBi after PPD stimulation, whereas LTBi had more IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells than did non-TBi. The phenotype of IFN-γ-producing cells at 24 h differs from the phenotype of IL-17-producing cells with no differences between LTBi and ATB. At 144 h, IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing cells were mainly CD45RO(+) CD27(+) T cells and they were more frequent in ATB. These results suggest that M. tuberculosis infection induces alterations in T cells which interfere with an adequate specific immune response.

  6. Reduced Frequency of Memory T Cells and Increased Th17 Responses in Patients with Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Nancy D.; París, Sara C.; Rojas, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic and functional alterations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis T cell subsets have been reported in patients with active tuberculosis. A better understanding of these alterations will increase the knowledge about immunopathogenesis and also may contribute to the development of new diagnostics and prophylactic strategies. Here, the ex vivo phenotype of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the frequency and phenotype of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)- and interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells elicited in