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Sample records for active center gorge

  1. Flexibility of active-site gorge aromatic residues and non-gorge aromatic residues in acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an unusually large number of aromatic residues in the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase has been a topic of great interest. Flexibility of these residues has been suspected to be a key player in controlling ligand traversal in the gorge. This raises the question of whether the over representation of aromatic residues in the gorge implies higher than normal flexibility of those residues. The current study suggests that it does not. Large changes in the hydrophobic cross sectional area due to dihedral oscillations are probably the reason behind their presence in the gorge.

  2. Study of Active Faults in the Three Gorges Dam region by Detecting and Relocating Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Zhu, L.; Xu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismicity in the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region and its adjacent areas increased dramatically as the water- level of the TGD reservoir rises since its completion in 2003. Accordingly, many efforts have been put forward to quantify the seismicity and geological hazards in the region. However, the precise detective of earthquakes, especially for the minor ones, remains difficulty because of sparse distribution of permanent seismic stations. From December 2013 to June 2014, we deployed 30 three-component broadband seismic stations in the TGD region. During the deployment, we recorded two earthquakes of magnitudes lager than 5.0, one occurred on December 16th 2013 in Badong and another on March 30th 2014 in Zigui. We firstly used a sliding-window cross-correlation (SCC) detection technique to supplement the events catalog from the China Earthquake Networks Center. Over 500 new events with ML lager than 0.5 were detected. We then relocated 502 events out of the total 987 events using the double-difference (DD) relocation algorithm. We also determined moment tensors of some large earthquakes using gCAP. The results clearly show two active faults along Yangtze River with dips of 50 degrees and 90 degrees to a maximum depth of 10 km, respectively. And they also reveal that water might have permeated to a depth of 6 km corresponds to the interface of sediments and metamorphic basement beneath Zigui Basin. We thus preliminarily judge that the quakes are triggered by local stress adjustment resulting of fluctuation of Three Gorges reservoir's loading.

  3. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug) translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Vivek; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2012-01-01

    Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun) conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7) translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  4. A Survey of Landslide Activity in the Columbia River Gorge from InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge contains several large landslide complexes that have exhibited historical movement, both catastrophic and slow moving. Monitoring the kinematics of active movement helps to characterize the ongoing natural hazard. In this study, we document the status of several large landslide complexes along the Columbia River Gorge. We use synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from multiple satellites (ERS, ENVISAT and ALOS) to reveal the spatial-temporal movement of slow-moving landslides over two decades, 1992-2011. To increase the spatial extent of the signal we developed a new InSAR time-series method based on pixel coherence and derived the time series of the landslides. We also investigate the ability of Persistent Scatterer InSAR to better illuminate active movement. While many historical landslide complexes show minimal or non-existent movement, we measure significant creep on the Redbluff landslide, which is part of the Cascade Landslide Complex near the Bonneville Dam. The InSAR time-series data reveal approximately 25 cm of line-of-sight movement from 5 years of ALOS observations, which translates into greater than 60 cm of downslope movement. The Redbluff landslide is seasonally activated, with accelerated movement observed during the early winter of each year. However, the amplitude of the seasonal signal is variable from year-to-year. To assess the triggering mechanisms, we compared the deformation time series data with local precipitation data. The deformation correlates well with precipitation, implying the slow movement is controlled by rainfall that infiltrates to the base of the slide. A preliminary comparison with the bare earth 2m-resolution digital elevation model from LiDAR reveals that the overall deformation pattern and the active perimeter is highly correlated with the morphology of the landslide.

  5. Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodden, Lee; Pease, Phil; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Rosen, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC V0 DAAC) is being developed to enhance and improve scientific research and productivity by consolidating access to remote sensor earth science data in the pre-EOS time frame. In cooperation with scientists from the science labs at GSFC, other NASA facilities, universities, and other government agencies, the DAAC will support data acquisition, validation, archive and distribution. The DAAC is being developed in response to EOSDIS Project Functional Requirements as well as from requirements originating from individual science projects such as SeaWiFS, Meteor3/TOMS2, AVHRR Pathfinder, TOVS Pathfinder, and UARS. The GSFC V0 DAAC has begun operational support for the AVHRR Pathfinder (as of April, 1993), TOVS Pathfinder (as of July, 1993) and the UARS (September, 1993) Projects, and is preparing to provide operational support for SeaWiFS (August, 1994) data. The GSFC V0 DAAC has also incorporated the existing data, services, and functionality of the DAAC/Climate, DAAC/Land, and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Systems.

  6. Disentangling hominin and carnivore activities near a spring at FLK North (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, M.; Mabulla, A. Z. P.; Bunn, H. T.; Diez-Martin, F.; Baquedano, E.; Barboni, D.; Barba, R.; Domínguez-Solera, S.; Sánchez, P.; Ashley, G. M.; Yravedra, J.

    2010-11-01

    FLK North is one of the densest concentrations of fossils found in Olduvai Gorge. A recent taphonomic re-evaluation of the collection excavated by Leakey at the site suggests that it was a palimpsest in which most of the animals were accumulated and modified by carnivores. The lithic tools therefore seem to have an independent depositional history from most of the fauna. The present study, based on new excavations, expands the evidence supporting this interpretation and demonstrates a thicker deposit than was reported by Leakey, including new archaeological levels. It also shows that in the few instances where hominins butchered carcasses, meat, not marrow, was their main target. This argues against passive scavenging hypotheses, which emphasize the dietary role of marrow, and instead underscores the importance of meat in the diet of early Pleistocene hominins.

  7. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

    This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER

  8. [Effects of biological regulated measures on active organic carbon and erosion-resistance in the Three Gorges Reservoir region soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru; Huang, Lin; He, Bing-Hui; Zhou, Li-Jiang; Yu, Chuan; Wang, Feng

    2013-07-01

    To gain a better knowledge of characteristics of soils and provide a scientific basis for soil erosion control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, contents of aggregates and total soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as soil active organic carbon fractions including particulate organic carbon (POC), readily oxidized organic carbon (ROC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in the 0-30 cm soil layer under seven different biological regulated measures were studied by the field investigation combined with the laboratory analysis. Results showed that the content of the SOC and active organic carbon fractions decreased with the increasing soil depth; the content of the SOC and active organic carbon fractions in 0-10 cm was significantly higher than that in 20-30 cm. The stability of soil aggregates were also significantly influenced by biological regulated measures, the content of > 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates in seven types of biological regulated measures was in the order of Koelreuteria bipinnata + Cassia suffruticasa > hedgerows > closed forest > natural restoration > economic forest > traditional planting > control plot, moreover, the content of 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates correlated positively with the content of SOC. Soils under different biological regulated measures all demonstrated fractal features, and soil under the measure of Koelreuteria bipinnata + Cassia suffruticasa was found to have the lowest value of fractal dimension and soil erodiable K, indicating a relatively strong structure stability and erosion-resistant capacity. Negative correlation was observed when compared the content of active organic carbon fractions with the soil erodiable K. It can be concluded that properties of soil can be managed through biological regulated measures; thence had an influence on the soil erosion-resistant capacity.

  9. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  10. 2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE DUE TO THE COMBINATION OF UNIT 24 BEING DOWN FOR REWINDING AND TWO UNITS COMING ON LINE UNEXPECTEDLY AT ROSS POWERHOUSE LED TO WATER FLOWING OVER THE SPILLGATES. EACH GATE IF 47 FEET WIDE AND 50 FEET HIGH, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  11. [Relationships between soil nutrient contents and soil enzyme activities in Pinus massoniana stands with different ages in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Huang, Ling-Ling; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-02-01

    Based on the measurements of soil nutrient contents and enzyme activities and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), this paper studied the relationships between soil nutrient contents and soil enzyme activities in different age Pinus massoniana stands in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Among the test stands, mature stand had the highest contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and available phosphorus in 0-20 cm soil layer, followed by middle-aged stand, and nearly-mature stand. With the increase of the stand age, soil invertase activity increased after an initial decrease, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase activities decreased gradually, while urease and peroxidase activities decreased after an initial increase. CCA analysis showed that the effects of the main soil parameters on the soil enzyme activities in the stands ranked in the sequence of total nitrogen > organic matter > pH > bulk density > ammonium nitrogen > available phosphorus. Soil invertase activity had significant positive correlations with soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, while soil peroxidase activity significantly negatively correlated with soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and bulk density. The soil was rich in main nutrients, invertase activity was relatively high, while peroxidase activity was relatively low. The activities of soil invertase, cellulase and peroxidase could be used as the good biological indicators in evaluating soil quality and fertility.

  12. Probing Gorge Dimensions of Cholinesterases by Freeze-Frame Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Radić, Zoran; Manetsch, Roman; Fournier, Didier; Sharpless, K. Barry; Taylor, Palmer

    2008-01-01

    Freeze-frame click chemistry is a proven approach for design in situ of high affinity ligands from bioorthogonal, reactive building blocks and macromolecular template targets. We recently described in situ design of femtomolar reversible inhibitors of fish and mammalian acetylcholinesterases (EC 3.1.1.7; AChEs) using several different libraries of acetylene and azide building blocks. Active center gorge geometries of those AChEs are rather similar and identical triazole inhibitors were detected in situ when incubating the same building block libraries in different AChEs. Drosophila melanogaster AChE crystal structure and other insect AChE homology models differ more in their overall 3D structure than other members of the cholinesterase family. The portion of the gorge proximal to the catalytic triad and choline binding site has a ~50% reduction in volume, and the gorge entrance at the peripheral anionic site (PAS) is more constricted than in the fish and mammalian AChE’s. In this communication we describe rationale for using purified recombinant Drosophila AChE as a template for in situ reaction of tacrine and propidium based libraries of acetylene and azide building blocks. The structures of resulting triazole inhibitors synthesized in situ are expected to differ appreciably from the fish and mammalian AChEs. While the latter AChEs exclusively promote synthesis of syn-substituted triazoles, the best Drosophila AChE triazole inhibitors were always anti-substituted. The anti- regioisomer triazoles were by about one order of magnitude better inhibitors of Drosophila than mammalian and fish AChEs. Moreover, the preferred site of acetylene + azide reaction in insect AChE and the resulting triazole ring formation shifts from near the base of the gorge to closer to its rim due to substantial differences of the gorge geometry in Drosophila AChE. Thus, in addition to synthesizing high affinity, lead inhibitors in situ, freeze-frame, click chemistry has capacity to

  13. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  14. NDVI indicated long-term interannual changes in vegetation activities and their responses to climatic and anthropogenic factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jilong; Lü, Mingquan

    2017-01-01

    Natural and social environmental changes in the China's Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) have received worldwide attention. Identifying interannual changes in vegetation activities in the TGRR is an important task for assessing the impact these changes have on the local ecosystem. We used long-term (1982-2011) satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets and climatic and anthropogenic factors to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation activities in the TGRR, as well as their links to changes in temperature (TEM), precipitation (PRE), downward radiation (RAD), and anthropogenic activities. At the whole TGRR regional scale, a statistically significant overall uptrend in NDVI variations was observed in 1982-2011. More specifically, there were two distinct periods with different trends split by a breakpoint in 1991: NDVI first sharply increased prior to 1991, and then showed a relatively weak rate of increase after 1991. At the pixel scale, most parts of the TGRR experienced increasing NDVI before the 1990s but different trend change types after the 1990s: trends were positive in forests in the northeastern parts, but negative in farmland in southwest parts of the TGRR. The TEM warming trend was the main climate-related driver of uptrending NDVI variations pre-1990s, and decreasing PRE was the main climate factor (42%) influencing the mid-western farmland areas' NDVI variations post-1990s. We also found that anthropogenic factors such as population density, man-made ecological restoration, and urbanization have notable impacts on the TGRR's NDVI variations. For example, large overall trend slopes in NDVI were more likely to appear in TGRR regions with large fractions of ecological restoration within the last two decades. The findings of this study may help to build a better understanding of the mechanics of NDVI variations in the periods before and during TGDP construction for ongoing ecosystem monitoring and assessment in the

  15. The Hydrologic Cycle Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Danny M.; Goodman, H. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Huntsville, Alabama supports the acquisition, production, archival and dissemination of data relevant to the study of the global hydrologic cycle. This paper describes the Hydrologic Cycle DAAC, surveys its principle data holdings, addresses future growth, and gives information for accessing the data sets.

  16. Technical activities 1986, Center for Basic Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydemann, P. L. M.

    1986-10-01

    The report summarizes the research and technical activities of the Center for Basic Standards during the Fiscal Year 1986. These activities include work in the areas of electricity, temperature and pressure, mass and length, time and frequency, quantum metrology, and quantum physics.

  17. Secondary Activity Category | STORET Legacy Data Center ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  18. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from "negative removal" to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological

  19. Environments and hominin activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Blumenschine, Robert J; Stanistreet, Ian G; Njau, Jackson K; Bamford, Marion K; Masao, Fidelis T; Albert, Rosa M; Stollhofen, Harald; Andrews, Peter; Prassack, Kari A; McHenry, Lindsay J; Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Camilli, Eileen L; Ebert, James I

    2012-08-01

    We establish through 13 excavations the landscape context and nature of hominin activities across the Zinjanthropus land surface from which the Leakeys recovered the FLK 22 and FLK NN 1 paleoanthropological assemblages. The land surface was created by fluvial incision of the eastern margin of paleo-Lake Olduvai following a major lake withdrawal. Erosion was uneven, leaving a peninsula bounded by a river channel, the FLK Fault, and a freshwater wetland. This FLK Peninsula supported groves of trees that attracted hominins and carnivores, and that preserved the dense concentrations of carcass remains and stone tools they left behind, including those at FLK 22. Some carcasses appear to have been acquired at the ecotone of the Peninsula and Wetland, where another dense artifact and bone assemblage accumulated. A lesser topographic high at the edge of a Typha marsh in the Wetland was the site of FLK NN 1 and a scatter of large stone tools used possibly for rootstock processing. Our landscape reconstruction delimits the vegetation mosaic indicated by previous work and provides a topographical explanation for the existence of FLK 22 and FLK NN 1. Both are unexpected if the FLK area was the flat, featureless lake margin terrain typical of lake basins similar to paleo-Olduvai. The results show that the Leakeys' sites were not isolated occupation floors but rather parts of a land surface utilized intensively by hominins. Although commonly considered to have been home bases, their likely high predation risk, evidenced by large carnivore feeding traces and the remains of four hominin individuals, suggests visits to them were brief and limited to feeding. Finally, stratigraphic observations confirm that FLK NN 3 accumulated on an older land surface, refuting the hypothesis that the OH 8 foot found there is the same individual as the OH 35 leg from FLK 22.

  20. Ortho-7 bound to the active-site gorge of free and OP-conjugated acetylcholinesterase: cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Arup Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense importance of cation-π interactions prevailing in bispyridinium drug acetylcholinesterase (AChE) complexes, a precise description of cation-π interactions at molecular level has remained elusive. Here, we consider a bispyridinium drug, namely, ortho-7 in three different structures of AChE, with and without complexation with organophosphorus (OP) compounds for detailed investigation using all atom molecular dynamics simulation. By quantum mechanical calculations, Y72, W86, Y124, W286, Y337, and Y341 aromatic residues of the enzyme are investigated for possible cation-π interactions with ortho-7. The cation-π interactions in each of the protein-drug complexes are studied using distance, angle, a suitable functional form of them, and electrostatic criteria. The variation of cation-π functional is remarkably consistent with that of the Columbic variation. It is clearly observed that cation-π interactions for some of the residues in the catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of the enzyme are either enhanced or reduced based on the nature of OP conjugation (i.e., nerve gas, tabun or pesticide, fenamiphos) when compared with the OP-free enzyme. The strength of cation-π interaction is strongly dependent on the type OP conjugation. The effect of conjugation at CAS is also seen to influence the cation-π interaction at the PAS region. The variation of cation-π interactions on the type of conjugating OP compounds might be suggestive of a reason as to why wide spectrum drug against any OP poisoning is yet to arrive in the market.

  1. 17. Station Power Center 1 and Load Center 1, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Station Power Center 1 and Load Center 1, view to the northwest. The power center is the cabinet on the right and the load center is the cabinet on the left of the photograph. A door to the generator barrel of Unit 1 is visible in the background. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  2. Naval weapons center active fault map series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquemore, G. R.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1987-08-01

    The NWC Active Fault Map Series shows the locations of active faults and features indicative of active faulting within much of Indian Wells Valley and portions of the Randsburg Wash/Mojave B test range areas of the Naval Weapons Center. Map annotations are used extensively to identify criteria employed in identifying the fault offsets, and to present other valuable data. All of the mapped faults show evidence of having moved during about the last 12,500 years or represent geologically young faults that occur within seismic gaps. Only faults that offset the surface or show other evidence of surface deformation were mapped. A portion of the City of Ridgecrest is recommended as being a Seismic Hazard Special Studies Zone in which detailed earthquake hazard studies should be required.

  3. Oxygen in activator centers of zinc sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Golobeva, N.P.; Fok, M.V.

    1986-05-01

    The authors observed the sensitized luminescence of Tm and Dy without addition of Cu and Ag in samples which had been obtained by the sulfonation of zinc sulfide in hydrogen sulfide; the zinc sulfide has a copper concentration below 5.10/sup -6/ mass %. In this case the excitation can be transmitted from the ZnS lattice to the rare-earth activators mainly through defects including oxygen. The following conclusions were made. In the case of activated ZnS, oxygen is present in formations accounting for the excitation and luminescence of a number of luminophors. When an activator is introduced in the region of ZnS layer faults, where also the oxygen must be located, the positioning of the faults in close vicinity is facilitated even when the oxygen concentration of the ZnS is low. All this must be considered when models of luminescence centers of zinc sulfide are developed.

  4. Catawba Science Center solar activities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Two demonstration solar water heaters were built. One was to be used at the Science Center and the other with traveling programs. This was completed and both units are being used for these programs which continue. We were able to build a library of 99 solar energy books and booklets that are available to the public for reference. We also conducted programs for 683 students of all ages. The culminating activity was the planned Energy Awareness Festival. This was held on September 26, 1981 and attracted 450 area citizens. We offered free exhibit space and hosted 17 exhibitors.

  5. Post-glacial rock avalanche causing epigenetic gorge incision (Strassberg gorge, Eastern Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    fractured clasts up to boulder size. Comparison with areas with intense neotectonism (e. g., Central Apennines) suggests that fracturation may have been caused by seismicity. For the area, historical earthquakes with Me 3-3.9 imply the incidence of stronger quakes on longer timescales. The considered rock avalanche thus perhaps was triggered by a seismic event. The investigated RAD is the hitherto unappreciated, easternmost outlier of a cluster of rock avalanches in the area; these rock avalanches are grouped within a seismically active belt of strike-slip faults related to the Neogene to recent deformation of the Eastern Alps. This study links structural deformation with catastrophic mass-wasting which, in turn, caused incision of an epigenetic bedrock gorge. Surface exposure dating of boulders is intended to constrain the age of rock avalanching.

  6. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  7. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Comment on "Tectonic control of Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge revealed by a buried canyon in Southern Tibet".

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Peter K; Koons, Peter O; Hallet, Bernard; Meltzer, Anne S

    2015-08-21

    Wang et al. (Reports, 21 November, 2014, p. 978) describe a buried canyon upstream of the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge and argue that rapid erosion of the gorge was merely a passive response to rapid uplift at ~2.5 million years ago (Ma). We view these data as an expected consequence emerging from feedbacks between erosion and crustal rheology active well before 2.5 Ma.

  8. Activities of the Center for Space Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The college has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction is prominent evidence of this record. At the inception of CSC, the center was primarily founded on the need for research on in-space construction of large space systems like space stations and interplanetary space vehicles. The scope of CSC's research has now evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. Within this broadened scope, our research projects seek to impact the underlying technological basis for such spacecraft as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, and other special purpose spacecraft, as well as the technological basis for large space platforms. The center's research focuses on three areas: spacecraft structures, spacecraft operations and control, and regolith and surface systems. In the area of spacecraft structures, our current emphasis is on concepts and modeling of deployable structures, analysis of inflatable structures, structural damage detection algorithms, and composite materials for lightweight structures. In the area of spacecraft operations and control, we are continuing our previous efforts in process control of in-orbit structural assembly. In addition, we have begun two new efforts in formal approach to spacecraft flight software systems design and adaptive attitude control systems. In the area of regolith and surface systems, we are continuing the work of characterizing the physical properties of lunar

  9. 6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST TO THE FORMER GRAVITY OIL STORAGE BUILDING, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    PubMed

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  11. Initiation age and incision rates of inner gorges: Do they record multiple glacial-interglacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delunel, Romain; Casagrande, Jan; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-04-01

    Inner gorges represent some of the most conspicuous landforms in the European Alps. They form narrow and deep active-channel incisions that link hanging tributaries with trunk valleys in glacially-conditioned environments. Despite abundant research carried out on these objects, both their origin and evolution have remained unclear. In particular, the age of initiation, the rate of incision, and the respective contribution of fluvial and subglacial processes in the evolution of inner gorges have still been a matter of scientific debate. Indeed, answering these questions has been complicated by the lack of appropriate quantitative methods and/or suitable sampling strategies for studying inner gorges. Here, we report 10Be concentrations measured in alluvial sediments that have been collected along the main stream of a ~20-km2-catchment in the Swiss foreland (Central European Alps). This catchment hosts a ca. 100-m-deep and 2-km-long inner gorge that has been cut mainly in glacial till. Catchment wide denudation rates inferred from 10Be analyses (n = 15) vary from ~120 to 650 mm/ka and show a general downstream increasing trend. Additional field observations and GIS analyses reveal that the denudation rates within the catchment increase from the headwaters, characterized by relict glacial/periglacial landscapes, to the downstream end of the basin where the inner gorge has been formed. Using a 10Be-based sediment budget approach and the delineation of topographic domains from a 2-m-resolution LIDAR, we provide an estimate of erosion rates within the gorge that are higher than 2.5 m/ka and can reach up to ~ 7 m/ka. Combining these estimated erosion rates with the reconstruction of eroded volumes within the gorge, we obtain a rough initiation age in the early Holocene, in general agreement with previous studies reporting a postglacial origin for the inner gorges. Our results therefore appear contradictory with recent findings arguing for a gradual formation of inner

  12. Telerobotic activities at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center telerobotic efforts span three major thrusts: (1) sustaining and expanding the capability of the Shuttle manipulator; (2) developing and integrating the multiple telerobotic system of the Space Station; and (3) fostering and applying research in all areas of telerobotics technology within the government, private, and academic sectors.

  13. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  14. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Adult Basic Learning in an Activity Center: A Demonstration Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Adult Education Program, San Jose, CA.

    Escuela Amistad, an activity center in San Jose, California, is now operating at capacity, five months after its origin. Average daily attendance has been 125 adult students, 18-65, most of whom are females of Mexican-American background. Activities and services provided by the center are: instruction in English as a second language, home…

  16. Naval Weapons Center Active Fault Map Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ’MiS PACE NWC TP 6828 CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 2 Active Fault Definition ...established along the trace of the Little Take fault zone, within the City of Ridgecrest. ACTIVE FAULT DEFINITION Although it is a commonly used term...34active fault" lacks a pre- cise and universally accepted definition . Most workers, however, accept the following: "Active fault - a fault along

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center ECLSS technology activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technology activities are presented. Topics covered include: analytical development; ECLSS modeling approach; example of water reclamation modeling needs; and hardware development and testing.

  18. CFD Modeling Activities at the NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.

  19. NASA Glenn Research Center Battery Activities Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon and GRC's involvement in their development. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  20. Inner gorge-slot canyon system produced by repeated stream incision (eastern Alps): Significance for development of bedrock canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard; Wischounig, Lukas; Gruber, Alfred; Ostermann, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Many inner bedrock gorges of the Alps show abrupt downstream changes in gorge width, as well as channel type and gradient, as a result of epigenetic incision of slot canyons. Many slot canyons also are associated with older gorge reaches filled with Quaternary deposits. The age of slot canyons and inner bedrock gorges, however, commonly is difficult to constrain. For the inner-bedrock gorge system of the Steinberger Ache catchment (eastern Alps), active slot canyons as well as older, abandoned gorge reaches filled with upper Würmian proglacial deposits record three phases of gorge development and slot-canyon incision. A 234U/230Th age of cement of 29.7 ± 1.8 ka in fluvial conglomerates onlapping the flank of an inner gorge fits with late Würmian valley-bottom aggradation shortly before pleniglacial conditions; in addition, the age indicates that at least the corresponding canyon reach must be older. During advance of ice streams in the buildup of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the catchment was blocked, and a proglacial lake formed. Bedrock gorges submerged in that lake were filled with fluviolacustrine deposits. During the LGM, the entire catchment was overridden by ice. During post-glacial reincision, streams largely found again their preexisting inner bedrock canyons. In some areas, however, the former stream course was 'missed', and a slot canyon formed. The distribution of Pleistocene deposits, the patterns of canyon incision, and the mentioned U/Th cementation age, however, together record a further discrete phase of base-level rise and stream incision well before the LGM. The present course of Steinberger Ache and its tributaries is a patchwork of (1) slot canyons incised during post-glacial incision; (2) vestiges of slot canyons cut upon an earlier (middle to late Würmian?) cycle of base-level rise and fall; (3) reactivated reaches up to ~ 200 m in width of inner bedrock gorge that are watershed at present, and more than at least ~ 30 ka in age; and (4

  1. Columbia Gorge Community College Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jonathon V.

    This is a report on a business survey conducted by Columbia Gorge Community College (CGCC) (Oregon) to review the success and quality of the college's degree and certificate programs in business administration, computer application systems, and computer information systems. The community college surveyed 104 local businesses to verify the…

  2. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  3. 21. Unit 2 Accumulator Tank, Governor Housing, Load Center 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Unit 2 Accumulator Tank, Governor Housing, Load Center 1 and Power Center 1, view to the north. The accumulator tank is in the foreground in front of the governor cabinet, with load center 1 and power center 1 in background. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  4. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  5. Child Care Center Characteristics Associated With Preschoolers’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Khoury, Jane C.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite children spending long hours in child care centers, it is unknown what center characteristics are associated with children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at the center and over the 24-hour day. Methods Mixed model ANOVA evaluated associations between 23 center characteristics (e.g., policies, facilities, practices, and staff training) and time in MVPA, measured with accelerometers, at the child care center and over the 24-hour day among 388 preschoolers from 30 randomly selected child care centers in Cincinnati, Ohio. Data collection occurred from November 2009 through January 2011; data analyses occurred in 2012–2014. Results Ninety percent of centers reported scheduling two or more outdoor sessions daily, yet only 40% of children had two or more outdoor sessions; 32% had no time outdoors. Eighty-three percent of centers reported scheduling ≥60 minutes outdoors; 28% of children experienced this during observation. Children spent a mean (SE) of 2.0 (0.06) minutes/hour in MVPA. Children with ≥60 minutes outdoor time had 0.6 minutes/hour more MVPA in child care (p=0.001), and 0.5 minutes/hour over the 24-hour day (p=0.001) than those who did not. Presence of an indoor play space, large outdoor playground, portable or fixed play equipment, staff PA training, weather and clothing policies, and TV/computer use were not related to children’s MVPA. Conclusions Outdoor time occurred less frequently than scheduled. Children with ≥60 minutes of outdoor time at the center were more active than children without. Centers may increase preschoolers’ PA by adhering to the scheduled ≥60 minutes of outdoor time daily. PMID:26585052

  6. Workjobs: Activity-Centered Learning for Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary Baratta

    Based on the idea that through active involvement with the materials the child would draw out the generalizations within the material, a teacher's method of activity-centered learning for early childhood education is presented. The first section of the book deals with the development of language through workjobs, emphasizing perception, matching,…

  7. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  8. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Green; Jin Xu

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. The Three Gorges Project: How sustainable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa Brian Morgan, Te Kipa; Sardelic, Daniel N.; Waretini, Amaria F.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryIn 1984 the Government of China approved the decision to construct the Three Gorges Dam Project, the largest project since the Great Wall. The project had many barriers to overcome, and the decision was made at a time when sustainability was a relatively unknown concept. The decision to construct the Three Gorges Project remains contentious today, especially since Deputy Director of the Three Gorges Project Construction Committee, Wang Xiaofeng, stated that "We absolutely cannot relax our guard against ecological and environmental security problems sparked by the Three Gorges Project" (Bristow, 2007; McCabe, 2007). The question therefore was posed: how sustainable is the Three Gorges Project? Conventional approaches to sustainability assessment tend to use monetary based assessment aligned to triple bottom line thinking. That is, projects are evaluated as trade-offs between economic, environmental and social costs and benefits. The question of sustainability is considered using such a traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis approach, as undertaken in 1988 by a CIPM-Yangtze Joint Venture, and the Mauri Model Decision Making Framework (MMDMF). The Mauri Model differs from other approaches in that sustainability performance indicators are considered independently from any particular stakeholder bias. Bias is then introduced subsequently as a sensitivity analysis on the raw results obtained. The MMDMF is unique in that it is based on the Māori concept of Mauri, the binding force between the physical and the spiritual attributes of something, or the capacity to support life in the air, soil, and water. This concept of Mauri is analogous to the Chinese concept of Qi, and there are many analogous concepts in other cultures. It is the universal relevance of Mauri that allows its use to assess sustainability. This research identified that the MMDMF was a strong complement to Cost-Benefit Analysis, which is not designed as a sustainability assessment tool in itself. The

  10. YANGTZE project: Investigation of mass movements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (P. R. China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Dominik; Rohn, Joachim; Wiedenmann, Johannes; Rudolph, René; Otte, Karel; Ernstberger, Stefanie; Eckstein, Susan; Dumperth, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Within the German YANGTZE Project, mass movement hazard is investigated for the Xiangxi Catchment which is part of the Three Gorges Reservoir (P. R. China). The objective of our sub-project is to investigate the impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir on slope stability and (re-)activation of mass movements. Within this paper first results of investigations on mass movements in the Xiangxi Catchment that were started in summer 2008 are presented. They show a significant correlation between mass movement distribution and activity on the one hand and lithology and altitude on the other hand. In Xiangxi Catchment, correlation between geology and occurrence of mass movements can be studied ideally as most of the geological formations outcropping in the reservoir area can be found there. Furthermore, the mouth of Xiangxi River is quite close to the Three Gorges Dam so that the impact of the impoundment is distinctive in the Xiangxi Catchment. In 2008 and 2009, about 70 km² were mapped geotechnically. The mapping was done for (a) the backwater area of Xiangxi River influenced by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (from Yangtze River to Gaoyang Town), (b) Quyuan Valley as a sub-catchment of Xiangxi Catchment, and (c) along the main roads from Gaoyang Town towards Gufu City and towards Shennongjia Nature Reserve. The investigated area comprises marine and continental sedimentary layers from Cambrian to Jurassic Period. The lithology of these layers is dominated by carbonates (limestone, dolostone and marlstone) on the one hand and clastic sediments (shale, mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate) on the other hand. A total of 180 mass movements was found and mapped. Mainly rotational or combined rotational-translational landslides, but also some rockslides and rockfalls were found. As expected, a strong correlation between lithology on the one side and occurrence and activity of mass movements on the other side could be found. In the study area, Jurassic

  11. Centers Made Simple: A Management and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Laureen

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from her own experiences, teacher and author Laureen Reynolds shares management strategies, helpful suggestions, and quick tips to take the mystery out of setting up centers and demonstrates how to make the most of valuable classroom time. The activities outlined in this book are designed to appeal to students of all abilities, and range…

  12. Community Information and Services Centers: Concepts for Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Cleve

    An experimental program based on a study by the Department of Housing and Urban Development was activated to deliver services to urban residents via automated communications technology. Designed to contribute to improvement in the quality of life, the program of a Community Information and Services Center (CISC) included: outreach programs, i.e.,…

  13. AN OFF-CENTERED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V.

    2014-11-20

    NGC 3115 is an S0 galaxy that has always been considered to have a pure absorption-line spectrum. Some recent studies have detected a compact radio-emitting nucleus in this object, coinciding with the photometric center and with a candidate for the X-ray nucleus. This is evidence of the existence of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the galaxy, although no emission line has ever been observed. We report the detection of an emission-line spectrum of a type 1 AGN in NGC 3115, with an Hα luminosity of L {sub Hα} = (4.2 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}. Our analysis revealed that this AGN is located at a projected distance of ∼0.''29 ± 0.''05 (corresponding to ∼14.3 ± 2.5 pc) from the stellar bulge center, which is coincident with the kinematic center of this object's stellar velocity map. The black hole corresponding to the observed off-centered AGN may form a binary system with a black hole located at the stellar bulge center. However, it is also possible that the displaced black hole is the merged remnant of the binary system coalescence, after the ''kick'' caused by the asymmetric emission of gravitational waves. We propose that certain features in the stellar velocity dispersion map are the result of perturbations caused by the off-centered AGN.

  14. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

    Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

    The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

    The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and

  15. 22. TURBINE PIT AREA GORGE POWERHOUSE SHOWING RELIEF VALVE FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TURBINE PIT AREA GORGE POWERHOUSE SHOWING RELIEF VALVE FOR UNIT 23 IN FOREGROUND AND GOVERNOR OIL TANKS AND PUMPS IN THE LEFT REAR, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  16. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.89 New River Gorge National River....

  17. Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, looking northwest at the entrance and northwest shoeing damage to gorge wall as well as timber and earth blindage (see also HABS No. GA-2158-39). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  20. Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

  1. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  2. Long Valley Caldera Lake and reincision of Owens River Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-12-16

    Owens River Gorge, today rimmed exclusively in 767-ka Bishop Tuff, was first cut during the Neogene through a ridge of Triassic granodiorite to a depth as great as its present-day floor and was then filled to its rim by a small basaltic shield at 3.3 Ma. The gorge-filling basalt, 200 m thick, blocked a 5-km-long reach of the upper gorge, diverting the Owens River southward around the shield into Rock Creek where another 200-m-deep gorge was cut through the same basement ridge. Much later, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (~900–866 ka), a piedmont glacier buried the diversion and deposited a thick sheet of Sherwin Till atop the basalt on both sides of the original gorge, showing that the basalt-filled reach had not, by then, been reexcavated. At 767 ka, eruption of the Bishop Tuff blanketed the landscape with welded ignimbrite, deeply covering the till, basalt, and granodiorite and completely filling all additional reaches of both Rock Creek canyon and Owens River Gorge. The ignimbrite rests directly on the basalt and till along the walls of Owens Gorge, but nowhere was it inset against either, showing that the basalt-blocked reach had still not been reexcavated. Subsidence of Long Valley Caldera at 767 ka produced a steep-walled depression at least 700 m deeper than the precaldera floor of Owens Gorge, which was beheaded at the caldera’s southeast rim. Caldera collapse reoriented proximal drainages that had formerly joined east-flowing Owens River, abruptly reversing flow westward into the caldera. It took 600,000 years of sedimentation in the 26-km-long, usually shallow, caldera lake to fill the deep basin and raise lake level to its threshold for overflow. Not until then did reestablishment of Owens River Gorge begin, by incision of the gorge-filling ignimbrite.

  3. RNA polymerase active center: the molecular engine of transcription.

    PubMed

    Nudler, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a complex molecular machine that governs gene expression and its regulation in all cellular organisms. To accomplish its function of accurately producing a full-length RNA copy of a gene, RNAP performs a plethora of chemical reactions and undergoes multiple conformational changes in response to cellular conditions. At the heart of this machine is the active center, the engine, which is composed of distinct fixed and moving parts that serve as the ultimate acceptor of regulatory signals and as the target of inhibitory drugs. Recent advances in the structural and biochemical characterization of RNAP explain the active center at the atomic level and enable new approaches to understanding the entire transcription mechanism, its exceptional fidelity and control.

  4. Corrosion Activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents summer faculty fellow efforts in the corrosion test bed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. During the summer of 2002 efforts were concentrated on three activities: a short course on corrosion control for KSC personnel, evaluation of commercial wash additives used for corrosion control on Army aircraft, and improvements in the testing of a new cathodic protection system under development at KSC.

  5. Infrared Detector Activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Refaat, T. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Amzajerdian, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared detector development and characterization at NASA Langley Research Center will be reviewed. These detectors were intended for ground, airborne, and space borne remote sensing applications. Discussion will be focused on recently developed single-element infrared detector and future development of near-infrared focal plane arrays (FPA). The FPA will be applied to next generation space-based instruments. These activities are based on phototransistor and avalanche photodiode technologies, which offer high internal gain and relatively low noise-equivalent-power. These novel devices will improve the sensitivity of active remote sensing instruments while eliminating the need for a high power laser transmitter.

  6. NASA Stennis Space Center Test Technology Branch Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, Wanda M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of NASA Stennis Space Center's Test Technology Laboratory and briefly describes the variety of engine test technology activities and developmental project initiatives. Theoretical rocket exhaust plume modeling, acoustic monitoring and analysis, hand held fire imaging, heat flux radiometry, thermal imaging and exhaust plume spectroscopy are all examples of current and past test activities that are briefly described. In addition, recent efforts and visions focused on accomodating second, third, and fourth generation flight vehicle engine test requirements are discussed.

  7. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  8. Caffeine enhances micturition through neuronal activation in micturition centers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Sam; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwan, Lakkyong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jin, Jun-Jang; Chung, Jun-Young; Kim, Khae-Hawn

    2014-12-01

    Caffeine may promote incontinence through its diuretic effect, particularly in individuals with underlying detrusor overactivity, in addition to increasing muscle contraction of the bladder smooth muscle. Caffeine may also affect bladder function via central micturition centers, including the medial preoptic area, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and pontine micturition center. However, the biochemical mechanisms of caffeine in central micturition centers affecting bladder function remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of caffeine on the central micturition reflex were investigated by measuring the degree of neuronal activation, and by quantifying nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in rats. Following caffeine administration for 14 days, a urodynamic study was performed to assess the changes to bladder function. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining to identify the expression of c‑Fos and NGF in the central micturition areas was performed. Ingestion of caffeine increased bladder smooth muscle contraction pressure and time as determined by cystometry. Expression levels of c‑Fos and NGF in all central micturition areas were significantly increased following the administration of caffeine. The effects on contraction pressure and time were the most potent and expression levels of c‑Fos and NGF were greatest at the lowest dose of caffeine. These results suggest that caffeine facilitates bladder instability through enhancing neuronal activation in the central micturition areas.

  9. Data Information for Global Change Studies: NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers and Cooperating Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). ESE is a long-term global change research program designed to improve our understanding of the Earth's interrelated processes involving the atmosphere, oceans, land surfaces, and polar regions. Data from EOS instruments and other Earth science measurement systems are useful in understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a structure for data management and user services for products derived from EOS satellite instruments and other NASA Earth science data. Within the EOSDIS framework, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) have been established to provide expertise in one or more Earth science disciplines. The DAACs and cooperating data centers provide data and information services to support the global change research community. Much of the development of the DAACs has been in anticipation of the enormous amount of data expected from EOS instruments to be launched within the next two decades. Terra, the EOS flagship launched in December 1999, is the first of a series of EOS satellites to carry several instruments with multispectral capabilities. Some data products from these instruments are now available from several of the DAACs. These and other data products can be ordered through the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) and DAAC-specific online ordering systems.

  10. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  11. GHRC: NASAs Hazardous Weather Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2016-01-01

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC; ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov) is one of NASA's twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers responsible for providing access to NASA's Earth science data to users worldwide. Each of NASA's twelve DAACs focuses on a specific science discipline within Earth science, provides data stewardship services and supports its research community's needs. Established in 1991 as the Marshall Space Flight Center DAAC and renamed GHRC in 1997, the data center's original mission focused on the global hydrologic cycle. However, over the years, data holdings, tools and expertise of GHRC have gradually shifted. In 2014, a User Working Group (UWG) was established to review GHRC capabilities and provide recommendations to make GHRC more responsive to the research community's evolving needs. The UWG recommended an update to the GHRC mission, as well as a strategic plan to move in the new direction. After a careful and detailed analysis of GHRC's capabilities, research community needs and the existing data landscape, a new mission statement for GHRC has been crafted: to provide a comprehensive active archive of both data and knowledge augmentation services with a focus on hazardous weather, its governing dynamical and physical processes, and associated applications. Within this broad mandate, GHRC will focus on lightning, tropical cyclones and storm-induced hazards through integrated collections of satellite, airborne, and in-situ data sets. The new mission was adopted at the recent 2015 UWG meeting. GHRC will retain its current name until such time as it has built substantial data holdings aligned with the new mission.

  12. Human Activity Modeling: Toward A Pragmatic Integration of Activity Theory and Usage-Centered Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, Larry L.

    Human activity modeling is a systematic approach to organizing and representing the contextual aspects of tool use that is both well-grounded in an accepted theoretical framework and embedded within a proven design method. Activity theory provides the vocabulary and conceptual framework for understanding the human use of tools and other artifacts. Usage-centered design provides the methodological scaffolding for applying activity theory in practice. In this chapter, activity theory and usage-centered design are outlined and the connections between the two are highlighted. Simple extensions to the models of usage-centered design are introduced that together succinctly model the salient and most essential features of the activities within which tool use is embedded. Although not intended as a tutorial, examples of Activity Maps, Activity Profiles, and Participation Maps are provided.

  13. 75 FR 49946 - National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change... Response System. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC... Intelligence Center, Fifth Floor, 319 Washington Street, Johnstown, PA 15901. Written comments and...

  14. [Activities of Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Joe

    2002-01-01

    The final report of NASA funded activities at Iowa State University (ISU) for the period between 1/96 and 1/99 includes two main areas of activity. The first is the development and delivery of an x-ray simulation package suitable for evaluating the impact of parameters affects the inspectability of an assembly of parts. The second area was the development of images processing tools to remove reconstruction artifacts in x-ray laminagraphy images. The x-ray simulation portion of this work was done by J. Gray and the x-ray laminagraphy work was done by J. Basart. The report is divided into two sections covering the two activities respectively. In addition to this work reported the funding also covered NASA's membership in the NSF University/Industrial Cooperative Research Center.

  15. Architecture and evolution of Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Rosen, Wayne; Sherman, Mark; Pease, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been developed to enhance Earth Science research by improved access to remote sensor earth science data. Building and operating an archive, even one of a moderate size (a few Terabytes), is a challenging task. One of the critical components of this system is Unitree, the Hierarchical File Storage Management System. Unitree, selected two years ago as the best available solution, requires constant system administrative support. It is not always suitable as an archive and distribution data center, and has moderate performance. The Data Archive and Distribution System (DADS) software developed to monitor, manage, and automate the ingestion, archive, and distribution functions turned out to be more challenging than anticipated. Having the software and tools is not sufficient to succeed. Human interaction within the system must be fully understood to improve efficiency to improve efficiency and ensure that the right tools are developed. One of the lessons learned is that the operability, reliability, and performance aspects should be thoroughly addressed in the initial design. However, the GSFC DAAC has demonstrated that it is capable of distributing over 40 GB per day. A backup system to archive a second copy of all data ingested is under development. This backup system will be used not only for disaster recovery but will also replace the main archive when it is unavailable during maintenance or hardware replacement. The GSFC DAAC has put a strong emphasis on quality at all level of its organization. A Quality team has also been formed to identify quality issues and to propose improvements. The DAAC has conducted numerous tests to benchmark the performance of the system. These tests proved to be extremely useful in identifying bottlenecks and deficiencies in operational procedures.

  16. [Research activities in Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Centers].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Center was established in Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD), Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2007 under the program of ''Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases'' supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and then it has been under the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) since 2010. Japanese researchers have been stationed at ITD, conducting joint researches on influenza, viral hepatitis, dengue and infectious diarrhea. Also, another Japanese researcher has been stationed at Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, carrying out joint researches on'' Identification of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) substances and development of HCV and dengue vaccines'' in collaboration with University of Indonesia and Airlangga University through the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2009. In this article, we briefly introduce the background history of Kobe University Research Center in Indonesia, and discuss the research themes and outcomes of J-GRID and SATREPS activities.

  17. Antituberculosis activity of the molecular libraries screening center network library.

    PubMed

    Maddry, Joseph A; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Goldman, Robert C; Hobrath, Judith V; Kwong, Cecil D; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Reynolds, Robert C; Secrist, John A; Sosa, Melinda I; White, E Lucile; Zhang, Wei

    2009-09-01

    There is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new antitubercular agents that target novel biochemical pathways and treat drug-resistant forms of the disease. One approach to addressing this need is through high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecule libraries against the whole bacterium in order to identify a variety of new, active scaffolds that will stimulate additional biological research and drug discovery. Through the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network, the NIAID Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility tested a 215,110-compound library against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. A medicinal chemistry survey of the results from the screening campaign is reported herein.

  18. Space weather activities at NOAA s Space Environment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunches, J.

    The NOAA Space Environment Center is the focal point for real-time space weather monitoring and prediction in the United States . The Space Weather Operations (SWO) division staffs a 24-hour/day operations center, through which both in-situ and remotely sensed data and imagery flow. These diverse data streams are analyzed continuously, and that information is applied to both predictions and specifications of various aspects of the space environment. These include the behavior of the geomagnetic field, the character of the ionosphere, and the strength of the near-earth radiation environment. Models are brought to bear in each of thes e areas, as SEC has an active research-to-operations transition effort. The Rapid Prototyping Center is the venue through which pertinent models and data must pass to be brought into the operational arena. The model outputs are then made available both internally and externally. SEC is a member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES), a partnership currently consisting of eleven nations. The mission of the ISES is to encourage and facilitate near-real-time international monitoring and prediction of the space environment by: the rapid exchange of space environment information; the standardization of the methodology for space environment observations and data reduction; the uniform publication of observations and statistics; and the application of standardized space environment products and services to assist users in reducing the impact of space weather on activities of human interest. An overview of the operational attributes of the SEC, and the function of the ISES, will be presented. Additional issues related to space weather customers, new data streams to be available in the near-term, and how these new data and imagery will be integrated int o operations will be discussed.

  19. The Volcanic Story of the Columbia River Gorge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John Eliot

    1982-01-01

    Uses maps, diagrams, and geological accounts to describe the Columbia River Gorge which separates Oregon from Washington and exposes an unexcelled record of Cenozoic volcanic stratigraphy, sedimentation, flooding, and landsliding for the visiting tourists, geologists, or students. (Author/DC)

  20. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO GORGE WALL, LOOKING TOWARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO GORGE WALL, LOOKING TOWARD TO NORTHWEST BASTION, SHOWING DRAWBRIDGE AND MOAT (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. GA-2158-42) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast to northwest at the northern half of the wall ( see also HABS No. GA-2158-56 & 57). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. Carbon Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2006-01-01

    Research activities on carbon nanotubes at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization and their applications for human space flight. In-situ diagnostics during nanotube production by laser oven process include collection of spatial and temporal data of passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from C2, C3 and Nickel atoms in the plume. Details of the results from the "parametric study" of the pulsed laser ablation process indicate the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymednanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  3. Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2004-01-01

    Nanotube activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization as well as applications of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A parametric study of the pulsed laser ablation process is recently completed to monitor the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Enhancement of production is achieved by rastering the graphite target and by increasing the target surface temperature with a cw laser. In-situ diagnostics during production included time resolved passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from the plume. The improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymer/nanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large Surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs. Comparison with existing technologies and possible future improvements in the SWCNT materials sill be presented.

  4. The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golon, Danielle K.

    2016-10-03

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) operates as a partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey and is 1 of 12 DAACs within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The LP DAAC ingests, archives, processes, and distributes NASA Earth science remote sensing data. These data are provided to the public at no charge. Data distributed by the LP DAAC provide information about Earth’s surface from daily to yearly intervals and at 15 to 5,600 meter spatial resolution. Data provided by the LP DAAC can be used to study changes in agriculture, vegetation, ecosystems, elevation, and much more. The LP DAAC provides several ways to access, process, and interact with these data. In addition, the LP DAAC is actively archiving new datasets to provide users with a variety of data to study the Earth.

  5. CXCL13 is a plasma biomarker of germinal center activity

    PubMed Central

    Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Lindqvist, Madelene; Heit, Antje; Wu, Jennifer E.; Reiss, Samantha M.; Kendric, Kayla; Bélanger, Simon; Kasturi, Sudhir Pai; Landais, Elise; McGuire, Helen M.; Bothwell, Marcella; Vagefi, Parsia A.; Scully, Eileen; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Davis, Mark M.; Poignard, Pascal; Ahmed, Rafi; Walker, Bruce D.; Pulendran, Bali; McElrath, M. Juliana; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Crotty, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Significantly higher levels of plasma CXCL13 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13] were associated with the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV in a large longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Germinal centers (GCs) perform the remarkable task of optimizing B-cell Ab responses. GCs are required for almost all B-cell receptor affinity maturation and will be a critical parameter to monitor if HIV bnAbs are to be induced by vaccination. However, lymphoid tissue is rarely available from immunized humans, making the monitoring of GC activity by direct assessment of GC B cells and germinal center CD4+ T follicular helper (GC Tfh) cells problematic. The CXCL13–CXCR5 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5] chemokine axis plays a central role in organizing both B-cell follicles and GCs. Because GC Tfh cells can produce CXCL13, we explored the potential use of CXCL13 as a blood biomarker to indicate GC activity. In a series of studies, we found that plasma CXCL13 levels correlated with GC activity in draining lymph nodes of immunized mice, immunized macaques, and HIV-infected humans. Furthermore, plasma CXCL13 levels in immunized humans correlated with the magnitude of Ab responses and the frequency of ICOS+ (inducible T-cell costimulator) Tfh-like cells in blood. Together, these findings support the potential use of CXCL13 as a plasma biomarker of GC activity in human vaccine trials and other clinical settings. PMID:26908875

  6. 8. INTERIOR GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING SOUTH AT UNITS 23, 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING SOUTH AT UNITS 23, 22, AND 21 FROM THE TOP OF UNIT 24. THE SHAW BRIDGE CRANE IS AT THE TOP REAR OF THE POWERHOUSE. THE UPPER SET OF WINDOWS TO THE LEFT ARE FOR THE VISITORS' GALLERY; THE LOWER SET ARE THE POWERHOUSE CONTROL ROOM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. Personality Factors Associated with the Predicted Role of Activity-Centered Versus Textbook-Centered Preservice Elementary Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, L. Eldon; Armstrong, Terry R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a study in which the Predicted Role Measure (PRM) was found to be a predictive instrument for separating preservice teachers into activity-centered and textbook-centered elementary science teachers. Using Cattell's 16-Personality Factor Questionnaire, a significant difference was also found between the personality profiles of the two…

  8. Development of Secondary Archive System at Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Mark; Kodis, John; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Wacker, Chris; Woytek, Joanne; Lynnes, Chris

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been developed to support existing and pre Earth Observing System (EOS) Earth science datasets, facilitate the scientific research, and test EOS data and information system (EOSDIS) concepts. To ensure that no data is ever lost, each product received at GSFC DAAC is archived on two different media, VHS and digital linear tape (DLT). The first copy is made on VHS tape and is under the control of UniTree. The second and third copies are made to DLT and VHS media under a custom built software package named 'Archer'. While Archer provides only a subset of the functions available with commercial software like UniTree, it supports migration between near-line and off-line media and offers much greater performance and flexibility to satisfy the specific needs of a data center. Archer is specifically designed to maximize total system throughput, rather than focusing on the turn-around time for individual files. The commercial off the shelf software (COTS) hierarchical storage management (HSM) products evaluated were mainly concerned with transparent, interactive, file access to the end-user, rather than a batch-orientated, optimizable (based on known data file characteristics) data archive and retrieval system. This is critical to the distribution requirements of the GSFC DAAC where orders for 5000 or more files at a time are received. Archer has the ability to queue many thousands of file requests and to sort these requests into internal processing schedules that optimize overall throughput. Specifically, mount and dismount, tape load and unload cycles, and tape motion are minimized. This feature did not seem to be available in many COTS pacages. Archer also uses a generic tar tape format that allows tapes to be read by many different systems rather than the proprietary format found in most COTS packages. This paper discusses some of the specific requirements at GSFC DAAC, the

  9. Growing up Active: A Study into Physical Activity in Long Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmore, Aaron W.; Jones, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The child care center is an ideal setting in which to implement strategies to promote physical activity and healthy weight, but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on factors that influence physical activity in these settings. The current study gathered initial qualitative data to explore these factors. Child care workers from five long day…

  10. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrara (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  11. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  12. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  13. Center-of-pressure movements during equine-assisted activities.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Kaiser, Leeann J; de Pue, Bonnie; Kaiser, Lana

    2011-01-01

    We compared anteroposterior and mediolateral range of motion and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) on the horse's back between riders without disabilities and riders with cerebral palsy. An electronic pressure mat was used to track COP movements beneath the saddle in 4 riders without disabilities and 4 riders with cerebral palsy. Comparisons between rider groups were made using the Mann-Whitney test (p < .05). The two rider groups differed significantly in anteroposterior range of COP motion, mediolateral range of COP motion, and mediolateral COP velocity. Anteroposterior COP velocity did not differ between groups. The results suggest that measurements of COP range of motion and velocity are potentially useful for monitoring changes in balance as an indicator of core stability during equine-assisted activities.

  14. Antituberculosis Activity of the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network Library

    PubMed Central

    MADDRY, JOSEPH A.; ANANTHAN, SUBRAMANIAM; GOLDMAN, ROBERT C.; HOBRATH, JUDITH V.; KWONG, CECIL D.; MADDOX, CLINTON; RASMUSSEN, LYNN; REYNOLDS, ROBERT C.; SECRIST, JOHN A.; SOSA, MELINDA I.; WHITE, E. LUCILE; ZHANG, WEI

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY There is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new antitubercular agents that target novel biochemical pathways and treat drug-resistant forms of the disease. One approach to addressing this need is through high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecule libraries against the whole bacterium in order to identify a variety of new, active scaffolds that will stimulate additional biological research and drug discovery. Through the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network, the NIAID Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility tested a 215,110-compound library against M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. A medicinal chemistry survey of the results from the screening campaign is reported herein. PMID:19783214

  15. Overview of Active Flow Control at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, L. G.; Joslin, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper summarizes Active Flow Control projects currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center. Technology development is being pursued within a multidisciplinary, cooperative approach, involving the classical disciplines of fluid mechanics, structural mechanics, material science, acoustics, and stability and control theory. Complementing the companion papers in this session, the present paper will focus on projects that have the goal of extending the state-of-the-art in the measurement, prediction, and control of unsteady, nonlinear aerodynamics. Toward this goal, innovative actuators, micro and macro sensors, and control strategies are considered for high payoff flow control applications. The target payoffs are outlined within each section below. Validation of the approaches range from bench-top experiments to wind-tunnel experiments to flight tests. Obtaining correlations for future actuator and sensor designs are implicit in the discussion. The products of the demonstration projects and design tool development from the fundamental NASA R&D level technology will then be transferred to the Applied Research components within NASA, DOD, and US Industry. Keywords: active flow control, separation control, MEMS, review

  16. Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area Using Multi-Frequency Insar Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Balz, T.; Tantianuparp, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide is a term describing the downslope movement of soil, rock, and organic materials under the effects of gravity. Landslides are very destructive forces. In order to decrease landslide occurrences and its impacts, landslide monitoring is applied to analyze, forecast, and control landslides. The Three Gorges Project, the largest hydroelectric project of the world, began to function in 2003. The dam site is situated at Sandouping in China's Hubei Province. The reservoir has a length of approximately 600 km along the Yangtze River. In 2001, in a statistical survey, carried out by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, landslides were observed in all counties surrounding the Three Gorges reservoir and nearly 2500 landslide bodies were observed. There are many landslide triggering factors in this area, for example the dam was built on a geologically unstable zone, the large surface-water level change, the construction of new buildings and roads, deforestation, etc. The potential landslide hazards are threatening the lives of millions of residents in the area. The Three Gorges area has a rough topography and is heavily vegetated. In an effort to reduce the landslide risks, advanced monitoring techniques and methods, such as a GPS network and other terrestrial surveillance technologies, are used in the area. Although these techniques can acquire highly accurate results, their results are only available over sparse measurement points and it they requires high costs for manpower and rather high costs for the instrument manipulation. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), an active microwave imaging system, suffers from temporal decorrelation when monitoring heavily vegetated area as the Three Gorges. In order to analysis long-term and continuous displacement trend in this area, Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are applied. Both techniques are able to detect surface motions. We use high resolution TerraSAR-X X

  17. Management of municipal solid waste in the Three Gorges region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Liao Pei Tingquan Huang Chuan; Yuan Hui

    2009-07-15

    As the fourth phase of the Three Gorges reservoir project commenced in 2008, the rate of water flow in the Yangtze River has obviously decelerated further downstream and water clarity within the storage facility has decreased. Meanwhile, the rate of urbanization in the region is adding to the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) being generated by every day life. The composition of the waste is becoming more diversified and complicated, thereby presenting an increasing threat to the ecological environment and water resources of the Three Gorges region. This paper is a probe into MSW in terms of its characteristics as well as methods of storage, collection, transportation, recycling, treatment and disposal, the protection of environmental ecosystems. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems in the Three Gorges region, and indeed the whole of China. Based on the analysis of the present situation of MSWM and its treatment/disposal, some methods of sorting, recycling, decomposing, incineration and reuse are described, sanitary landfill as the main disposal method in Chongqing city, incineration being the second. Sanitary landfill or dump was also used for MSW treatment in the Three Gorges region, and this paper also provides some suggestions for improving MSWM in the Three Gorges region.

  18. 77 FR 69604 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Educational Opportunity Centers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Educational Opportunity Centers Program (EOC) Annual Performance Report AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE... Opportunity Centers Program (EOC) Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: Pending. Type of Review:...

  19. 77 FR 20887 - Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... solicits comments on the information needed to measure customer satisfaction with delivered products and... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity...: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey, VA Form 0863....

  20. [Requests for active euthanasia: which reality in an oncology center.].

    PubMed

    Chvetzoff, G; Perret, M; Thevenet, G; Arbiol, E; Gobet, S; Saltel, P

    2009-09-01

    Euthanasia is a controversial issue in today's society. In countries where euthanasia is legal, it is mainly associated with people with cancer. We retrospectively studied the frequency and basis of patients' requests for active euthanasia in the oncology setting.MethodsRecurrent requests for euthanasia made by the patients of Leon-Berard cancer center (Lyon, France) between 2001 and 2003 were recorded by questioning the physicians and nurse supervisors in charge or by collecting information from the minutes of multidisciplinary palliative care meetings. We also collected information on the general health status of the patients, their motives and their evolution over time, as well as responses from caregivers.ResultsWe identified 16 requests for euthanasia. These involved 8 men, 7 women and 1 child (median age, 56 years), corresponding to 1% of the total deaths recorded during the period. In 2 cases, the request had come from the family only. The most frequent motives were psychological distress (38%), desire for self-autonomy (31%) and pain (31%). Half of the patients, particularly those striving for autonomy, persisted with their request until death, whereas 2 of 3 requests motivated by physical or psychological distress were not maintained. Sedation was administered to 3 patients in response to recurrent requests.ConclusionRequests for euthanasia in cancer patients are rare but may occur. Sometimes suffering is not relieved by palliative care and the request is maintained. Dealing with these patients puts caregivers in a difficult situation.

  1. Fuel Cell Activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cells have a long history in space applications and may have potential application in aeronautics as well. A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that directly transforms the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant into electrical energy. Alkaline fuel cells have been the mainstay of the U.S. space program, providing power for the Apollo missions and the Space Shuttle. However, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer potential benefits over alkaline systems and are currently under development for the next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Furthermore, primary and regenerative systems utilizing PEM technology are also being considered for future space applications such as surface power and planetary aircraft. In addition to these applications, the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the feasibility of the use of both PEM and solid oxide fuel cells for low- or zero-emission electric aircraft propulsion. These types of systems have potential applications for high altitude environmental aircraft, general aviation and commercial aircraft, and high attitude airships. NASA Glenn has a unique set of capabilities and expertise essential to the successful development of advanced fuel cell power systems for space and aeronautics applications. NASA Glenn's role in past fuel cell development programs as well as current activities to meet these new challenges will be presented

  2. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  5. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region.

  6. How does huperzine A enter and leave the binding gorge of acetylcholinesterase? Steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yechun; Shen, Jianhua; Luo, Xiaomin; Silman, Israel; Sussman, Joel L; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2003-09-17

    The entering and leaving processes of Huperzine A (HupA) binding with the long active-site gorge of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) have been investigated by using steered molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of the force required along the pathway shows that it is easier for HupA to bind to the active site of AChE than to disassociate from it, which for the first time interprets at the atomic level the previous experimental result that unbinding process of HupA is much slower than its binding process to AChE. The direct hydrogen bonds, water bridges, and hydrophobic interactions were analyzed during two steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. Break of the direct hydrogen bond needs a great pulling force. The steric hindrance of bottleneck might be the most important factor to produce the maximal rupture force for HupA to leave the binding site but it has a little effect on the binding process of HupA with AChE. Residue Asp72 forms a lot of water bridges with HupA leaving and entering the AChE binding gorge, acting as a clamp to take out HupA from or put HupA into the active site. The flip of the peptide bond between Gly117 and Gly118 has been detected during both the conventional MD and SMD simulations. The simulation results indicate that this flip phenomenon could be an intrinsic property of AChE and the Gly117-Gly118 peptide bond in both HupA bound and unbound AChE structures tends to adopt the native enzyme structure. At last, in a vacuum the rupture force is increased up to 1500 pN while in water solution the greatest rupture force is about 800 pN, which means water molecules in the binding gorge act as lubricant to facilitate HupA entering or leaving the binding gorge.

  7. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.7 Section 426.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.7 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access...

  8. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.7 Section 426.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.7 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access...

  9. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.7 Section 426.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.7 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access...

  10. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.7 Section 426.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.7 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access...

  11. STS-26 Mission Control Center (MCC) activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A wide angle view shows flight controllers in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR) as they listen to a presentation by STS-26 crewmembers on the fourth day of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, orbital mission. Flight Director James M. (Milt) Heflin (standing at center) and astronaut and spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) G. David Low (standing at right) briefly look away from a television image of the crew on a screen in the front of the FCR. Heflin, Low, and other flight controllers listen as each member relates some inner feelings while paying tribute to the 51L Challenger crew.

  12. Harford-Cecil Supplementary Education Center: A Handbook of Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harford-Cecil Supplementary Education Center, Havre de Grace, MD.

    The history and objectives of the Center are reviewed and its work is outlined, including programs for children with learning disabilities and for predelinquent boys and pregnant school age girls. Two cases involving speech training are presented as are descriptions of the communications consultant and resource teachers. Further information covers…

  13. Natural hazards activities of the National Geophysical Data Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockridge, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has been given the task of collecting, managing, and disseminating the great mass of inofmation produced by scientific observations of the geophysical environment. This article describes NGDC data bases that speifically relate to natural hazards. 

  14. 3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE POWERHOUSE AT NEWHALEM. J.D. ROSS HAD THE GROUNDS LANDSCAPED AND PLANTED WITH EXOTIC FLOWERS AND VEGETATION DURING THE 1930S AS AN ADDITIONAL TOURIST ATTRACTION, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  15. Do we need big flood to cut spectacular river gorges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, Loreto; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Mather, Anne; Stokes, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The study of a historical erosional process occurred in a dam spillway in NW Spain evidences extremely rapid gorge formation in granite. Historic documents, photographs and surveys preserved at the Historical Archives allowed the reconstruction of the whole erosion process. A ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide amphitheater headed canyon was carved over 6 years. The study approaches the reconstruction of the scour site topography prior to the gorge formation and during the erosion events, and analyses the erosion mechanisms involved in the canyon cutting. Data reveal extremely high (>100 m/year) erosion rates, the highest reported so far on earth, associated to small-moderate floods (~100-1500m3/s). Results come to nuance the established models of erosion and gorge formation which are used to analyze the landscape evolution. The example demonstrates that moderate water discharges are capable of radical erosion suggesting that adjustments to changes such as drainage diversion and capture, or glacier outburst, may be initially much more rapid than has hereto been assumed. Structural preconditioning of the bedrock through jointing and faulting was the primary control on landscape change, conditioning gorge morphology and the rate at which erosion progress.

  16. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... valid West Virginia State hunting license or permit, or are exempt under provisions of West Virginia law... Superintendent for reasons of public safety, resource protection, or other management considerations. (2) Do West Virginia state hunting laws apply within New River Gorge National River? Yes, non-conflicting State...

  17. Predicted Role of Prospective Activity-Centered Vs. Textbook-Centered Elementary Science Teachers Correlated with 16 Personality Factors and Critical Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Loren Eldon

    The purpose of this study was to identify the personal characteristics of prospective activity-centered elementary science teachers. Having established a method of identifying activity-centered versus textbook-centered teachers, the investigator established two groups respectively, using scores on the Predicted Role Measure (PRM) instrument for…

  18. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  19. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  20. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  1. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  2. 34 CFR 350.22 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.22 What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and...

  3. Physical Activity in Child-Care Centers: Do Teachers Hold the Key to the Playground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Sherman, Susan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49…

  4. STS-26 Mission Control Center (MCC) activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Flight controllers in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR) listen to a presentation by STS-26 crewmembers on the fourth day of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, orbital mission. Flight Directors Charles W. Shaw and James M. (Milt) Heflin (in the foreground) and other controllers view a television image of Earth on a screen in the front of the FCR while listening to crewmembers.

  5. Photosynthetic Reaction Centers as Active Molecular Electronic Components. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-13

    lauryl dimethylarnine oxide (LDAO). This is followed by final purification by ion-exchange chromatography. Typical media are DEAE-Sephacel with an...producing improved forms of subtilisin which is widely used in laundry detergents. Other more direct routes to stabilizing the protein structure...purified reaction centers will allow us to eliminate the extraction steps in the purification procedure which are associated with removing the antenna

  6. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  7. STS-26 Mission Control Center (MCC) activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Flight controllers in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR) listen to a presentation by STS-26 crewmembers on the fourth day of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, orbital mission. Instrumentation and Communications Officers (INCOs) Harold Black (left foreground) and John F. Muratore and other controllers view a television (TV) transmission of the crew on a screen in front of the FCR as each member relates some inner feelings while paying tribute to the 51L Challenger crew.

  8. Activities in Aeroelasticity at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of recently-completed research and presents status reports of current research being performed within the Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center. Within the paper this research is classified as experimental, analytical, and theoretical aeroelastic research. The paper also describes the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, its features, capabilities, a new open-architecture data acquisition system, ongoing facility modifications, and the subsequent calibration of the facility.

  9. Classroom Activities: Simple Strategies to Incorporate Student-Centered Activities within Undergraduate Science Lectures.

    PubMed

    Lom, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The traditional science lecture, where an instructor delivers a carefully crafted monolog to a large audience of students who passively receive the information, has been a popular mode of instruction for centuries. Recent evidence on the science of teaching and learning indicates that learner-centered, active teaching strategies can be more effective learning tools than traditional lectures. Yet most colleges and universities retain lectures as their central instructional method. This article highlights several simple collaborative teaching techniques that can be readily deployed within traditional lecture frameworks to promote active learning. Specifically, this article briefly introduces the techniques of: reader's theatre, think-pair-share, roundtable, jigsaw, in-class quizzes, and minute papers. Each technique is broadly applicable well beyond neuroscience courses and easily modifiable to serve an instructor's specific pedagogical goals. The benefits of each technique are described along with specific examples of how each technique might be deployed within a traditional lecture to create more active learning experiences.

  10. Occurrence of organotin compounds in river sediments under the dynamic water level conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Ke; Chen, You-Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wei, Yun-Mei; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Bin; Qiu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    The Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro project in the world, and the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is dynamic and adjustable with the aim of flood control and electrical power generation. It is necessary to investigate the pollutants and their underlying contamination processes under dynamic water levels to determine their environmental behaviors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Here, we report the assessment of organotin compounds (OTs) pollution in the river sediments of the TGRA. Surface sediment samples were collected in the TGRA at low and high water levels. Tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their degradation products in sediments were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PhTs) were detected in sediments, and BTs predominated over PhTs in the whole study area under dynamic water level conditions. The concentrations of OTs in sediments varied markedly among locations, and significant concentrations were found in river areas with high levels of boat traffic and wastewater discharge. Sediments at all stations except Cuntan were lightly contaminated with TBT, and total organic carbon (TOC) was a significant factor affecting the fate of TBT in the TGRA. The butyltin and phenyltin degradation indices showed no recent inputs of TBT or TPhT into this region, with the exception of fresh TPhT input at Xiakou Town. Shipping activity, wastewater discharge, and agriculture are the most likely sources of OTs in the TGRA.

  11. Inner gorges cut by subglacial meltwater during Fennoscandian ice sheet decay.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J D; Codilean, A T; Stroeven, A P; Fabel, D; Hättestrand, C; Kleman, J; Harbor, J M; Heyman, J; Kubik, P W; Xu, S

    2014-05-09

    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. Here we apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation map. We show that the timing of exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that gorges were cut by channelized subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven gorges implicates subglacial meltwater as a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles.

  12. Recent Activities on the Embrace Space Weather Regional Warning Center: the New Space Weather Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Takahashi, Hisao; Costa, D. Joaquim; Banik Padua, Marcelo; Campos Velho, Haroldo

    2016-07-01

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is known by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement "Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial" Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The mission of the Embrace/INPE program is to monitor the Solar-Terrestrial environment, the magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere and the ground induced currents to prevent effects on technological and economic activities. The Embrace/INPE system monitors the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth environment, such as Active Regions (AR) in the Sun and solar radiation by using radio telescope, Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) information by satellite and ground-based cosmic ray monitoring, geomagnetic activity by the magnetometer network, and ionospheric disturbance by ionospheric sounders and using data collected by four GPS receiver network, geomagnetic activity by a magnetometer network, and provides a forecasting for Total Electronic Content (TEC) - 24 hours ahead - using a version of the SUPIM model which assimilates the two latter data using nudging approach. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. Regarding outreach, it has being published a daily bulletin in Portuguese and English with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus. Recently, a comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under commissioning to allow an easy and direct access to all the space weather data collected by Embrace through the Embrace web Portal. The information being released encompasses data from: (a) the Embrace Digisonde Network (Embrace DigiNet) that monitors

  13. Activities of the Structures Division, Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Structures Division's 1990 Annual Report is to give a brief, but comprehensive, review of the technical accomplishments of the Division during the past calendar year. The report is organized topically to match the Center's Strategic Plan. Over the years, the Structures Division has developed the technology base necessary for improving the future of aeronautical and space propulsion systems. In the future, propulsion systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance. Achieving these goals is complex and challenging. Our approach has been to work cooperatively with both industry and universities to develop the technology necessary for state-of-the-art advancement in aeronautical and space propulsion systems. The Structures Division consists of four branches: Structural Mechanics, Fatigue and Fracture, Structural Dynamics, and Structural Integrity. This publication describes the work of the four branches by three topic areas of Research: (1) Basic Discipline; (2) Aeropropulsion; and (3) Space Propulsion. Each topic area is further divided into the following: (1) Materials; (2) Structural Mechanics; (3) Life Prediction; (4) Instruments, Controls, and Testing Techniques; and (5) Mechanisms. The publication covers 78 separate topics with a bibliography containing 159 citations. We hope you will find the publication interesting as well as useful.

  14. Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan

    2013-09-01

    The paper takes China's authoritative Environmental Impact Statement for the Yangzi (Yangtze) Three Gorges Project (TGP) in 1992 as a benchmark against which to evaluate emerging major environmental outcomes since the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir in 2003. The paper particularly examines five crucial environmental aspects and associated causal factors. The five domains include human resettlement and the carrying capacity of local environments (especially land), water quality, reservoir sedimentation and downstream riverbed erosion, soil erosion, and seismic activity and geological hazards. Lessons from the environmental impact assessments of the TGP are: (1) hydro project planning needs to take place at a broader scale, and a strategic environmental assessment at a broader scale is necessary in advance of individual environmental impact assessments; (2) national policy and planning adjustments need to react quickly to the impact changes of large projects; (3) long-term environmental monitoring systems and joint operations with other large projects in the upstream areas of a river basin should be established, and the cross-impacts of climate change on projects and possible impacts of projects on regional or local climate considered.

  15. Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on microbial structure and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qingyun; Bi, Yonghong; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Shi, Zhou; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Xi; Hu, Zhengyu; Yu, Yuhe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam has significantly altered ecological and environmental conditions within the reservoir region, but how these changes affect bacterioplankton structure and function is unknown. Here, three widely accepted metagenomic tools were employed to study the impact of damming on the bacterioplankton community in the Xiangxi River. Our results indicated that bacterioplankton communities were both taxonomically and functionally different between backwater and riverine sites, which represent communities with and without direct dam effects, respectively. There were many more nitrogen cycling Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Limnohabitans), and a higher abundance of functional genes and KEGG orthology (KO) groups involved in nitrogen cycling in the riverine sites, suggesting a higher level of bacterial activity involved in generating more nitrogenous nutrients for the growth of phytoplankton. Additionally, the KO categories involved in carbon and sulfur metabolism, as well as most of the detected functional genes also showed clear backwater and riverine patterns. As expected, these diversity patterns all significantly correlated with environmental characteristics, confirming that the bacterioplankton communities in the Xiangxi River were really affected by environmental changes from the Three Gorges Dam. This study provides a first comparative metagenomic insight for evaluating the impacts of the large dam on microbial function. PMID:25721383

  16. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  17. Recent and future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    2012-07-01

    PlaceNameEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter located in northern country-regionplaceSweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have an unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern country-regionplaceCanada. The Swedish and Russian Governments have signed an agreement for peaceful exploration of space on 19 March 2010, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we are able to offer the science community long duration balloon flights in the Northern Hemisphere with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at placePlaceNameEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern country-regionplaceSweden. We have also received requests from placePlaceNameJapanese PlaceTypeUniversities and JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall was ready for use in April 2011. Circumpolar balloon flights from PlaceNameplaceEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter are possible due to the specific conditions during the Arctic summer with continuous daylight and nearly constant solar heating keeping the balloon at a constant altitude with a minimum of ballast. In total 10 payloads have been flying for 4 to 5 days from Esrange westwards with landing in northern Canada since 2005. The SUNRISE balloon borne solar telescope is one example which made in June metricconverterProductID2009 a2009 a more than 4 days semi-circular balloon flight from Esrange. The CitySunrise project is a collaborative project between the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Katlenburg-Lindau and

  18. Report on Advanced Life Support Activities at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant studies at Kennedy Space Center last year focused on selecting cultivars of lettuce, tomato, and pepper for further testing as crops for near-term space flight applications. Other testing continued with lettuce, onion, and radish plants grown at different combinations of light (PPF), temperature, and CO2 concentration. In addition, comparisons of mixed versus mono culture approaches for vegetable production were studied. Water processing testing focused on the development and testing of a rotating membrane bioreactor to increase oxygen diffusion levels for reducing total organic carbon levels and promoting nitrification. Other testing continued to study composting testing for food wastes (NRA grant) and the use of supplemental green light with red/blue LED lighting systems for plant production (NRC fellowship).

  19. [Activities of Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, Maryland University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is recognized as a world leader in the application of remote sensing and modeling aimed at improving knowledge of the Earth system. The Goddard Earth Sciences Directorate plays a central role in NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) is organized as a cooperative agreement with the GSFC to promote excellence in the Earth sciences, and is a consortium of universities and corporations (University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard University, Hampton University, Caelum Research Corporation and Northrop Grumman Corporation). The aim of this new program is to attract and introduce promising students in their first or second year of graduate studies to Oceanography and Earth system science career options through hands-on instrumentation research experiences on coastal processes at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.

  20. NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Hydrostatic Bearing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Theodore G.

    1991-01-01

    The basic approach for analyzing hydrostatic bearing flows at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is briefly discussed. The Hydrostatic Bearing Team has responsibility for assessing and evaluating flow codes; evaluating friction, ignition, and galling effects; evaluating wear; and performing tests. The Office of Aerospace and Exploration Technology Turbomachinery Seals Tasks consist of tests and analysis. The MSFC in-house analyses utilize one-dimensional bulk-flow codes. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is used to enhance understanding of bearing flow physics or to perform parametric analysis that are outside the bulk flow database. As long as the bulk flow codes are accurate enough for most needs, they will be utilized accordingly and will be supported by CFD analysis on an as-needed basis.

  1. Recent and Future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    Esrange Space Center located in northern Sweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have a unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern Canada. The Swedish Government and Swedish National Space Board are now finaliz-ing an agreement with Russia for peaceful uPersonNamese of space, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we will soon be able to of-fer the science community long duration balloon flights with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at Esrange Space Center are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern Sweden. We have also received a request from JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall will be ready for use at the beginning of 2011. January 24 we made an historical balloon flight in a very cold stratosphere with a Zodiac metricconverterProductID402?000 m3402ü ınbsp;000 m3402 000 m3 balloon carrying a 750kg gondola with the German Mipas-B/Telis instrument. The balloon reached 34kms alti-tude after a carefully piloted ascent in temperature levels down to -89 degrees Centigrade. The scientists received unique data during the 13 hours and 30 minutes long sailing at different altitudes during slow descent. The payload was recovered in very good condition 80 kms from the border between country-regionFinland and Russia.

  2. 77 FR 70211 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Call Center Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Call Center Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB Review AGENCY....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: VBA Call Center Satisfaction Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-0744. Type...

  3. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  4. A Guide to Establishing an Activity Center for Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Allan

    The guide contains basic information for establishing a work activity center, a work-oriented facility providing compensatory pre-vocational and vocational education and training programs for men and women of post-school age. The center serves those mentally retarded adults not developmentally prepared to enter a sheltered workshop program. The…

  5. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  6. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  7. A new perspective on the radio active zone at the Galactic center - feedback from nuclear activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.-H.; Morris, M. R.; Goss, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the VLA† at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ˜1 × 104 yr estimated for the outermost radio ring appears to be comparable to the inferred age of the Sgr A East SNR.

  8. Robotics-Centered Outreach Activities: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, universities are making extensive efforts to attract prospective students to the fields of electrical, electronic, and computer engineering. Thus, outreach is becoming increasingly important, and activities with schoolchildren are being extensively carried out as part of this effort. In this context, robotics is a very attractive and…

  9. Kidspiration[R] for Inquiry-Centered Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Baggett, Paige V.; Salyer, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Computer technology can be integrated into science inquiry activities to increase student motivation and enhance and expand scientific thinking. Fifth-grade students used the visual thinking tools in the Kidspiration[R] software program to generate and represent a web of hypotheses around the question, "What affects the distance a marble rolls?"…

  10. UAS Related Activities at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is completing its refurbishment and initial flights of one the pre-production Global Hawk aircraft it received from the U.S. Air Force. NASA Dryden has an agreement with the Global Hawk s manufacturer, Northrop Grumman, to partner in the refurbishment and flight operations of the vehicles. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has also partnered on the project and is assisting NASA with project management and pilot responsibilities for the aircraft. NASA and NOAA will be using the Global Hawks to conduct earth science research. The earth science community is increasing utilizing UAS of all sizes and capabilities to collect important data on a variety of issues including important global climate change issues. To pursue the data collection needs of the science community there is a growing demand for international collaboration with respect to operating UAS in global airspace. Operations of NASA s Ikhana aircraft continued this past year. The Ikhana is a modified Predator B UAS. A UAS dedicated to research at NASA Dryden is the X-48B blended wing body research aircraft. Flight tests with the 500- pound, remotely piloted test vehicle are now in a block 4 phase involving parameter identification and maneuvers to research the limits of the engine in stall situations. NASA s participation in the blended wing body research effort is focused on fundamental, advanced flight dynamics and structural design concepts within the Subsonic Fixed Wing project, part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program managed through NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Potential benefits of the aircraft include increased volume for carrying capacity, efficient aerodynamics for reduced fuel burn and possibly significant reductions in noise due to propulsion integration options. NASA Dryden continues to support the UAS industry by facilitating access to three specially designated test areas on Edwards Air Force Base for the

  11. Classroom Activities: Simple Strategies to Incorporate Student-Centered Activities within Undergraduate Science Lectures

    PubMed Central

    Lom, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The traditional science lecture, where an instructor delivers a carefully crafted monolog to a large audience of students who passively receive the information, has been a popular mode of instruction for centuries. Recent evidence on the science of teaching and learning indicates that learner-centered, active teaching strategies can be more effective learning tools than traditional lectures. Yet most colleges and universities retain lectures as their central instructional method. This article highlights several simple collaborative teaching techniques that can be readily deployed within traditional lecture frameworks to promote active learning. Specifically, this article briefly introduces the techniques of: reader’s theatre, think-pair-share, roundtable, jigsaw, in-class quizzes, and minute papers. Each technique is broadly applicable well beyond neuroscience courses and easily modifiable to serve an instructor’s specific pedagogical goals. The benefits of each technique are described along with specific examples of how each technique might be deployed within a traditional lecture to create more active learning experiences. PMID:23494568

  12. City Kids and City Critters! Activities for Urban Explorers from the Houston Arboretum & Nature Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Janet Wier; Huelbig, Carole

    This guide contains activities from the Houston Arboretum and Nature Center programs for children ages 8 to 12 years. The multisensory activities help students improve their observational skills and utilize activity sheets, journals, and hands-on projects to involve them. Children observe, draw, and photograph animals in their natural settings and…

  13. Constraint based scheduling for the Goddard Space Flight Center distributed Active Archive Center's data archive and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nick, Jr.; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Beane, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational since October 1, 1993. Its mission is to support the Earth Observing System (EOS) by providing rapid access to EOS data and analysis products, and to test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) design concepts. One of the challenges is to ensure quick and easy retrieval of any data archived within the DAAC's Data Archive and Distributed System (DADS). Over the 15-year life of EOS project, an estimated several Petabytes (10(exp 15)) of data will be permanently stored. Accessing that amount of information is a formidable task that will require innovative approaches. As a precursor of the full EOS system, the GSFC DAAC with a few Terabits of storage, has implemented a prototype of a constraint-based task and resource scheduler to improve the performance of the DADS. This Honeywell Task and Resource Scheduler (HTRS), developed by Honeywell Technology Center in cooperation the Information Science and Technology Branch/935, the Code X Operations Technology Program, and the GSFC DAAC, makes better use of limited resources, prevents backlog of data, provides information about resources bottlenecks and performance characteristics. The prototype which is developed concurrently with the GSFC Version 0 (V0) DADS, models DADS activities such as ingestion and distribution with priority, precedence, resource requirements (disk and network bandwidth) and temporal constraints. HTRS supports schedule updates, insertions, and retrieval of task information via an Application Program Interface (API). The prototype has demonstrated with a few examples, the substantial advantages of using HTRS over scheduling algorithms such as a First In First Out (FIFO) queue. The kernel scheduling engine for HTRS, called Kronos, has been successfully applied to several other domains such as space shuttle mission scheduling, demand flow manufacturing, and avionics communications

  14. "Monkey see, monkey do": Peers' behaviors predict preschoolers' physical activity and dietary intake in childcare centers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Stéphanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Boudreau, Jonathan; Vatanparast, Hassan; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Leis, Anne; Humbert, M Louise; Carrier, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Preschoolers observe and imitate the behaviors of those who are similar to them. Therefore, peers may be role models for preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers. This study examined whether peers' behaviors predict change in preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers over 9months. A total of 238 preschoolers (3 to 5years old) from 23 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces provided data at the beginning (October 2013 and 2014) and the end (June 2014 and 2015) of a 9-month period for this longitudinal study. Dietary intake was collected at lunch using weighed plate waste and digital photography on two consecutive weekdays. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers over five days. Multilevel linear regressions were used to estimate the influence of peers' behaviors on preschoolers' change in dietary intake and physical activity over 9months. Results showed that preschoolers whose dietary intake or physical activity level deviated the most from those of their peers at the beginning of the year demonstrated greater change in their intakes and activity levels over 9months, which enabled them to become more similar to their peers (all β 95% CI ranged from -0.835 to -0.074). This study suggests that preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity may be influenced by the behaviors of their peers in childcare centers. Since peers could play an important role in promoting healthy eating behaviors and physical activity in childcare centers, future studies should test interventions based on positive role modeling by children.

  15. Landslides in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Evarts, Russell C.; Bard, Joseph A.

    2016-11-04

    SummaryRecent light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery has allowed us to identify and map a large number of previously unrecognized landslides, or slides, in heavily forested terrain in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington, and it has revealed that the few previously recognized areas of instability are actually composites of multiple smaller landslides. The high resolution of the imagery further reveals that landslides in the map area have complex movement histories and span a wide range of relative ages. Movement histories are inferred from relative landslide locations and crosscutting relations of surface features. Estimated age ranges are based on (1) limited absolute dating; (2) relative fineness of landscape surface textures, calibrated by comparison with surfaces of currently active and dated landslides as interpreted from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), global positioning system (GPS), and historical records; (3) sharpness and steepness of larger-scale surface morphologic features, calibrated by comparison with similar dated features in other regions; (4) degree of surface erosion; and (5) evidence of erosion or deposition by late Pleistocene (15–22 ka) Missoula floods at or below 200 m altitude. The relative age categories are recent (0 to ~1,000 years old), intermediate-age (~1,000 to ~15,000 years old), and old (>~15,000 years old). Within the 221.5 km2 map area, we identified 215 discrete landslides, covering 140.9 km2 (64 percent of the map area). At least 12 of the recent landslides are currently moving or have moved within the last two decades. Mapping for this study expanded the area of previously recognized unstable terrain by 56 percent. Landslide geometries suggest that more than half (62 percent) of these slope failures are translational landslides or composite landslides with translational elements, with failure occurring along gently sloping bedding planes in zones of deeply weathered, locally clay rich

  16. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa.

  17. Monitoring the Dynamic of a Fluvial Channel after Lahar Disturbance: Huiloac Gorge (Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, N.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Tanarro, L. M.; Renschler, C.; Sanjosé, J. J.; Atkinson, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions generate disturbances that affect hydrological systems (Major, 2003) by depositing large volumes of sediments in watersheds that exceed amounts common to non-volcanic river systems (Montgomery, 2005). If the eruption releases abundant melt water, the river system may respond immediately by forming hazardous flows called lahars. River system recovery following eruptive and laharic impact is an important process, but it has received little attention (Gran and Montgomery, 2005) despite the fact that Major et al. (2000) and Hayes et al. (2002) have shown that these disruptions cause long term instability and their effects persist for decades. Lahar deposits resulting from interaction between volcanic activity and the glacier located above the Huiloac Gorge on the northern slope of Popocatepetl volcano (19°02´ N, 98°62´ W, 5,424 m), have infilled the gorge (Palacios, 1995; Palacios et al., 1998 and 2001; Capra et al., 2004; Muñoz, 2007). All of the major lahars that occurred on the volcano in 1995 (4 km), 1997 (21 km), and 2001 (14 km) have channelled through Huiloac Gorge, and have dramatically altered its morphology and dynamics through erosion and deposition. The present study traces these changes in the aftermath of the laharic events that occurred from 1997-2001. A sector of the channel, located at 3200m-3240m altitude, of 500 m long and 15 to 20 m wide, in the mid-section of the gorge, was chosen as the control site. Precipitation is heaviest there and is most apt to trigger secondary post-eruptive lahars. ArcGis software was used to draw 6 geomorphic maps of the site showing spatial variations in the landforms for the period February 2002 - February 2008. In addition, 29 cross-profiles were made of the gorge for the same time interval, excluding February 2004. The volume of sediment eroded and deposited was calculated for each date by comparing variations in the height of the floor and banks of the gorge depicted in the cross-profile, and

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W. |

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  19. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  20. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  1. Activities. A Collection of Things to Do at the Environmental Learning Center, Isabella, Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Learning Center, Isabella, Minn.

    A collection of activities used successfully at the Environmental Learning Center in Isabella, Minnesota, are contained in this guide. Areas of study are perception and communication, mapping, weather, snow, soil, aquatics, trees, and animals. Within these areas is a number of related activities, each to be adapted to the appropriate grade level.…

  2. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

  3. Active-Learning versus Teacher-Centered Instruction for Learning Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this…

  4. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper…

  5. Activity in Mission Control Center during Apollo 12 lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Overal view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, during the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. When this picture was made the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity was being televised from the surface of the Moon.

  6. View of activity in Mission Control Center during Lunar Module liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the liftoff of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module 'Falcon' ascent stage from the lunar surface. An RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle made it possible for people on Earth to watch the Lunar Module (LM) launch from the Moon. Seated in the right foreground is Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, a spacecraft communicator. Note liftoff on the television monitor in the center background.

  7. Recreation impacts to cliff resources in the Potomac Gorge: Final report, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Carr, C.; Davis, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Managers of the National Park Service (NPS) are directed by law to accommodate appropriate types and amounts of visitation while ensuring that: any adverse impacts are the minimum necessary, unavoidable, cannot be further mitigated, and do not constitute impairment or derogation of park resources and values. (NPS 2006). The increasing popularity of the national park system presents substantial management challenges. High visitatation may cause unacceptable impacts to fragile natural and cultural resources, and may also cause crowding and other social impacts, which can also degrade the quality of visitor experiences. Responding to these concerns, NPS managers at Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH) and George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP) sponsored this research within the upper Potomac Gorge portions of these parks to investigate visitation-related impacts to the park?s cliff resources. The cliffs and rocky areas within the Great Falls and Mather Gorge areas provide important habitats for numerous sensitive rare plants and plant communities. A recent General Management Planning process for Great Falls Park (GFP), a portion of GWMP, highlighted the potential impacts of cliff-associated recreational activities, including hiking, climbing, and fishing, on sensitive cliff resources. The planning process identified the need for development of a Climbing Management Plan and a Trail Plan to more specifically address site and visitor management actions needed to protect rare and sensitive natural and cultural resources. Good science to assess cliff-associated rare plants and communities and to determine the existing and potential effects of cliff-related recreational activities is required for these new planning efforts. This research is designed to specifically address these informational needs and to assist park managers on both sides of the river with current and future cliff and recreation management decisions.

  8. Dating the Naisiusiu Beds, Olduvai Gorge, by electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, A. R.; Hay, R. L.; Masao, F.; Blackwell, B. A. B.

    2003-05-01

    The lower beds at Olduvai Gorge are well known for containing early hominid fossils and Oldowan stone tools, and their ages have been established by 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Ages are generally less certain for the upper deposits at Olduvai Gorge because of the scarcity of datable tuffs. The youngest archaeologically significant site at Olduvai is microlithic LSA, which lies in the type section of the Naisiusiu Beds. The age for the site is controversial, with 14C dates of 17,000-17,550 (Hay, R.L., 1976 Geology of Olduvai Gorge, University of California Press, Berkeley) and >42,000 BP (Manega, P.C., 1993. Geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic study of the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid sites and the Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland in Northern Tanzania. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The tuff bed in the zone with artifacts does not contain materials datable by 40Ar/ 39Ar, and some other dating method was needed. In the summer of 2001, five equid teeth were collected from the type Naisiusiu site. Another tooth had previously been collected. ESR ages have been determined for three teeth from the archaeological level and their ages cluster around 62±5 ka, assuming linear uranium uptake. Another tooth from a level without artifacts and believed to be significantly younger dated to 39±5 ka, again assuming LU. These dates are considerably older than previous estimates and suggest that the East African MSA/LSA transition occurred very early.

  9. Fission-Track Dating of Bed I, Olduvai Gorge.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R L; Price, P B; Walker, R M; Leakey, L S

    1965-04-02

    The discoveries of a series of hominid remains in the Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, has focused attention upon the age of the deposits of Bed 1, in which both Zinjanthropus and Homo habilis were found. Because the age of 1.75 million years, as determined by the radioactive decay of potassium and argon, has been questioned several times, a fission-track age was measured for the pumice from Bed 1. The result is 2.03 +/- 0.28 million years, in good agreement with the result obtained by the potassium-argon decay method.

  10. DISCOVERY OF THE RECOMBINING PLASMA IN THE SOUTH OF THE GALACTIC CENTER: A RELIC OF THE PAST GALACTIC CENTER ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, S.; Nobukawa, M.; Uchida, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.; Murakami, H.; Uchiyama, H.

    2013-08-10

    We report Suzaku results for soft X-ray emission to the south of the Galactic center (GC). The emission (hereafter {sup G}C South{sup )} has an angular size of {approx}42' Multiplication-Sign 16' centered at (l, b) {approx} (0. Degree-Sign 0, - 1. Degree-Sign 4) and is located in the largely extended Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). The X-ray spectrum of GC South exhibits emission lines from highly ionized atoms. Although the X-ray spectrum of the GRXE can be well fitted with a plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), that of GC South cannot be fitted with a plasma in CIE, leaving hump-like residuals at {approx}2.5 and 3.5 keV, which are attributable to the radiative recombination continua of the K-shells of Si and S, respectively. In fact, GC South spectrum is well fitted with a recombination-dominant plasma model; the electron temperature is 0.46 keV while atoms are highly ionized (kT = 1.6 keV) in the initial epoch, and the plasma is now in a recombining phase at a relaxation scale (plasma density Multiplication-Sign elapsed time) of 5.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} s cm{sup -3}. The absorption column density of GC South is consistent with that toward the GC region. Thus, GC South is likely to be located in the GC region ({approx}8 kpc distance). The size of the plasma, the mean density, and the thermal energy are estimated to be {approx}97 pc Multiplication-Sign 37 pc, 0.16 cm{sup -3}, and 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, respectively. We discuss possible origins of the recombination-dominant plasma as a relic of past activity in the GC region.

  11. Discovery of the Recombining Plasma in the South of the Galactic Center: A Relic of the Past Galactic Center Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, S.; Nobukawa, M.; Uchida, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.; Murakami, H.; Uchiyama, H.

    2013-08-01

    We report Suzaku results for soft X-ray emission to the south of the Galactic center (GC). The emission (hereafter "GC South") has an angular size of ~42' × 16' centered at (l, b) ~ (0.°0, - 1.°4) and is located in the largely extended Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). The X-ray spectrum of GC South exhibits emission lines from highly ionized atoms. Although the X-ray spectrum of the GRXE can be well fitted with a plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), that of GC South cannot be fitted with a plasma in CIE, leaving hump-like residuals at ~2.5 and 3.5 keV, which are attributable to the radiative recombination continua of the K-shells of Si and S, respectively. In fact, GC South spectrum is well fitted with a recombination-dominant plasma model; the electron temperature is 0.46 keV while atoms are highly ionized (kT = 1.6 keV) in the initial epoch, and the plasma is now in a recombining phase at a relaxation scale (plasma density × elapsed time) of 5.3 × 1011 s cm-3. The absorption column density of GC South is consistent with that toward the GC region. Thus, GC South is likely to be located in the GC region (~8 kpc distance). The size of the plasma, the mean density, and the thermal energy are estimated to be ~97 pc × 37 pc, 0.16 cm-3, and 1.6 × 1051 erg, respectively. We discuss possible origins of the recombination-dominant plasma as a relic of past activity in the GC region.

  12. Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuki

    2002-09-01

    The lithic analysis of the Bed I and II assemblages from Olduvai Gorge reveals both static and dynamic time trends in early hominids' technology from 1.8 to 1.2 m.y.a. The Bed I Oldowan (1.87-1.75 m.y.a.) is characterized by the least effort strategy in terms of raw material exploitation and tool production. The inclusion of new raw material, chert, for toolmaking in the following Developed Oldowan A (DOA, 1.65-1.53 m.y.a.) facilitated more distinctive and variable flaking strategies depending on the kind of raw materials. The unique characters of DOA are explainable by this raw material factor, rather than technological development of hominids. The disappearance of chert in the subsequent Developed Oldowan B and Acheulian (1.53-1.2 m.y.a.) necessitated a shift in tool production strategy more similar to that of Bed I Oldowan than DOA. However, the evidence suggests that Bed II hominids might have been more skillful toolmakers, intensive tool-users, and engaged in more active transport of stone tools than the Bed I predecessors. Koobi Fora hominids maintained a more static tool-using behavior than their Olduvai counterparts due mainly to a stable supply of raw materials. They differed from Olduvai hominids in terms of less battering of cores, consistent transport behavior, and few productions of side-struck flakes, indicating a regional variation of toolmaking and using practice. However, they shared with Olduvai hominids a temporal trend toward the production of larger flakes from larger cores after 1.6 m.y.a. Increased intake of animal resources and the expansion of ranging area of Homo ergaster would have led to the development of technological organization. Technological changes in the Oldowan industry are attested at Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Sterkfontein, suggesting that it was a pan-African synchronous phenomenon, beginning at 1.5 m.y.a.

  13. Barriers to physical activity in an on-site corporate fitness center.

    PubMed

    Schwetschenau, Heather M; O'Brien, William H; Cunningham, Christopher J L; Jex, Steve M

    2008-10-01

    Many corporations provide employees the option of participating in on-site fitness centers, but utilization rates are low. Perceived barriers to physical activity have been established as important correlates of physical activity, and recent research indicates that barriers may vary across settings. Work-site fitness centers may present unique barriers to participation, but there are currently no standardized measures that assess such barriers. Eighty-eight employees of a midwestern corporation completed a survey designed to identify and evaluate the extent to which barriers influence participation in an on-site corporate fitness center. Regression analyses revealed that external environmental barriers (e.g., inadequate exercise facilities) significantly accounted for not joining the fitness center, and for decreased duration of visits to the facility among members. Internal barriers (e.g., feeling embarrassed to exercise around coworkers) significantly accounted for frequency of fitness center visits among members. This corporate specific measure may lead to more effective interventions aimed to increase use of on-site corporate fitness centers.

  14. Temperature dependence on the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of natural jasper from Taroko Gorge (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemantha Kumar, G. N.; Parthasarathy, G.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. Lakshmana; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2010-04-01

    Structural properties of natural jasper from Taroko Gorge (Taiwan) have been investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The EPR spectrum at room temperature exhibits a sharp resonance signal at g = 2.007 and two more resonance signals centered at g ≈ 4.3 and 14.0. The resonance signal at g = 2.007 has been attributed to the E' center and is related to a natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defect. Two more resonance signals centered at g ≈ 4.3 and 14.0 are characteristic of Fe3+ ions. The EPR spectra recorded at room temperature of jasper samples, heat-treated at temperatures ranging from 473 to 1,473 K exhibit marked temperature dependence. The resonance signal corresponding to E' center disappears at elevated temperatures. A broad, intense resonance signal centered at g ≈ 2.0 appears at elevated temperatures. This resonance signal is a characteristic of Fe3+ ions, which are present as hematite in the jasper sample. The intensity of the resonance signal becomes dominant at elevated temperatures at ≥873 K, masking g ≈ 4.3 and g ≈ 14.0 resonance signals. The EPR spectra of jasper heat-treated at 673 K have been recorded at temperatures between 123 and 296 K. The population of spin levels ( N) has been calculated for the broad g ≈ 2.0 resonance signal. It is found that N decreases with decreasing temperature. The linewidth (ΔH) of g ≈ 2.0 resonance signal of the heat-treated jasper is found to increase with decreasing temperature. This has been attributed to spin-spin interaction of the Fe3+ ions present in the form of hematite in the studied jasper sample.

  15. Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technology performance: Activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. Report for November 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Piccot, S.D.; Kirchgessner, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Technology Verification Center`s mission, operational characteristics, and current activities in the natural gas industry, solid waste landfill industry, energy industries, and microelectronics industry. It also outlines the Center`s future plans and gives results of a recent phosphoric acid fuel cell verification at two landflls in the US. It describes how technology vendors, developers, users, and others can utilize the Center`s testing, analysis, and outreach activities and outlines the types of technologies planned for testing over the next 3 to 5 years.

  16. Mice that gorged during dietary restriction increased foraging related behaviors and differed in their macronutrient preference when released from restriction

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. ‘Gorging’ mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non-gorgers spent most of their time sleeping. After restriction, both gorgers and non-gorgers were hyperphagic until their lost weight was regained. All 3 groups favoured high fat food. Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls. On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups. Elevated protein intake may play an important role in the recovery of the lost lean tissue of gorgers after restriction. PMID:26157640

  17. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-06

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences.

  18. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-01-01

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element ‘draft-tube’ that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700–1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences. PMID:26442144

  19. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Gong, Wen; Lv, Jizhong; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in surface water from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Nine samples were collected via trawl sampling with a 112 μmmesh net. The abundances of microplastics were from 3407.7 × 10(3) to 13,617.5 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the main stream of the Yangtze River and from 192.5 × 10(3) to 11,889.7 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the estuarine areas of four tributaries. The abundance of microplastics in the main stream of the Yangtze River generally increased as moving closer to the Three Gorges Dam. The microplastics are made exclusively of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Together with microplastics, high abundance of coal/fly ash was also observed in the surface water samples. Comparing with previously reported data, microplastics in the TGR were approximately one to three orders of magnitudes greater, suggesting reservoirs as potential hot spot for microplastic pollution.

  20. Local Climate Sensitivity of the Three Gorges Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Jin, Jiming; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2005-02-18

    Two simulations, control and land use change, were performed for an eight week period (2 April-16 May 1990) to determine the net sensitivity of the local climate around the Three Gorges Dam. The analysis indicates that the large reservoir acts as a potential evaporating surface that decreases the surface temperature, cools the lower atmosphere, decreasing upward motion, and increasing sinking air mass. Such sinking results in low level moisture divergence, decreasing cloudiness, and increasing net downward radiation, which increases the surface temperature. However, results indicate that evaporative cooling dominates radiative warming in this initial study. The strong evaporation also supplies moisture to the atmosphere, suggesting an increase in precipitation, but the sinking moist air diverges away from the TGD region with no net change in precipitation. This numerical study represents an initial methodology for quantification of the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the local climate and a more comprehensive, fine-scale set of multi-season simulations with additional observational data is needed for a more complete analysis.

  1. Spatial patterns of erosion in a bedrock gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Alexander. R.; Turowski, Jens M.; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes driving bedrock channel formation is essential for interpreting and predicting the evolution of mountain landscapes. Here we analyze bedrock erosion patterns measured at unprecedented spatial resolution (mm) over 2 years in a natural bedrock gorge. These spatial patterns show that local bedrock erosion rates depend on position in the channel cross section, height above the streambed, and orientation relative to the main streamflow and sediment path. These observations are consistent with the expected spatial distribution of impacting particles (the tools effect) and shielding by sediment on the bed (the cover effect). Vertical incision by bedrock abrasion averaged 1.5 mm/a, lateral abrasion averaged 0.4 mm/a, and downstream directed abrasion of flow obstacles averaged 2.6 mm/a. However, a single plucking event locally exceeded these rates by orders of magnitude (˜100 mm/a), and accounted for one third of the eroded volume in the studied gorge section over the 2 year study period. Hence, if plucking is spatially more frequent than we observed in this study period, it may contribute substantially to long-term erosion rates, even in the relatively massive bedrock at our study site. Our observations demonstrate the importance of bedrock channel morphology and the spatial distribution of moving and static sediment in determining local erosion rates.

  2. Altered streamflow and sediment entrainment in the Gunnison Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Parker, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Gunnison River in the Gunnison Gorge is a canyon river where upstream dams regulate mainstem discharge but do not affect debris-flow sediment supply from tributaries entering below the reservoirs. Regulation since 1966 has altered flood frequency, streambed mobility, and fluvial geomorphology creating potential resource-management issues. The duration of moderate streamflows between 32.3 and 85.0 m3/s has increased threefold since 1966. This, along with flood-peak attenuation, has facilitated fine-sediment deposition and vegetation encroachment on stream banks. The Shields equation and on-site channel geometry and bed-material measurements were used to assess changes in sediment entrainment in four alluvial reaches. Sand and fine gravel are transported through riffle/pool reaches at most discharges, but the cobbles and boulders composing the streambed in many reaches now are infrequently entrained. Periodic debris flows add coarse sediment to rapids and can increase pool elevation and the streambed area affected by backwater and fine-sediment accumulation. Debris-flow supplied boulders accumulate on fans and in rapids and constrict the channel until reworked by larger floods. The response to streamflow-regime changes in the Gunnison Gorge could serve as an analog for alluvial reaches in other regulated canyon rivers.

  3. Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices in Childcare Centers versus Family Childcare Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Page, Monica; Sanders, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Obesity rates among preschool-aged children have doubled in the past 10 years, and 60% of these children spend the majority of their day in childcare facilities. Few studies have examined the quality of nutrition and physical activity practices in childcare centers as compared to family childcare homes. The purpose of this study is to determine if…

  4. Structures of glycosylated mammalian glutaminyl cyclases reveal conformational variability near the active center.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Carrillo, David; Koch, Birgit; Parthier, Christoph; Wermann, Michael; Dambe, Tresfore; Buchholz, Mirko; Ludwig, Hans-Henning; Heiser, Ulrich; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Stubbs, Milton T; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-07-19

    Formation of N-terminal pyroglutamate (pGlu or pE) from glutaminyl or glutamyl precursors is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclases (QC). As the formation of pGlu-amyloid has been linked with Alzheimer's disease, inhibitors of QCs are currently the subject of intense development. Here, we report three crystal structures of N-glycosylated mammalian QC from humans (hQC) and mice (mQC). Whereas the overall structures of the enzymes are similar to those reported previously, two surface loops in the neighborhood of the active center exhibit conformational variability. Furthermore, two conserved cysteine residues form a disulfide bond at the base of the active center that was not present in previous reports of hQC structure. Site-directed mutagenesis suggests a structure-stabilizing role of the disulfide bond. At the entrance to the active center, the conserved tryptophan residue, W(207), which displayed multiple orientations in previous structure, shows a single conformation in both glycosylated human and murine QCs. Although mutagenesis of W(207) into leucine or glutamine altered substrate conversion significantly, the binding constants of inhibitors such as the highly potent PQ50 (PBD150) were minimally affected. The crystal structure of PQ50 bound to the active center of murine QC reveals principal binding determinants provided by the catalytic zinc ion and a hydrophobic funnel. This study presents a first comparison of two mammalian QCs containing typical, conserved post-translational modifications.

  5. Individual Information-Centered Approach for Handling Physical Activity Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Robinson, Terrance S.; Mahar, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate individual information (II)-centered methods for handling missing data, using data samples of 118 middle-aged adults and 91 older adults equipped with Yamax SW-200 pedometers and Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. We used a semisimulation approach to create six data sets: three physical activity outcome…

  6. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  7. Activating Community Health Center Patients in Developing Question-Formulation Skills: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Deen, Darwin; Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Gold, Marthe R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed and delivered a brief patient activation intervention (PAI) that sought to facilitate physician-patient communication. The intervention was designed to assist low-income, racial/ethnic minority users of community health centers in building skills and confidence asking questions. The PAI takes 8 to 10 minutes to deliver and…

  8. Significant Centers of Tectonic Activity as Identified by Wrinkle Ridges for the Western Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R.C.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.; Franklin, B. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Lias, J.

    2000-01-01

    The western hemisphere region of Mars has been the site of numerous scientific investigations regarding its tectonic evolution. For this region of Mars, the dominant tectonic region is the Tharsis province. Tharsis is characterized by an enormous system of radiating grabens and a circumferential system of wrinkle ridges. Past investigations of grabens associated with Tharsis have identified specific centers of tectonic activity. A recent structural analysis of the western hemisphere region of Mars which includes the Tharsis region, utilized 25,000 structures to determine the history of local and regional centers of tectonic activity based primarily on the spatial and temporal relationships of extensional features. This investigation revealed that Tharsis is more structurally complex (heterogeneous) than has been previously identified: it consists of numerous regional and local centers of tectonic activity (some are more dominant and/or more long lived than others). Here we use the same approach as Anderson et al. to determine whether the centers of tectonic activity that formed the extensional features also contributed to wrinkle ridge (compressional) formation.

  9. Can Physical Education and Physical Activity Outcomes Be Developed Simultaneously Using a Game-Centered Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; Christensen, Erin; Eather, Narelle; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Keay, Jeanne; Lubans, David

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pilot intervention using a game-centered approach for improvement of physical activity (PA) and physical education (PE) outcomes simultaneously, and if this had an impact on enjoyment of PE. A group-randomized controlled trial with a 7-week wait-list control group was conducted…

  10. Students´ Perspectives on eLearning Activities in Person-Centered, Blended Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…

  11. View of activity in Mission Control Center during Apollo 15 lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An overall, wide-angle lens view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the landing of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The LM 'Falcon' touched down on the lunar surface at ground elapsed time of 104 hours 42 minutes 29 seconds.

  12. The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The functionality of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) which are significant elements of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is discussed. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. The EOSDIS DAACs are expected to improve the access to earth science data set needed for global change research.

  13. Thermal Technology Development Activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center - 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of thermal technology development activities carried out at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center during 2001. Specific topics covered include: two-phase systems (heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, vapor compression systems and phase change materials), variable emittance systems, advanced coatings, high conductivity materials and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thermal coatings. The application of these activities to specific space missions is also discussed.

  14. Paris Observatory Analysis Center (OPAR): Report on Activities, January - December 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Sebastien; Barache, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We report on activities of the Paris Observatory VLBI Analysis Center (OPAR) for calendar year 2012 concerning the development of operational tasks, the development of our Web site, and various other activities: monitoring of the Earth's free core nutation, measuring of the post-seismic displacements of some stations, and the analysis of the recent IVS R&D sessions, including observations of quasars close to the Sun.

  15. [Research progress on remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China].

    PubMed

    Teng, Ming-jun; Zeng, Li-xiong; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Huang, Zhi-lin; Wang, Peng-cheng; Dian, Yuan-yong

    2014-12-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGR area) , one of the most sensitive ecological zones in China, has dramatically changes in ecosystem configurations and services driven by the Three Gorges Engineering Project and its related human activities. Thus, understanding the dynamics of ecosystem configurations, ecological processes and ecosystem services is an attractive and critical issue to promote regional ecological security of the TGR area. The remote sensing of environment is a promising approach to the target and is thus increasingly applied to and ecosystem dynamics of the TGR area on mid- and macro-scales. However, current researches often showed controversial results in ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area due to the differences in remote sensing data, scale, and land-use/cover classification. Due to the complexity of ecological configurations and human activities, challenges still exist in the remote-sensing based research of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The status, challenges and trends of ecological and environmental remote-sensing in the TGR area were further discussed and concluded in the aspect of land-use/land-cover, vegetation dynamics, soil and water security, ecosystem services, ecosystem health and its management. The further researches on the remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes were proposed to improve the ecosystem management of the TGR area.

  16. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the spawning stock and natural reproduction of Chinese sturgeon in Changjiang River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Lin, Pengcheng; Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Chinese sturgeon ( Acipenser sinensis) is the flagship species of the Changjiang River. The migration route of this species is blocked by the first dam, the Gezhou Dam, and its reproduction is affected by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), one of the largest dams in the world. We studied the impact of the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) since 2003 on the spawning stock and the natural reproduction of the Chinese sturgeon by using our monitoring data from 1997 to 2013. Results indicate that TGR impoundment has delayed the first spawning dates of the fish from middle-late October to late November, decreased the amount of spawning activities from twice to only once each year, and significantly reduced egg production. In particular, the fish did not demonstrate any spawning activities in 2013. Therefore, TGR impoundment significantly affects the natural reproduction of the fish downstream of the TGD. The spawning stock size of the fish is also predicted to further decrease in the future, which will lead to a risk of population extinction. Ecological regulations must be imposed on decreasing the water temperature to 20°C before mid-October and increasing water discharge downstream of the TGD in October to induce spawning of the Chinese sturgeon.

  17. PAH distribution and mass fluxes in the Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Hu, Wei; Westrich, Bernhard; Peng, Chengrong; Bi, Yonghong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-09-01

    Mass fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated for the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, based on concentration and discharge data from the Yangtze River. Virtual Organisms (VOs) have been applied during four campaigns in 2008, 2009 (twice) and 2011 at sampling sites distributed from Chongqing to Maoping. The total PAH mass fluxes ranged from 110 to 2,160 mg s(-1). Highest loads were determined at Chongqing with a decreasing trend towards Maoping in all four sampling campaigns. PAH remediation capacity of the TGR was found to be high as the mass flux reduced by more than half from upstream to downstream. Responsible processes are thought to be adsorption of PAH to suspended particles, dilution and degradation. Furthermore, the dependence of PAH concentration upon water depth was investigated at Maoping in front of the Three Gorges Dam. Although considerable differences could be revealed, there was no trend observable. Sampling of water with self-packed filter cartridges confirmed more homogenous PAH depth distribution. Moreover, PAH content of suspended particles was estimated from water concentrations gathered by VOs based on a water-particle separation model and subsequently compared to PAH concentration measured in water and in filter cartridges. It could be shown that the modeled data predicts the concentration caused by particle-bound PAHs to be about 6 times lower than PAHs dissolved in water. Besides, the model estimates the proportions of 5- and 6-ring PAHs being higher than in water phase.

  18. Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Report on Activities (UCLA/MIT), 2009-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Carter

    2011-04-18

    The final 'phaseout' year of the CMPD ended July 2010; a no cost extension was requested until May 2011 in order to enable the MIT subcontract funds to be fully utilized. Research progress over this time included verification and validation activities for the BOUT and BOUT++ code, studies of spontaneous reconnection in the VTF facility at MIT, and studies of the interaction between Alfven waves and drift waves in LAPD. The CMPD also hosted the 6th plasma physics winter school in 2010 (jointly with the NSF frontier center the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, significant funding came from NSF for this most recent iteration of the Winter School).

  19. Earth Science Data Archive and Access at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    The Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), as an integral part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), is the official source of data for several important earth remote sensing missions. These include the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) launched in August 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) launched in November 1997, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) scheduled for launch in mid 1999 as part of the EOS AM-1 instrumentation package. The data generated from these missions supports a host of users in the hydrological, land biosphere and oceanographic research and applications communities. The volume and nature of the data present unique challenges to an Earth science data archive and distribution system such as the DAAC. The DAAC system receives, archives and distributes a large number of standard data products on a daily basis, including data files that have been reprocessed with updated calibration data or improved analytical algorithms. A World Wide Web interface is provided allowing interactive data selection and automatic data subscriptions as distribution options. The DAAC also creates customized and value-added data products, which allow additional user flexibility and reduced data volume. Another significant part of our overall mission is to provide ancillary data support services and archive support for worldwide field campaigns designed to validate the results from the various satellite-derived measurements. In addition to direct data services, accompanying documentation, WWW links to related resources, support for EOSDIS data formats, and informed response to inquiries are routinely provided to users. The current GDAAC WWW search and order system is being restructured to provide users with a simplified, hierarchical access to data. Data Browsers have been developed for several data sets to aid users in ordering data. These Browsers allow users to specify

  20. Activities in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) During the STS-42 IML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured are activities in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  1. Insights on activation enthalpy for non-Schmid slip in body-centered cubic metals

    DOE PAGES

    Hale, Lucas M.; Lim, Hojun; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; ...

    2014-12-18

    We use insights gained from atomistic simulation to develop an activation enthalpy model for dislocation slip in body-centered cubic iron. Furthermore, using a classical potential that predicts dislocation core stabilities consistent with ab initio predictions, we quantify the non-Schmid stress-dependent effects of slip. The kink-pair activation enthalpy is evaluated and a model is identified as a function of the general stress state. Thus, our model enlarges the applicability of the classic Kocks activation enthalpy model to materials with non-Schmid behavior.

  2. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  3. Excavation of Tunnel Valleys and Inner Gorges by Subglacial Meltwater Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaud, F.; Flowers, G. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Koppes, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Subglacial meltwater erosion (SME) is thought to contribute to the excavation of tunnel valleys and inner gorges, yet the underpinnings of the formation of these landforms remain obscure. Tunnel valleys are large channel-like features (100s of metres to few kilometres wide and up to 10s of kilometres in length) commonly found in the vicinity of former continental ice-sheet margins. The main question concerning their formation is: does SME excavate them gradually or by large subglacial floods? Inner gorges are V-shaped incisions in an otherwise glacially overprinted landscape. The initial assertion of their fluvial origin has recently been disputed, as they have been shown to persist through multiple glaciations and SME has been invoked to explain some inner gorges in Scandinavia and the Alps. The question is therefore: can SME explain the excavation of an inner gorge? In order to test these hypotheses related to the genesis of tunnel valleys and inner gorges, we use a 1-D model of subglacial hydrology to drive a model of bedrock erosion by total sediment load based on the tools and cover effect. Calculated values of subglacial transport stage in response to ordinary seasonal processes are comparable to those during large floods in rivers. Subglacial floods therefore limit bedrock erosion by transporting sediment farther from the bed, thus inhibiting impacts. Consequently, we find that gradual SME is likely to produce more incision over a glacial cycle. When we simulate the total SME that occurs through a glacial cycle under a synthetic ice-sheet margin, we are able to produce tunnel valleys or inner gorges over the timespan of a glaciation. Based on these results, we propose that (1) tunnel valleys and inner gorges can both be the result of SME, (2) tunnel valleys in bedrock can be formed through gradual processes rather than floods, and (3) SME enhances inner gorge relief.

  4. [Activities of voivodeship occupational medicine centers in workplace health promotion in 2008].

    PubMed

    Goszczyńska, Eliza

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to present the activities of the largest Voivodeship Occupational Medicine Centers (VOMCs) in Poland in the area of workplace health promotion in 2008. It was compiled on the basis of written reports concerning these activities sent by the Centers to the Polish National Center for Workplace Health Promotion, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź. Their analysis shows a greatly varied level of engagement in and understanding of health promotion--from simple single actions (in the field of health education and screening) to long-running programs, including various ways of influencing people the programs are addressed to. In 2008, there were 78 such programs in the country, the most popular of them were those focused on occupational voice disorders and tobacco smoke). VOMCs perceive external factors, unfavorable or indifferent attitudes towards promoting health of their employees on the part of employers as well as financial constraints, as the most common obstacles in undertaking activities in the field of workplace health promotion. At the same time, they link achievements in this field mostly with their own activities, including effective cooperation with various partners and their well qualified and experienced employees.

  5. PPARγ negatively regulates T cell activation to prevent follicular helper T cells and germinal center formation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong-Jai; Kim, Do-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Ji Yun; Senejani, Alireza G; Hwang, Soo Seok; Kim, Lark Kyun; Tobiasova, Zuzana; Lee, Gap Ryol; Craft, Joseph; Bothwell, Alfred L M; Choi, Je-Min

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. Although studies of PPARγ ligands have demonstrated its regulatory functions in inflammation and adaptive immunity, its intrinsic role in T cells and autoimmunity has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we used CD4-PPARγKO mice to investigate PPARγ-deficient T cells, which were hyper-reactive to produce higher levels of cytokines and exhibited greater proliferation than wild type T cells with increased ERK and AKT phosphorylation. Diminished expression of IκBα, Sirt1, and Foxo1, which are inhibitors of NF-κB, was observed in PPARγ-deficient T cells that were prone to produce all the signature cytokines under Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 skewing condition. Interestingly, 1-year-old CD4-PPARγKO mice spontaneously developed moderate autoimmune phenotype by increased activated T cells, follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) and germinal center B cells with glomerular inflammation and enhanced autoantibody production. Sheep red blood cell immunization more induced TFH cells and germinal centers in CD4-PPARγKO mice and the T cells showed increased of Bcl-6 and IL-21 expression suggesting its regulatory role in germinal center reaction. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARγ has a regulatory role for TFH cells and germinal center reaction to prevent autoimmunity.

  6. Effects of hydropower operations on recreational use and nonuse values at Glen Canyon and Flaming Gorge Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Increases in streamflows are generally positively related to the use values of angling and white-water boating, and constant flows tend to increase the use values more than fluctuating flows. In most instances, however, increases in streamflows beyond some threshold level cause the use values to decrease. Expenditures related to angling and white-water boating account for about $24 million of activity in the local economy around Glen Canyon Dam and $24.8 million in the local economy around flaming Gorge Dam. The range of operational scenarios being considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, when use rates are held constant, could change the combined use value of angling and white-water boating below Glen Canyon Dam, increasing it by as much as 50%, depending on prevailing hydrological conditions. Changes in the combined use value below Flaming Gorge Dam could range from a decrease of 9% to an increase of 26%. Nonuse values, such as existence and bequest values, could also make a significant contribution to the total value of each site included in this study; however, methodological and data limitations prevented estimating how each operational scenario could change nonuse values.

  7. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-02-05

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

  8. Dioxygen activation by non-adiabatic oxidative addition to a single metal center [O2 activation by non-adiabatic oxidative addition to a single metal center

    DOE PAGES

    Akturk, Eser S.; Yap, Glenn P. A.; Theopold, Klaus H.

    2015-10-16

    A chromium(I) dinitrogen complex reacts rapidly with O2 to form the mononuclear dioxo complex [TptBu,MeCrV(O)2] (TptBu,Me=hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate), whereas the analogous reaction with sulfur stops at the persulfido complex [TptBu,MeCrIII(S2)]. The transformation of the putative peroxo intermediate [TptBu,MeCrIII(O2)] (S=3/2) into [TptBu,MeCrV(O)2] (S=1/2) is spin-forbidden. The minimum-energy crossing point for the two potential energy surfaces has been identified. Finally, although the dinuclear complex [(TptBu,MeCr)2(μ-O)2] exists, mechanistic experiments suggest that O2 activation occurs on a single metal center, by an oxidative addition on the quartet surface followed by crossover to the doublet surface.

  9. Overview of Iodine Propellant Hall Thruster Development Activities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Benavides, Gabriel; Hickman, Tyler; Smith, Timothy; Williams, George; Myers, James; Polzin, Kurt; Dankanich, John; Byrne, Larry; Szabo, James; Lee, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the 200 W Busek BHT-200-I and the continued development of the 600 W BHT-600-I Hall thruster propulsion systems. This paper presents an overview of these development activities and also reports on the results of short duration tests that were performed on the engineering model BHT-200-I and the development model BHT-600-I Hall thrusters.

  10. In-situ resource utilization activities at the NASA Space Engineering Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes theoretical and experimental research activities at the NASA Space Engineering Research Center aimed at realizing significant cost savings in space missions through the use of locally available resources. The fundamental strategy involves idea generation, scientific screening, feasibility demonstrations, small-scale process plant design, extensive testing, scale-up to realistic production rates, associated controls, and 'packaging', while maintaining sufficient flexibility to respond to national needs in terms of specific applications. Aside from training, the principal activities at the Center include development of a quantitative figure-of-merit to quickly assess the overall mission impact of individual components that constantly change with advancing technologies, extensive tests on a single-cell test bed to produce oxygen from carbon dioxide, and the use of this spent stream to produce methane.

  11. Rapid Gorge Formation in an Artificially Created Waterfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, L.; Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies have examined rates of gorge formation, nick point retreat, and the controls on those rates via bedrock erodibility, the effectiveness of bedrock erosion mechanisms and the role of hillslope processes. Most findings are based on conceptual / empirical models or long term landscape analysis; but studies of recent quantifiable events are scarce yet highly valuable. Here we present expert eye witness account and quantitative survey of large and rapid fluvial erosion events that occurred over an artificially created waterfall at a spillway mouth. In 6 years a ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide canyon was carved, and ~1.58 x106 m3 of granite bedrock was removed from the spillway site. Available flow data indicates that the erosion took place under unremarkable flood discharge conditions. The analysis of historic topographic maps enables the reconstruction of the former topography and successive erosion events, enabling the quantification of bedrock erosion amounts, and rates. Analysis of bedrock erodibility and discontinuity patterns demonstrates that the bedrock is mechanically strong, and that similar rock strength and fracture patterns are found throughout the region. It is apparent that structural pre-conditioning through fracture density and orientation in relation to flow and slope direction is of paramount importance in the gorge development. The presented example provides an exceptional opportunity for studying the evolution process of a bedrock canyon and to precisely measure the rate of bedrock channel erosion over a six year period. Results illustrate the highly episodic nature of the erosion and highlight several key observations for the adjustability of bedrock rivers. The observations have implications for the efficiency of bedrock erosion and raise important questions about incision rates, driving mechanisms and timescale assumptions' in models of landscape change.

  12. Impacts of the Three Gorges Project on Local Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Z.; Liang, S.; Feng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the largest hydroelectric project in the world and has led to significant land cover changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Since its construction the debates on its environmental and climatic impacts have never stopped, especially after the extreme drought and flood in Yangtze River Basin these years. TGP reached its final impounding water level in 2010. However, studies on systematically monitoring the long-term variations in surface and atmospheric parameters in TGRA are still lacking. In this study, three important surface parameters - surface albedo, land surface temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) and two climatic parameters - air temperature and precipitation were investigated from 2000 to 2013 by combining multiple remote sensing data and ground measurements. Results showed that along the reservoir albedo decreased significantly as a result of water impounding. Correspondingly, in the same region daytime LST decreased in spring and summer and nighttime LST increased in autumn and winter. In the western region of TGRA, albedo increased due to resettlement and LST also changed. The average ET increased by 20% in TGR but kept stable in the whole TGRA. In contrast to LST, air temperature showed less apparent spatial and temporal variability. Only in the region near the dam air temperature experienced a decrease at daytime and an increase at nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated precipitation revealed no apparent changes in TGRA and the precipitation anomaly in northwest of TGRA may not be connected with TGP. All of the findings provide a more substantial clues of local climate change caused by TGP.

  13. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    PubMed

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  14. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  15. Person-Centered, Physical Activity for Patients with Low Back Pain: Piloting Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bloxham, Saul; Barter, Phil; Scragg, Slafka; Peers, Charles; Jane, Ben; Layden, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common and costly conditions in industrialized countries. Exercise therapy has been used to treat LBP, although typically using only one mode of exercise. This paper describes the method and initial findings of a person-centered, group physical activity programme which featured as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating LBP. Six participants (aged 50.7 ± 17 years) completed a six-week physical activity programme lasting two hours per week. A multicomponent approach to physical activity was adopted which included aerobic fitness, core activation, muscular strength and endurance, Nordic Walking, flexibility and exercise gaming. In addition, participants were required to use diary sheets to record physical activity completed at home. Results revealed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in back strength (23%), aerobic fitness (23%), negative wellbeing (32%) and disability (16%). Person’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) relationships between improvement in perceived pain and aerobic fitness (r = 0.93). It was concluded that a person-centered, multicomponent approach to physical activity may be optimal for supporting patients who self-manage LBP. PMID:27417616

  16. Oxygen activation by mononuclear Mn, Co, and Ni centers in biology and synthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Adam T; Fischer, Anne A

    2017-04-01

    The active sites of metalloenzymes that catalyze O2-dependent reactions generally contain iron or copper ions. However, several enzymes are capable of activating O2 at manganese or nickel centers instead, and a handful of dioxygenases exhibit activity when substituted with cobalt. This minireview summarizes the catalytic properties of oxygenases and oxidases with mononuclear Mn, Co, or Ni active sites, including oxalate-degrading oxidases, catechol dioxygenases, and quercetin dioxygenase. In addition, recent developments in the O2 reactivity of synthetic Mn, Co, or Ni complexes are described, with an emphasis on the nature of reactive intermediates featuring superoxo-, peroxo-, or oxo-ligands. Collectively, the biochemical and synthetic studies discussed herein reveal the possibilities and limitations of O2 activation at these three "overlooked" metals.

  17. Features of the electronic structure of the active center of an HbS molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, D. Yu.; Korotin, Dm. M.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Features of the electronic structure of the nonprotein part of the mutant form of the human hemoglobin molecule, HbS, are studied along with the magnetic state of the iron ion that is the "nucleus" of the active center of the molecule. It is found that the mutant form of the HbS molecule differs from a normal hemoglobin molecule by the distortion of the local environment of the iron ion, which changes the energy level splitting by a crystal field. As a result of ab initio calculations, the magnetic transition in the iron atom from the high-spin state to the low-spin state upon the addition of molecular oxygen to hemoglobin molecule is reproduced. It is established for the first time that a change in the crystal and electronic structure of the active center as a result of a mutation can lead to a substantial change in the energy of the bond between the active center of the hemoglobin molecule and an oxygen molecule.

  18. Communication between Thiamin Cofactors in the Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex E1 Component Active Centers

    PubMed Central

    Nemeria, Natalia S.; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Mossad, Madouna; Tittmann, Kai; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and structural analysis tested the hypothesis that a chain of residues connecting the 4′-aminopyrimidine N1′ atoms of thiamin diphosphates (ThDPs) in the two active centers of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component provides a signal transduction pathway. Substitution of the three acidic residues (Glu571, Glu235, and Glu237) and Arg606 resulted in impaired binding of the second ThDP, once the first active center was filled, suggesting a pathway for communication between the two ThDPs. 1) Steady-state kinetic and fluorescence quenching studies revealed that upon E571A, E235A, E237A, and R606A substitutions, ThDP binding in the second active center was affected. 2) Analysis of the kinetics of thiazolium C2 hydrogen/deuterium exchange of enzyme-bound ThDP suggests half-of-the-sites reactivity for the E1 component, with fast (activated site) and slow exchanging sites (dormant site). The E235A and E571A variants gave no evidence for the slow exchanging site, indicating that only one of two active sites is filled with ThDP. 3) Titration of the E235A and E237A variants with methyl acetylphosphonate monitored by circular dichroism suggested that only half of the active sites were filled with a covalent predecarboxylation intermediate analog. 4) Crystal structures of E235A and E571A in complex with ThDP revealed the structural basis for the spectroscopic and kinetic observations and showed that either substitution affects cofactor binding, despite the fact that Glu235 makes no direct contact with the cofactor. The role of the conserved Glu571 residue in both catalysis and cofactor orientation is revealed by the combined results for the first time. PMID:20106967

  19. The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center report of its activities and accomplishments in Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, D.F.

    1994-03-01

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a resource provided by the US Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Program. Its major objectives are to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems through (a) direct technical assistance to users, (b) cooperative test, evaluation, and development efforts with private industry, and (c) educational outreach activities. This report outlines the major activities and accomplishments of the STDAC in Fiscal Year 1993. The report also contains a comprehensive list of persons who contacted the STDAC by telephone for information or technical consulting.

  20. Reasearch Activities for the Establishment of The Center for Sustainable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael Seliger

    2005-08-08

    In 2003, Bronx Community College received a grant of $481,000 through the United States Department of Energy for the purpose of conducting research- related activities leading to the creation of the Center for Sustainable Energy at Bronx Community College. The award, which was administered on behalf of Bronx Community College by the Research Foundation of the City University of New York, was initially for one year, from October 2003 through September 30, 2004. It received a no-cost extension to June 30, 2005. This report presents a summary of the activities and accomplishments attributable to the award.

  1. Activities of the Japanese space weather forecast center at Communications Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinichi; Tomita, Fumihiko

    2002-12-01

    The International Space Environment Service (ISES) is an international organization for space weather forecasts and belongs to the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). There are eleven ISES forecast centers in the world, and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) runs the Japanese one. We make forecasts on the space environment and deliver them over the phones and through the Internet. Our forecasts could be useful for human activities in space. Currently solar activity is near maximum phase of the solar cycle 23. We report the several large disturbances of space environment occurred in 2001, during which low-latitude auroras were observed several times in Japan.

  2. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  3. KDD Services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Mack, Robert; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) processes, stores and distributes earth science data from a variety of remote sensing satellites. End users of the data range from instrument scientists to global change and climate researchers to federal agencies and foreign governments. Many of these users apply data mining techniques to large volumes of data (up to 1 TB) received from the GES DAAC. However, rapid advances in processing power are enabling increases in data processing that are outpacing tape drive performance and network capacity. As a result, the proportion of data that can be distributed to users continues to decrease. As mitigation, we are migrating more data mining and mining preparation activities into the data center in order to reduce the data volume that needs to be distributed and to offer the users a more useful and manageable product. This migration of activities faces a number of technical and human-factor challenges. As data reduction and mining algorithms are normally quite specific to the user's research needs, the user's algorithm must be integrated virtually unchanged into the archive environment. Also, the archive itself is busy with everyday data archive and distribution activities and cannot be dedicated to, or even impacted by, the mining activities. Therefore, we schedule KDD 'campaigns' (similar to reprocessing campaigns), during which we schedule a wholesale retrieval of specific data products, offering users the opportunity to extract information from the data being retrieved during the campaign.

  4. Multi-Orbit Ps-Insar for Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Zhang, L.; Balz, T.; Shi, X.; Tantianuparp, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Project, the largest hydroelectric project of the world, became operational in 2003. The construction and operation of the dam significantly increased the number of active landslide bodies in the reservoir area. The reservoir area is huge, with approximately 600 km length along the Yangtze River starting from the dam at Sandouping in China's Hubei province. The dam itself was built on a rather geologically unstable zone, causing many concerns before, during, and after construction. Landslides are activated by the large surface-water level changes in each store-and-release cycle, but also by the construction of new buildings and roads and the deforestation in the area. Landslides are a huge safety concern in the area. To reduce the risks, various methods are applied in the area, such as a GPS networks and terrestrial surveillance. However, this sparse point information cannot cover the vast reservoir area. Furthermore, the area is densely vegetated and has a rough topography with steep mountainsides. Vast areas are practically inaccessible for terrestrial surveillance, due to the difficult terrain. Such a vast and inaccessible area is best to be surveyed using remote sensing techniques. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can measure long-term and continuous displacement trends using Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI). However, the steep mountainside and the dense vegetation are also hindering the use of interferometric SAR techniques. The very dense vegetation causes a strong temporal decorrelation of the interferometric signal in the area. This especially affects shorter wavelength systems, like the X-band systems of TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed, but also the C-band systems. The longer wavelength L-band of ALOS PALSAR was less affected by the temporal decorrelation in the area, but unfortunately PALSAR is not operational anymore. The steep mountainsides also cause problems in the analysis of the

  5. [Standardization of activities in an oncology surgical center according to nursing intervention classification].

    PubMed

    Possari, João Francisco; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken in a surgical center specializing in oncology, and it aimed to identify nursing activities performed during the perioperative period and to classify and validate intervention activities according to the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). A survey of activities was conducted using records and by direct observation of nursing care across four shifts. Activities were classified as NIC nursing interventions using the cross-mapping technique. The list of interventions was validated by nursing professionals in workshops. Forty-nine interventions were identified: 34 of direct care and 15 of indirect care. Identifying nursing interventions facilitates measuring the time spent in their execution, which is a fundamental variable in the quantification and qualification of nurses' workloads.

  6. Vertical flows and structures excited by magnetic activity in the Galactic center region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Various observations show peculiar features in the Galactic Center region, such as loops and filamentary structure. It is still unclear how such characteristic features are formed. Magnetic field is believed to play very important roles in the dynamics of gas in the Galaxy Center. Suzuki et al. (2015) performed a global magneto-hydrodynamical simulation focusing on the Galactic Center with an axisymmetric gravitational potential and claimed that non-radial motion is excited by magnetic activity. We further analyzed their simulation data and found that vertical motion is also excited by magnetic activity. In particular, fast down flows with speed of ~100 km/s are triggered near the footpoint of magnetic loops that are buoyantly risen by Parker instability. These downward flows are accelerated by the vertical component of the gravity, falling along inclined field lines. As a result, the azimuthal and radial components of the velocity are also excited, which are observed as high velocity features in a simulated position-velocity diagram. Depending on the viewing angle, these fast flows will show a huge variety of characteristic features in the position-velocity diagram.

  7. Overview of Marshall Space Flight Center Activities for the Combustion Stability Tool Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. J.; Greene, W. D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers the overall scope, schedule, and activities associated with the NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) involvement with the Combustion Stability Tool Development (CSTD) program. The CSTD program is funded by the Air Force Space & Missile Systems Center; it is approximately two years in duration and; and it is sponsoring MSFC to: design, fabricate, & execute multi-element hardware testing, support Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) single element testing, and execute testing of a small-scale, multi-element combustion chamber. Specific MSFC Engineering Directorate involvement, per CSTD-sponsored task, will be outlined. This presentation serves a primer for the corresponding works that provide details of the technical work performed by individual groups within MSFC.

  8. Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Report on Activities (UCLA/MIT), 2009-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Troy Alan

    2014-10-03

    The final “phaseout” year of the CMPD ended July 2010; a no cost extension was requested until May 2011 in order to enable the MIT subcontract funds to be fully utilized. Research progress over this time included verification and validation activities for the BOUT and BOUT++ code, studies of spontaneous reconnection in the VTF facility at MIT, and studies of the interaction between Alfv´en waves and drift waves in LAPD. The CMPD also hosted the 6th plasma physics winter school in 2010 (jointly with the NSF frontier center the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, significant funding came from NSF for this most recent iteration of theWinter School).

  9. Physical activity in child-care centers: do teachers hold the key to the playground?

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Sherman, Susan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3–5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children’s physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49 child-care teachers/providers in Cincinnati, OH. Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. gross motor skill development, self-confidence after mastery of new skills and improved mood, attention and napping after exercise) but also noted several barriers including their own personal attitudes (e.g. low self-efficacy) and preferences to avoid the outdoors (e.g. don’t like hot/cold weather, getting dirty, chaos of playground). Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Participants discussed a spectrum of roles on the playground, from facilitator to chaperone to physical activity inhibitor. These findings suggest that children could have very different gross motor experiences even within the same facility (with presumably the same environment and policies), based on the beliefs, creativity and level of engagement of their teacher. PMID:21804083

  10. Overview of Fluid Dynamics Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa W.; Wang, Ten-See

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception 40 years ago, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has had the need to maintain and advance state-of-the-art flow analysis and cold-flow testing capability to support its roles and missions. This overview discusses the recent organizational changes that have occurred at MSFC with emphasis on the resulting three groups that form the core of fluid dynamics expertise at MSFC: the Fluid Physics and Dynamics Group, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, and the Experimental Fluid Dynamics Group. Recently completed activities discussed include the analysis and flow testing in support of the Fastrac engine design, the X-33 vehicle design, and the X34 propulsion system design. Ongoing activities include support of the RLV vehicle design, Liquid Fly Back Booster aerodynamic configuration definition, and RLV focused technologies development. Other ongoing activities discussed are efforts sponsored by the Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) to develop an advanced incompressible flow code and to develop optimization techniques. Recently initiated programs and their anticipated required fluid dynamics support are discussed. Based on recent experiences and on the anticipated program needs, required analytical and experimental technique improvements are presented. Due to anticipated budgetary constraints, there is a strong need to leverage activities and to pursue teaming arrangements in order to advance the state-of-the-art and to adequately support concept development. Throughout this overview there is discussion of the lessons learned and of the capabilities demonstrated and established in support of the hardware development programs.

  11. Water-containing hydrogen-bonding network in the active center of channelrhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shota; Kato, Hideaki E; Taniguchi, Reiya; Iwata, Tatsuya; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-03-05

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) functions as a light-gated ion channel in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Passive transport of cations by ChR is fundamentally different from the active transport by light-driven ion pumps such as archaerhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, and halorhodopsin. These microbial rhodopsins are important tools for optogenetics, where ChR is used to activate neurons by light, while the ion pumps are used for neural silencing. Ion-transport functions by these rhodopsins strongly depend on the specific hydrogen-bonding networks containing water near the retinal chromophore. In this work, we measured protein-bound water molecules in a chimeric ChR protein of ChR1 (helices A to E) and ChR2 (helices F and G) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy at 77 K. We found that the active center of ChR possesses more water molecules (9 water vibrations) than those of other microbial (2-6 water vibrations) and animal (6-8 water vibrations) rhodopsins. We conclude that the protonated retinal Schiff base interacts with the counterion (Glu162) directly, without the intervening water molecule found in proton-pumping microbial rhodopsins. The present FTIR results and the recent X-ray structure of ChR reveal a unique hydrogen-bonding network around the active center of this light-gated ion channel.

  12. Tracking Stress and Hydrothermal Activity Along Oceanic Spreading Centers Using Tomographic Images of Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. A.; Conder, J. A.; Canales, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Marine controlled-source seismic tomography experiments now utilize 50+ ocean-bottom seismographs and source grids consisting of many tens of seismic lines with <500 m shot spacing. These dense experiments focus on the upper 10 km of the lithosphere over areas approaching 9000 sq-km. Because of the dense sampling and large azimuthal coverage of ray paths (200,000+ travel time measurements possible), it is now feasible to solve for 3-D images of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy with resolving lengths approaching 1km. Recent examples include the L-SCAN and MARINER experiments, performed at the Eastern Lau Spreading Center and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36N), respectively. In each case, background anisotropy of ~4% is found in the upper 3-4 km of lithosphere and is consistent with pervasive stress-aligned cracks and microcracks. The fast axes are generally oriented parallel to the trend of the spreading center, as expected for cracks that form in association with seafloor spreading. Three-dimensional images of anisotropy magnitude and orientation reveal variations interpreted as arising from changes in the ambient stress field. Near the ends of ridge segments, where the ridge axis jumps from one spreading center to the next, anisotropy is high with orientations that are out of alignment relative to the background trend. This agrees with numerical models and seafloor morphology that suggest tensile stress concentration and brittle crack formation in these areas. Anisotropy also increases in areas along the ridges where the underlying magma supply and hydrothermal output are greater. This is opposite the trend expected if simple tectonic stress models govern anisotropy. Increased hydrothermal activity, due to increased magma supply, can explain higher anisotropy via increased pore pressure and hydrofracturing. These studies provide the first evidence that images of seismic anisotropy can be used to map variations in hydrologic activity along the crests of oceanic spreading centers.

  13. Assessing internal biophysical vulnerability to landslide hazards - a nested catchment approach: Xiangxi Watershed / Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Matthias; Seeber, Christoph; Hartmann, Heike; Xiang, Wei; King, Lorenz

    2010-05-01

    The Three Gorges dam construction was completed in 2006. Besides the international media, also the responsible authorities and various scholarly communities pay close attention to potential and actual environmental impacts related to the impoundment and development activities. The geo-environment within the Three Gorges region is highly conducive to landslides. Consequently, a scientific monitoring and risk mitigation system was established and is still under development. Risk analysis with regard to gravity driven mass movements is highly complex and strongly site specific - several aspects hamper a universal methodology applicable for landslide risk and site assessment. The interdisciplinary Sino-German Yangtze-Project Research co-operation aims, among others, to support the sustainable cultivation of the newly developed ecosystems within the Yangtze catchments. Land use change and increasing population growth are causing severe pressure on the scarce land resources. Landslides are acknowledged as important threat, hence vulnerability of certain landscape components have to be identified, quantified and monitored. A nested quantitative approach for vulnerability analysis is developed. The applied risk and vulnerability model understands risk as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Whereas vulnerability is characterized by: mass movement intensity and susceptibility of the respective element at risk. The watershed of Xiangxi river serves as study area. In general, catchment approaches intent and proved to be a functional geographical unit for successful integrated resources management. Several limitations with regard to data accessibility, availability and accuracy have to be considered due to restrictions of feasible scales. Comprehensive large-scale site investigations are confined to training areas for model calibration and validation. Remote sensing potentials are utilised for land use/ land cover change analysis and localization of selected elements

  14. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.

    PubMed

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

    2012-08-01

    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism.

  15. Activation and implementation of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F. III

    1989-01-01

    The Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has been assigned the primary responsibility for responding to a major radiological emergency. The initial response to any radiological emergency, however, will probably be conducted under the DOE regional radiological assistance plan (RAP). If the dimensions of the crisis demand federal assistance, the following sequence of events may be anticipated: (1) DOE regional RAP response, (2) activation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assistance Center (FRMAC) requested, (3) aerial measuring systems and DOE/NV advance party respond, (4) FRMAC activated, (5) FRMAC responds to state(s) and cognizant federal agency (CFA), and (6) management of FRMAC transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The paper discusses activation channels, authorization, notification, deployment, and interfaces.

  16. Results From the Bipartisan Policy Center's CEO Council Physical Activity Challenge to American Business

    PubMed Central

    Berko, Jeff; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Roemer, Enid Chung; Kent, Karen; Marchibroda, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe findings from a survey of employees at 10 businesses participating in the “Building Better Health: Physical Activity Challenge,” an effort led by the Bipartisan Policy Center's CEO Council on Health and Innovation. Methods: Employers provided employees with pedometers as part of an 8-week Physical Activity Challenge (Challenge). Employees were then asked to complete a survey about their awareness of, participation in, and satisfaction with the Challenge. Results: One hundred three thousand three hundred eighty-three employees participated in the Challenge, averaging 6886 steps per day per participant. Of the 3820 respondents to an employee survey sent to all workers, 62% reported enrolling in the program, and of those, the majority reported positive impacts on health (76%), fitness (73%), and lifestyle (70%). Conclusion: A brief, workplace-based physical activity challenge can achieve positive self-reported health impacts when supported by senior management of the company. PMID:27930485

  17. Results of the pilot proof of the inquiry activities conducted in the science center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireš, Marián; BilišÅanská, Mária

    2017-01-01

    The science center SteelPARK Košice offers more than 60 interactive exhibits focused on presenting scientific principles and technical solutions connected to the production and manufacture of steel, research of its properties and its various industrial uses. We are trying to enhance the attractivity of the modern style of the exhibitions and its potential to engage students of ground and middle schools in acquiring new knowledge and capabilities, by means of the inquiry science center. Two laboratory measurements, for 5 three-person teams are provided once a month. During the introductory discussion on the activity, they are asked to answer a series of conceptual questions, which help determine their level of understanding at the beginning of the exercise. The measurements are based in guided inquiry, where the work progress is given a forehand, but the desired result is not. Every activity is focused on developing specific research capabilities. This is being monitored through a self-evaluation card, which every participants is required to fill out immediately after completing the activity. The work is tutored by a lecturer from the students of didactics. During two years and running 15 different activities, we have been able to gather information from more than 6000 students of ground and middle schools. Specific physics measurements, their respective conceptual questions, worksheets and final reports are being presented in this article. We evaluate the present level of conceptual understanding based on the acquired data and give recommendation to teachers on ways to improve the student's capabilities. The teacher, by way of observing the activity, the work of the lecturer and the students, is able to form an understanding of the inquiry activity for their own school practice, for which he/she can use all available methodical and work materials.

  18. Daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G; Jones, Geoffrey E; Glander, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. Here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. Four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center (Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta, Propithecus coquereli, Varecia rubra, and Varecia variegata variegata) were fitted with a Daysimeter-D pendant that contained light and accelerometer sensors. Our results reveal common as well as species-specific light exposure and behavior patterns. As expected, all five species were more active between sunrise and sunset. All five species demonstrated an anticipatory increase in their pre-sunrise activity that peaked at sunrise with all but V. rubra showing a reduction within an hour. All five species reduced activity during mid-day. Four of the five stayed active after sunset, but P. coquereli began reducing their activity about 2 hours before sunset. Other subtle differences in the recorded light exposure and activity patterns suggest species-specific photic niches and behaviors. The eventual application of the Daysimeter-D in the wild may help to better understand the adaptive evolution of ancestral primates.

  19. Substrate activation for O2 reactions by oxidized metal centers in biology.

    PubMed

    Pau, Monita Y M; Lipscomb, John D; Solomon, Edward I

    2007-11-20

    The uncatalyzed reactions of O(2) (S = 1) with organic substrates (S = 0) are thermodynamically favorable but kinetically slow because they are spin-forbidden and the one-electron reduction potential of O(2) is unfavorable. In nature, many of these important O(2) reactions are catalyzed by metalloenzymes. In the case of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes, either Fe(II) or Fe(III) can play the catalytic role in these spin-forbidden reactions. Whereas the ferrous enzymes activate O(2) directly for reaction, the ferric enzymes activate the substrate for O(2) attack. The enzyme-substrate complex of the ferric intradiol dioxygenases exhibits a low-energy catecholate to Fe(III) charge transfer transition that provides a mechanism by which both the Fe center and the catecholic substrate are activated for the reaction with O(2). In this Perspective, we evaluate how the coupling between this experimentally observed charge transfer and the change in geometry and ligand field of the oxidized metal center along the reaction coordinate can overcome the spin-forbidden nature of the O(2) reaction.

  20. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    PubMed

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  1. Galactic Center gamma-ray ``excess'' from an active past of the Galactic Centre?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Jovana; Dario Serpico, Pasquale; Zaharijaš, Gabrijela

    2014-10-01

    Several groups have recently claimed evidence for an unaccounted gamma-ray excess over the diffuse backgrounds at few GeV in the Fermi-LAT data in a region around the Galactic Center, consistent with a dark matter annihilation origin. We demonstrate that the main spectral and angular features of this excess can be reproduced if they are mostly due to inverse Compton emission from high-energy electrons injected in a burst event of ~ 1052÷1053 erg roughly Script O(106) years ago. We consider this example as a proof of principle that time-dependent phenomena need to be understood and accounted for—together with detailed diffuse foregrounds and unaccounted ``steady state'' astrophysical sources—before any robust inference can be made about dark matter signals at the Galactic Center. In addition, we point out that the timescale suggested by our study, which controls both the energy cutoff and the angular extension of the signal, intriguingly matches (together with the energy budget) what is indirectly inferred by other evidences suggesting a very active Galactic Center in the past, for instance related to intense star formation and accretion phenomena.

  2. Activities in the Payload Operation Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between the astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  3. Joint Spacelab-J (SL-J) Activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in joint ground activities during the SL-J mission are NASA/NASDA personnel at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. Activities in the Payload Operations Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Members of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) group monitor the progress of their experiment through video at the POCC. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administion, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  5. Galactic Center gamma-ray ''excess'' from an active past of the Galactic Centre?

    SciTech Connect

    Petrović, Jovana; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Zaharijaš, Gabrijela E-mail: serpico@lapth.cnrs.fr

    2014-10-01

    Several groups have recently claimed evidence for an unaccounted gamma-ray excess over the diffuse backgrounds at few GeV in the Fermi-LAT data in a region around the Galactic Center, consistent with a dark matter annihilation origin. We demonstrate that the main spectral and angular features of this excess can be reproduced if they are mostly due to inverse Compton emission from high-energy electrons injected in a burst event of ∼ 10{sup 52}÷10{sup 53} erg roughly O(10{sup 6}) years ago. We consider this example as a proof of principle that time-dependent phenomena need to be understood and accounted for—together with detailed diffuse foregrounds and unaccounted ''steady state'' astrophysical sources—before any robust inference can be made about dark matter signals at the Galactic Center. In addition, we point out that the timescale suggested by our study, which controls both the energy cutoff and the angular extension of the signal, intriguingly matches (together with the energy budget) what is indirectly inferred by other evidences suggesting a very active Galactic Center in the past, for instance related to intense star formation and accretion phenomena.

  6. Spin state transition in the active center of the hemoglobin molecule: DFT + DMFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, D.; Korotin, Dm. M.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    An ab initio study of electronic and spin configurations of the iron ion in the active center of the human hemoglobin molecule is presented. With a combination of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method and the Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT) approach, the spin state transition description in the iron ion during the oxidation process is significantly improved in comparison with previous attempts. It was found that the origin of the iron ion local moment behavior both for the high-spin and for the low-spin states in the hemoglobin molecule is caused by the presence of a mixture of several atomic states with comparable statistical probability.

  7. Determination of the active center in calcium-nickel phosphate dehydrogenation catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Attali, S.; Vigouroux, B.; Lenzi, M.; Pescia, J.

    1980-06-01

    Determination of the active center in calcium-nickel phosphate dehydrogenation catalyst, used industrially in the dehydrogenation of butenes to butadiene, showed that a stable trivalent nickel ion is involved. Apparently, electrons generated in the first (oxidation) step of the reaction are eliminated by reducing the trivalent to divalent nickel which is reoxidized by protons. The results were obtained by propanol dehydration-dehydrogenation on calcium-nickel phosphate (Ca/sub 8/Ni(PO/sub 4//sub )/6) calcined at 400/sup 0/-900/sup 0/C and by ESR spectroscopy.

  8. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  9. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  10. Contents of the JPL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive, version 2-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A. (Editor); Lassanyi, Ruby A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea surface height, surface wind vector, sea surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and surface pigment concentration. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and will be the United States distribution site for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  11. Influence of flocculation on sediment deposition process at the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dangwei; Liu, Xiaofang; Ji, Zuwen; Dong, Zhandi; Hu, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    By comparing the original particle gradation of sediment from the Three Gorges Reservoir with the single particle gradation, the differences in these two particle gradations showed that there is sediment flocculation in the Three Gorges Reservoir, which can accelerate the sediment deposition rate in the reservoir. In order to determine the influence of flocculation on the sediment settling velocity, sediment was collected at the Three Gorges Reservoir, and the indoor quiescent settling experiment was performed to study the mechanism of sediment flocculation. The experimental results showed that sediments aggregated from single particles into floccules in the settling processes. The single particles smaller than 0.022 mm will participate in the formation of floccules, which accounts for 83% of the total amount of sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Moreover, the degree of sediment flocculation and the increase in sediment settling velocity were directly proportional to the sediment concentration. Taking the average particle size and the median particle size as the representative particle size, respectively, the maximum flocculation factors were calculated to be 3.4 and 5.0. Due to the sediment flocculation, the volume of sediment deposition will increase by 66% when the mass settling flux factor of total sediment had a maximum value of 1.66, suggesting that flocculation has a significant influence on the sediment deposition rate in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  12. Patterns in atmospheric circulation affect emission sources contributing to nitrogen deposition in the Columbia River Gorge, Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge separating Oregon and Washington provides an ideal setting to investigate how atmospheric circulation patterns determine types of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition. Up-gorge and down-gorge atmospheric circulation patterns each provide a different suite of emission sources. Up-gorge airflow originates in the Portland-Vancouver metro area dominated by urban and industrial sources. Down-gorge patterns originate in the Columbia River basin, which is dominated by agricultural production. We tested the dependence of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition on circulation patterns by measuring the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in 2003-2004 precipitation samples from the WA98-Columbia River Gorge NADP & USNIP site. Circulation patterns were determined using back-trajectory analysis with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model using the archived EDAS meteorological dataset. We observed a significant difference (P=0.01) between up-gorge and down-gorge patterns with mean δ15N-NO3- of +1.8 and -2.1‰ for up- and down-gorge, respectively. The differences observed between these two patterns is likely tied to the different emission sources of N found in these different geographic areas. The lower δ15N of down-gorge sources is due to the large amount of agricultural production in the Columbia River basin. Observed values for the up-gorge patterns likely result from industrial and fossil fuel emissions of NOx, the precursor of deposited NO3-, in the Portland-Vancouver area. The significantly greater amount of NO3- in precipitation from up-gorge patterns (0.72 mg/L) compared to down-gorge patterns (0.36 mg/L, P=0.01) supports the influence of urban sources rather than relatively clean marine air which characteristically has low amounts of NO3-. No significant differences are found in δ18Onitrate or Δ17Onitrate between the two patterns, suggesting that atmospheric chemistry

  13. 75 FR 7474 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate February 3, 2010. On January 26, 2010 CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company... Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations under the Natural Gas Act, and CEGT's...

  14. Amphitheater-headed canyons formed by megaflooding at Malad Gorge, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Michael P; Mackey, Benjamin H; Farley, Kenneth A

    2014-01-07

    Many bedrock canyons on Earth and Mars were eroded by upstream propagating headwalls, and a prominent goal in geomorphology and planetary science is to determine formation processes from canyon morphology. A diagnostic link between process and form remains highly controversial, however, and field investigations that isolate controls on canyon morphology are needed. Here we investigate the origin of Malad Gorge, Idaho, a canyon system cut into basalt with three remarkably distinct heads: two with amphitheater headwalls and the third housing the active Wood River and ending in a 7% grade knickzone. Scoured rims of the headwalls, relict plunge pools, sediment-transport constraints, and cosmogenic ((3)He) exposure ages indicate formation of the amphitheater-headed canyons by large-scale flooding ∼46 ka, coeval with formation of Box Canyon 18 km to the south as well as the eruption of McKinney Butte Basalt, suggesting widespread canyon formation following lava-flow diversion of the paleo-Wood River. Exposure ages within the knickzone-headed canyon indicate progressive upstream younging of strath terraces and a knickzone propagation rate of 2.5 cm/y over at least the past 33 ka. Results point to a potential diagnostic link between vertical amphitheater headwalls in basalt and rapid erosion during megaflooding due to the onset of block toppling, rather than previous interpretations of seepage erosion, with implications for quantifying the early hydrosphere of Mars.

  15. Amphitheater-headed canyons formed by megaflooding at Malad Gorge, Idaho

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Michael P.; Mackey, Benjamin H.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Many bedrock canyons on Earth and Mars were eroded by upstream propagating headwalls, and a prominent goal in geomorphology and planetary science is to determine formation processes from canyon morphology. A diagnostic link between process and form remains highly controversial, however, and field investigations that isolate controls on canyon morphology are needed. Here we investigate the origin of Malad Gorge, Idaho, a canyon system cut into basalt with three remarkably distinct heads: two with amphitheater headwalls and the third housing the active Wood River and ending in a 7% grade knickzone. Scoured rims of the headwalls, relict plunge pools, sediment-transport constraints, and cosmogenic (3He) exposure ages indicate formation of the amphitheater-headed canyons by large-scale flooding ∼46 ka, coeval with formation of Box Canyon 18 km to the south as well as the eruption of McKinney Butte Basalt, suggesting widespread canyon formation following lava-flow diversion of the paleo-Wood River. Exposure ages within the knickzone-headed canyon indicate progressive upstream younging of strath terraces and a knickzone propagation rate of 2.5 cm/y over at least the past 33 ka. Results point to a potential diagnostic link between vertical amphitheater headwalls in basalt and rapid erosion during megaflooding due to the onset of block toppling, rather than previous interpretations of seepage erosion, with implications for quantifying the early hydrosphere of Mars. PMID:24344293

  16. Active Learning and Student-centered Pedagogy Improve Student Attitudes and Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maya; Johnson, Erika; Weiss, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of an instructional design that focused on bringing multiple forms of active learning and student-centered pedagogies to a one-semester, undergraduate introductory biology course for both majors and nonmajors. Our course redesign consisted of three major elements: 1) reordering the presentation of the course content in an attempt to teach specific content within the context of broad conceptual themes, 2) incorporating active and problem-based learning into every lecture, and 3) adopting strategies to create a more student-centered learning environment. Assessment of our instructional design consisted of a student survey and comparison of final exam performance across 3 years—1 year before our course redesign was implemented (2006) and during two successive years of implementation (2007 and 2008). The course restructuring led to significant improvement of self-reported student engagement and satisfaction and increased academic performance. We discuss the successes and ongoing challenges of our course restructuring and consider issues relevant to institutional change. PMID:19723815

  17. Reflection features in the Galactic Center and past activity of Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, Maïca; Terrier, Regis; Goldwurm, Andrea; Morris, Mark; Jin, Chichuan; Ponti, Gabriele; Chuard, Dimitri

    2016-07-01

    X-ray observations carried out over the past two decades have captured an increasing number of reflection features within the molecular clouds located in the inner regions of our Galaxy. The intensity of these structures along with the correlated variations which are detected over the entire central molecular zone are strong evidence that this diffuse emission is created by the past activity of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, Sagittarius A*. In particular, within the last centuries, Sgr A* is likely to have experienced several short outbursts during which the black hole was at least a million times brighter than today. However, the precise description of the corresponding past catastrophic events is difficult to assess, mainly because the properties of the reflection features that they create while propagating away from Sgr A* depend on the line-of-sight distance, the geometry, and the size of the reflecting clouds, all of which are poorly known. I will review the different attempts to reconstruct Sgr A*'s past activity from the constraints obtained through the observation of the reflection features in the Galactic center, including the current Chandra monitoring.

  18. Activity of daptomycin against staphylococci collected from bloodstream infections in Spanish medical centers.

    PubMed

    Picazo, Juan J; Betriu, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Gómez, María; López, Fátima

    2009-08-01

    We used the broth microdilution method to determine the MICs of daptomycin and 13 comparator agents against 319 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 201 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, and 183 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Isolates were consecutively collected from bloodstream infections in 39 Spanish medical centers during a 3-month period (March through May 2008). Among MRSA, 1 isolate with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin and 6 isolates resistant to linezolid were found. Nonsusceptibility to teicoplanin was detected in 3.9% of CoNS. Daptomycin was highly active against the staphylococcal blood isolates tested-all were inhibited at the daptomycin susceptibility breakpoint of < or = 1 microg/mL. Daptomycin retained its activity against the isolates that were resistant to teicoplanin or linezolid, or that had reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. These data suggest that daptomycin could be useful for the treatment of bloodstream infections caused by staphylococci.

  19. Overview of free-piston Stirling SP-100 activities at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These activities are being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. The space-power technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of an endurance test. Dynamic balancing of the SPDE engine is discussed along with a summary covering the parametric results of a study showing the relationship between power-converter specific weight and efficiency both as a function of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Design parameters and conceptual design features are presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. And finally, a description of a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept is presented.

  20. Monitoring Ground Surface Displacements in the Three Gorges Area, Crustal Tectonic Movement in Tibet and Subsidence in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Muller, J.-P.; Singleton, A.; Li, Z.; Liu, D.; Riedel, B.; Niemeier, W.; Liang, C.; Zeng, Q.; Jiao, J.; Ye, Y.; Green, B.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Xiao, R.; He, X.; Xiong, S.

    2014-11-01

    During the first half of the DRAGON-3 project, various projects have been running through collaborations between research groups focusing on different geographical studies in the Three Gorges Region (3G), Tibet, Coal Mining areas in West China, Daduhe River and Southeast China. Stimulated by the interest and concerns of demonstrated and potential geo-hazards in the 3G Region, research has been undertaken focusing on deformation monitoring using SAR images with much higher spatial and temporal sampling. The use of different strategies including sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT) have been evaluated in challenging areas with steep slopes and dense vegetative cover. In addition to the development and validation of algorithms to improve previous attempts using InSAR, studies have been conducted on environmental impacts included mapping of subsidence caused by mining activities; assessment of building collapse after earthquakes using polarized SAR; landslide monitoring of a hydraulic engineering resettlement zone using GPS and InSAR, etc.

  1. [Zoning of water environment protection in Three Gorges Reservoir watershed].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-jing; Xi, Chun-yan; Zheng, Bing-hui

    2011-04-01

    Regional differences in socio-economic development, land use, vegetation cover, and relative location of water body within a watershed bring about significant effects on the water environment quality of the watershed. Concerning about the core demands of water body protection, it is important and necessary to carry out zoning water environment protection for whole watershed. With a view to the spatial differences in regional characteristics of eco-environment and water body pressure-respond features, this paper studied the zoning of water environment protection in the Three Gorges Reservoir watershed, based on the methods of ecological factors overlay and ecological sensitivity analysis. The factors considered included hydrothermal conditions, terrain topography, administrative unit, and ecological sensitivity. Three regions in the watershed were zoned, i. e., 1) red region, namely strictly protected region, with an area of 2924 km2 and occupying 5.1% of the total; 2) yellow region, namely first class protection region, with an area of 10477 km2 and occupying 18.4%; and 3) blue region, namely second class protection region, with an area of 43599 km2 and occupying 76.5%. The key environmental problems of the regions were identified, and the strategies for the regions' development and water environment protection were proposed.

  2. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  3. China`s Three Gorges Dam: Mammoth opportunities - and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.P.

    1996-05-01

    China is embarking on an infrastructure project of almost unimaginable proportions. If it succeeds, it will be one of the modern wonders of the world. If it fails, the Chinese government could be impoverished for a generation. The Three Gorges Dam represents an audacious gamble for infrastructure-starved China. Like some U.S. utilities in the 1970`s and 1980`s, China is taking a giant roll of the dice on a single generating project. If it succeeds, the dam will be one of the modern wonders of the world. If it fails, China`s government could be impoverished for a generation. The scope of the project is breathtaking. Designed for flood control, navigation and hydropower, the dam will rise 185 meters, spanning a two-kilometer gap and creating a reservoir that will reach 600 kilometers westward to Chongqing. Twin five stage ship locks will lift river boats with 10,000 tonnes of cargo capacity, tripling the size of the vessels that can reach Chongqing.

  4. Modeling the ecological impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.; Cho, H.E.

    1996-05-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah, US, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage during a day. These changes can, in turn, affect ecological resources below the dam, including riparian vegetation, trout, and endangered fish. Four hydropower operational scenarios featuring varying degrees of hydropower-induced flow fluctuation were evaluated with hydrologic models and multispectral aerial videography of the river. Year-round high fluctuations would support the least amount of stable spawning habitat for trout and nursery habitat for endangered fish, and would have the greatest potential for reducing growth and over winter survival of fish. Seasonally, adjusted moderate fluctuation and seasonally adjusted steady flow scenarios could increase food production and over winter survival and would provide the greatest amount of spawning and nursery habitat for fish. The year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation scenarios would result in a 5% decrease in upper riparian zone habitat. the seasonally adjusted steady flow scenario would result in an 8% increase in upper riparian zone habitat. Lower riparian zone habitat would increase by about 17% for year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenarios but decrease by about 24% and 69% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating and steady flow scenarios, respectively.

  5. Acoustic Emission Parameters of Three Gorges Sandstone during Shear Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Liu, Yixin; Peng, Shoujian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation of sandstone samples from the Three Gorges during shear failure was conducted using acoustic emission (AE) and direct shear tests. The AE count rate, cumulative AE count, AE energy, and amplitude of the sandstone samples were determined. Then, the relationships among the AE signals and shearing behaviors of the samples were analyzed in order to detect micro-crack initiation and propagation and reflect shear failure. The results indicated that both the shear strength and displacement exhibited a logarithmic relationship with the displacement rate at peak levels of stress. In addition, the various characteristics of the AE signals were apparent in various situations. The AE signals corresponded with the shear stress under different displacement rates. As the displacement rate increased, the amount of accumulative damage to each specimen decreased, while the AE energy peaked earlier and more significantly. The cumulative AE count primarily increased during the post-peak period. Furthermore, the AE count rate and amplitude exhibited two peaks during the peak shear stress period due to crack coalescence and rock bridge breakage. These isolated cracks later formed larger fractures and eventually caused ruptures.

  6. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  7. Tectonic control of Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge revealed by a buried canyon in Southern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Scherler, Dirk; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Mey, Jürgen; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Yunda; Shi, Dingguo

    2014-11-21

    The Himalayan mountains are dissected by some of the deepest and most impressive gorges on Earth. Constraining the interplay between river incision and rock uplift is important for understanding tectonic deformation in this region. We report here the discovery of a deeply incised canyon of the Yarlung Tsangpo River, at the eastern end of the Himalaya, which is now buried under more than 500 meters of sediments. By reconstructing the former valley bottom and dating sediments at the base of the valley fill, we show that steepening of the Tsangpo Gorge started at about 2 million to 2.5 million years ago as a consequence of an increase in rock uplift rates. The high erosion rates within the gorge are therefore a direct consequence of rapid rock uplift.

  8. Tectonic control of Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge revealed by a buried canyon in Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Scherler, Dirk; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Mey, Jürgen; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Yunda; Shi, Dingguo

    2014-11-01

    The Himalayan mountains are dissected by some of the deepest and most impressive gorges on Earth. Constraining the interplay between river incision and rock uplift is important for understanding tectonic deformation in this region. We report here the discovery of a deeply incised canyon of the Yarlung Tsangpo River, at the eastern end of the Himalaya, which is now buried under more than 500 meters of sediments. By reconstructing the former valley bottom and dating sediments at the base of the valley fill, we show that steepening of the Tsangpo Gorge started at about 2 million to 2.5 million years ago as a consequence of an increase in rock uplift rates. The high erosion rates within the gorge are therefore a direct consequence of rapid rock uplift.

  9. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    revealed cost gaps and opportunities that identified a storage system that was lower cost than a 700 bar compressed system. Finally, we led the HSECoE efforts devoted to characterizing and enhancing metal organic framework (MOF) storage materials. This report serves as a final documentation of the Ford-UM-BASF project contributions to the HSECoE during the 6-year timeframe of the Center. The activities of the HSECoE have impacted the broader goals of the DOE-EERE and USDRIVE, leading to improved understanding in the engineering of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. This knowledge is a prerequisite to the development of a commercially-viable hydrogen storage system.

  10. Dual role of the active-center cysteine in human peroxiredoxin 1: Peroxidase activity and heme binding.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuta; Ishimori, Koichiro; Uchida, Takeshi

    2017-02-12

    HBP23, a 23-kDa heme-binding protein identified in rats, is a member of the peroxiredoxin (Prx) family, the primary peroxidases involved in hydrogen peroxide catabolism. Although HBP23 has a characteristic Cys-Pro heme-binding motif, the significance of heme binding to Prx family proteins remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of heme binding to human peroxiredoxin-1 (PRX1), which has 97% amino acid identity to HBP23. PRX1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Spectroscopic titration demonstrated that PRX1 binds heme with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a dissociation constant of 0.17 μM. UV-vis spectra of heme-PRX1 suggested that Cys52 is the axial ligand of ferric heme. PRX1 peroxidase activity was lost upon heme binding, reflecting the fact that Cys52 is not only the heme-binding site but also the active center of peroxidase activity. Interestingly, heme binding to PRX1 caused a decrease in the toxicity and degradation of heme, significantly suppressing H2O2-dependent heme peroxidase activity and degradation of PRX1-bound heme compared with that of free hemin. By virtue of its cytosolic abundance (∼20 μM), PRX1 thus functions as a scavenger of cytosolic hemin (<1 μM). Collectively, our results indicate that PRX1 has a dual role; Cys-dependent peroxidase activity and cytosolic heme scavenger.

  11. Oregon Model Center--Learning Disabilities: Final Report on Products and Activities, 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkin, Abigail B.

    Presented are evaluations of eight 1973-75 objectives of the Oregon Model Center for children with learning disabilities. The center was developed to facilitate expansion of the Educational Evaluation Center, a diagnostic-prescriptive center at Oregon College of Education. Among objectives evaluated are: studying the process of the Education…

  12. Home-Type Activities at the Day Care Center. (Tipos De Actividades Del Hogar En El Centro De Cuidado Diario.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; Moberg, Patricia E.

    This paper argues that home activities comprise a valuable unplanned curriculum and that many of these activities can be transferred to the day care center. It is suggested that these activities foster a closer relationship between child and caregiver and bridge the gap between familiar home environment and novel day care setting. Home activities…

  13. Geomorphic evolution of the Yangtze Gorges and the time of their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jijun; Xie, Shiyou; Kuang, Mingsheng

    2001-11-01

    The Three Gorges of the Yangtze link its upper rocky valley to downstream alluvial sections. A series of stepped landforms exist in the Three Gorges area, the Sichuan Basin upstream and the Jianghan Basin downstream. These landforms are characterized by two planation surfaces, one erosional surface, and up to seven terraces. The higher planation surface (named the Exi Surface, ~1800-2000 m a.s.l.) and the lower planation surface (1200-1500 m) were probably formed in the Tertiary (prior to 3.4-3.6 Ma B.P.). No correlation seems to exist between the drainage networks of earlier period with the present Yangtze system. It is suggested that the erosional surface found in the study area at 800-1200 m in elevation above sea level was formed in Late Pliocene of Early Pleistocene. During this period following the last planation event, the ancestral Yangtze might have begun to adjust its drainage network. The seven terraces, well developed along the eastern Sichuan Basin and the Three Gorges, date from Early to Late Pleistocene (1.16-0.01 Ma B.P). The chronostratigraphic evidence and diagnostic sediments are generally comparable in time and space from the Sichuan Basin, through the Three Gorges, to the Jianghan Basin. Therefore, the present study proposes that the Three Gorges were cut not later than the initiation of the earliest terrace. The fluvial landforms in the Yangtze Gorges are characterized also by valley-in-valley cross-sections, i.e. an older U-shaped valley cut by a younger V-shaped valley. A tectonic rise accompanied by a rapid downcutting of the river channels predominated in the region.

  14. Quality-assurance plan for ground-water activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey's Washington Water Science Center, for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of ground-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all Washington Water Science Center personnel involved in ground-water activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the Washington Water Science Center and Discipline change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process.

  15. Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.W.; Robinson, H.; Yeung, N.; Gao, Y.-G.; Miner, K. D.; Lei, L.; Lu, Y.

    2010-07-28

    A conserved 2-His-1-Glu metal center, as found in natural nonheme iron-containing enzymes, was engineered into sperm whale myoglobin by replacing Leu29 and Phe43 with Glu and His, respectively (swMb L29E, F43H, H64, called Fe{sub B}Mb(-His)). A high resolution (1.65 {angstrom}) crystal structure of Cu(II)-CN?-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) was determined, demonstrating that the unique 2-His-1-Glu metal center was successfully created within swMb. The Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) can bind Cu, Fe, or Zn ions, with both Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) and Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) exhibiting nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activities. Cu dependent NOR activity was significantly higher than that of Fe in the same metal binding site. EPR studies showed that the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}O catalyzed by these two enzymes resulted in different intermediates; a five-coordinate heme-NO species was observed for Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) due to the cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, while Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) remained six-coordinate. Therefore, both the metal ligand, Glu29, and the metal itself, Cu or Fe, play crucial roles in NOR activity. This study presents a novel protein model of NOR and provides insights into a newly discovered member of the NOR family, gNOR.

  16. Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Y Lin; N Yeung; Y Gao; K Miner; L Lei; H Robinson; Y Lu

    2011-12-31

    A conserved 2-His-1-Glu metal center, as found in natural nonheme iron-containing enzymes, was engineered into sperm whale myoglobin by replacing Leu29 and Phe43 with Glu and His, respectively (swMb L29E, F43H, H64, called Fe{sub B}Mb(-His)). A high resolution (1.65 {angstrom}) crystal structure of Cu(II)-CN{sup -}-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) was determined, demonstrating that the unique 2-His-1-Glu metal center was successfully created within swMb. The Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) can bind Cu, Fe, or Zn ions, with both Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) and Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) exhibiting nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activities. Cu dependent NOR activity was significantly higher than that of Fe in the same metal binding site. EPR studies showed that the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}O catalyzed by these two enzymes resulted in different intermediates; a five-coordinate heme-NO species was observed for Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) due to the cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, while Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) remained six-coordinate. Therefore, both the metal ligand, Glu29, and the metal itself, Cu or Fe, play crucial roles in NOR activity. This study presents a novel protein model of NOR and provides insights into a newly discovered member of the NOR family, gNOR.

  17. Valencia gorge: possible Messinian refill channel for the western Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, M.E.; Gardner, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    A deeply incised gorge is buried nearly 800 m beneath the floor of the Valencia Trough in the western Mediterranean Sea. The gorge is steeply cut more than 200 m into Messinian evaporite deposits and has been mapped for more than 40 km. Published and unpublished seismic profiles show the total length to be nearly 300 km. It may have been connected near Valencia with the Betic Strait, the portal in southern Spain proposed to link the Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. -from Authors

  18. Large-scale investigation of the role of trait activation theory for understanding assessment center convergent and discriminant validity.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Filip; Chasteen, Christopher S; Day, Eric Anthony; Christiansen, Neil D

    2006-03-01

    This study used trait activation theory as a theoretical framework to conduct a large-scale test of the interactionist explanation of the convergent and discriminant validity findings obtained in assessment centers. Trait activation theory specifies the conditions in which cross-situationally consistent and inconsistent candidate performances are likely to occur. Results obtained by aggregating correlations across 30 multitrait-multimethod matrices supported the propositions of trait activation theory, shedding a more positive light on the construct validity puzzle in assessment centers. Overall, convergence among assessment center ratings was better between exercises that provided an opportunity to observe behavior related to the same trait, and discrimination among ratings within exercises was generally better for dimensions that were not expressions of the same underlying traits. Implications for assessment center research and practice are discussed.

  19. Sentinel-1 Data System at the Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC) has a long history of supporting international collaborations between NASA and foreign flight agencies to promote access to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for US science research. Based on the agreement between the US and the EC, data from the Sentinel missions will be distributed by NASA through archives that mirror those established by ESA. The ASF DAAC is the designated archive and distributor for Sentinel-1 data. The data will be copied from the ESA archive to a rolling archive at the NASA Goddard center, and then pushed to a landing area at the ASF DAAC. The system at ASF DAAC will take the files as they arrive and put them through an ingest process. Ingest will populate the database with the information required to enable search and download of the data through Vertex, the ASF DAAC user interface. Metadata will be pushed to the NASA Common Metadata Repository, enabling data discovery through clients that utilize the repository. Visual metadata will be pushed to the NASA GIBS system for visualization through clients linked to that system. Data files will be archived in the DataDirect Networks (DDN) device that is the primary storage device for the ASF DAAC. A backup copy of the data will be placed in a second DDN device that serves as the disaster recovery solution for the ASF DAAC.

  20. Partnership with informal education learning centers to develop hands-on activities for research outreach efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, Z.; Haynes, R.; DeFrancis, G.; Koh, S.; Ringelberg, D.

    2012-12-01

    Outreach informed by scientific research plays an important role in fostering interest in science by making science and scientists accessible, fun, and interesting. Developing an interest in science in young, elementary-aged students through outreach is a rewarding endeavor for researchers, in that audiences are usually receptive, requirements for broader impacts are met, and bonds are formed between researchers and members of their local and surrounding communities. Promoting such interest among young students is imperative not only for an individual researcher's own self interest, but also for the strength of American science and innovation moving forward, and is the responsibility of the current generation of scientists. Developing genuine and successful inquiry-based, hands-on activities for elementary-aged students is outside the expertise of many researchers. Partnering with an informal education learning center (i.e. science museum or after-school program) provides researchers with the expertise they might be lacking in such endeavors. Here, we present a series of polar-, engineering- and microbiology-themed hands-on activities that have been developed by researchers at a government lab in partnership with a local science museum. Through a series of workshops, the science education staff at the museum provided researchers with background and instruction on inquiry and hands-on activities, and then collaborated with the researchers to develop activities which were later demonstrated at the museum to museum-goers. Education staff provided feedback about the presentation of the activities for further refinement. The program provided an opportunity for researchers to develop fun, on-target and age-appropriate science activities for elementary-aged students, an audience for outreach, and enabled general public audiences the chance to interact with researchers and scientists in an informal setting.

  1. Viewgraph description of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center: Activity highlights and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented that describe the progress and status of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center. The Center was established in Jul. 1988 by a grant from NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers Program. After two and one-half years of operation, some 16 faculty are participating, and the Center is supporting 39 graduate students plus 18 undergraduates. In reviewing the Center's status, long-term plans and goals are reviewed and then the present status of the Center and the highlights and accomplishments of the past year are summarized. An overview of plans for the upcoming year are presented.

  2. Data catalog for JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory contains satellite data sets and ancillary in-situ data for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Geophysical parameters available from the archive include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, surface-wind speed, surface-wind stress vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, integrated water vapor, phytoplankton pigment concentration, heat flux, and in-situ data. PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System and is the United States distribution site for TOPEX/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  3. The EOSDIS Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center for physical oceanography and air-sea interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Collins, Donald J.; Nichols, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will support scientists specializing in physical oceanography and air-sea interaction. As part of the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System Version 0 the DAAC will build on existing capabilities to provide services for data product generation, archiving, distribution and management of information about data. To meet scientist's immediate needs for data, existing data sets from missions such as Seasat, Geosat, the NOAA series of satellites and the Global Positioning Satellite system will be distributed to investigators upon request. In 1992, ocean topography, wave and surface roughness data from the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter mission will be archived and distributed. New data products will be derived from Topex/Poseidon and other sensor systems based on recommendations of the science community. In 1995, ocean wind field measurements from the NASA Scatterometer will be supported by the DAAC.

  4. Global Change Data Center: Mission, Organization, Major Activities, and 2003 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Rapid, efficient access to Earth sciences data from satellites and ground validation stations is fundamental to the nation's efforts to understand the effects of global environmental changes and their implications for public policy. It becomes a bigger challenge in the future when data volumes increase from current levels to terabytes per day. Demands on data storage, data access, network throughput, processing power, and database and information management are increased by orders of magnitude, while budgets remain constant and even shrink.The Global Change Data Center's (GCDC) mission is to develop and operate data systems, generate science products, and provide archival and distribution services for Earth science data in support of the U.S. Global Change Program and NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise. The ultimate product of the GCDC activities is access to data to support research, education, and public policy.

  5. Bubble mass center and fluid feedback force fluctuations activated by constant lateral impulse with variable thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Long, Y. T.

    1995-01-01

    Sloshing dynamics within a partially filled rotating dewar of superfluid helium 2 are investigated in response to constant lateral impulse with variable thrust. The study, including how the rotating bubble of superfluid helium 2 reacts to the constant impulse with variable time period of thrust action in microgravity, how amplitudes of bubble mass center fluctuates with growth and decay of disturbances, and how fluid feedback forces fluctuates in activating on the rotating dewar through the dynamics of sloshing waves are investigated. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the non-inertial frame spacecraft bound coordinate with lateral impulses actuating on the rotating dewar in both inertial and non-inertial frames of thrust. Results of the simulations are illustrated.

  6. Seasonal succession of phytoplankton in response to the variation of environmental factors in the Gaolan River, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chengrong; Zhang, Lang; Zheng, Yangzhong; Li, Dunhai

    2013-07-01

    To understand the responses of a freshwater ecosystem to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), phytoplankton was monitored in the tributaries of the TGR area. From August 2010 to July 2011, algal species composition, abundance, chlorophyll a and other environmental parameters were investigated in the Gaolan River, which is a tributary of Xiangxi River. Thirty-one algal genera from seven phyla were identified. Results show that the lowest concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were 0.06 mg/L and 1.08 mg/L, respectively. The values of TP and TN exceeded the threshold concentration of the eutrophic state suggested for freshwater bodies. In the Gaolan River, the succession of phytoplankton showed clear seasonal characteristics. Different dominant species were observed among seasons under the control of environment factors. In spring and summer, the dominant species were Nitzschia sp. and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L.) Ralfs, the limiting nutrient was NO{3/-}-N, and the key environmental factor for phytoplankton population succession was water temperature (WT). In autumn and winter, the dominant species were A. flos-aquae and Chlorella sp., the limiting nutrient was PO{4/3-}-P, and the key environmental factors were transparency and WT. This study illustrates the influence of physical and chemical factors on phytoplankton seasonal succession in a tributary of TGR since the downstream regions of Xiangxi River and Gaolan River became reservoirs after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam. We suggest that this activity has significantly affected water quality in the dam area.

  7. Activation Strain Analysis of SN2 Reactions at C, N, O, and F Centers.

    PubMed

    Kubelka, Jan; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2017-02-02

    Fundamental principles that determine chemical reactivity and reaction mechanisms are the very foundation of chemistry and many related fields of science. Bimolecular nucleophilic substitutions (SN2) are among the most common and therefore most important reaction types. In this report, we examine the trends in the SN2 reactions with respect to increasing electronegativity of the reaction center by comparing the well-studied backside SN2 Cl(-) + CH3Cl with similar Cl(-) substitutions on the isoelectronic series with the second period elements N, O, and F in place of C. Relativistic (ZORA) DFT calculations are used to construct the gas phase reaction potential energy surfaces (PES), and activation strain analysis, which allows decomposition of the PES into the geometrical strain and interaction energy, is employed to analyze the observed trends. We find that SN2@N and SN2@O have similar PES to the prototypical SN2@C, with the well-defined reaction complex (RC) local minima and a central barrier, but all stationary points are, respectively, increasingly stable in energy. The SN2@F, by contrast, exhibits only a single-well PES with no barrier. Using the activation strain model, we show that the trends are due to the interaction energy and originate mainly from the decreasing energy of the empty acceptor orbital (σ*A-Cl) on the reaction center A in the order of C, N, O, and F. The decreasing steric congestion around the central atom is also a likely contributor to this trend. Additional decomposition of the interaction energy using Kohn-Sham molecular orbital (KS-MO) theory provides further support for this explanation, as well as suggesting electrostatic energy as the primary reason for the distinct single-well PES profile for the FCl reaction.

  8. Activation Strain Analysis of SN2 Reactions at C, N, O, and F Centers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental principles that determine chemical reactivity and reaction mechanisms are the very foundation of chemistry and many related fields of science. Bimolecular nucleophilic substitutions (SN2) are among the most common and therefore most important reaction types. In this report, we examine the trends in the SN2 reactions with respect to increasing electronegativity of the reaction center by comparing the well-studied backside SN2 Cl– + CH3Cl with similar Cl– substitutions on the isoelectronic series with the second period elements N, O, and F in place of C. Relativistic (ZORA) DFT calculations are used to construct the gas phase reaction potential energy surfaces (PES), and activation strain analysis, which allows decomposition of the PES into the geometrical strain and interaction energy, is employed to analyze the observed trends. We find that SN2@N and SN2@O have similar PES to the prototypical SN2@C, with the well-defined reaction complex (RC) local minima and a central barrier, but all stationary points are, respectively, increasingly stable in energy. The SN2@F, by contrast, exhibits only a single-well PES with no barrier. Using the activation strain model, we show that the trends are due to the interaction energy and originate mainly from the decreasing energy of the empty acceptor orbital (σ*A–Cl) on the reaction center A in the order of C, N, O, and F. The decreasing steric congestion around the central atom is also a likely contributor to this trend. Additional decomposition of the interaction energy using Kohn–Sham molecular orbital (KS-MO) theory provides further support for this explanation, as well as suggesting electrostatic energy as the primary reason for the distinct single-well PES profile for the FCl reaction. PMID:28045531

  9. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: A PRELIMINARY INVENTORY OF ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Eight Regional CHP Application Centers (RACs) are funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies in all 50 states. The RACs build end-user awareness by providing CHP-related information to targeted markets through education and outreach; they work with the states and regulators to encourage the creation and adoption of favorable public policies; and they provide CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. The RACs were started by DOE as a pilot program in 2001 to support the National CHP Roadmap developed by industry to accelerate deployment of energy efficient CHP technologies (U.S. Combined Heat and Power Association 2001). The intent was to foster a regional presence to build market awareness, address policy issues, and facilitate project development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported DOE with the RAC program since its inception. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort involving DOE and some CHP industry stakeholders to establish quantitative metrics for measuring the RACs accomplishments. This effort incorporated the use of logic models to define and describe key RAC activities, outputs, and outcomes. Based on this detailed examination of RAC operations, potential metrics were identified associated with the various key sectors addressed by the RACs: policy makers; regulatory agencies; investor owned utilities; municipal and cooperative utilities; financiers; developers; and end users. The final product was reviewed by a panel of representatives from DOE, ORNL, RACs, and the private sector. The metrics developed through this effort focus on major RAC activities as well as on CHP installations and related outcomes. All eight RACs were contacted in August 2008 and asked to provide data for every year of Center operations for those metrics on which they kept records. In addition, data on CHP installations and

  10. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  11. Wetland Diagenesis and Traces of Early Hominids, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deocampo, Daniel M.; Blumenschine, Robert J.; Ashley, Gail M.

    2002-03-01

    Lateral variations in whole-rock and clay geochemistry of basal Bed II claystones in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, reflect water quality differences across the Eastern Lacustrine Plain ∼1.75 myr ago. Bulk Ba/Sr and (Na2O+K2O+MgO)/Al2O3 range from 1.4 to 4.2 and from 0.7 to 1.4, respectively, and indicate leaching of lacustrine claystones beneath freshwater wetlands at times following lake retreat. Bulk MgO/Al2O3 (0.3-1.0) and molar Mg/Al (0.5-3.9) ratios of <0.2-μm clays reflect alteration of Mg-rich lacustrine clays. These indicators point to freshest conditions near Locality 43 of Hay (1976; HWK-East; Leakey, 1971), moderate conditions to the east (Locality 40-MCK), and high salinity and alkalinity to the west (Localities 85-VEK, 45-FLK). Clay geochemistry and artifact abundances are well correlated (r=-0.67, p<0.005), suggesting a relationship between paleo-water quality and hominid paleoecology. This pattern is consistent with predictions of greatest artifact discard/loss around freshwater sources where scavanging opportunities were greatest for hominids. This quantifies a relationship between artifact density distribution and a paleoecological proxy over landscape scales for the first time in Early Stone Age archaeology. In contrast, fossil bone abundance is uncorrelated (r=0.14, p=0.6), reflecting more complex taphonomic processes. Quantitative tests of landscape-scale land-use models are important for understanding early hominid behavior and its evolution.

  12. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  13. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  14. Methane emissions from the surface of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huai; Yuan, Xingzhong; Chen, Zhongli; Wu, Yuyuan; Liu, Xianshu; Zhu, Dan; Wu, Ning; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Li, Weizhong

    2011-11-01

    After our previous study about methane (CH4) emissions from littoral marshes of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), Chinese dams have raised a world-wide concern. Through measurements from the surface of the TGR, a CH4 emission rate was recorded as 0.26 ± 0.38 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 (Mean ± SD), relatively low compared with those from other hydropower reservoirs. We also recorded CH4 emission rate from the surface of downstream water, which was also relatively low (0.24 ± 0.37 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Such result may indicate that TGR is not a great CH4 emitter (not "CH4 menace"). One possible reason for such a low emission rate is that measures to maintain water quality and protect environment and ecosystem decrease the input of organic materials (for methanogenesis), which in turn limits the CH4 production in the sediment of the TGR. We also found that CH4 emission from the flooding drawdown area (0.29 ± 0.37 mg CH4 m-2 h-1) was higher than other permanently flooded sites (0.23 ± 0.38 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Because of annual vegetation re-growth, the drawdown zone is the especially important carbon source for methanogenesis in flooding season. Interestingly, we also observed that mean CH4 emission was significantly higher in winter than in spring and summer. This was partly due to seasonal dynamics of hydrology. In order to estimate the net CH4 emissions caused by the reservoir and reservoir operation, the best approach would be Life Cycle Analysis.

  15. Active-learning versus teacher-centered instruction for learning acids and bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-07-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of 'acids and bases'. Sample The sample of this study was 45 high-school students (average age 17 years) from two different classes, which were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) and control groups (n = 25), in a high school in Turkey. Design and methods A pre-test consisting of 25 items was applied to both experimental and control groups before the treatment in order to identify student prerequisite knowledge about their proficiency for learning 'acids and bases'. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the pre-test scores for groups and no significant difference was found between experimental (ME = 40.14) and control groups (MC = 41.92) in terms of mean scores (F 1,43 = 2.66, p > 0.05). The experimental group was taught using an active-learning curriculum developed by the authors and the control group was taught using traditional course content based on teacher-centered instruction. After the implementation, 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' scores were collected for both groups. Results ANOVA results showed that students' 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' post-test scores differed significantly in terms of groups (F 1,43 = 102.53; p < 0.05). Additionally, in this study 54 misconceptions, 14 of them not reported in the literature before, were observed in the following terms: 'acid and base theories'; 'metal and non-metal oxides'; 'acid and base strengths'; 'neutralization'; 'pH and pOH'; 'hydrolysis'; 'acid-base equilibrium'; 'buffers'; 'indicators'; and 'titration'. Based on the achievement test and individual interview results, it was found that high-school students in the experimental group had fewer misconceptions and understood the

  16. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J K; Sugiyama, G A; Nasstrom, J

    2007-09-05

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  17. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's Urban Research and Development Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  18. Fluvial incision into bedrock: Insights from morphometric analysis and numerical modeling of gorges incising glacial hanging valleys (Western Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Lague, Dimitri

    2010-06-01

    Bedrock gorges incising glacial hanging valleys potentially allow measurements of fluvial bedrock incision in mountainous relief. Using digital elevation models, topographic maps, and field reconnaissance, we identified and characterized 30 tributary hanging valleys incised by gorges near their confluence with trunk streams in the Romanche watershed, French Western Alps. Longitudinal profiles of these tributaries are all convex and have abrupt knickpoints at the upper limit of oversteepened gorge reaches. We reconstructed initial glacial profiles from glacially polished bedrock knobs surrounding the gorges in order to quantify the amount of fluvial incision and knickpoint retreat. From morphometric analyses, we find that mean channel gradients and widths, as well as knickpoint retreat rates, display a drainage area dependence modulated by bedrock lithology. However, there appears to be no relation between horizontal retreat and vertical downwearing of knickpoints. Assuming a postglacial origin of these gorges, our results imply high postglacial fluvial incision (0.5-15 mm yr-1) and knickpoint retreat (1-200 mm yr-1) rates that are, however, consistent with previous estimates. Numerical modeling was used to test the capacity of different fluvial incision models to predict the inferred evolution of the gorges. Results from simple end-member models suggest transport-limited behavior of the bedrock gorges. A more sophisticated model including dynamic width adjustment and sediment-dependent incision rates predicts present-day channel geometry only if a significant supply of sediment from the gorge sidewalls (˜10 mm yr-1) is triggered by gorge deepening, combined with pronounced inhibition of bedrock incision by sediment transport and deposition.

  19. Assessing Beaked Whale Reproduction and Stress Response Relative to Sonar Activity at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Assessing Beaked Whale Reproduction and Stress Response...both groups of animals to investigate whether there is a relationship between sonar activity, stress measures, and reproductive rates, to assess... Reproduction and Stress Response Relative to Sonar Activity at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  20. Large-Scale Investigation of the Role of Trait Activation Theory for Understanding Assessment Center Convergent and Discriminant Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Chasteen, Christopher S.; Day, Eric Anthony; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2006-01-01

    This study used trait activation theory as a theoretical framework to conduct a large-scale test of the interactionist explanation of the convergent and discriminant validity findings obtained in assessment centers. Trait activation theory specifies the conditions in which cross-situationally consistent and inconsistent candidate performances are…

  1. PHABULOSA Controls the Quiescent Center-Independent Root Meristem Activities in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Jose; Ryu, Kook Hui; Zhou, Jing; Tarkowská, Danuše; Tarkowski, Petr; Cho, Young-Hee; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Kim, Eun-Sol; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth depends on stem cell niches in meristems. In the root apical meristem, the quiescent center (QC) cells form a niche together with the surrounding stem cells. Stem cells produce daughter cells that are displaced into a transit-amplifying (TA) domain of the root meristem. TA cells divide several times to provide cells for growth. SHORTROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) are key regulators of the stem cell niche. Cytokinin controls TA cell activities in a dose-dependent manner. Although the regulatory programs in each compartment of the root meristem have been identified, it is still unclear how they coordinate one another. Here, we investigate how PHABULOSA (PHB), under the posttranscriptional control of SHR and SCR, regulates TA cell activities. The root meristem and growth defects in shr or scr mutants were significantly recovered in the shr phb or scr phb double mutant, respectively. This rescue in root growth occurs in the absence of a QC. Conversely, when the modified PHB, which is highly resistant to microRNA, was expressed throughout the stele of the wild-type root meristem, root growth became very similar to that observed in the shr; however, the identity of the QC was unaffected. Interestingly, a moderate increase in PHB resulted in a root meristem phenotype similar to that observed following the application of high levels of cytokinin. Our protoplast assay and transgenic approach using ARR10 suggest that the depletion of TA cells by high PHB in the stele occurs via the repression of B-ARR activities. This regulatory mechanism seems to help to maintain the cytokinin homeostasis in the meristem. Taken together, our study suggests that PHB can dynamically regulate TA cell activities in a QC-independent manner, and that the SHR-PHB pathway enables a robust root growth system by coordinating the stem cell niche and TA domain. PMID:25730098

  2. HAWAIIAN SKIRT regulates the quiescent center-independent meristem activity in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sol; Choe, Goh; Sebastian, Jose; Ryu, Kook Hui; Mao, Linyong; Fei, Zhangjun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-01

    Root apical meristem (RAM) drives post-embryonic root growth by constantly supplying cells through mitosis. It is composed of stem cells and their derivatives, the transit-amplifying (TA) cells. Stem cell organization and its maintenance in the RAM are well characterized, however, their relationships with TA cells remain unclear. SHORTROOT (SHR) is critical for root development. It patterns cell types and promotes the post-embryonic root growth. Defective root growth in the shr has been ascribed to the lack of quiescent center (QC), which maintains the surrounding stem cells. However, our recent investigation indicated that SHR maintains TA cells independently of QC by modulating PHABULOSA (PHB) through miRNA165/6. PHB controls TA cell activity by modulating cytokinin levels and type B Arabidopsis Response Regulator activity, in a dosage-dependent manner. To further understand TA cell regulation, we conducted a shr suppressor screen. With an extensive mutagenesis screen followed by genome sequencing of a pooled F2 population, we discovered two suppressor alleles with mutations in HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS). HWS, encoding an F-box protein with kelch domain, is expressed, partly depending on SHR, in the root cap and in the pericycle of the differentiation zone. Interestingly, root growth in the shr hws was more active than the wild-type roots for the first 7 days after germination, without recovering QC. Contrary to shr phb, shr hws did not show a recovery of cytokinin signaling. These indicate that HWS affects QC-independent TA cell activities through a pathway distinctive from PHB.

  3. Recovering Physical Activity Missing Data Measured by Accelerometers: A Comparison of Individual and Group-Centered Recovery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Jin, Jing; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which method, individual information-centered (IIC) or group information-centered (GIC), is more efficient in recovering missing physical activity (PA) data. Method: A total of 2,758 Chinese children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old (1,438 boys and 1,320 girls) wore ActiGraph GT3X/GT3X+…

  4. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  5. Spatial Forecast of Landslides in Three Gorges Based On Spatial Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianmin; Niu, Ruiqing

    2009-01-01

    The Three Gorges is a region with a very high landslide distribution density and a concentrated population. In Three Gorges there are often landslide disasters, and the potential risk of landslides is tremendous. In this paper, focusing on Three Gorges, which has a complicated landform, spatial forecasting of landslides is studied by establishing 20 forecast factors (spectra, texture, vegetation coverage, water level of reservoir, slope structure, engineering rock group, elevation, slope, aspect, etc). China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (Cbers) images were adopted based on C4.5 decision tree to mine spatial forecast landslide criteria in Guojiaba Town (Zhigui County) in Three Gorges and based on this knowledge, perform intelligent spatial landslide forecasts for Guojiaba Town. All landslides lie in the dangerous and unstable regions, so the forecast result is good. The method proposed in the paper is compared with seven other methods: IsoData, K-Means, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, Parallelepiped and Information Content Model. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has a high forecast precision, noticeably higher than that of the other seven methods. PMID:22573999

  6. EPA Will Remove Contaminated Soil at Ithaca Falls Creek Gorge, N.Y.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will remove lead contaminated soil this month at a property between the base of a cliff wall and a walkway at the Falls Creek Gorge in Ithaca, N.Y.

  7. The Three Gorges Dam of China: Technology to Bridge Two Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated 20th-century technologies have been applied to build the largest hydroelectric dam in the world, the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGDP) of China. The author administered a study abroad course in China from May 27 to June 10, 2000, to study the massive project as it approached the halfway mark of its second and most…

  8. Spatial forecast of landslides in three gorges based on spatial data mining.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianmin; Niu, Ruiqing

    2009-01-01

    The Three Gorges is a region with a very high landslide distribution density and a concentrated population. In Three Gorges there are often landslide disasters, and the potential risk of landslides is tremendous. In this paper, focusing on Three Gorges, which has a complicated landform, spatial forecasting of landslides is studied by establishing 20 forecast factors (spectra, texture, vegetation coverage, water level of reservoir, slope structure, engineering rock group, elevation, slope, aspect, etc). China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (Cbers) images were adopted based on C4.5 decision tree to mine spatial forecast landslide criteria in Guojiaba Town (Zhigui County) in Three Gorges and based on this knowledge, perform intelligent spatial landslide forecasts for Guojiaba Town. All landslides lie in the dangerous and unstable regions, so the forecast result is good. The method proposed in the paper is compared with seven other methods: IsoData, K-Means, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, Parallelepiped and Information Content Model. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has a high forecast precision, noticeably higher than that of the other seven methods.

  9. Hydrothermal alteration of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (South China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Bristow, Thomas F.; Wampler, J. M.; Środoń, Jan; Marynowski, Leszek; Elliott, W. Crawford; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2013-04-01

    The geochemical and fossil record preserved in the Ediacaran age (635-551 Ma) Doushantuo Formation of South China has been extensively examined to explore the impact of changing climate and the oxidation state of the oceans on the development and distribution of early multicellular life. In the Yangtze Gorges area, this formation shows many of the geochemical trends and features thought to typify global ocean chemistry in the Ediacaran Period, but there are indications that post-sedimentary processes modified these signals. This study of clay minerals and organic matter builds a more detailed picture of the type and degree of post-sedimentary alteration at different stratigraphic levels of the formation and focuses on how this alteration influenced stable carbon and oxygen isotope records. In the cratonward Jiulongwan and Huajipo sections of the Doushantuo Formation, its lower part (Members 1 and 2) consists largely of dolomitic shale, rich in authigenic saponite that crystallized in an alkaline sedimentary basin. Saponite has been altered to chlorite via corrensite across tens of meters of strata in lower Member 2, with increased alteration downward toward the cap dolostone. The greater chloritization is accompanied by lower δ18O and higher δD values of trioctahedral clays. This pattern of alteration of trioctahedral clays is likely due to hydrothermal fluid activity in the underlying, relatively permeable Nantuo Formation and cap dolostone. A concomitant increase of solid bitumen reflectance toward the base of the formation supports this idea. In the uppermost part of the formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (Member 4), a typical open water marine dolomitic shale rich in illite and organic matter, increases in the methylphenanthrenes ratio index and solid bitumen reflectance correlate with decrease of the bulk rock K/Al ratio upward, providing evidence for hot fluid migration above the nearly impermeable shale. Clay from the upper part of the formation is

  10. Overview of free-piston Stirling SP-100 activities at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These activities are being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. The space-power technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of an endurance test. Dynamic balancing of the SPDE engine will be discussed along with a summary covering the parametric results of a study showing the relationship between power-converter specific weight and efficiency both as a function of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Design parameters and conceptual design features will be presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. And finally, a description of a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept will be presented.

  11. Contributions to Active Buffeting Alleviation Programs by the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails like the F/A-18, at high angles of attack. This buffeting is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. By means of wind-tunnel and flight tests, this phenomenon is well studied to the point that buffet loads can be estimated and fatigue life can be increased by structural enhancements to the airframe. In more recent years, buffeting alleviation through active control of smart materials has been highly researched in wind-tunnel proof-of-concept demonstrations and full-scale ground tests using the F/A-18 as a test bed. Because the F/A-18 resides in fleets outside as well as inside the United States, these tests have evolved into international collaborative research activities with Australia and Canada, coordinated by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP). With the recent successes and advances in smart materials, the main focus of these buffeting alleviation tests has also evolved to a new level: utilize the F/A-18 as a prototype to mature smart materials for suppressing vibrations of aerospace structures. The role of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in these programs is presented.

  12. NASA Langley Research Center's Contributions to International Active Buffeting Alleviation Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails like the F/A-18, at high angles of attack. This buffeting is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. By means of wind-tunnel and flight tests, this phenomenon is well studied to the point that buffet loads can be estimated and fatigue life can be increased by structural enhancements to the airframe. In more recent years, buffeting alleviation through active control of smart materials has been highly researched in wind-tunnel proof-of-concept demonstrations and full-scale ground tests using the F/A-18 as a test bed. Because the F/A-18 resides in fleets outside as well as inside the United States, these tests have evolved into international collaborative research activities with Australia and Canada, coordinated by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP). With the recent successes and advances in smart materials, the main focus of these buffeting alleviation tests has also evolved to a new level: utilize the F/A-18 as a prototype to mature smart materials for suppressing vibrations of aerospace structures. The role of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in these programs is presented.

  13. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula s "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA s SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT s experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  14. A parallelogram-based compliant remote-center-of-motion stage for active parallel alignment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Weihai; Zhang, Jianbin

    2014-09-01

    Parallel alignment stage with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) is of key importance in precision out-of-plane aligning since it can eliminate the harmful lateral displacement generated at the output platform. This paper presents the development of a parallelogram-based compliant RCM stage for active parallel alignment. Different from conventional parallelogram-based RCM mechanism, the proposed stage is designed with compliant mechanisms, which endows the stage with many attractive merits when used in precision micro-/nanomanipulations. A symmetric double-parallelogram mechanism (SDPM) based on flexure hinges is developed as the rotary guiding component to realize desired RCM function. Due to the geometrical constraint of the SDPM, the operating space of the stage can be easily adjusted by bending the input links without loss of rotational precision. The stage is driven by a piezoelectric actuator and its output motion is measured by non-contact displacement sensors. Based on pseudo-rigid-body simplification method, the analytical models predicting kinematics, statics, and dynamics of the RCM stage have been established. Besides, the dimensional optimization is conducted in order to maximize the first resonance frequency of the stage. After that, finite element analysis is conducted to validate the established models and the prototype of the stage is fabricated for performance tests. The experimental results show that the developed RCM stage has a rotational range of 1.45 mrad while the maximum center shift of the RCM point is as low as 1 μm, which validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  15. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    SciTech Connect

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  16. Integrating Field-Centered, Project Based Activities with Academic Year Coursework: A Curriculum Wide Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based upon constructivist principles and the recognition that many students are motivated by hands-on activities and field experiences, we designed a new undergraduate curriculum at Lake Superior State University. One of our major goals was to develop stand-alone field projects in most of the academic year courses. Examples of courses impacted include structural geology, geophysics, and geotectonics, Students learn geophysical concepts in the context of near surface field-based geophysical studies while students in structural geology learn about structural processes through outcrop study of fractures, folds and faults. In geotectonics students learn about collisional and rifting processes through on-site field studies of specific geologic provinces. Another goal was to integrate data and samples collected by students in our sophomore level introductory field course along with stand-alone field projects in our clastic systems and sequence stratigraphy courses. Our emphasis on active learning helps students develop a meaningful geoscience knowledge base and complex reasoning skills in authentic contexts. We simulate the activities of practicing geoscientists by engaging students in all aspects of a project, for example: field-oriented project planning and design; acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data; incorporating supplemental material and background data; and preparing oral and written project reports. We find through anecdotal evidence including student comments and personal observation that the projects stimulate interest, provide motivation for learning new concepts, integrate skill and concept acquisition vertically through the curriculum, apply concepts from multiple geoscience subdisiplines, and develop soft skills such as team work, problem solving, critical thinking and communication skills. Through this projected-centered Lake Superior State University geology curriculum students practice our motto of "learn geology by doing geology."

  17. Regional Impact of Climate on Japanese Encephalitis in Areas Located near the Three Gorges Dam

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Deqiang; Luo, Chao; He, Yuanyuan; Liang, Guodong; Lu, Bo; Bisesi, Michael S.; Sun, Qinghua; Xu, Xinyi; Yang, Weizhong; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we aim to identify key climatic factors that are associated with the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in areas located near the Three Gorges Dam, between 1997 and 2008. Methods We identified three geographical regions of Chongqing, based on their distance from the Three Gorges Dam. Collectively, the three regions consisted of 12 districts from which study information was collected. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models were run to identify key climatic factors of the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus for both the whole study area and for each individual region; linear regression models were conducted to examine the fluctuation of climatic variables over time during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Results Between 1997 and 2008, the incidence of Japanese encephalitis decreased throughout the entire city of Chongqing, with noticeable variations taking place in 2000, 2001 and 2006. The eastern region, which is closest to the Three Gorges Dam, suffered the highest incidence of Japanese encephalitis, while the western region experienced the lowest incidence. Linear regression models revealed that there were seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models indicated a significant positive association between temperature (with a lag of 1 and 3 months) and Japanese encephalitis incidence, and a significant negative association between rainfall (with a lag of 0 and 4 months) and Japanese encephalitis incidence. Conclusion The spatial and temporal trends of Japanese encephalitis incidence that occurred in the City of Chongqing were associated with temperature and rainfall. Seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period were also observed. Additional studies that focus on long-term data collection are needed to validate the findings of this study and to further explore the effects of the Three Gorges Dam on Japanese encephalitis and other related

  18. Evaluation of laboratory test method for determining the potential alkali contribution from aggregate and the ASR safety of the Three-Gorges dam concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou . E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Zhou, Xiaoling; Xu Zhongzi; Lan Xianghui; Tang Mingshu; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    The releasable alkali from granite, which was used in the Three-Gorges concrete dam project in China, and from gneiss and feldspar was estimated by extraction in distilled water and super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. Results show that: i) the finer the particles and the higher the temperature, the greater and faster the release of alkali; ii) compared with extraction by distilled water, super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution had a stronger activation on feldspar than on granite and gneiss; iii) for the three rocks tested, thermal activation had the largest effect on gneiss and a lower and similar effect on granite and feldspar. For very fine particles, temperature had a similar effect on the release of alkali by all three rocks. Because the aggregate used in the Three-Gorges dam concrete is non-reactive and a low calcium fly ash was used in the concrete, ASR would not be an issue for the dam, despite the release of alkali from the aggregate into the concrete.

  19. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthan, A.; Limaye, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula's "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA's SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT's experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  20. Characterization of heavy metal contamination in the soil and sediment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tujin; Pan, Jin; Liu, Xuelian

    2017-02-23

    This paper analyzes the concentration, distribution, bioavailability, and potential heavy metal contamination risk of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr in the soil and sediment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this paper, 14 stations that cover the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the TGR were selected. The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the TGR showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr were higher in the upper and lower reaches than those in the middle reaches because of industrial and agricultural activities as well as natural processes (e.g., soil erosion, rock weathering). The results also indicated that multiple pollution sources and complex geomorphological, geochemical and biological processes resulted in remarkably higher heavy metal concentrations in the soils of the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) than in the soils of the banks. The Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr concentrations in the soils of the TGR did not exceed their respective maximum allowable concentration (MAC) values for agricultural soils in China, indicating that the soil in the TGR was not seriously contaminated with Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, or Cr. However, the mean concentrations of all the studied metals in the sediments were higher than the geochemical background values and much higher than those in the soils, thus indicating the effect of the pollution sources and the altered hydrologic conditions that occurred after the impoundment of the TGR. A geoaccumulation index analysis indicated that the TGR sediments were moderately polluted with Cu and Cd, unpolluted to moderately polluted with Pb and Cr, and unpolluted with Zn. Fractionation studies indicated that Cd was mainly present in the non-residual fractions and exhibited great instability and bioavailability; furthermore, the alternating wetting and drying of the WFLZ soils enhance the mobility and bioavailability of Cd. Thus, greater attention should be paid to Cd pollution in the TGR because of its higher risk

  1. Spatial bedrock erosion distribution in a natural gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, A. R.; Turowski, J. M.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of morphological evolution both in terrestrial and planetary landscapes is of increasing interest in the geosciences. In mountainous regions, bedrock channel formation as a consequence of the interaction of uplift and erosion processes is fundamental for the entire surface evolution. Hence, the accurate description of bedrock channel development is important for landscape modelling. To verify existing concepts developed in the lab and to analyse how in situ channel erosion rates depend on the interrelations of discharge, sediment transport and topography, there is a need of highly resolved topographic field data. We analyse bedrock erosion over two years in a bedrock gorge downstream of the Gorner glacier above the town of Zermatt, Switzerland. At the study site, the Gornera stream cuts through a roche moutonnée in serpentine rock of 25m length, 5m width and 8m depth. We surveyed bedrock erosion rates using repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) with an average point spacing of 5mm. Bedrock erosion rates in direction of the individual surface normals were studied directly on the scanned point clouds applying the M3C2 algorithm (Lague et al., 2013, ISPRS). The surveyed erosion patterns were compared to a simple stream erosivity visualisation obtained from painted bedrock sections at the study location. Spatially distributed erosion rates on bedrock surfaces based on millions of scan points allow deduction of millimeter-scale mean annual values of lateral erosion, incision and downstream erosion on protruding streambed surfaces. The erosion rate on a specific surface point is shown to depend on the position of this surface point in the channel's cross section, its height above the streambed and its spatial orientation to the streamflow. Abrasion by impacting bedload was likely the spatially dominant erosion process, as confirmed by the observed patterns along the painted bedrock sections. However, a single plucking event accounted for the half

  2. Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology. A Summary Report of Activities Completed at the National Center for Hydrogen Technology - Year 6

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) located in Grand Forks, North Dakota, has operated the National Center for Hydrogen Technology (NCHT) since 2005 under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EERC has a long history of hydrogen generation and utilization from fossil fuels, and under the NCHT Program, the EERC has accelerated its research on hydrogen generation and utilization topics. Since the NCHT's inception, the EERC has received more than $65 million in funding for hydrogen-related projects ($24 million for projects in the NCHT, which includes federal and corporate partner development funds) involving more than 85 partners (27 with the NCHT). The NCHT Program's nine activities span a broad range of technologies that align well with the Advanced Fuels Program goals and, specifically, those described in the Hydrogen from Coal Program research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) plan that refers to realistic testing of technologies at adequate scale, process intensification, and contaminant control. A number of projects have been completed that range from technical feasibility of several hydrogen generation and utilization technologies to public and technical education and outreach tools. Projects under the NCHT have produced hydrogen from natural gas, coal, liquid hydrocarbons, and biomass. The hydrogen or syngas generated by these processes has also been purified in many of these instances or burned directly for power generation. Also, several activities are still undergoing research, development, demonstration, and commercialization at the NCHT. This report provides a summary overview of the projects completed in Year 6 of the NCHT. Individual activity reports are referenced as a source of detailed information on each activity.

  3. Development of a national center for hydrogen technology. A summary report of activities completed at the national center hydrogen technology from 2005 to 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) located in Grand Forks, North Dakota, has operated the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) since 2005 under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EERC has a long history of hydrogen generation and utilization from fossil fuels, and under the NCHT Program, the EERC has accelerated its research of hydrogen generation and utilization topics. Since the NCHT's inception, the EERC has received more than $65 million in funding of hydrogen-related projects ($20 million for the NCHT project which includes federal and corporate development partner funds) involving more than 85 partners (27 with the NCHT). The NCHT project's 19 activities span a broad range of technologies that align well with the Advanced Fuels Program goals and, specifically, those described in the Hydrogen from Coal Program research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) plan. A number of projects have been completed which range from technical feasibility of several hydrogen generation and utilization technologies to public and technical education and outreach tools. Projects under the NCHT have produced hydrogen from natural gas, coal, liquid hydrocarbons, and biomass. The hydrogen or syngas generated by these processes has also been purified to transportation-grade quality in many of these instances or burned directly for power generation. Also, several activities are still undergoing research, development, demonstration, and commercialization at the NCHT. This report provides a summary overview of the projects completed in the first 5 years of the NCHT. Individual activity reports are referenced as a source of detailed information on each activity.

  4. Overview of the 1985 NASA Lewis Research Center SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the 1985 (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities in support of the SP-100 Program is presented. The SP-100 program is being conducted in support of the Department of Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. This effort is keyed on the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of a 25 kW(e) Stirling space-power technology-feasibility demonstrator engine. Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of a 9000-h goal endurance test conducted on a 2 kW(e) free-piston Stirling/linear alternator system employing hydrostatic gas bearings. Dynamic balancing of the RE-1000 engine (a 1 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine) using a passive dynamic absorber is discussed, along with the results of a parametric study showing the relationships of Stirling power converter specific weight and efficiency as functions of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Planned tests are described covering a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept for potential SP-100 application.

  5. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These include (1) a generic free-piston Stirling technology project being conducted to develop technologies generic to both space power and terrestrial heat pump applications in a cooperative, cost-shared effort with the Department of Energy (DOE)/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and (2) a free-piston Stirling space power technology feasibility demonstration project being conducted in support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), DOE, NASA, SP-100 project. The generic technology effort includes extensive parametric testing of a 1 kW free-piston Stirling engine (RE-1000), development of a free-piston Stirling performance computer code, design and fabrication under contract of a hydraulic output modification for RE-1000 engine tests, and a 1000-hour endurance test, under contract, of a 3 kWe free-piston Stirling/alternator engine. The newly initiated space power technology feasibility demonstration effort addresses the capability of scaling a free-piston Stirling/alternator system to about 25 kWe; developing thermodynamic cycle efficiency greater than or equal to 70 percent of Carnot at temperature ratios in the order of 1.5 to 2.0; achieving a power conversion unit specific weight of 6 kg/kWe; operating with noncontacting gas bearings; and dynamically balancing the system. Planned engine and component design and test efforts are described.

  6. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  7. Overview of the 1986 free-piston Stirling activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center's free-piston Stirling engine research is presented, including efforts to improve and advance its design for use in specific space power applications. These efforts are a part of the SP-100 program being conducted to support the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA. Such efforts include: (1) the testing and improvement of 25 kWe Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE); (2) the preliminary design of 25 kWe single-cylinder Experimental stirling Space Engine (ESSE); and, (3) a study to determine the feasibility of scaling a single-cylinder free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator to 150 kWe. Other NASA Lewis free-piston Stirling engine activities will be described, directed toward the advancement of general free-piston Stirling engine technology and its application in specific terrestrial applications. One such effort, supported by DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DRNL), is the development of a free-piston Stirling engine which produces hydraulic power. Finally, a terrestrial solar application involving a conceptual design of a 25 kWe Solar Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) capable of delivering power to an electric utility grid will be discussed. The latter work is supported by DOE/Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA).

  8. Suboptimal B-cell antigen receptor signaling activity in vivo elicits germinal center counterselection mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Königsberger, Sebastian; Weis, Vanessa; Prodöhl, Jan; Stehling, Martin; Hobeika, Elias; Reth, Michael; Kiefer, Friedemann

    2015-02-01

    Syk and Zap-70 constitute a closely related nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase family, of which both members are functionally indispensable for conferring their respective antigen receptors with enzymatic activity. In this study, we analyze the impact of altering BCR signaling output on B-cell germinal center (GC) fate selection by constitutive, as well as inducible, monoallelic Syk kinase loss in the presence of a Zap-70 knock-in rescue allele. Cre-mediated Syk deletion in Syk(flox/Zap-70) B cells lowers pErk, but not pAkt-mediated signaling. Surprisingly, the use of a B-cell-specific constitutive mb1-cre deleter mouse model showed that a small cohort of peripheral Syk(flox/Zap-70);mb1-cre B cells efficiently circumvents deletion, which ultimately favors these Syk-sufficient cells to contribute to the GC reaction. Using a developmentally unbiased Syk(flox/Zap-70);mb1-creER(T2) approach in combination with an inducible tdRFP allele, we further demonstrate that this monoallelic deletion escape is not fully explained by leakiness of Cre expression, but is possibly the result of differential Syk locus accessibility in maturing B cells. Altogether, this underscores the importance of proper Syk kinase function not only during central and peripheral selection processes, but also during GC formation and maintenance.

  9. Environmental Data from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) is a NASA-sponsored source for biogeochemical and ecological data and models useful in environmental research. Data have been collected on the ground, by aircraft, by satellite, and from computer models. The extent of data and model products ranges from site specific to global, and durations range from days to years. Data products and models are free, but users must typically register. Major field campaigns with available data include: • The Boreal Ecosystem - Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) • The First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) Project) • The Large-Scale Biosphere - Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) • The North American Carbon Program (NACP) • Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project • The SAFARI 2000 (S2K) Project in Africa • Superior National Forest(SNF)Project Validation projects with available data include: • BigFoot • The Accelerated Canopy Chemistry Program (ACCP) • The EOS Land Validation Project • FLUXNET • MODIS • The Prototype Validation Exercise (PROVE) The ORNL DAAC also provides access to data for many regional and global projects and to a model archive. (Specialized Interface)(Registration Required)

  10. Global Change Data Center: Mission, Organization, Major Activities, and 2001 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rapid efficient access to Earth sciences data is fundamental to the Nation's efforts to understand the effects of global environmental changes and their implications for public policy. It becomes a bigger challenge in the future when data volumes increase further and missions with constellations of satellites start to appear. Demands on data storage, data access, network throughput, processing power, and database and information management are increased by orders of magnitude, while budgets remain constant and even shrink. The Global Change Data Center's (GCDC) mission is to provide systems, data products, and information management services to maximize the availability and utility of NASA's Earth science data. The specific objectives are (1) support Earth science missions be developing and operating systems to generate, archive, and distribute data products and information; (2) develop innovative information systems for processing, archiving, accessing, visualizing, and communicating Earth science data; and (3) develop value-added products and services to promote broader utilization of NASA Earth Sciences Enterprise (ESE) data and information. The ultimate product of GCDC activities is access to data and information to support research, education, and public policy.

  11. Europium (II)-doped microporous zeolite derivatives with enhanced photoluminescence by isolating active luminescence centers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuyong; Tiam, Tan Swee; Yu, Xibin; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2011-11-01

    Solid-state reaction is the most common method for preparing luminescent materials. However, the luminescent dopants in the hosts tend to aggregate in the high-temperature annealing process, which causes adverse effect in photoluminescence. Herein, we report a novel europium (II)-doped zeolite derivative prepared by a combined ion-exchange and solid-state reaction method, in which the europium (II) ions are isolated to a large extent by the micropores of the zeolite. Excited by a broad ultraviolet band from 250 to 420 nm, a strong blue emission peaking at 450 nm was observed for these Eu-embedded zeolites annealed at 800 °C in a reducing atmosphere. The zeolite host with pores of molecular dimension was found to be an excellent host to isolate and stabilize the Eu(2+) ions. The as-obtained europium (II)-doped zeolite derivative showed an approximately 9 fold enhancement in blue emission compared to that of the general europium (II)-doped aluminosilicates obtained by conventional solid-state reaction, indicating that, by isolating active luminescence centers, it is promising to achieve highly luminescent materials. Also, the strong blue emission with broad UV excitation band suggests a potential candidate of phosphor for ultraviolet excited light-emitting diode.

  12. Activity of the CNES/CLS Analysis Center for the IDS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudarin, Laurent; Capdeville, Hugues; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2016-12-01

    Within the frame of the International DORIS Service, the CNES/CLS Analysis Center, previously known as LCA and renamed GRG, contributes to the geodetic and geophysical research activity through DORIS data analysis. The main work carried out in the past two years concerns the processing of the measurements collected by the DORIS-equipped satellites over 22 years, in order to provide a homogeneous series of station coordinates and Earth pole parameters for the IDS contribution to the ITRF2014. First, we brought several upgrades to the processing and the modeling. Some of them are corrective actions to issues raised during or shortly after the production of our contribution to the ITRF2008 (ground station frequency offsets, attitude laws and macromodels). Recent models have been assessed with the aim to update our analysis configuration. Among others, we adopted the time variable gravity (TVG) model EIGEN-6S2 and applied tropospheric gradients. Then we processed almost all the DORIS data collected between January 1993 and December 2014. The series of weekly SINEX solutions derived from this processing is labeled grgwd40. This new series performs better than the series produced for ITRF2008. Especially, the results discussed in this paper show a decrease of 2% of the DORIS orbit residuals as well as a strong reduction of the annual terms of the TRF scale and Tz translation which can be explained by the application of the TVG model.

  13. IL-27 Directly Enhances Germinal Center B Cell Activity and Potentiates Lupus in Sanroque Mice.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Dipti; Mohd Redzwan, Norhanani; Avery, Danielle T; Wirasinha, Rushika C; Brink, Robert; Walters, Giles; Adelstein, Stephen; Kobayashi, Masao; Gray, Paul; Elliott, Michael; Wong, Melanie; King, Cecile; Vinuesa, Carola G; Ghilardi, Nico; Ma, Cindy S; Tangye, Stuart G; Batten, Marcel

    2016-10-15

    Germinal centers (GC) give rise to high-affinity and long-lived Abs and are critical in immunity and autoimmunity. IL-27 supports GCs by promoting survival and function of T follicular helper cells. We demonstrate that IL-27 also directly enhances GC B cell function. Exposure of naive human B cells to rIL-27 during in vitro activation enhanced their differentiation into CD20(+)CD38(+)CD27(low)CD95(+)CD10(+) cells, consistent with the surface marker phenotype of GC B cells. This effect was inhibited by loss-of-function mutations in STAT1 but not STAT3 To extend these findings, we studied the in vivo effects of IL-27 signals to B cells in the GC-driven Roquin(san/san) lupus mouse model. Il27ra(-/-)Roquin(san/san) mice exhibited significantly reduced GCs, IgG2a(c)(+) autoantibodies, and nephritis. Mixed bone marrow chimeras confirmed that IL-27 acts through B cell- and CD4(+) T cell-intrinsic mechanisms to support GCs and alter the production of pathogenic Ig isotypes. To our knowledge, our data provide the first evidence that IL-27 signals directly to B cells promote GCs and support the role of IL-27 in lupus.

  14. [High activity antiretroviral therapy change associated to adverse drug reactions in a specialized center in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Subiela, José D; Dapena, Elida

    2016-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent the first cause of change of the first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen, therefore, they constitute the main limiting factor in the long-term follow up of HIV patients in treatment. A retrospective study was carried out in a specialized center in Lara State, Venezuela, including 99 patients over 18 years of age who had change of first-line HAART regimen due to ADRs, between 2010 and 2013. The aims of this research were to describe the sociodemographic and clinical variables, frequency of ADRs related to change of HAART, duration of the first-line HAART regimen, to determine the drugs associated with ARVs and to identify the risk factors. The ADRs constituted 47.5% of all causes of change of first-line HAART regimen, the median duration was 1.08±0.28 years. The most frequent ADRs were anemia (34.3%), hypersensitivity reactions (20.2%) and gastrointestinal intolerance (13.1%). The most frequent ARV regimen type was the protease inhibitors-based regimen (59.6%), but zidovudine was the ARV most linked to ADRs (41.4%). The regression analysis showed increased risk of ADRs in singles and students in the univariate analysis and heterosexuals and homosexuals in multivariate analysis; and decreased risk in active workers. The present work shows the high prevalence of ADRs in the studied population and represents the first case-based study that describes the pharmacoepidemiology of a cohort of HIV-positive patients treated in Venezuela.

  15. The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2011-04-01

    How do you keep a classroom of 100 undergraduates actively learning? Can students practice communication and teamwork skills in a large class? How do you boost the performance of underrepresented groups? The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project has addressed these concerns. Because of their inclusion in a leading introductory physics textbook, project materials are used by more than 1/3 of all science, math, and engineering majors nationwide. The room design and pedagogy have been adopted at more than 100 leading institutions across the country. Physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, biology, engineering, earth sciences, and even literature classes are currently being taught this way. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. We promote active learning in a redesigned classroom for 100 students or more. (Of course, smaller classes can also benefit.) Class time is spent primarily on "tangibles" and "ponderables"--hands-on activities, simulations, and interesting questions. Nine students sit in three teams at round tables. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Hundreds of hours of classroom video and audio recordings, transcripts of numerous interviews and focus groups, data from conceptual learning assessments (using widely-recognized instruments in a pretest/posttest protocol), and collected portfolios of student work are part of our rigorous assessment effort. Our findings (based on data from over 16,000 students collected over five years as well as replications at adopting sites) can be summarized as the following: 1) Female failure rate is 1/5 of previous levels, even though more is demanded of students. 2) Minority failure rate is 1/4 that seen in traditionally taught courses. 3) At-risk students are more

  16. Attending an activity center: positive experiences of a group of home-dwelling persons with early-stage dementia

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Aasgaard, Live; Landmark, Bjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background In Norway, there is a focus on home-dwelling people with dementia receiving the opportunity to participate in organized meaningful activities. The aim of this study was to elucidate the experiences of home-dwelling persons with early-stage dementia who attend an activity center and participate in adapted physical and social activities delivered by nurses and volunteers. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach, with individual interviews conducted among eight people diagnosed with early-stage dementia. The interview texts were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. Results Four categories, ie, “appreciated activities”, “praised nurses and volunteers”, “being more active”, and “being included in a fellowship”, as well as the overall theme “participation in appreciated activities and a sense of feeling included in a fellowship may have a positive influence on health and well-being” emerged in the analysis. The informants appreciated the adapted physical and social activities and expressed their enjoyment and gratitude. They found the physical activities useful, and they felt themselves to be included in a fellowship through cheerful nurses and volunteers. The nurses were able to create a good atmosphere and spread joy in the center together with the volunteers. The informants felt themselves valued as the persons they were. These findings indicated that such activities may have had a positive influence on the informants’ health and well-being. Conclusion In order to succeed with this kind of activity center, it is decisive that the nurses are able to tailor meaningful activities and create an environment where the persons with dementia can feel that they are respected and valued. The municipality health care service should implement such activity centers with specialist nurses in dementia care together with volunteers. PMID:25419121

  17. 76 FR 17149 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for North American Reporting Center for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (NARCAM) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior... currently approved paperwork requirements for the USGS North American Reporting Center for Amphibian...: Abstract: Beginning in 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey has collected voluntary data regarding...

  18. State Education Activities to Support Mission Growth. NGA Center for Best Practices. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Tara A.

    2009-01-01

    The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) leads a Mission Growth Working Group, which consists of states that are significantly impacted by the growth of military bases. The group includes state representatives appointed by the governors of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana,…

  19. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rehabilitation technology; and (ii) Other scientific research to assist in meeting the employment and independent... Research Center conduct? 350.32 Section 350.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering...

  20. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rehabilitation technology; and (ii) Other scientific research to assist in meeting the employment and independent... Research Center conduct? 350.32 Section 350.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering...

  1. Texas Teacher Center Activities and Networking with Special Attention to School-Based Teacher Educator (SBTE) Activities: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Susan F.; Hall, Gene E.

    This document is the second in a series of evaluation reports by the Research and Development Center for Teacher Education at the University of Texas at Austin, assessing the state of teacher centering in Texas and the effects of the University of Houston's Project on School-Based Teacher Educators (SBTE), initiated to create a network of teacher…

  2. Crustal structure across the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze platform, central China, from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.; Okaya, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present active-source seismic data recorded along a 300??km-long profile across the Three Gorges area of the western Yangtze platform, central China. From west to east, the profile crosses the Zigui basin, Huangling dome and Jianghan basin. The derived crustal P-wave velocity structure changes significantly across the Tongchenghe fault that lies at the transition from the Huangling dome to the Jianghan basin. West of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Zigui basin and the Huangling dome, we observe a ~ 42??km thick crust of relatively low average velocity (6.3-6.4??km/s). In contrast, east of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Jianghan basin, the crust is only 30??km thick and has a high average velocity (6.6-6.7??km/s). A west-east variation in crustal composition along the Tongchenghe fault is also inferred. West of the fault, P-wave velocities suggest a felsic composition with an intermediate layer at the base of the crust, whilst, east of the fault, felsic, intermediate, and mafic crustal layers are apparent. Our results suggest that the crust beneath the Jianghan basin has been thinned by rifting, accompanied by intrusion of the lower crust by mafic dikes and sills. The west-to-east division of the crust in the Three Gorges area coincides with first-order geophysical contrasts in gravity, topography, crustal and lithospheric thickness. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Satellite and earth science data management activities at the U.S. geological survey's EROS data center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.; Metz, Gary G.; Draeger, William C.; Thompson, Ralph J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the national archive for Landsat data, has 20 years of experience in acquiring, archiving, processing, and distributing Landsat and earth science data. The Center is expanding its satellite and earth science data management activities to support the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System Program. The Center's current and future data management activities focus on land data and include: satellite and earth science data set acquisition, development and archiving; data set preservation, maintenance and conversion to more durable and accessible archive medium; development of an advanced Land Data Information System; development of enhanced data packaging and distribution mechanisms; and data processing, reprocessing, and product generation systems.

  4. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Validation Data Management at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, M. C.; Paserba, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) validation activity. NSIDC has designed and developed a web portal to data and information collected during NASA's AMSR-E Validation Program: (http://nsidc.org/data/amsr_validation/.) The AMSR-E validation experiments address three disciplines: soil moisture, rainfall and cryospheric validation campaigns. This poster describes all these experiments (past, present and future). NSIDC provides documentation, e.g., user guides, as well as metadata documents (DIFS) submitted to the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), for all the AMSR-E validation experiments. NSIDC further supports the validation activities by collaborating with the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) to provide scientists in the field (e.g., Arctic and Antarctic ship and flight campaigns) with quick, easy access to AMSR-E data for their validation experiments. NSIDC provides subsets of reformatted data in a manner most convenient to the validation scientists while they conduct their experiments. The AMSR-E is a mission instrument launched aboard NASA's Aqua Satellite on 4 May 2002. The Aqua mission provides a multi-disciplinary study of the Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and land processes and their relationship to global change. With six instruments aboard, the Aqua Satellite will travel in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit. NSIDC will archive and distribute all AMSR-E products, including Levels 1A, 2, and 3 data. Users can order Level-1A AMSR-E data beginning 19 June 2003 and Level-2A data beginning 01 September 2003. Other products will be available in March 2004.

  5. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  6. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  7. Spt5 accumulation at variable genes distinguishes somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells from ex vivo-activated cells.

    PubMed

    Maul, Robert W; Cao, Zheng; Venkataraman, Lakshmi; Giorgetti, Carol A; Press, Joan L; Denizot, Yves; Du, Hansen; Sen, Ranjan; Gearhart, Patricia J

    2014-10-20

    Variable (V) genes of immunoglobulins undergo somatic hypermutation by activation-induced deaminase (AID) to generate amino acid substitutions that encode antibodies with increased affinity for antigen. Hypermutation is restricted to germinal center B cells and cannot be recapitulated in ex vivo-activated splenic cells, even though the latter express high levels of AID. This suggests that there is a specific feature of antigen activation in germinal centers that recruits AID to V genes which is absent in mitogen-activated cultured cells. Using two Igh knock-in mouse models, we found that RNA polymerase II accumulates in V regions in B cells after both types of stimulation for an extended distance of 1.2 kb from the TATA box. The paused polymerases generate abundant single-strand DNA targets for AID. However, there is a distinct accumulation of the initiating form of polymerase, along with the transcription cofactor Spt5 and AID, in the V region from germinal center cells, which is totally absent in cultured cells. These data support a model where mutations are prevalent in germinal center cells, but not in ex vivo cells, because the initiating form of polymerase is retained, which affects Spt5 and AID recruitment.

  8. The National Center on Secondary Education and Transition: Its Mission, Structure, and Activities. Transcript of NCSET Conference Call Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Jones, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a transcript of a National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET) teleconference call held on February 27, 2001. David R. Johnson and Bonnie Jones talked about the mission, structure, and activities of NCSET. The presenters also provided an overview of OSEP (Office of Special Education Programs) perspective about…

  9. "Sticky Ions": A Student-Centered Activity Using Magnetic Models to Explore the Dissolving of Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sheila; Herrington, Deborah G.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what happens at the particulate level when ionic compounds dissolve in water is difficult for many students, yet this understanding is critical in explaining many macroscopic observations. This article describes a student-centered activity designed to help strengthen students' conceptual understanding of this process at the…

  10. Swift/XRT detects renewed activity of the Galactic center transient CXOGC J174540.0-290005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Reynolds, M. T.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; Kennea, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    In our daily Swift/XRT monitoring observations of the Galactic center (Degenaar et al. 2015, JHEAp, 7, 137) we detect X-ray activity of a transient source located 20" to the north of Sgr A*, at a position consistent with that of the known X-ray transient CXOGC J174540.0-290005/Swift J174540.2-290005.

  11. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  12. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  13. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Center-Based or Combined Physical Activity Intervention among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Alexandre; Cloes, Marc

    2015-01-01

    With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among…

  14. Quantifying the growth of a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge using repeat terrestrial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Da'an River Gorge in western Taiwan provides a unique opportunity to observe the formation and evolution of a natural bedrock gorge. The 1.2 km long and up to 20 m deep gorge has formed since 1999 in response to uplift of the riverbed during the Chi-Chi earthquake. The extremely rapid pace of erosion enables us to observe both downcutting and channel widening over short time periods. We have monitored the evolution of the gorge since 2009 using repeat RTK GPS surveys and terrestrial Lidar scans. GPS surveys of the channel profile are conducted frequently, with 24 surveys to date, while Lidar scans are conducted after major floods, or after 5-9 months without a flood, for a total of 8 scans to date. The Lidar data are most useful for recording erosion of channel walls, which is quite episodic and highly variable along the channel. By quantifying the distribution of wall erosion in space and time, we can improve our understanding of channel widening processes and of the development of the channel planform, particularly the growth of bends. During the summer of 2012, the Da'an catchment experienced two large storm events, a meiyu (plum rain) event on June 10-13 that brought 800 mm of rain, and a typhoon on August 1-3 that brought 650 mm of rain. The resulting floods had significant geomorphic effects on the Da'an gorge, including up to 10s of meters of erosion on some sections of the gorge walls. We quantify these changes using Lidar surveys conducted on June 7, July 3, and in mid-August. Channel wall collapses also occur in the absence of large floods, and we use scans from August 23, 2011 and June 7, 2012 to quantify erosion during a period that included a number of small floods, but no large ones. This allows us to compare the impact of 9 months of normal conditions to the impact of short-duration extreme events.Before June flood After June flood

  15. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  16. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  17. Cholecystokinin activation of central satiety centers changes seasonally in a mammalian hibernator.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Raybould, Helen E; Carey, Hannah V

    2011-05-01

    Hibernators that rely on lipids during winter exhibit profound changes in food intake over the annual cycle. The mechanisms that regulate appetite changes in seasonal hibernators remain unclear, but likely consist of complex interactions between gut hormones, adipokines, and central processing centers. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in the sensitivity of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to the gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) may contribute to appetite regulation in ground squirrels. Spring (SPR), late summer (SUM), and winter euthermic hibernating (HIB) 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) were treated with intraperitoneal CCK (100 μg/kg) or vehicle (CON) for 3h and Fos expression in the NTS was quantified. In CON squirrels, numbers of Fos-positive neurons in HIB were low compared to SPR and SUM. CCK treatment increased Fos-positive neurons in the NTS at the levels of the area postrema (AP) and pre AP during all seasons and at the level of the rostral AP in HIB squirrels. The highest absolute levels of Fos-positive neurons were found in SPR CCK squirrels, but the highest relative increase from CON was found in HIB CCK squirrels. Fold-changes in Fos-positive neurons in SUM were intermediate between SPR and HIB. Thus, CCK sensitivity falls from SPR to SUM suggesting that seasonal changes in sensitivity of NTS neurons to vagally-derived CCK may influence appetite in the active phase of the annual cycle in hibernating squirrels. Enhanced sensitivity to CCK signaling in NTS neurons of hibernators indicates that changes in gut-brain signaling may contribute to seasonal changes in food intake during the annual cycle.

  18. Facility Activation and Characterization for IPD Turbopump Testing at NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sass, J. P.; Pace, J. S.; Raines, N. G.; Meredith, T. O.; Taylor, S. A.; Ryan, H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD) is a 250K lbf (1.1 MN) thrust cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen engine technology demonstrator that utilizes a full flow staged combustion engine cycle. The Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD) is, in part, supported by NASA. IPD is also supported through the Department of Defense's Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program, which seeks to increase the performance and capability of today's state-of-the-art rocket propulsion systems while decreasing costs associated with military and commercial access to space. The primary industry participants include Boeing-Rocketdyne and GenCorp Aerojet. The IPD Program recently achieved two major milestones. The first was the successful completion of the IPD Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) hot-fire test project at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) E-1 test facility in June 2003. A total of nine IPD Workhorse Preburner tests were completed, and subsequently 12 IPD OTP hot-fire tests were completed. The second major milestone was the successful completion of the IPD Fuel Turbopump (FTP) cold-flow test project at the NASA SSC E-1 test facility in November 2003. A total of six IPD FTP cold-flow tests were completed. The next phase of development involves IPD integrated engine system testing also at the NASA SSC E-1 test facility scheduled to begin in early 2005. Following and overview of the NASA SSC E-1 test facility, this paper addresses the facility aspects pertaining to the activation and testing of the IPD oxidizer and fuel turbopumps. In addition, some of the facility challenges encountered and the lessons learned during the test projects shall be detailed.

  19. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  20. Primary Care and Public Health Activities in Select US Health Centers: Documenting Successes, Barriers, and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leiyu; Chowdhury, Joya; Sripipatana, Alek; Zhu, Jinsheng; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A. Seiji; Daly, Charles A.; Tomoyasu, Naomi; Nair, Suma; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined primary care and public health activities among federally funded health centers, to better understand their successes, the barriers encountered, and the lessons learned. Methods. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data from 9 health centers, stratified by administrative division, urban–rural location, and race/ethnicity of patients served. Descriptive data on patient and institutional characteristics came from the Uniform Data System, which collects data from all health centers annually. We administered questionnaires and conducted phone interviews with key informants. Results. Health centers performed well on primary care coordination and community orientation scales and reported conducting many essential public health activities. We identified specific needs for integrating primary care and public health: (1) more funding for collaborations and for addressing the social determinants of health, (2) strong leadership to champion collaborations, (3) trust building among partners, with shared missions and clear expectations of responsibilities, and (4) alignment and standardization of data collection, analysis, and exchange. Conclusions. Lessons learned from health centers should inform strategies to better integrate public health with primary care. PMID:22690975

  1. Scientists Discover Supernova May Control Activity in the Center of Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-02-01

    degrees by Chandra. Scientists believe the outward shock wave moved the cooler, heavier gas that comprises the intergalactic medium--compressing and plowing that gas past the black hole as the shock wave spread and feeding the black hole in the process. They believe the result was a period of intense feeding of material into the black hole, followed by a period of black hole "starvation." "The important question to be raised here is what effect the plowed gas has on its environment," said Frederick Baganoff, a research associate at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and lead scientist for Chandra's Galactic Center project. "It is possible that the plowed gas has passed over the supermassive black hole at some time in the recent past. During the passage, a lot of gas could have been captured by the black hole." When black holes pull matter inward, they are able to accelerate those particles to almost the speed of light. The matter accreting into a black hole releases a great deal of energy, much of it in X rays that can ionize the surrounding gas and make it visible with instruments such as ACIS. Because X-ray emissions from the black hole are weak at this time, scientists believe the shock wave already has passed by the black hole. "Radio astronomers already found that the gas in a halo surrounding Sgr A East and the supermassive black hole is largely ionized," said Mark Morris, professor of astronomy and physics at the University of California at Los Angeles. "If the gas plowed by the supernova remnant was pushed past the black hole, the spectacular interaction would very possibly have occurred as recently as a few hundred years ago, and the resulting flash of energy would likely have irradiated and ionized the surrounding gas. This could explain why the ionization of the gas still survives." In a broader sense, that activity might serve as a model for other black holes and other phenomena throughout the universe because the Chandra scientists suggest supernova

  2. The effect of total solar eclipse on the daily activities of Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb.) in Mangrove Center, Kariangau, East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sya Shanida, Sya; Hanik Lestari, Tiffany; Partasasmita, Ruhyat

    2016-11-01

    The total solar eclipse is an interesting phenomenon because the sun is covered by the moon. This phenomenon is like a night deception for animals, humans, and plants. One of the animals is Bekantan (Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb.)). Nasalis larvatus change its activity when this phenomenon occurs. The aims of the present study are (1) daily activity of Nasalis larvatus on total solar eclipse on March 9th, 2016 and (2) the effect of total solar eclipse on its activity in Mangrove Center, Kariangau, East Kalimantan. The adlibitum method was used in this study on Bekantan's adult female. The result shows that the total solar eclipse has considerable effect on the daily activity of Bekantan. During total solar eclipse, the activity of Bekantan significantly stopped. When the total solar eclipse finished, Bekantan started its daily activity, and it was indicated by feeding activity which was led by alfa-male.

  3. Unmet Expectations and Symptoms of Depression among the Three Gorges Project Resettlers

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Juan; Hwang, Sean-Shong

    2010-01-01

    To successfully resettle 1.27 million Chinese for the construction of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), the Chinese government employed a new re-resettlement policy which emphasizes infrastructural development of the resettlement sites to assure resettlers a sustainable livelihood following resettlement. Unfortunately, many benefits the policy promised have not materialized. As a result, many resettlers have suffered an increase in depressive symptoms associated with unmet expectations. Using panel data collected before and after relocation from a sample of Three Gorges resettlers, we found that a high proportion of resettlers reported unmet expectations which were significantly associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that undeliverable promises can backfire and further aggravate the harm inflicted on the displaced caused by the project-induced displacement. From the perspective of resettlers, a sound coping strategy to minimize the harm caused by the displacement on their mental wellbeing is to expect for the worst. PMID:21278844

  4. Lake trout consumption and recent changes in the fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, D.L. ); Luecke, C. )

    1993-11-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the consumption dynamics of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Analysis of diet and population estimates of different size-classes of lake trout indicated that kokanees Oncorhynchus nerka made up the greatest proportion of prey biomass. Examination of growth rates of forage fish and predator-prey size ratios indicated that Utah chub Gila atraria were more vulnerable than kokanees to lake trout predation. Utah chub grow slower than kokanees and thus were susceptible to piscivores over a longer age span. The authors conclude the kokanees will make up an even large proportion of the pelagic fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir in future years. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. [Spatial pattern of vegetation landscape diversity in longitudinal Range-Gorge Region, southwestern China].

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-hong; Dai, Er-fu; Zhao, Dong-sheng; Yin, Yun-he

    2010-12-01

    Based on the China 1:1000000 vegetation type map, and by using GIS spatial analysis, the spatial pattern of major vegetation landscape diversity indices and its relationships with environmental factors in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region (LRGR) were analyzed. The proper scale for studying the vegetation landscape diversity in LRGR was 2000 m. In the study region, an obvious regional difference was observed in the vegetation landscape diversity indices, exhibiting typical longitudinal "corridor" and latitudinal "barrier" characteristics. The correlations between the vegetation landscape diversity indices and environmental elements were significant, and the regional difference in the environmental elements was the main factor controlling the spatial pattern of vegetation landscape diversity indices. The "corridor-barrier" function of the longitudinal range-gorge terrain made a spatial redistribution of hydro-thermal conditions, being the main cause of the special pattern of the vegetation landscape diversity in LRGR.

  6. The epidemiology and prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus infection and disease: activities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Ross, Danielle S; Dollard, Sheila C; Victor, Marcia; Sumartojo, Esther; Cannon, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    Perhaps no single cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States currently provides greater opportunity for improved outcomes in more children than congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV). --Cannon and Davis. BMC Public Health 2005;5:70 Each year in the United States, thousands of children and their families are affected by congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. More children may be affected by congenital CMV than by other, better known childhood conditions, such as Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has formed a Workgroup on Congenital CMV, led by the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities and the National Center on Infectious Diseases. This report provides background on congenital CMV infection and describes the goals and activities of the workgroup for reducing the burden of sequelae of congenital CMV infection.

  7. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D'Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general.

  8. The Empirical Study on the Labor Export of Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bangyong

    There are many large surplus labor force in the three gorges reservoir area, export of labor services is one way to tackle the problem of employment of the surplus-labor and increase farmers income, export of labor is also a effective way to solve three rural issues. This paper analyzes the need for the development of service economy, study the problems of export of labor services, at last the author give some suggestion to develop labor economy.

  9. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Doody, J. Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D’Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general. PMID:26135472

  10. Near-line Archive Data Mining at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Mack, R.; Eng, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is generating immense volumes of data, in some cases too much to provide to users with data-intensive needs. As an alternative to moving the data to the user and his/her research algorithms, we are providing a means to move the algorithms to the data. The Near-line Archive Data Mining (NADM) system is the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center's (GES DAAC) web data mining portal to the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data pool, a 50-TB online disk cache. The NADM web portal enables registered users to submit and execute data mining algorithm codes on the data in the EOSDIS data pool. A web interface allows the user to access the NADM system. The users first develops personalized data mining code on their home platform and then uploads them to the NADM system. The C, FORTRAN and IDL languages are currently supported. The user developed code is automatically audited for any potential security problems before it is installed within the NADM system and made available to the user. Once the code has been installed the user is provided a test environment where he/she can test the execution of the software against data sets of the user's choosing. When the user is satisfied with the results, he/she can promote their code to the "operational" environment. From here the user can interactively run his/her code on the data available in the EOSDIS data pool. The user can also set up a processing subscription. The subscription will automatically process new data as it becomes available in the EOSDIS data pool. The generated mined data products are then made available for FTP pickup. The NADM system uses the GES DAAC-developed Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor (S4P) to automate tasks and perform the actual data processing. Users will also have the option of selecting a DAAC-provided data mining algorithm and using it to process the data of their choice.

  11. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  14. The Evolving Landscape of the Columbia River Gorge: Lewis and Clark and Cataclysms on the Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.

    2004-01-01

    TAVELERS RETRACING LEWIS AND CLARKE JOURNEY to the Pacific over the past two hundred years have witnessed tre mendous change to the Columbia River Gorge and its pri mary feature, the Columbia River. Dams, reservoirs, timber harvest, altered fisheries, transportation infrastructure, and growth and shrinkage of communities have transformed the river and valley.1 This radically different geography of human use and habitation is commonly contrasted with the sometimes romantic view of a prior time provided both by early nineteenth-century chroniclers and present-day critics of the modern condition ? an ecotopia of plentiful and perpetual resources sustaining a stable culture from time immemorial. Reality is more com plicated. Certainly the human-caused changes to the Columbia River and the gorge since Lewis and Clark have been profound; but the geologic his tory of immense floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions that occurred before their journey had equally, if not more, acute effects on landscapes and societies of the gorge. In many ways, the Lewis and Clark Expedi tion can be viewed as a hinge point for the Columbia River, the changes engineered to the river and its valley in the two hundred years since their visit mirrored by tremendous changes geologically engendered in the thousands of years before. 

  15. The Evolving Landscape of the Columbia River Gorge: Lewis and Clark and Cataclysms on the Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Travelers reacting Lewis and Clark's journey to the Pacific over the past two hundred years have witnessed tremendous change to the Columbia River Gorge and its primary feature, the Columbia River. Dams, reservoirs, timer harvest, altered fisheries, transportation infrastructure, and growth and shrinkage of communities have transformed the river and valley. This radically different geography of human use and habitation is  commonly contrasted with the sometimes romantic view of a prior time provided both by early nineteenth-century chronicle and present day critics of the modern condition - an ectopia of plentiful and perpetual resources sustaining a stable culture from time immemorial. Reality is more complicated. Certainly the human-caused changes to the Columbia River and the gorge since Lewis and Clark have been profound; by the geologic history of immense floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions that occurred before the journey had equally, if not more, acute effects on landscapes and societies of the gorge. In many ways, the Lewis and Clark Expidition can be viewed as a hinge point for the Columbia River, the changes engineered to the river and its valley in the two hundred years since their visit mirrored by tremendous cchanges geologically engendered in the thousands of years before. 

  16. A New Horned Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid Sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Christopher A.; Njau, Jackson; Blumenschine, Robert J.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The fossil record reveals surprising crocodile diversity in the Neogene of Africa, but relationships with their living relatives and the biogeographic origins of the modern African crocodylian fauna are poorly understood. A Plio-Pleistocene crocodile from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represents a new extinct species and shows that high crocodylian diversity in Africa persisted after the Miocene. It had prominent triangular “horns” over the ears and a relatively deep snout, these resemble those of the recently extinct Malagasy crocodile Voay robustus, but the new species lacks features found among osteolaemines and shares derived similarities with living species of Crocodylus. Methodology/Principal Findings The holotype consists of a partial skull and skeleton and was collected on the surface between two tuffs dated to approximately 1.84 million years (Ma), in the same interval near the type localities for the hominids Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei. It was compared with previously-collected material from Olduvai Gorge referable to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis places the new form within or adjacent to crown Crocodylus. Conclusions/Significance The new crocodile species was the largest predator encountered by our ancestors at Olduvai Gorge, as indicated by hominid specimens preserving crocodile bite marks from these sites. The new species also reinforces the emerging view of high crocodylian diversity throughout the Neogene, and it represents one of the few extinct species referable to crown genus Crocodylus. PMID:20195356

  17. Does erosion of Himalayan gorges drive focused uplift along transverse rivers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D. W.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Erosion of deep river gorges has long been hypothesized to be capable of driving isostatic uplift focused along valley axes. Numerical modeling suggests that such an effect may be enhanced where rivers cut gorges into rocks that are deforming plastically in response to regional compression. Some authors argue that apparent river-parallel anticlines in the Himalaya could be manifestations of this process and may even represent the youngest phase of deformation in the range. These hypotheses, however, remain largely untested with quantitative data on erosion and rock uplift. To explore this proposed river incision-anticlinal uplift hypothesis, we attempt to measure and compare exhumation rates from the core and limbs of a river anticline in the high Himalaya of northwest Nepal. We focus on the Karnali River gorge, which trends nearly transverse to the structural grain of the range and generally lacks the neotectonic complexity of other Himalayan river anticlines. We present new apatite and zircon U-Th/He cooling ages collected along relief transects entirely within the Greater Himalayan sequence. Transects span 1-2 km of relief over <4 km distance and were sited to track variations in exhumation rate from the core toward the limbs of the anticline. Reconstruction of isochronous cooling-age surfaces with respect to modern topography and both bedrock structure and stratigraphy will be used to assess the validity of the river anticline hypothesis in this region.

  18. Current Activities and Capabilities of the Terrestrial Environment Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Batts, Wade

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designated Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the center of excellence for space transportation. The Aerospace Environments and Effects (AEE) team of the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch (EL23) in the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at MSFC, supports the center of excellence designation by providing near-Earth space, deep space, planetary, and terrestrial environments expertise to projects as required. The Terrestrial Environment (TE) group within the AEE team maintains an extensive TE data base. Statistics and models derived from this data are applied to the design and development of new aerospace vehicles, as well as performance enhancement of operational vehicles such as the Space Shuttle. The TE is defined as the Earth's atmospheric environment extending from the surface to orbital insertion altitudes (approximately 90 km).

  19. How a stationary knickpoint is sustained: new insights into the formation of the deep Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhou, W.

    2015-12-01

    Researches on south-east Tibet suggested that Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge was resulted either from glacial dam (climatic control) or differential rock uplift (tectonic control). Most of these available studies agreed that this huge deepest gorge on Earth is a stationary knickpoint. Although different hypotheses were proposed to explain its origin, little attempt focused on the critical condition to sustain its stability in a theoretical and quantitative way. Here we derived a universal formula to express the upstream migration velocity of knickpoints via stream incision model. This formula was suitable for many conditions, for example, it allowed spatially varied channel uplift rates , linear or non-linear correlation between erosion and channel gradient. According to the formula and two primary viewpoints, a stationary knickpoint occured where incision rates of gorge matched the upstream deposition rates (glacial dam) or the difference of basement uplift rates between the upstream and downstream reaches of the knickpoint (tectonic control). We calculated the rock exhumation rates of the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge via published thermochronological age and one-dimension steady-state thermal diffusion equation, the channel steepness from digital elevation model, and the erodibility by dividing exhumation rates by channel steepness. Combining these parameters, we obtained river incision rates of the gorge. We found the incision rates were much larger than the upstream deposition rates but showing good accordance with the difference of basement uplift rates between the upstream and downstream reaches of the knickpoint. Our results shown here supported the conclusion that the stationary knickpoint on the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge was resulted from tectonic control rather than glacial dam. Therefore, we speculated that the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge was controlled by tectonics more than climate. Our finding thus theoretically and quantitatively outlined how this stationary huge knickpoint

  20. Linkage between Three Gorges Dam impacts and the dramatic recessions in China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Du, Jinzhou; Chen, Jiyu

    2015-12-01

    Despite comprising a small portion of the earth’s surface, lakes are vitally important for global ecosystem cycling. However, lake systems worldwide are extremely fragile, and many are shrinking due to changing climate and anthropogenic activities. Here, we show that Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced a dramatic and prolonged recession, which began in late September of 2003. We further demonstrate that abnormally low levels appear during October, 28 days ahead of the normal initiation of the dry season, which greatly imperiled the lake’s wetland areas and function as an ecosystem for wintering waterbirds. An increase in the river-lake water level gradient induced by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) altered the lake balance by inducing greater discharge into the Changjiang River, which is probably responsible for the current lake shrinkage. Occasional episodes of arid climate, as well as local sand mining, will aggravate the lake recession crisis. Although impacts of TGD on the Poyang Lake recession can be overruled by episodic extreme droughts, we argue that the average contributions of precipitation variation, human activities in the Poyang Lake catchment and TGD regulation to the Poyang Lake recession can be quantified as 39.1%, 4.6% and 56.3%, respectively.

  1. Linkage between Three Gorges Dam impacts and the dramatic recessions in China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Du, Jinzhou; Chen, Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    Despite comprising a small portion of the earth’s surface, lakes are vitally important for global ecosystem cycling. However, lake systems worldwide are extremely fragile, and many are shrinking due to changing climate and anthropogenic activities. Here, we show that Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced a dramatic and prolonged recession, which began in late September of 2003. We further demonstrate that abnormally low levels appear during October, 28 days ahead of the normal initiation of the dry season, which greatly imperiled the lake’s wetland areas and function as an ecosystem for wintering waterbirds. An increase in the river-lake water level gradient induced by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) altered the lake balance by inducing greater discharge into the Changjiang River, which is probably responsible for the current lake shrinkage. Occasional episodes of arid climate, as well as local sand mining, will aggravate the lake recession crisis. Although impacts of TGD on the Poyang Lake recession can be overruled by episodic extreme droughts, we argue that the average contributions of precipitation variation, human activities in the Poyang Lake catchment and TGD regulation to the Poyang Lake recession can be quantified as 39.1%, 4.6% and 56.3%, respectively. PMID:26657816

  2. Nut Cracking Tools Used by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Their Comparison with Early Stone Age Percussive Artefacts from Olduvai Gorge

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Adrián; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans. The approach used in this study may help to stablish a framework with which to interpret archaeological assemblages and improve understanding of use-wear formation processes on pounding tools used by chimpanzees. This study represents the first direct comparison of chimpanzee pounding tools and archaeological material, and thus may contribute to a better understanding of hominin percussive activities. PMID:27870877

  3. P- and S-velocity structure beneath the Three Gorges region (central China) from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    A seismic experiment provides new insights on the crustal structure of the head area of the Three Gorges Reservoir in central China. The region is characterized by a relatively high rate of reservoir-induced seismicity that is often triggered within those areas associated with the ascending water level. Our 3-D velocity model of the Three Gorges region shows that the Huangling anticline (HLA) is characterized by a high-velocity crust, and the Zigui Basin (ZGB) has lower crustal velocities. The 3-D tomographic inversions are conducted using 11 901 P-wave and 12 032 S-wave arrival times from 1342 events recorded by the local network of seismic stations from early 2001 to late 2006. Initial models with varying velocity gradients are extracted to constrain a data-driven optimum 1-D model for 3-D iterative inversion scheme. Checkerboard tests are applied to assess model reliability, indicating a reasonable level of lateral and vertical resolutions. The P- and S-tomographic models reveal a local high-velocity anomaly from 5 to 10 km beneath SW portion of the HLA and a strong, large low-velocity anomaly between about 5-10 km depths at the south margin of the ZGB. Moreover, the southwest border of HLA underthrust the ZGB with slightly bigger angle. Also, a prominent high-velocity anomaly is located below 5 km beneath Shazhenxi, and to the west, the velocity anomaly turns out to be negative. There is no record help explaining the dramatic feature since incorporating local tectonic and topography, it suggests sharp gap in velocity near surface is primarily due to several secondary fracture zones. The surface responses of velocity discontinuity are generally aligned parallel to the trending of fault. Relatively good agreement between regional features and the velocity perturbations promotes further interpretation. Earthquake swarm activities from source relocation occur on the outer portions of high-velocity anomaly with nearly perpendicular dip angle. Thus, the seismicity

  4. Monitoring Fast-Moving Landslide in the Three Gorges Area By Offset Tracking Method with High-Resolution SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L.; Balz, T.

    2014-12-01

    Landslide has long been considered as a major geological hazard with great threats to local residents and social economic developments within the Three Gorges area, China. With the regular operation of Three Gorges Dam since 2009, the reservoir water level undergoes an annual cycle from 145 m in early summer to 175 m in early winter caused by storage and discharge operations. Consequently, many ancient landslides were activated by such large variations of water level. One of typical examples is the famous Shuping landslide located in Zigui County. To reduce the risks of landslide collapse, long-term monitoring of ground surface deformation must be carried out. Terrestrial surveillance like GPS and extensometer have been installed at Shuping in 2003. Although these methods can achieve highly accurate displacement measurements, only sparse points can be observed, which is far from the requirement of monitoring vast reservoir area coverage. For such a vast and inaccessible area, D-InSAR and PS-InSAR can measure long-term and continuous displacement trends. Nevertheless, it has been revealed by several studies that InSAR can hardly retrieve accurate deformation signal on fast-moving landslides such as Shuping. Therefore, we further investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of pixel offset tracking (POT) method to detect fast-moving with high-resolution SAR data. One of the key points is to estimate displacement at each pixel through subpixel-level SAR image matching. In order to tackle the difficulties of using traditional POT technique, the point-like target offset tracking (PTOT) is developed. By making use of point-like targets with stable backscattering behavior over long time span, PTOT method is can achieve more reliable results with accuracies at 1/20 of SAR pixel resolution. More importantly, PTOT method can measure two-dimensional displacements, i.e. in both azimuth and slant range direction, while InSAR can measure displacement only along the line

  5. 34 CFR 656.3 - What activities define a comprehensive or undergraduate National Resource Center?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... countries in which the modern foreign language taught is commonly used; (2) Resources for research and... other fields of study; or (3) Instruction and research on issues in world affairs that concern one or... that may contribute to the teaching and research of the Center; (e) Maintains important...

  6. REMOTE SENSING DEVELOPMENTS, RESEARCH AND ACTIVITIES AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 30+ year history of providing remote sensing support to EPA Regional and Program Offices. In addition to the its standard Technical Support mission, EPIC has developed a research program related to emerging technol...

  7. View of activity in Mission Control Center during Lunar Module liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The liftoff from the Moon of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module 'Falcon' ascent stage is viewed on the television monitor in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center by Granvil A. Pennington, an Instruments and Communications Systems Officer.

  8. Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2

  9. Assessing Beaked Whale Reproduction and Stress Response Relative to Sonar Activity at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    England. (2001) Joint interim report Bahamas marine mammal stranding event of 15 – 16 March 2000. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration...Relative to Sonar Activity at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) Diane Elaine Claridge Bahamas Marine Mammal Research...ADDRESS(ES) Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation,P.O. Box AB-20714,Marsh Harbour,Abaco, Bahamas, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  10. De novo-designed metallopeptides with type 2 copper centers: modulation of reduction potentials and nitrite reductase activities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fangting; Penner-Hahn, James E; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2013-12-04

    Enzymatic reactions involving redox processes are highly sensitive to the local electrostatic environment. Despite considerable effort, the complex interactions among different influential factors in native proteins impede progress toward complete understanding of the structure-function relationship. Of particular interest is the type 2 copper center Cu(His)3, which may act as an electron transfer center in peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) or a catalytic center in copper nitrite reductase (CuNiR). A de novo design strategy is used to probe the effect of modifying charged amino acid residues around, but not directly bound to, a Cu(His)3 center embedded in three-stranded coiled coils (TRI-H)3 [TRI-H = Ac-G WKALEEK LKALEEK LKALEEK HKALEEK G-NH2]. Specifically, the peptide TRI-EH (=TRI-HK22E) alters an important lysine to glutamate just above the copper binding center. With a series of TRI-EH peptides mutated below the metal center, we use a variety of spectroscopies (EPR, UV-vis, XAS) to show a direct impact on the protonation equilibria, copper binding affinities, reduction potentials, and nitrite reductase activities of these copper-peptide complexes. The potentials at a specific pH vary by 100 mV, and the nitrite reductase activities range over a factor of 4 in rates. We also observe that the affinities, potentials, and catalytic activities are strongly influenced by the pH conditions (pH 5.8-7.4). In general, Cu(II) affinities for the peptides are diminished at low pH values. The interplay among these factors can lead to a 200 mV shift in reduction potential across these peptides, which is determined by the pH-dependent affinities of copper in both oxidation states. This study illustrates the strength of de novo protein design in elucidating the influence of ionizable residues on a particular redox system, an important step toward understanding the factors that govern the properties of this metalloenzyme with a goal of eventually improving the

  11. Dioxygen activation at a mononuclear Cu(I) center embedded in the calix[6]arene-tren core.

    PubMed

    Izzet, Guillaume; Zeitouny, Joceline; Akdas-Killig, Huriye; Frapart, Yves; Ménage, Stéphane; Douziech, Bénédicte; Jabin, Ivan; Le Mest, Yves; Reinaud, Olivia

    2008-07-23

    The reaction of a cuprous center coordinated to a calix[6]arene-based aza-cryptand with dioxygen has been studied. In this system, Cu(I) is bound to a tren unit that caps the calixarene core at the level of the small rim. As a result, although protected from the reaction medium by the macrocycle, the metal center presents a labile site accessible to small guest ligands. Indeed, in the presence of O2, it reacts in a very fast and irreversible redox process, leading, ultimately, to Cu(II) species. In the coordinating solvent MeCN, a one electron exchange occurs, yielding the corresponding [CalixtrenCu-MeCN](2+) complex with concomitant release of superoxide in the reaction medium. In a noncoordinating solvent such as CH2Cl2, the dioxygen reaction leads to oxygen insertions into the ligand itself. Both reactions are proposed to proceed through the formation of a superoxide-Cu(II) intermediate that is unstable in the Calixtren environment due to second sphere effects. The transiently formed superoxide ligand either undergoes fast substitution for a guest ligand (in MeCN) or intramolecular redox evolutions toward oxygenation of Calixtren. Interestingly, the latter process was shown to occur twice on the same ligand, thus demonstrating a possible catalytic activation of O2 at a single cuprous center. Altogether, this study illustrates the oxidizing power of a [CuO2](+) adduct and substantiates a mechanism by which copper mono-oxygenases such as DbetaH and PHM activate O2 at the Cu(M) center to produce such an intermediate capable of C-H breaking before the electron input provided by the noncoupled Cu(H) center.

  12. ReCAP: Impact of the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program on Clinical Trial and Related Activities at a Community Cancer Center in Rural Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, Ryan; Gönen, Mithat; Gulzow, Mary; Hadenfeldt, Rebecca; Fuller, Courtney; Scott, Jenifer; Einspahr, Sarah; Benzel, Heather; Mickey, Mary; Norvell, Max; Clark, Douglas; Gauchan, Dron; Kurbegov, Dax

    2016-01-01

    QUESTION ASKED: What is the impact of participating in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) on the number of clinical trials available, number of patients enrolled in trials, and trial-related services provided to patients at a rural community-based cancer program? SUMMARY ANSWER: Significant increases in the number and percentage of patients enrolled in clinical trials, in the number of available treatment and non-treatment (eg, prevention, biospecimen, cancer control) trials, in clinical trial staffing, and in the number of tissue samples collected and/or stored were observed during the 5-year period of NCCCP. Biospecimen trials helped promote standardization of collection and storage processes in our community cancer program. Employment and utilization of a genetic counselor, smoking cessation counselor, outreach project coordinator, and two nurse navigators enabled delivery of improved cancer care continuum services to our rural patient population. METHODS: SFCTC clinical trial activities data from July 2002 to June 2007, the 5 years before participation in the NCCCP, and from July 2007 to June 2012, the 5 years during the program, were gathered and compared. Data capture included information on the number and percentage of patients on clinical trials, number and type of available clinical trials, percentage of underserved patients in clinical trials, clinical trial staffing, collection and storage of tissue samples, organizational infrastructure, linkage to NCI-designated cancer centers, and availability of new cancer care services. Percentages of patients in clinical trials were calculated as the ratio of the number of patients enrolled onto clinical trials over the number of analytic new patient cases of cancer through our tumor registry per year. Percentages of tissue samples collected and/or stored were similarly measured as the number of biospecimens collected over the number of analytic new patient cases of cancer per

  13. Climate Change Adaptation Activities at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL., USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Carlton; Phillips, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Office of Strategic Infrastructure and Earth Sciences established the Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) program to integrate climate change forecasts and knowledge into sustainable management of infrastructure and operations needed for the NASA mission. NASA operates 10 field centers valued at $32 billion dollars, occupies 191,000 acres and employs 58,000 people. CASI climate change and sea-level rise forecasts focus on the 2050 and 2080 time periods. At the 140,000 acre Kennedy Space Center (KSC) data are used to simulate impacts on infrastructure, operations, and unique natural resources. KSC launch and processing facilities represent a valued national asset located in an area with high biodiversity including 33 species of special management concern. Numerical and advanced Bayesian and Monte Carlo statistical modeling is being conducted using LiDAR digital elevation models coupled with relevant GIS layers to assess potential future conditions. Results are provided to the Environmental Management Branch, Master Planning, Construction of Facilities, Engineering Construction Innovation Committee and our regional partners to support Spaceport development, management, and adaptation planning and design. Potential impacts to natural resources include conversion of 50% of the Center to open water, elevation of the surficial aquifer, alterations of rainfall and evapotranspiration patterns, conversion of salt marsh to mangrove forest, reductions in distribution and extent of upland habitats, overwash of the barrier island dune system, increases in heat stress days, and releases of chemicals from legacy contamination sites. CASI has proven successful in bringing climate change planning to KSC including recognition of the need to increase resiliency and development of a green managed shoreline retreat approach to maintain coastal ecosystem services while maximizing life expectancy of Center launch and payload processing resources.

  14. The Door--A Center of Alternatives. Report on Current Activities and Recent Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Center for Integrative Studies, New York, NY.

    The Door is a youth center in New York, New York, that has the capacity to respond to a myriad of adolescent needs and problems. Over the past 15 years it has serviced over 100,000 teenagers, 53.4 percent of whom were Black, 23.1 percent Hispanic, 20 percent White, 3.5 percent Asian and other; they come from all over the New York City area.…

  15. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  17. Behavioral science activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A selected overview of exemplary programs.

    PubMed

    Galavotti, C; Saltzman, L E; Sauter, S L; Sumartojo, E

    1997-02-01

    Behavioral research and surveillance activities are conducted across the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This article highlights activities in 4 program areas: violence against women, tuberculosis elimination, HIV prevention, and occupational health. The unique constraints and opportunities of each organization and program focus have shaped the way research has developed in each of these areas. Behavioral scientists also face many common challenges at CDC. Despite the difficulties of integrating behavioral research into an institution that historically has focused on biomedical and epidemiological research, behavioral scientists have made important contributions to public health. Many opportunities remain for psychologists to translate theory and operationalize constructs for use in solving important public health problems.

  18. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Culiseta melanura activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 1985-90.

    PubMed

    Pagac, B B; Turell, M J; Olsen, G H

    1992-09-01

    Mosquito population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, from 1985 through 1990. A dramatic increase in the number of Culiseta melanura collected in 1989, as compared with the 3 previous years, was associated with virus isolations from this species (5/75 pools; n = 542 mosquitoes) and with seroconversion in sentinel quail (4/22 birds positive). This was the first detection of EEE virus activity in this area since a 1984 EEE outbreak killed 7 whooping cranes.

  19. In situ XANES and EXAFS Analysis of Redox Active Fe Center Ionic Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Apblett, Christopher A.; Stewart, David M.; Fryer, Robert T.; ...

    2015-10-23

    We apply in situ X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques to a metal center ionic liquid undergoing oxidation and reduction in a three electrode spectroscopic cell. Furthermore, the determination of the extent of reduction under negative bias on the working electrode and the extent of oxidation are determined after pulse voltammetry to quiescence. While the ionic liquid undergoes full oxidation, it undergoes only partial reduction, likely due to transport issues on the timescale of the experiment. Nearest neighbor Fe-O distances in the fully oxidized state match well to expected values for similarlymore » coordinated solids, but reduction does not result in an extension of the Fe-O bond length, as would be expected from comparisons to the solid phase. Instead, little change in bond length is observed. Finally, we suggest that this may be due to a more complex interaction between the monodentate ligands of the metal center anion and the surrounding charge cloud, rather than straightforward electrostatics between the metal center and the nearest neighbor grouping.« less

  20. In situ XANES and EXAFS Analysis of Redox Active Fe Center Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Apblett, Christopher A.; Stewart, David M.; Fryer, Robert T.; Sell, Julia C.; Pratt, Harry D. III; Anderson, Travis M.; Meulenberg, Robert W.

    2015-10-23

    We apply in situ X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques to a metal center ionic liquid undergoing oxidation and reduction in a three electrode spectroscopic cell. Furthermore, the determination of the extent of reduction under negative bias on the working electrode and the extent of oxidation are determined after pulse voltammetry to quiescence. While the ionic liquid undergoes full oxidation, it undergoes only partial reduction, likely due to transport issues on the timescale of the experiment. Nearest neighbor Fe-O distances in the fully oxidized state match well to expected values for similarly coordinated solids, but reduction does not result in an extension of the Fe-O bond length, as would be expected from comparisons to the solid phase. Instead, little change in bond length is observed. Finally, we suggest that this may be due to a more complex interaction between the monodentate ligands of the metal center anion and the surrounding charge cloud, rather than straightforward electrostatics between the metal center and the nearest neighbor grouping.

  1. Monitoring Ground Surface Displacements in the Three Gorges Area, Crustal Tectonic Movement in Tibet and Subsidence in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Muller, J.-P.; Singleton, A.; Li, Z.; Liu, D.; Riedel, B.; Niemeier, W.; Liang, C.; Zeng, Q.; Jiao, J.; Ye, Y.; Green, B.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Xiao, R.; He, X.; Xiong, S.

    2014-11-01

    During the first half of the DRAGON-3 project, various projects have been running through collaborations between research groups focusing on different geographical studies in the Three Gorges Region (3G), Tibet, Coal Mining areas in West China, Daduhe River and Southeast China.Stimulated by the interest and concerns of demonstrated and potential geo-hazards in the 3G Region, research has been undertaken focusing on deformation monitoring using SAR images with much higher spatial and temporal sampling. The use of different strategies including sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT) have been evaluated in challenging areas with steep slopes and dense vegetative cover.In addition to the development and validation of algorithms to improve previous attempts using InSAR, studies have been conducted on environmental impacts included mapping of subsidence caused by mining activities; assessment of building collapse after earthquakes using polarized SAR; landslide monitoring of a hydraulic engineering resettlement zone using GPS and InSAR, etc.

  2. Characteristics of Heavy Metals and Pb Isotopic Composition in Sediments Collected from the Tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Huang, Yong; Wang, Yuchun; Gao, Jijun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in sediments from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) tributaries were determined and studied. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in sediment of TGR tributaries were higher than the local background values of soils and sediments in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cu, Ni, and Hg were at the “slightly polluted” level and Cd was ranked as the “moderately polluted” level in tributary sediments of TGR. The assessment by Potential Ecological Risk Index showed that Hg and Cd were the predominant elements in tributary sediments in TGR. The Pb isotopic ratios in sediments varied from 1.171 to 1.202 for 206Pb/207Pb and from 2.459 to 2.482 for 208Pb/207Pb in TGR. All Pb isotopic ratios in sediments were similar to those from coal combustion, lead ores (the mining activities and smelting process), and cement material, indicating that these anthropogenic inputs may be the main sources for Pb pollution in sediments of TGR tributaries. PMID:24624045

  3. DNA breaking activity of the carbon-centered radical generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH).

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, K; Johkoh, H; Sako, K; Kikugawa, K

    1993-01-01

    When supercoiled plasmid DNA was incubated with 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH) at pH 7.4 in the presence and absence of oxygen, the DNA single strands were effectively cleaved. The breaking in the presence of oxygen was not inhibited by superoxide dismutase and catalase, but inhibited by mannitol, ethanol, butyl hydroxyanisole, thiol compounds, tertiary amines and spin trapping agents N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). The breaking in the absence of oxygen was inhibited by ethanol, a tertiary amine and PBN. By electron spin resonance spin-trapping with PBN, the carbon-centered radical was detected both in the presence and the absence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radical was detected by use of DMPO only in the presence of oxygen. The DNA breaking activity of AAPH was found to be due primarily to the aliphatic carbon-centered radical. While the reactivity of carbon-centered radicals have received little attention, the aliphatic carbon-centered radical generated from AAPH was found to be highly reactive to break the DNA strands.

  4. Teacher Centers in Action: A Comprehensive Study of Program Activities, Staff Services, Resources and Policy Board Operations in 37 Federally-Funded Teacher Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Sally K.; Yarger, Sam J.

    This report provides an information base about federally funded teacher center projects. The information was collected between January 1 and August 31, 1980 from 37 federally funded teacher center projects. During this eight month period, 247 structured telephone interviews were conducted. Three major categories of questions provided the focus for…

  5. Wide variability in physical activity environments and weather-related outdoor play policies in child-care centers within a single county of Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Khoury, Jane C; Foster, Karla E; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the variability of physical activity environments and outdoor play-policies in child-care centers, and to determine if they are associated with center demographic characteristics Design Telephone survey—the Early Learning Environments Physical Activity and Nutrition Telephone Survey (ELEPhANTS) Setting Child-care centers in Hamilton County (Cincinnati area), Ohio, 2008–9. Participants Directors of all 185 licensed full-time child-care centers in Hamilton County. Outcome Measures Descriptive measures of center playground and indoor physical activity environments, and weather-related outdoor-play policies. Results 162 (88%) centers responded. Most (93%) centers reported an on-site playground, but only half reported their playgrounds as large, at least 1/3rd covered in shade, or having a variety of portable play equipment. Only half reported having a dedicated indoor gross-motor room where children could be active during inclement weather. Only 20% of centers allowed children to go outside in temperatures below 32°F, and 43% of centers reported allowing children outdoors during light rain. A higher percent of children receiving tuition-assistance was associated with lower quality physical activity facilities and stricter weather-related practices. National accreditation was associated with more physical-activity promoting practices. Conclusion We found considerable variability in the indoor and outdoor playground offerings among child-care centers, even within a single county of Ohio. Per center policy and limited inside options, children’s active opportunities are curtailed due to sub-freezing temperatures or light rain. Policy change and parent/teacher education may be needed to ensure children achieve ample opportunity for daily physical activity. PMID:21199969

  6. Suggested Activities to Initiate Consumer Education in the Elementary Classroom. Centering On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainor, Nancy

    This booklet of teacher-developed and teacher-tested activities and strategies draws upon the curriculum areas of language arts, mathematics and social studies. Though prepared for fourth, fifth and sixth grade students, the material is adaptable for primary grades and can be used for group activities or as individual task cards. Activity sheets…

  7. Enhancing Quality Improvements in Cancer Care Through CME Activities at a Nationally Recognized Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Marc; Morgan, Robert; Mendelsohn, Mary; Kagan, Jean; Saavedra, Crystal; Leong, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Changing healthcare policy will undoubtedly affect the healthcare environment in which providers function. The current Fee for Service reimbursement model will be replaced by Value-Based Purchasing, where higher quality and more efficient care will be emphasized. Because of this, large healthcare organizations and individual providers must adapt to incorporate performance outcomes into patient care. Here, we present a Continuing Medical Education (CME)-based initiative at the City of Hope National Cancer Center that we believe can serve as a model for using CME as a value added component to achieving such a goal. PMID:23608956

  8. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  9. Enhancing quality improvements in cancer care through CME activities at a nationally recognized cancer center.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Marc; Morgan, Robert; Mendelsohn, Mary; Kagan, Jean; Saavedra, Crystal; Leong, Lucille

    2013-06-01

    Changing healthcare policy will undoubtedly affect the healthcare environment in which providers function. The current Fee for Service reimbursement model will be replaced by Value-Based Purchasing, where higher quality and more efficient care will be emphasized. Because of this, large healthcare organizations and individual providers must adapt to incorporate performance outcomes into patient care. Here, we present a Continuing Medical Education (CME)-based initiative at the City of Hope National Cancer Center that we believe can serve as a model for using CME as a value added component to achieving such a goal.

  10. Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel: Testing Capabilities and Recent Modernization Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Description, capabilities, initiatives, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel are presented. A brief overview of the facility's operational capabilities and testing techniques is provided. A recent Construction of Facilities (Car) project to improve facility productivity and efficiency through facility automation has been completed and is discussed. Several new and maturing thrusts are underway that include systematic efforts to provide credible assessment for data quality, modifications to the new automation control system for increased compatibility with the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) testing methodology, and process improvements for better test coordination, planning, and execution.

  11. Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel: Testing Capabilities and Recent Modernization Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Description, capabilities, initiatives, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel are presented. A brief overview of the facility's operational capabilities and testing techniques is provided. A recent Construction of Facilities (CoF) project to improve facility productivity and efficiency through facility automation has been completed and is discussed. Several new and maturing thrusts are underway that include systematic efforts to provide credible assessment for data quality, modifications to the new automation control system for increased compatibility with the Modern Design Of Experiments (MDOE) testing methodology, and process improvements for better test coordination, planning, and execution.

  12. [Study on species and distribution of flora of national rare and endangered medicinal plant in the Three Gorges area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    According to the China Plant Red Data Book and National Key Protected Wild Plants, the distribution of the rare and endangered plants and national conservative plants in the Three Gorges area were investigated and statistically analyzed. Its floristic composition and characteristics of geographical distribution were explored. As a result, a total of 97 species of medicinal flora belonging to rare and endangered national protection plants were found in the Three Gorges area. They come from 81 genera of 46 families. Their vertical distribution is obvious and horizontal distribution has discontinuous overlap. There are many ancient relict medicinal plants in the Three Gorges area. These medicinal plants have obvious temperate characteristics, and are easily found at warm and moist ravines and hillsides; The proportion of tree is much higher than that of herb, vine, shrub and fern. Most of them belong to specific and monotypic genera.

  13. New insight on the interaction of self-activated and Mn-related emission centers in ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Vorona, I.; Zhuk, A.; Gilchuk, A. V.; Korsunska, N.; Markevich, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra of undoped and thermally doped with Mn ZnS single crystals are studied. In the PL spectra, the bands caused by Mn-related and self-activated (SA) emission centers were observed. A number of narrow peaks whose intensity enhanced with increasing Mn content were found in the PLE spectra of SA emission. The same peaks were present in the PLE spectra of the Mn-related emission band. Some of these peaks were previously observed in the absorption spectra and attributed to Mn2+ ions. The appearance of Mn-related peaks in the PLE spectra of SA emission is explained by excitation transfer from the Mn2+ ions to SA emission centers. The conditions required for this transfer and possible mechanisms of the process are discussed.

  14. "It makes me feel like myself": Person-centered versus traditional visual arts activities for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Philip E; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Kinney, Jennifer M; Lokon, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    During a 15-month period between February 2010 and April 2011, video data on (n = 38) people with dementia were collected during a person-centered and intergenerational arts activity program called Opening Minds through Art (OMA) at three different long-term care facilities in Ohio. A subsample of the OMA participants (n = 10) were also video recorded during traditional visual arts activities (e.g. coloring books, scrapbooking). A modified version of the Greater Cincinnati Chapter Well-Being Observation Tool© was used to code the intensity and frequency of observed domains of well-being (i.e. social interest, engagement, and pleasure) and ill-being (i.e. disengagement, negative affect, sadness, and confusion). Descriptive results indicate a high percentage of moderate or high intensities of well-being during OMA sessions with little to no ill-being. Paired-sample t-tests comparing OMA vs. traditional visual arts activities showed significantly higher intensity scores for OMA in the domain of engagement and pleasure, as well as significantly lower intensity scores for disengagement. The findings of this exploratory study contribute to the overall discussion about the impact of person-centered, creative-expressive arts activities on people with dementia.

  15. Monitoring the slope movement of the Shuping landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir of China, using X-band time series SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang; Guo, Huadong; Perski, Zbigniew; Fan, Jinghui; Bai, Shibiao; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui

    2016-06-01

    As the largest water conservation project in China, the Three Gorges Reservoir has attracted a lot of attention. However, the rise in water level due to the dam operation has caused many ecological problems. Since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the year 2003, many landslides have taken place. The Shuping landslide is a reactivated landslide and has been continuously moving since the impoundment. It has resulted in serious dangers to local residence and the role of the Yangtze River as an inland waterway. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors obtain images periodically and regionally, from which the characteristics of the slope movement could be obtained timely and cost effectively. In this study, an adapted time series InSAR technique considering SRTM bias is proposed and used to process TerraSAR-X strip map images with 3 meters resolution which collected in the first quarter of 2012. Compared with previous studies with low resolution SAR data, our results obtain much more stable points and reveal the movement pattern of the active slope of Shuping landslide in detail, and they show that there are two main landslide bodies obviously; one is located in the eastern part of the landslide, while the other is located in the western part of the landslide, the movement velocity is up to 40 mm month-1, and the results are well-consistent with the in situ results. Furthermore the active movement boundaries was identified through analysing the time series InSAR results, the shape of the landslide is chair-like, and the boundaries lie mostly along ditches. The results show that more details about the landslide could be revealed using the proposed time series InSAR method and high resolution TerraSAR-X SAR data, and this provide a more comprehensive way for landslide movement monitoring, which will be useful for landslide management.

  16. Efficacy of wildlife rehabilitation centers in surveillance and monitoring of pathogen activity: a case study with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Randall, Natalie J; Blitvich, Bradley J; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    Surveillance is critical for identifying and monitoring pathogen activity in wildlife populations, but often is cost- and time-prohibitive and logistically challenging. We tested the hypothesis that wildlife rehabilitation centers are useful for monitoring pathogen activity using West Nile virus (WNV) as a case study. We hypothesized that birds submitted to wildlife rehabilitation centers would have a similar prevalence of antibody to WNV as free-ranging birds. From 2008 to 2010, we collected sera from peridomestic birds submitted to the Wildlife Care Clinic (WCC), a wildlife rehabilitation center in central Iowa, and tested them for antibodies to WNV. We also collected and tested sera from free-ranging peridomestic birds in the area from which approximately 50% of WCC submissions historically originated. Prevalences of WNV antibodies in free-ranging birds and in peridomestic WCC birds were 2.3% (44/1,936) and 2.8% (2/72), respectively. However, none of the birds submitted to the WCC from the area where we captured free-ranging birds had antibodies (0/29). Our results indicate that rehabilitation facilities are not likely to be useful for monitoring WNV activity at small spatial scales or over short-time periods due to the low endemic prevalence of WNV, and low and variable submission rates. However, at larger spatial scales (ca. nine Iowa counties) WNV antibody prevalence in peridomestic birds submitted to the WCC was similar to that of free-ranging birds. Although limitations to using rehabilitation birds to monitor WNV must be considered, testing these birds could be useful for monitoring WNV activity regionally, especially with many states limiting surveillance due to budgetary constraints.

  17. Current activities of CARD as an international core center for mouse resources.

    PubMed

    Nakagata, Naomi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi

    2009-07-01

    The Center for Animal Resources and Development (CARD), Institute of Resource Development and Analysis, Kumamoto University was established in 1998 based on recommendations published in the report "Preservation, Supply and Development of Genetically Engineered Animals" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. We provide a comprehensive and integrated set of research services designed for the mouse-based biological research community. All services are conducted in accordance with the highest standards of animal health and genetic quality and are delivered to meet researcher's research goals. To promote biological sciences worldwide, we produce genetically engineered mice and exchangeable gene trap ES clones, cryopreserve mouse embryos and sperm, supply these resources, organize training courses to educate people, and form a hub of the domestic and international networks of both mutagenesis and resource centers. Up to now, we have produced more than 600 genetically engineered mouse strains and have more than 1,100 strains and stocks of mice for supply to the scientific community. More than 150 studies using genetically engineered mice produced or supplied by CARD have been published so far. As a founding member of the Federation of International Mouse Resources, the Asian Mouse Mutagenesis and Resource Association, and the International Gene Trap Consortium, we are contributing to the promotion of biological sciences in the world.

  18. Activities During Spacelab-J Mission at Payload Operations and Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The group of Japanese researchers of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) were thumbs-up in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center after the successful launch of Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour that carried their experiments. The SL-J was a joint mission of NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a marned Spacelab module. The mission conducted microgravity investigations in materials and life sciences. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, frogs, and frog eggs. The POCC was the air/ground communications channel between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The Spacelab science operations were a cooperative effort between the science astronaut crew in orbit and their colleagues in the POCC. Spacelab-J was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour on September 12, 1992.

  19. Studies of electrically and recombination active centers in undoped GaN grown by OMVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A.Y.; Shin, M.; Skowronski, M.; Greve, D.W.; Govorkov, A.V.; Smirnov, N.B.

    1997-12-31

    Deep centers were studied in GaN samples grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). Electron traps 0.2 eV and 0.5 eV below conduction band edge and 0.25 eV and 0.5-0.85 eV above the valence band edge were detected by means of deep levels transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoelectron relaxation spectroscopy (PERS) and thermally simulated current spectroscopy (TSC). The photoconductivity at low temperature is shown to be persistent and the magnitude of photosensitivity is dependent on the way the samples are grown. Microcathodoluminescence (MCL) and electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate that the density of deep recombination centers near the dislocation walls between the misoriented GaN domains is lower than inside the domains. Spatially resolved PERS measurements show that the concentration of the 0.85 eV level is higher in the low angle grain boundary regions that produce bright contrast in EBIC and MCL.

  20. Second information report on activities in progress at the EPRI M D Center

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.; Stewart, B.K.

    1990-03-30

    In support of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been used to monitor a variety of motor-driven devices at the Philadelphia Electric Company's Eddystone Generating Station as part of a program conducted by the EPRI M D Center. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the ability of MCSA to monitor degradation in aging power plant equipment. The focus of this work has been the development and demonstration of an on-line, automated data acquisition system that has, for the last several months, provided motor current signature information on eight motor-operated valves (MOVs) that are a part of the unit 2 turbine steam extraction system. Since October 1989, over 1200 MOV actuations have been recorded and analyzed. The work carried out thus far has resulted in the discovery of undesirable MOV operational characteristics and the identification of other signature trends that will be closely monitored over the next few months. In order to improve data analysis capabilities, an automated data analysis program has been developed that significantly reduced the time required to extract diagnostic information from the MOV motor current signatures. This report provides the results from the analyses of extraction valve motor current signatures that were acquired during the period November 1989 through January 1990 and is thus intended to serve as a companion to the first progress report that covered the month of October 1989. 1 ref., 90 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  2. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  3. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  4. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  5. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  6. Overview of Fluid Dynamic Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    Contents include following: (1) Organizational Changes at MSFC. (2) Recent Program Support & Technology Development: analysis & cold flow testing: Fastrac, X-34, X-33, RLV, LFBB. (3) Ongoing Activities: RLV focused technology, RBCC concepts development, methodology & code development. (4) Future Activities and Direction: hardware design and development; tools development. (5) Concluding remarks: constraints, cooperation, opportunities.

  7. Workjobs...for Parents: Activity-Centered Learning in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta-Lorton, Mary

    This booklet contains 43 "workjobs," (experiences in manipulating common objects) adapted from classroom activities, that are appropriate and easy for parents to make and use with children in the home. These manipulative activities are designed to help children develop language and number skills and hand-eye coordination, and give children…

  8. Computational structural mechanics: A new activity at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Stroud, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Complex structures considered for the late 1980's and early 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures are much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. A major research activity in computational structural mechanics (CSM) was initiated. The objective of the CSM activity is develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers such as computers with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. The three main research activities underway in CSM include: (1) structural analysis methods development; (2) a software testbed for evaluating the methods; and (3) numerical techniques for parallel processing computers. The motivation and objectives of the CSM activity are presented and CSM activity is described. The current CSM research thrusts, and near and long term CSM research thrusts are outlined.

  9. Designing a knowledge management system for distributed activities: a human centered approach.

    PubMed

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables re-searchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment.

  10. Designing a Knowledge Management System for Distributed Activities: A Human Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables researchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment. PMID:14728235

  11. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien

    2001-09-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  12. Photonic Component Qualification and Implementation Activities at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Jin, Xiaodan Linda; Chuska, Richard F.; LaRocca, Frank V.; MacMurphy, Shawn L.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Friedberg, Patricia R.; Malenab, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    The photonics group in Code 562 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center supports a variety of space flight programs at NASA including the: International Space Station (ISS), Shuttle Return to Flight Mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Express Logistics Carrier, and the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). Through research, development, and testing of the photonic systems to support these missions much information has been gathered on practical implementations for space environments. Presented here are the highlights and lessons learned as a result of striving to satisfy the project requirements for high performance and reliable commercial optical fiber components for space flight systems. The approach of how to qualify optical fiber components for harsh environmental conditions, the physics of failure and development lessons learned will be discussed.

  13. Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers. Final Report for Phase I Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Suprotim; Raje, Sanyukta; Kumar, Satish; Sartor, Dale; Greenberg, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This report documents Phase 1 of the “Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers” initiative to support the development of an energy efficiency policy framework for Indian data centers. The initiative is being led by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)-U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and under the guidance of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). It is also part of the larger Power and Energy Efficiency Working Group of the US-India Bilateral Energy Dialogue. The initiative consists of two phases: Phase 1 (November 2014 – September 2015) and Phase 2 (October 2015 – September 2016).

  14. Activities of the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center pump stage technology team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, R.; Mcconnaughey, P.; Eastland, A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to advance rocket propulsion technology, the Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Application in Propulsion Technology has been formed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Consortium consists of three Teams: the turbine stage team, the pump stage team (PST), and the combustion devices team. The PST has formulated and is implementing a plan for pump technology development whose end product will be validated CFD codes suitable for application to pump components, test data suitable for validating CFD codes, and advanced pump components optimized using CFD codes. The PST's work during the fall of 1991 and the winter and spring of 1992 is discussed in this paper. This work is highlighted by CFD analyses of an advanced impeller design and collection of laser two-focus velocimeter data for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Pump impeller.

  15. The Production of Organic Nitrates in Portland, Oregon and the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Holly Ann

    This work studied the production of aerosol-phase organic nitrates in both Portland and the Columbia River Gorge (CRG). Ozone and NO x species were investigated for correlation with organic nitrate aerosol, as they function as precursors to the production of organic nitrates. These ambient gas-phase measurements were collected in the same locations as high-volume (Hi-Vol) filters samples, in an urban and rural gorge setting to investigate correlations at the origin of the pollution plume and downwind. A novel Soxhlet extraction method for Hi-Vol filters was developed based on literature and EPA standard methods. Analysis for nitrate production was done by segregating data based on times when the wind blew out of Portland and down the CRG versus times when flow was not westerly. Filters were then compared to ambient gas-phase measurements and derived NO3 radical production rates to look for trends. Wind direction had a strong influence on the concentrations of precursor molecules in the CRG. On days with a westerly wind direction into the gorge, concentrations of the measure aerosol organic nitrates were similar at both sides. This suggests some contribution of a broader regional production of organic nitrates. There was some correlation between the production rate of NO3 radicals and the measured organic nitrate aerosol, suggesting a role for NO3 + VOC production of organic nitrates that later partition to the aerosol phase. This information will better illuminate the fate of nitrogen downwind of pollution sources. The information will also help to create a better understanding of the way topography and meteorological conditions can influence the flow of pollution. Understanding the downwind oxidative chemistry that happens in the CRG would better support both pollution prevention and mitigation efforts..

  16. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  18. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  19. Rapid late pleistocene incision of Atlantic passive-margin river gorges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reusser, L.J.; Bierman, P.R.; Pavich, M.J.; Zen, E.-A.; Larsen, J.; Finkel, R.

    2004-01-01

    The direct and secondary effects of rapidly changing climate caused large rivers draining the Atlantic passive margin to incise quickly into bedrock beginning about 35,000 years ago. Measured in samples from bedrock fluvial terraces, 10-beryllium shows that both the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers incised 10- to 20-meter-deep gorges along steep, convex lower reaches during the last glacial cycle. This short-lived pulse of unusually rapid downcutting ended by 13,000 to 14,000 years ago. The timing and rate of downcutting are similar on the glaciated Susquehanna and unglaciated Potomac Rivers, indicating that regional changes, not simply glacial melt-water, initiated incision.

  20. Crustal Structure Across the Three Gorges Dam from Wide-Angle Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W. D.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is one of the biggest engineering projects in the world. In order to understand the crustal structure across the TGD, a wide-angle seismic profile was acquired from Fengjie, Sichuan Province, to Guanyindang, Hubei Province. The crustal velocity and reflectivity cross-section across the TGD shows lateral velocity variation and a northward-slipping, crustal-scale, strong reflector. The TGD is located at a transition in crustal thickness from about 45 km in the northwest to about 35 km in the southeast. The topography of China is characterized by three terraces. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the first terrace with a surface elevation above sea level of >4500 m; the second terrace lies north and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at an elevation of 1000-2000 m; the third terrace is in the eastern part of China with an elevation of <500 m. Three cross sections along latitude 30, 31 and 32 from eastern Tibet to the East China Sea illuminate two steep topographic gradients at Longmenshan (97.5E), between eastern Tibet and the Sichuan basin, the TGD area (110E), and the flanking marginal seas (125E). The TGD area, named after the three gorges of Xiling Xia, Wu Xia, and Qutang Xia (Xia means "gorge" in Chinese), is located at the middle segmentations of the Yangtze River, extending from Fengjie, Sichuan Province, to Yichang, Hubei Province, with a total length of about 200 km. Due to the abrupt relief from the second to third topographic terrace of China, the unstopping, huge amounts of river stream provide the best place for the construction of the largest hydro power plant ever in the world. In order to provide a background of the crustal environment for the dam project, a wide-angle seismic profile along the Yangtze River was carried out. Tectonically, the studied area belongs to the Yangtze block and cut several sub-tectonic units: the Wanxian depression fold belt, the Zigui platform fold belt, the southwestern Hubei province complex fold belt

  1. 3D coexisting modes of thermal convection in the faulted Lower Yarmouk Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Numerical investigations of 3D modes of large-scale convection in faulted aquifers are presented with the aim to infer possible transport mechanisms supporting the formation of thermal springs in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG), at the border between Israel and Jordan. The transient finite elements models are based on a geological model of the LYG that introduces more realistic structural features of the basin, compared to previous existing models of the area (Magri et al., submitted). The sensitivity analysis of the fault permeability showed that faults cross-cutting the main regional flow direction allow groundwater to be driven laterally by convective forces within the fault planes. Therein thermal waters can either discharge along the fault traces or exit the fault through adjacent permeable aquifers. The location of springs can migrate with time, is not strictly constrained to the damage zones and reflects the interplay between the wavelength of the multicellular regime in the fault zone and the regional flow toward discharge areas in the lowlands. The results presented here suggest that in the LYG case, crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of fault convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the Gorge, and additional flow fields that can be induced either by topography N-S gradients, e.g. perpendicular to the major axe of the Gorge, or by local thermal convection in permeable aquifers below Eocene aquiclude. The sensitivity analysis is consistent with the analytical solutions based on viscous-dependent Rayleigh theory. It indicates that in the LYG coexisting transport processes likely occur at fault hydraulic conductivity ranging between 2.3e-7 m/s and 9.3e- 7 m/s (i.e. 7 m/yr and 30 m/yr). The LYG numerical example and the associated Rayleigh analysis can be applied to study the onset of thermal convection and resulting flow patterns of any fractured hydrothermal basin. References Magri F, Möller S, Inbar N, M

  2. Late Pliocene Homo and hominid land use from Western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Blumenschine, Robert J; Peters, Charles R; Masao, Fidelis T; Clarke, Ronald J; Deino, Alan L; Hay, Richard L; Swisher, Carl C; Stanistreet, Ian G; Ashley, Gail M; McHenry, Lindsay J; Sikes, Nancy E; Van Der Merwe, Nikolaas J; Tactikos, Joanne C; Cushing, Amy E; Deocampo, Daniel M; Njau, Jackson K; Ebert, James I

    2003-02-21

    Excavation in the previously little-explored western portion of Olduvai Gorge indicates that hominid land use of the eastern paleobasin extended at least episodically to the west. Finds included a dentally complete Homo maxilla (OH 65) with lower face, Oldowan stone artifacts, and butchery-marked bones dated to be between 1.84 and 1.79 million years old. The hominid shows strong affinities to the KNM ER 1470 cranium from Kenya (Homo rudolfensis), a morphotype previously unrecognized at Olduvai. ER 1470 and OH 65 can be accommodated in the H. habilis holotype, casting doubt on H. rudolfensis as a biologically valid taxon.

  3. In situ ∼2.0 Ma trees discovered as fossil rooted stumps, lowermost Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Jörg M; Stanistreet, Ian G; Stollhofen, Harald; Albert, Rosa M; Bamford, Marion K; Pante, Michael C; Njau, Jackson K; Masao, Fidelis T

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of fossil rooted tree stumps in lowermost Lower Bed I from the western Olduvai Basin, Tanzania, age-bracketed by the Naabi Ignimbrite (2.038 ± 0.005 Ma) and Tuff IA (1.88 ± 0.05 Ma), provides the first direct, in situ, and to date oldest evidence of living trees at Olduvai Gorge. The tree relicts occur in an interval dominated by low-viscosity mass flow and braided fluvial sediments, deposited at the toe of a largely Ngorongoro Volcano-sourced volcaniclastic fan apron that comprised a widely spaced network of ephemeral braided streams draining northward into the Olduvai Basin. Preservation of the trees occurred through their engulfment by mass flows, post-mortem mold formation resulting from differential decay of woody tissues, and subsequent fluvially-related sediment infill, calcite precipitation, and cast formation. Rhizolith preservation was triggered by the interaction of root-induced organic and inorganic processes to form rhizocretionary calcareous root casts. Phytolith analyses were carried out to complete the paleoenvironmental reconstruction. They imply a pronounced seasonality and indicate a wooded landscape with grasses, shrubs, and sedges growing nearby, comparable to the low, open riverine woodland (unit 4c) along the Garusi River and tributaries in the Laetoli area. Among the tree stump cluster were found outsized lithic clasts and those consisting of quartzite were identified as Oldowan stone tool artifacts. In the context of hominin activity, the identification of wooded grassland in association with nearby freshwater drainages and Oldowan artifacts significantly extends our paleoenvironmental purview on the basal parts of Lower Bed I, and highlights the hitherto underrated role of the yet poorly explored western Olduvai Gorge area as a potential ecologically attractive setting and habitat for early hominins.

  4. Analysis and assessment of the nutrients, biochemical indexes and heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, from 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiang; Li, Yi; Cheng, Qingyuan; Yu, Mingxia; Hu, Bo; Wang, Zhigang; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir, the world's largest hydropower project, has operated stably for more than five years. To understand its water quality status, the nutrient and biochemical indexes, the total nitrogen (TN), the total phosphorus (TP), the potassium permanganate index (CODMn), the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and fecal coliform (F. coli), as well as the heavy metals (Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Zn and Pb) of samples collected from 10 sites during the time period of 2008-2013 were studied via using multiple analysis approaches. For each parameter, pictures of the spatial and temporal distributions were presented, and the reasons behind their variation trends were elaborated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the types of pollution. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was calculated to concisely mark the water quality. In addition, a human health risk assessment of the heavy metals in a representative site was conducted. The results showed that the water quality state in the Three Gorges Reservoir was intricate but stable and acceptable from 2008 to 2013. The TN, TP and Pb were considered to be the key pollution indexes. Enforcements to alleviate industrial and urban pollution, along with ship management, have worked. The decrease in heavy metal concentrations from upstream to downstream was associated with the self-purification of the reservoir. However, rural pollution became worse in those years. Improper agricultural activity was an important reason for this trend. For local residents, drinking water was generally safe, but cancer caused by As and Pb is a potential issue.

  5. Taphonomic perspectives on hominid site use and foraging strategies during Bed II times at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Charles P; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel

    2008-12-01

    The faunal assemblages excavated by Mary Leakey in Bed II of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, have, like the more well-known Bed I assemblages, traditionally been interpreted as the result of hominid butchering activities in the lake margin and riverine settings of the paleo-Olduvai Basin. A reexamination of all of Leakey's Bed I sites has shown that hominids played little or no role in the formation of all but one of those faunal assemblages, a finding that prompted the reanalysis of the Bed II sites presented here. We expand upon a previous taphonomic study that provided systematic data for HWK East Levels 1-2, MNK Main, and BK. In addition to these assemblages, we provide data on HWK East Levels 3-5, FC West, TK, and SHK. Our data contradict previous interpretations of MNK Main as a hominid accumulation but uphold the contention that BK represents a primarily hominid accumulation reflecting early access to carcasses. The small and poorly preserved assemblages from FC West and TK are difficult to link unambiguously to either hominids or carnivores. Site MNK Main and HWK East Levels 3-5 appear to be death arenas where carcasses accumulated via natural deaths and/or serial predation. Site SHK is severely biased by selective retention and therefore little can be said of its formational history. Nevertheless, no hominid modifications were documented in this assemblage. Comparisons with other Olduvai sites indicate a more conspicuous hyena taphonomic signal during Bed II times than Bed I times, which appears to mirror the changing configuration of the large carnivore guild. These findings also beg the question of what activities were being carried out by hominids with the stone tools discarded at these sites. Although it seems clear that hominids were utilizing stone tools to carry out subsistence activities unrelated to carcass butchery, more excavation and techniques such as phytolith analysis should be employed to explore alternative explanations.

  6. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC); they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT) mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease. PMID:27518095

  7. Validation of Using Fitness Center Attendance Electronic Records to Assess the Frequency of Moderate/Vigorous Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amireault, Steve; Godin, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide three construct validity evidence for using fitness center attendance electronic records to objectively assess the frequency of leisure-time physical activity among adults. One hundred members of a fitness center (45 women and 55 men; aged 18 to 64 years) completed a self-report leisure-time physical…

  8. Non-actively controlled double-inverted-pendulum-like dynamics can minimize center of mass acceleration during human quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Morimoto, Hiroki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple joint movements during human quiet standing exhibit characteristic inter-joint coordination, shortly referred to as reciprocal relationship, in which angular acceleration of the hip joint is linearly and negatively correlated with that of the ankle joint (antiphase coordination) and, moreover, acceleration of the center of mass (CoM) of the double-inverted-pendulum (DIP) model of the human body is close to zero constantly. A question considered in this study is whether the reciprocal relationship is established by active neural control of the posture, or rather it is a biomechanical consequence of non-actively controlled body dynamics. To answer this question, we consider a DIP model of quiet standing, and show that the reciprocal relationship always holds by Newton's second law applied to the DIP model with human anthropometric dimensions, regardless of passive and active joint torque patterns acting on the ankle and hip joints. We then show that characteristic frequencies included in experimental sway trajectories with the reciprocal relationship match with harmonics of the eigenfrequency of the stable antiphase eigenmode of the non-actively controlled DIP-like unstable body dynamics. The results suggest that non-actively controlled DIP-like mechanical dynamics is a major cause of the minimization of the CoM acceleration during quiet standing, which is consistent with a type of control strategy that allows switching off active neural control intermittently for suitable periods of time during quiet standing.

  9. Short-term food restriction followed by controlled refeeding promotes gorging behavior, enhances fat deposition, and diminishes insulin sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Kara L.; Ke, Jia-Yu; Stout, Michael B.; Cole, Rachel; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Belury, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Rodents are commonly used in food restriction-refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24 hours may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day’s food allotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in ad-libitum fed (nibbling) mice. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of ad-libitum fed controls. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to ad-libitum fed mice, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intra-abdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipid deposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons with ad-libitum fed, or nibbling, mice. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice. PMID:25913018

  10. Dryden Flight Research Center: Center Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnayake, Nalin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a general overview of Dryden Flight Research Center. Strategic partnerships, Dryden's mission activity, exploration systems and aeronautics research programs are also described.

  11. Status report: Data management program algorithm evaluation activity at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm evaluation activity was initiated to study the problems associated with image processing by assessing the independent and interdependent effects of registration, compression, and classification techniques on LANDSAT data for several discipline applications. The objective of the activity was to make recommendations on selected applicable image processing algorithms in terms of accuracy, cost, and timeliness or to propose alternative ways of processing the data. As a means of accomplishing this objective, an Image Coding Panel was established. The conduct of the algorithm evaluation is described.

  12. [Activities of Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students, Hampton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Doyle

    2004-01-01

    The mission of CLASS was to provide education and training in NASA-related mathematics, technology and science to US. students who are underrepresented. In these areas and to encourage them to pursue advanced degrees. The project has three goals which support this mission: research training, curriculum development and outreach. All project activities are designed to meet a concrete objective which directly advances one of these goals. The common theme of all project activities is NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, in particular, the use of laser-based remote sensing systems (lidars) to monitor and understand the earth's environment

  13. Diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galactic center and implications of its past activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Kimura, Shigeo S.; Murase, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    It has been indicated that low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are accelerating high-energy cosmic-ray (CR) protons in their radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs). If this is the case, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) should also be generating CR protons, because Sgr A* is a LLAGN. Based on this scenario, we calculate a production rate of CR protons in Sgr A* and their diffusion in the central molecular zone (CMZ) around Sgr A*. The CR protons diffusing in the CMZ create gamma-rays through pp interaction. We show that the gamma-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with observations if Sgr A* was active in the past.

  14. Seismicity and active tectonics at Coloumbo Reef (Aegean Sea, Greece): Monitoring an active volcano at Santorini Volcanic Center using a temporary seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, I.; Karagianni, E.; Panagiotopoulos, D.; Papazachos, C.; Hatzidimitriou, P.; Bohnhoff, M.; Rische, M.; Meier, T.

    2009-02-01

    The volcanic center of Santorini Island is the most active volcano of the southern Aegean volcanic arc. Α dense seismic array consisting of fourteen portable broadband seismological stations has been deployed in order to monitor and study the seismo-volcanic activity at the broader area of the Santorini volcanic center between March 2003 and September 2003. Additional recordings from a neighbouring larger scale temporary network (CYCNET) were also used for the relocation of more than 240 earthquakes recorded by both arrays. A double-difference relocation technique was used, in order to obtain optimal focal parameters for the best-constrained earthquakes. The results indicate that the seismic activity of the Santorini volcanic center is strongly associated with the tectonic regime of the broader Southern Aegean Sea area as well as with the volcanic processes. The main cluster of the epicenters is located at the Coloumbo Reef, a submarine volcano of the volcanic system of Santorini Islands. A smaller cluster of events is located near the Anydros Islet, aligned in a NE-SW direction, running almost along the main tectonic feature of the area under study, the Santorini-Amorgos Fault Zone. In contrast, the main Santorini Island caldera is characterized by the almost complete absence of seismicity. This contrast is in very good agreement with recent volcanological and marine studies, with the Coloumbo volcanic center showing an intense high-temperature hydrothermal activity, in comparison to the corresponding low-level activity of the Santorini caldera. The high-resolution hypocentral relocations present a clear view of the volcanic submarine structure at the Coloumbo Reef, showing that the main seismic activity is located within a very narrow vertical column, mainly at depths between 6 and 9 km. The focal mechanisms of the best-located events show that the cluster at the Coloumbo Reef is associated with the "Kameni-Coloumbo Fracture Zone", which corresponds to the

  15. Fast developed Da-An Gorge: Rapid fluvial incision and knickpoint retreat across a co-seismic popup zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Chu; Frankel, Kurt; Chan, Yu-Chang; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Tseng, Chia-Han

    2014-05-01

    A 1-km-long segment in the lower Da-An River in fold-thrust belt of western Taiwan was uplifted ~10 m during the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, that was subsequently resulting in a 20- to 30-m-deep bedrock gorge within less than 10 years. The amount of coseismic uplift along the channel bed does not fully explain the resulting bedrock channel incision. Using a series of aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM), and real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) surveys, we characterized knickpoint retreat and fluvial incision in the Da-An River gorge. We also analyzed discharge and precipitation data and collected measurements of rock strength and joint plane orientations to better understand the climatic, lithological, and structural influence on the evolution of the actively incising gorge. Two stages of fluvial incision and knickpoint migration are identified in the gorge following the surface uplift during the Chi-Chi earthquake. From 1999 to 2004, 3 to 5 m of alluvium was removed from the channel bed, followed by 3 to 4 m of bedrock channel incision. The knickpoint generated immediately after the earthquake remained where the uplift occurred in 1999. Since 2005, the channel bed has lowered rapidly with local incision rates as high as 15 m/yr. The average upstream knickpoint migration rate over the period 2005 to 2009 was 238 m/yr; total upstream migration from the location of knickpoint formation was about 1190 m. While tectonic uplift formed the knickpoint and set the stage for channel incision, climate played a critical role in accelerating the fluvial response to coseismic displacement. More than 20 m of vertical bedrock channel incision and 1180 m of upstream knickpoint migration occurred primarily during the post-2005 typhoon seasons (May-October). Based on repeat surveys of the Da-An River longitudinal profile and analysis of precipitation and discharge data, we suggest that a discharge threshold of 1200 to 2600 m

  16. Geological evolution and incision history of the Gorge of the Nile on Ethiopian Plateau from remote sensing and geographic information system analysis, and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, Nahid Ds

    Integrated remote sensing and Geographic System Analysis (GIS) analysis has proven to be an effective approach in geological studies of vast, inaccessible areas with dispersed field information. Such an approach has been undertaken to study the 1.6 km deep Gorge of the Nile formed by the Blue Nile, situated on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau. The analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for river geomorphic information shows a dramatic decrease in average gradient and an increase in valley width, depth and asymmetry from headwater to downstream along the Gorge of the Nile. The integration of orbital-optical and radar remote sensing data including ASTER, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), RADARSAT, and DEMs with field data to trace lithological units and structural features of the study area has helped in delineating geologic history of the area as well as the geologic controls on the formation of the Gorge of the Nile. This study has revealed that the Blue Nile Basin evolved in three main phases: (1) Pre-sedimentation phase involving pre-rift peneplanation of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks; (2) Post-rift, Mesozoic sedimentation with repeated marine transgressions and regressions, including fluvial sandstones, and marine limestone and glauconitic mudstones; (3) Post-sedimentation phase which involve extensive volcanism from Middle Oligocene to Quaternary related to the Afar mantle plume. These stratigraphic units are deformed by normal faults of NW and NE-trends with a series of horsts and grabens that are thought to be formed by polyphase deformation and/or stress compartmentalization, indicating that the Blue Nile Basin is located within an extensional regime. Analysis of DEMs with GIS has been used to study the timing, pattern, depth and rate of incision in the evolution of the Gorge of the Nile as well as the Blue Nile

  17. A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The patterning and growth of the embryonic vertebrate limb is dependent on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen that regulates the activity of Gli transcription factors. However, "Shh" expression is not observed during the first 12 hours of limb development. During this phase, the limb bud is prepatter...

  18. Interpretation Down Under: Guided Activities at Parks and Interpretive Centers in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    Describes comprehensively conservation education and interpretation in Australia. Includes discussions of history, range of programs, strengths and weaknesses of types of activities, cost considerations and some strategies to cope with budgetary constraints, and an analysis of the effectiveness of guided programs in Australia in the absence of…

  19. 77 FR 50520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following.... Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. BILLING CODE 9111-97-P...

  20. The Effects of Structured Team Meetings and Performance Feedback on Person-Centered Planning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatland, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    The period of transition from high school is challenging for most adolescents. There are a substantial number of life-changing decisions that transpire during this time. Choices must be made regarding career paths, continued education, future residence, and avenues for social activities and general integration in the community. Person-centered…

  1. Do Collaborative Practical Tests Encourage Student-Centered Active Learning of Gross Anatomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rodney A.; Cates, Tanya; White, Lloyd; Farchione, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of collaborative testing have been identified in many disciplines. This study sought to determine whether collaborative practical tests encouraged active learning of anatomy. A gross anatomy course included a collaborative component in four practical tests. Two hundred and seven students initially completed the test as individuals and…

  2. Dynamic changes in Id3 and E-protein activity orchestrate germinal center and plasma cell development

    PubMed Central

    Gloury, Renee; Zotos, Dimitra; Zuidscherwoude, Malou; Masson, Frederick; Liao, Yang; Hasbold, Jhaguaral; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Hodgkin, Phil D.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Shi, Wei; Nutt, Stephen L.; Tarlinton, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of high-affinity antibodies requires germinal center (GC) development and differentiation of long-lived plasma cells in a multilayered process that is tightly controlled by the activity of multiple transcription factors. Here, we reveal a new layer of complexity by demonstrating that dynamic changes in Id3 and E-protein activity govern both GC and plasma cell differentiation. We show that down-regulation of Id3 in B cells is essential for releasing E2A and E2-2, which in a redundant manner are required for antigen-induced B cell differentiation. We demonstrate that this pathway controls the expression of multiple key factors, including Blimp1, Xbp1, and CXCR4, and is therefore critical for establishing the transcriptional network that controls GC B cell and plasma cell differentiation. PMID:27217539

  3. The Earth Resources Observation Systems data center's training technical assistance, and applications research activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturdevant, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and

  4. Education of natural science in the work of the Municipal Center for Extracurricular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokin, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the description of my work I presented my own experience in the organizing and carrying out of extracurricular activities with the students, the used modes and methods of work, the obtained results and some good practices in the field of natural sciences. Organizing and carrying out of scientific festivals, participation in joint projects together with scientific organizations. Key words: European dimension, interactive methods, key competences, natural sciences, extracurricular activities. We are witnesses of a fundamental change in the pedagogical culture and practice in our schools to establish the parameters of the quality of training. The good scientific culture is an important part of the students' education. Unfortunately, at the present time the scientific and technological culture is on a low level. One of the contemporary problems and realities of the education in natural science school subjects, as a whole and in particular in the secondary education, is the decreased interest for the training in them and in particular in physics, as well as synchronization of the interrelations: school environment - society. In many countries there is a drop in the orientation of the students towards the science and technology - the problem of Science and Technology (S&T). The training of the young people often creates some problems. The teachers meet with the problem of insufficient motivation of the learners for study and difficulties that they encounter in the process of training. The students find it difficult to apply the mastered knowledge to an applied context. The knowledge is rather academic and rather remote from the context, in which the children live and communicate, which makes it nonfunctional. At present there are not enough extracurricular activities that should meet these necessities of the Bulgarian school. The reasons are various, but they mainly consist in the lack of a material base, an exchange of experience and good practices and motivation

  5. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of non-point source pollution load in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyao; Qiu, Jiali; Hong, Qian; Chen, Lei

    2014-09-15

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has become the largest threat to water quality in recent years. Major pollutants, particularly from agricultural activities, which include nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment that have been released into aquatic environments, have caused a range of problems in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), China. It is necessary to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of NPS pollutants and the highly polluted areas for the purpose of watershed management. In this study, the NPS pollutant load was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the small-scale watershed extended method (SWEM). The simulation results for four typical small catchments were extended to the entire watershed leading to estimates of the NPS load from 2001 to 2009. The results demonstrated that the NPS pollution load in the western area was the highest and that agricultural land was the primary pollutant source. The similar annual variation trends of runoff and sediment loads demonstrated that the sediment load was closely related to runoff. The loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were relatively stable from 2001 to 2007, except for high loads in 2006. The increase in pollution source strength was an important reason for the significant upward trend of TN and TP loads from 2008 to 2009. The rainfall from April to October contributed to the largest amount of runoff, sediment and nutrient loads for the year. The NPS load intensities in each sub-basin reveal large variations in the spatial distribution of different pollutants. It was shown that the temporal and spatial distributions of pollutant loads were positively correlated with the annual rainfall amounts and with human activities. Furthermore, this finding illustrates that conservation practices and nutrient management should be implemented in specific sites during special periods for the purpose of NPS pollution control in the TGRR.

  6. [Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Different Species Mercury in Water Body of Changshou Lake in Three Gorges Reservoir Region].

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei-yang; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Zheng; Tang, Zhen-ya; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-08-01

    An investigation on the concentrations and the spatial distribution characteristics of different species of mercury in the water body of Changshou Lake in Three Gorges Reservoir region was carried out based on the AreGIS statistics module. The results showed that the concentration of the total mercury in Changshou Lake surface water ranged from 0.50 to 3.78 ng x L(-1), with an average of 1.51 ng x L(-1); the concentration of the total MeHg (methylmercury) ranged from 0.10 to 0.75 ng x L(-1), with an average of 0.23 ng x L(-1). The nugget effect value of total mercury in surface water (50.65%), dissolved mercury (49.80%), particulate mercury (29.94%) and the activity mercury (26.95%) were moderate spatial autocorrelation. It indicated that the autocorrelation was impacted by the intrinsic properties of sediments (such as parent materials and rocks, geological mineral and terrain), and on the other hand it was also disturbed by the exogenous input factors (such as aquaculture, industrial activities, farming etc). The nugget effect value of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in Changshou lake surface water (3.49%) was less than 25%, showing significant strong spatial autocorrelation. The distribution was mainly controlled by environmental factors in water. The proportion of total MeHg in total Hg in Changshou Lake water reached 30% which was the maximum ratio of the total MeHg to total Hg in freshwater lakes and rivers. It implied that mercury was easily methylated in the environment of Chanashou Lake.

  7. [The results of the introduction of a protocol of preventive activities in a primary care center].

    PubMed

    Tamayo Marco, B; Deniel Rosanas, J; López Plana, A; Trallero Fort, J C; Lafuente Navarro, A; Lafuente Navarro, C

    1991-04-01

    A sample of 360 people was analyzed. They had received the protocol of preventive activities of the "Unitat Docent de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària de Barcelona" during 1989. The results of those activities directed to the prevention of cardiovascular risk and to the detection of excessive alcohol intake are reported, as they are those with the easiest and widest implementation. Overall results include hypercholesterolemia in 43.9%, abnormal blood pressure in 10.5%, a rate of smokers of 31.7%, 7.7% with an excessive alcohol intake, and 51.9% of obese individuals. The results are also shown by age and sex groups. In the discussion, the results are compared with those expected for our population. It is concluded that preventive measures should be encouraged by primary health are teams.

  8. Overview of materials processing in space activity at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Chassay, R. P.; Moore, W. W.; Ruff, R. C.; Yates, I. C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of activities involving the Space Transportation System (STS), now in the operational phase, and results of some of the current space experiments, as well as future research opportunities in microgravity environment, are presented. The experiments of the Materials Processing in Space Program flown on the STS, such as bioseparation processes, isoelectric focusing, solidification and crystal growth processes, containerless processes, and the Materials Experiment Assembly experiments are discussed. Special consideration is given to the experiments to be flown aboard the Spacelab 3 module, the Fluids Experiments System, and the Vapor Crystal Growth System. Ground-based test facilities and planned space research facilities, as well as the nature of the commercialization activities, are briefly explained.

  9. Investigating the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity of the elderly in Rezaeian Health Center, Iran, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Manavi, Narges; Abedi, Heidarali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reaching geriatric period is one of the greatest successes in human Beings. The older adults are predisposed to risk of many diseases and disabilities, and physical activity is one of the most efficient methods to prevent geriatric period disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed define the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity of the elderly residing in Shahid Rezaian health care center in 2014. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 older adults, age 65 years and over, selected through convenient sampling and assigned to groups of study and control. Study group was divided into 5 seven-member subgroups and a one-hour session of physical exercises was administrated for them once a week for eight sequential weeks. All subjects evaluated before and after intervention by International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Subjects’ physical activity was scored, based on the personal activity protocol,and the results were compared. Significance level was considered as P<0.05. Results: Frequency distributions of the female subjects were 29 (82%) and 28 (80%) in study and control groups respectively. Mean (SD) scores of physical activity were 347.8 (174.1) and 321.7 (119.2) before intervention, and 641.3 (240.6) and 331.3 (101.5) after intervention in study and control groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant increase in physical activity score in study group, compared to control (t=4.06, P<0.001). Conclusions: The level of physical activity can be improved in the elderly through application of an empowerment program so as to take steps toward solving their immobility related problems and promoting their health through application of an empowerment program at this period of their life. PMID:27563315

  10. NASA Langley Research Center’s Contributions to International Active Buffeting Alleviation Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    test , the International Follow - On Structural Testing structures through wind-tunnel demonstration tests at Project ( IFOSTP ) 2 2 rig at AMRL...and international Planned Ground Test Follow - On Activity buffeting alleviation programs . In conjunction with plans at the AFRL to mature smart material...34 Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program ," SPIE’s 4"’ 8 3rd Structures and Materials Panel Meeting of the

  11. Promoting student-centered active learning in lectures with a personal response system.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Sally A; Dantas, Arianne M; Williams, David A; Kemm, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    We investigated whether an active learning approach, facilitated by a personal response system, would lead to improved student engagement and learning outcomes in large-group physiology lectures for undergraduate science students. We focused on encouraging students' active learning in lectures, whereas previous studies have made more use of audience response technology during lectures for formative or summative assessment. Students voluntarily answered questions posed during lectures with their personal response system (clickers), with individual answers automatically collated for immediate histogram display. This feedback then dictated the focus of followup discussions in the lecture. Student and instructor attitudes were surveyed through voluntary interviews with student responses correlated with their degree of clicker participation and individual exam results. Active lectures were found to increase both student motivation and engagement. Students who participated in answering questions achieved better results than students who chose not to. Students with the lowest scores in a prerequisite course (previous semester physiology exam marks of < 60%) showed significantly better outcomes from the use of clickers than both middle-achieving (60-75%) and high-achieving (>75%) entry students. Significant improvement was evident in both mid- and end-semester exam results compared with student cohorts from preceding years, although this could also be influenced by many other factors. Increased student engagement and the immediate feedback obtained during lectures were advantages commonly noted by lecturing staff.

  12. A brief overview of computational structures technology related activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.

    1992-05-01

    The presentation gives a partial overview of research and development underway in the Structures Division of LeRC, which collectively is referred to as the Computational Structures Technology Program. The activities in the program are diverse and encompass four major categories: (1) composite materials and structures; (2) probabilistic analysis and reliability; (3) design optimization and expert systems; and (4) computational methods and simulation. The approach of the program is comprehensive and entails exploration of fundamental theories of structural mechanics to accurately represent the complex physics governing engine structural performance, formulation, and implementation of computational techniques and integrated simulation strategies to provide accurate and efficient solutions of the governing theoretical models by exploiting the emerging advances in computer technology, and validation and verification through numerical and experimental tests to establish confidence and define the qualities and limitations of the resulting theoretical models and computational solutions. The program comprises both in-house and sponsored research activities. The remainder of the presentation provides a sample of activities to illustrate the breadth and depth of the program and to demonstrate the accomplishments and benefits that have resulted.

  13. NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of short-lived color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.

    1987-11-01

    It was found that the short-lived color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.

  14. The Columbia River Basalt Group: from the gorge to the sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Niem, Alan R.; Evarts, Russell C.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    2009-01-01

    Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group inundated eastern Washington, Oregon, and adjacent Idaho between 17 and 6 Ma. Some of the more voluminous flows followed the ancestral Columbia River across the Cascade arc, Puget-Willamette trough, and the Coast Range to the Pacific Ocean. We have used field mapping, chemistry, and paleomagnetic directions to trace individual flows and flow packages from the Columbia River Gorge westward into the Astoria Basin, where they form pillow palagonite complexes and mega-invasive bodies into older marine sedimentary rocks. Flows of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalts all made it to the ocean; at least 33 flows are recognized in the western Columbia River Gorge, 50 in the Willamette Valley, 16 in the lower Columbia River Valley, and at least 12 on the Oregon side of the Astoria Basin. In the Astoria Basin, the basalt flows loaded and invaded the wet marine sediments, producing peperite breccias, soft sediment deformation, and complex invasive relations. Mega-invasive sills up to 500 m thick were emplaced into strata as old as Eocene, and invasive dikes up to 90 m thick can be traced continuously for 25 km near the basin margin. Mega-pillow complexes up to a kilometer thick are interpreted as the remains of lava deltas that prograded onto the shelf and a filled submarine canyon southeast of Astoria, possibly providing the hydraulic head for injection of invasive sills and dikes at depth.

  15. Geographical Overview of the Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir, China - Geologic Hazards and Environmental Impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River, China, has been an ambitious and controversial project. The dam, the largest in the world as of 2008, will provide hydropower, help to manage flood conditions, and increase the navigability of the Yangtze River. However, this massive project has displaced human and animal populations and altered the stability of the banks of the Yangtze, and it may intensify the seismic hazard of the area. It has also hindered archeological investigations in the reservoir and dam area. This report, originally in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, gives a short history and overview of the dam construction and subsequent consequences, especially geologic hazards already noted or possible in the future. The report provides photographs, diagrams, and references for the reader's further research - a necessity, because this great undertaking is dynamic, and both its problems and successes continue to evolve. The challenges and consequences of Three Gorges Dam will be closely watched and documented as lessons learned and applied to future projects in China and elsewhere.

  16. Preliminary small mammal taphonomy of FLK NW level 20 (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Saleta; Sevilla, Paloma; Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda

    2010-11-01

    The Bed-I series of Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) is a reference site in human evolution, having yielded the holotypes of Paranthropus boisei and Homo habilis, together with manufactured artefacts and abundant large and micro-fauna. Excavations in Olduvai Gorge have been recently resumed, with new aims and new results. This paper presents the results of the taphonomic analysis carried out on a fossil small-mammal assemblage recovered from FLK NW level 20, a layer overlying Tuff C, dated from 1.84 Ma. The analysis provides good evidence of a category 1 predator, most likely a barn owl, as the predator of the bone assemblage. Trampling and sediment compression might influence postdepositional breakage of the bones. This study is especially relevant since previous taphonomic analyses carried out at levels above and below this sample led to inconclusive results due to a low number of fossils ( Fernández-Jalvo et al., 1998). The new sample provides new information to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental context in which early hominins inhabited.

  17. A Homo habilis maxilla and other newly-discovered hominid fossils from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R J

    2012-08-01

    In 1995, a 1.8 million year old hominid maxilla with complete dentition (OH 65) was excavated from Bed I in the western part of Olduvai Gorge. The molar crowns are small relative to the long flaring roots, and the root of the canine is very long and straight. The broad maxilla with wide U-shaped palate and the form of the tooth roots closely match those of KNM-ER 1470 which, in its parietal size and morphology, matches the type specimen of Homo habilis, OH 7. Thus, OH 65 and KNM-ER 1470 group with OH 7 as representatives of H. habilis while some other Olduvai specimens, such as OH 13 and OH 24, have more in common in terms of morphology and brain size with Australopithecus africanus. Between 1995 and 2007, the OLAPP team has recovered teeth of eight other hominid individuals from various parts of Olduvai Gorge. These have been identified as belonging to H. habilis, Paranthropus boisei, and Australopithecus cf. africanus.

  18. Assessing Collembola biodiversity under human influence at Three Gorges Area, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Wang, Tianle; Luo, Yongzheng; Chen, Shi; Kim, Ke Chung

    2013-04-01

    In this study we comprehensively assessed Collembola biodiversity at Three Gorges Area, one of most diverse habitat regions in China. In total, 3,796 Collembola specimens comprising 9 families, 45 genera, and 103 species (including 14 new species and new records in China) were collected from three primary sampling areas: one nature reserve and two rural and urban areas representing different degrees of human influence. Each sampling area was further divided into nine sampling sites associated with different habitats and altitudes. Analyses of biodiversity data showed that individual abundance was highest in the nature reserve followed by mildly human influenced areas, and then highly influenced areas, and species richness was lowest in highly influenced areas. Hence, we suggest Collembola biodiversity is systematically lost after urbanization. In the nature reserve, altitude significantly influenced both the species richness and individual abundance, whereas in rural and urban areas, both altitude and the human-altered environmental gradient were influential. We also measured sampling efficiency and estimated potential species richness in these areas. This study serves as both a fundamental survey of Collembola biodiversity, as well as an assessment of human/environmental influence on the Collembola community, and can provide further insight into protecting the soil integrity of the Three Gorges Area.

  19. 75 FR 1806 - Draft General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, New River Gorge National River, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... National Park Service Draft General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, New River Gorge National River, WV AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of...), the National Park Service announces the availability of the ] Draft General Management Plan...

  20. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas’ disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which hav...

  1. Age of Zinjanthropus: The potassium-argon dates recently obtained from Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, raise several questions.

    PubMed

    Straus, W L; Hunt, C B

    1962-04-27

    Because some of the Olduvai Gorge dates are inconsistent, some must be inaccurate; they may all be. Until further tests determine which materials give dependable dates, we do not know which dates are accurate. Until this is learned, the indicated ages must be taken cum grano salis.

  2. Do collaborative practical tests encourage student-centered active learning of gross anatomy?

    PubMed

    Green, Rodney A; Cates, Tanya; White, Lloyd; Farchione, Davide

    2016-05-06

    Benefits of collaborative testing have been identified in many disciplines. This study sought to determine whether collaborative practical tests encouraged active learning of anatomy. A gross anatomy course included a collaborative component in four practical tests. Two hundred and seven students initially completed the test as individuals and then worked as a team to complete the same test again immediately afterwards. The relationship between mean individual, team, and difference (between team and individual) test scores to overall performance on the final examination (representing overall learning in the course) was examined using regression analysis. The overall mark in the course increased by 9% with a decreased failure rate. There was a strong relationship between individual score and final examination mark (P < 0.001) but no relationship for team score (P = 0.095). A longitudinal analysis showed that the test difference scores increased after Test 1 which may be indicative of social loafing and this was confirmed by a significant negative relationship between difference score on Test 4 (indicating a weaker student) and final examination mark (P < 0.001). It appeared that for this cohort, there was little peer-to-peer learning occurring during the collaborative testing and that weaker students gained the benefit from team marks without significant active learning taking place. This negative outcome may be due to insufficient encouragement of the active learning strategies that were expected to occur during the collaborative testing process. An improved understanding of the efficacy of collaborative assessment could be achieved through the inclusion of questionnaire based data to allow a better interpretation of learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 9: 231-237. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. [Health risks associated with child labor: activities and proposals of WHO collaboration centers].

    PubMed

    Petyx, M; Boccuni, F; Fortuna, G; Petyx, C; Valenti, A; Iavicoli, S

    2006-01-01

    Child labour should be analyzed with regard to the main frameworks where it arises: particularly, the small family based enterprises in agricultural, hospitality and restaurateurs' sectors play a leading role. In these contexts the child can underestimate the risks related to the carried out work activity and assimilate the work background to the family background. In spite of the national thorough regulations on child labour, the network of WHO Collaborating Centres is working to develop a common awareness in order to evaluate, communicate and prevent the occupational health and safety risks for children, at national and international level.

  4. Structure and catalytic activities of ferrous centers confined on the interface between carbon nanotubes and humic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongqi; Yin, Jun-Jie; Chen, Hanqing; Gao, Xingfa; Zhang, Jing; Ibrahim, Kurash; Chai, Zhifang; Feng, Weiyue; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of heterogeneous catalysts with active ferrous centers is of great significance for industrial and environmental catalytic processes. Nanostructured carbon materials (NCM), which possess free-flowing π electrons, can coordinate with transition metals, provide a confinement environment for catalysis, and act as potential supports or ligands to construct analogous complexes. However, designing such catalysts using NCM is still seldom studied to date. Herein, we synthesized a sandwich structured ternary complex via the coordination of Fe-loaded humic acid (HA) with C&z.dbd;C bonds in the aromatic rings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which the O/N-Fe-C interface configuration provides the confinement environment for the ferrous sites. The experimental and theoretical results revealed octahedrally/tetrahedrally coordinated geometry at Fe centers, and the strong hybridization between CNT C π* and Fe 3d orbitals induces discretization of the atomic charges on aromatic rings of CNTs, which facilitates O2 adsorption and electron transfer from carbon to O2, which enhances O2 activation. The O2 activation by the novel HA/Fe-CNT complex can be applied in the oxidative degradation of phenol red (PR) and bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous media.Preparation of heterogeneous catalysts with active ferrous centers is of great significance for industrial and environmental catalytic processes. Nanostructured carbon materials (NCM), which possess free-flowing π electrons, can coordinate with transition metals, provide a confinement environment for catalysis, and act as potential supports or ligands to construct analogous complexes. However, designing such catalysts using NCM is still seldom studied to date. Herein, we synthesized a sandwich structured ternary complex via the coordination of Fe-loaded humic acid (HA) with C&z.dbd;C bonds in the aromatic rings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which the O/N-Fe-C interface configuration provides the confinement environment for the

  5. Versatility of biological non-heme Fe(II) centers in oxygen activation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleva, Elena G; Lipscomb, John D

    2009-01-01

    Oxidase and oxygenase enzymes allow the use of relatively unreactive O2 in biochemical reactions. Many of the mechanistic strategies employed in nature for this key reaction are represented within the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad family of non-heme Fe(II) containing enzymes. The open face of the metal coordination sphere opposite the three endogenous ligands participates directly in the reaction chemistry. Here, data from several studies are presented showing that reductive O2 activation within this family is initiated by substrate (and in some cases co-substrate or cofactor) binding, which then allows coordination of O2 to the metal. From this starting point, both the O2 activation process and the reactions with substrates diverge broadly. The reactive species formed in these reactions have been proposed to encompass four oxidation states of iron and all forms of reduced O2 as well as several of the reactive oxygen species that derive from O–O bond cleavage. PMID:18277980

  6. "Possible impacts of climate change on the Danube river along the Iron Gate gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) in order to get relevant coefficients. The second approach, which is more typically meteorological, relies on the calculation of the E for the time frame 2071-2100 by using the previous coefficients and getting runoff depth (h) and discharge (Q) as the final outputs. The results according to this model, show that the river flow of the Danube, in this part of its basin, will decrease over 50% with a great consequences to the dams Iron Gate I and II, their accumulations and ecosystems. Furthermore, if we take into account predictions made by IPCC which say that the south-east Europe will face temperature growth of 0.2 degrees in the next two decades for the range of SRES scenarios, makes the

  7. A NEW PERSPECTIVE OF THE RADIO BRIGHT ZONE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: FEEDBACK FROM NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13′ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam{sup −1}, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2′ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.′3 × 3.′2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ∼2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized

  8. A New Perspective of the Radio Bright Zone at The Galactic Center: Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13‧ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam-1, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2‧ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.‧3 × 3.‧2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ˜2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized wind or

  9. Implementing Behavioral Activation and Life-Steps for Depression and HIV Medication Adherence in a Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Seitz-Brown, C. J.; Safren, Steven A.; Daughters, Stacey B.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS has substantially improved clinical outcomes among patients living with HIV/AIDS, but only in the presence of very consistent adherence. One of the most prevalent and impactful individual-level predictors of poor adherence is depressive symptoms, even at subthreshold levels. Evidence-based cognitive behavioral interventions exist to address improvements in depressive symptoms and adherence in this population, yet these techniques have largely been designed and tested as individual treatments for delivery in mental health settings. This presents a significant challenge when transporting these techniques to medical settings where other formats for delivery may be more appropriate (i.e., groups, less frequent visits) and few hands-on resources exist to guide this process. As such, primary aims of this study were to adapt and implement evidence-based cognitive behavioral techniques for depression (behavioral activation; BA) and HIV medication adherence (Life-Steps) that have potential for dissemination in an outpatient community health center. The intervention incorporated feedback from health center staff and utilized a modular, group format that did not rely on sequential session attendance. Feasibility was examined over 8 weeks (n = 13). Preliminary effects on depression, health-related quality of life, and medication adherence were examined and exit interviews were conducted with a subset of participants (n = 4) to inform future modifications. Treatment descriptions and recommendations for effective clinical implementation based on patient and clinician feedback are provided along with case material of two individual patients and an example group session. Current efforts are an important next step for disseminating evidence-based techniques for depression and HIV medication adherence to community health center or AIDS service organization settings. PMID:25419102

  10. BKG Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorandt, Volkmar; Wojdziak, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and background information of the IVS Data Center for the year 2012. Included is information about functions, structure, technical equipment, and staff members of the BKG Data Center.

  11. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  12. Supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs) as signaling machines in innate immune activation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Qi; Wu, Hao

    2015-11-01

    Innate immunity offers the first line of defense against infections and other types of danger such as tumorigenesis. Its discovery provides tremendous therapeutic opportunities for numerous human diseases. Delving into the structural basis of signal transduction by innate immune receptors, our lab has recently helped to establish the new paradigm in which innate immune receptors transduce ligand-binding signals through formation of higher-order assemblies containing intracellular adapters, signaling enzymes and their substrates. These large signalosome assemblies may be visible under light microscopy as punctate structures in the µm scale, connecting to the underlying molecular structures in the nm scale. They drive proximity-induced enzyme activation, and provide a mechanism for signaling amplification by nucleated polymerization. These supramolecular signaling complexes also open new questions on their cellular organization and mode of regulation, pose challenges to our methodology, and afford valuable implications in drug discovery against these medically important pathways.

  13. Earth Resources Technology Satellite Operations Control Center (OCC). ERTS-B flight activation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Included in this plan are general objectives through Day 7, operational guidelines and restraints. Following the activation of all subsystems (through Day 3), special series of payload operations were performed to obtain data samples for the different combinations of exposure/gain settings. This took place from Day 4 through Day 7. The Orbit Adjust was employed to perform vernier corrections after the orbit had been defined. The orbit data was collected through Day 3, with the corrections being made from Day 4 through Day 7. ERTS command auxiliary memory (ECAM) was turned on in Day 3 and the memory dumped to a narrow band tape recorder. A verification of memory was done in the off line mode. ECAM was not used in a payload support mode until Day 7.

  14. Science Education Outreach Activities in the Fusion Energy Division of UCSD’s Center for Energy Research*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, R. A.; Stewart, P.; van Fleet, J.

    2001-10-01

    Since 1995, the Fusion Energy Division of the Center for Energy Research at UCSD has been engaged in a variety of volunteer activities in science education outreach. FED staff have developed demonstration tools on energy and plasma science which are used effectively with middle and high school students as well as teacher/student groups at: the APS DPP Plasma Expos and the San Diego Co. Educational Technology Fair. These demonstration tools have proven effective in communicating with elementary students at community science and technology exhibits at the Reuban H. Fleet Science Center (San Diego) and in elementary school classes. UCSD scientists have also participated as team members of the GA Fusion Group’s programs: "Scientist in the Classroom" , and the two Plasma Institutes for in-service science teachers. In the coming year, we plan to: 1) expand the "Scientist in the Classroom" to home-schooled children in San Diego; 2) participate in local elementary school Family Science Nights; and 3) assist in training a new group of future San Diego Unified School District ninth grade physics teachers.

  15. Characterization of cadmium-resistant endophytic fungi from Salix variegata Franch. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    PubMed

    An, Hongmei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xinfei; Huang, Qian; Yuan, Shenhong; Yang, Xingyong; Dong, Jinyan

    2015-07-01

    The community and Cd-resistance of endophytic fungi from roots of Salix variegata Franch. collected from the water-level-fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China, were investigated. A total of 53 strains were isolated and identified to 13 morphotaxa, in which Chromosporium, Fusarium and Gonatobotrys were dominant genera. Among them, 27 isolates were selected to measure their resistance to 0.02 mg ml(-1) Cd(2+) and 11 were growth stimulated (Tolerance index>100%). Of these active isolates, four dark septate endophyte (DSE) isolates (Paraphaeosphaeria sp. SR46, Pyrenochaeta sp. SR35, Rhizopycnis vagum SR37 and R. vagum SR44) were further tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Cd and SR46 was found to be the most tolerant isolate with MIC of 0.39 mg ml(-1). Additionally, the maximum uptake values of these DSEs ranged from 3.01 to 7.89 mg g(-1), but there was no significant correlation between metal uptake with fungal biomass and metal tolerance. Subsequently, a pot experiment was conducted for investigating the impact of SR46 on corn seedlings in Cd-enriched soil. The results obtained suggested that SR46 reduced the Cd bioaccumulation of plant under low (100 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress and enhanced the Cd translocation from root zone to aerial parts under high (200 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress. Besides, it promoted plant growth without Cd stress. These findings indicated S. variegata harbors an endophytic fungal flora showing a high genetic diversity as well as a high level of metal resistance to Cd that has potential values in cadmium cycling and restoration of plant, soil and water system.

  16. Comparison of two methods for detection of fecal indicator bacteria used in water quality monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaodan; Xiao, Guosheng; Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wenhua; Han, Lin; Ruan, Yu; Guo, Dongqin; Zhou, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Scientifically sound methods to rapidly measure fecal indicator bacteria are important to ensure safe water for drinking and recreational purposes. A total of 200 water samples obtained from the Three Gorges Reservoir during three successive one-year study periods (October 2009 to September 2012) were analyzed using multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) and most probable numbers combined with polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). The MPN-PCR method was found to be significantly more sensitive than the MTF method for detecting Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., and of equal sensitivity for detecting total coliforms when all surface water samples were grouped together. The two analytical methods had a strong, significant relationship, but MPN-PCR took only 12-18hr, compared with the 3-8days needed using the MTF method. Bacterial concentrations varied per sampling site but were significantly lower in the mainstream of the Yangtze River than those in the backwater areas of tributaries. The water quality of 85.8% of water samples from the mainstream was suitable for use as a centralized potable water source, while the water quality of 52.5% of water samples from the backwater areas was unsuitable for recreational activities. Relationships between fecal indicator bacteria showed significant correlation (r=0.636-0.909, p<0.01, n=200), while a weak but significant correlation was found between fecal indicators and water turbidity, water temperature, daily inflow, and total dissolved solids (r=0.237-0.532, p<0.05, n=200). The study indicated that MPN-PCR is a rapid and easily performed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based method for quantitative detection of viable total coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus spp. in surface water.

  17. Rotary-Wing Relevant Compressor Aero Research and Technology Development Activities at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Skoch, Gary J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Technical challenges of compressors for future rotorcraft engines are driven by engine-level and component-level requirements. Cycle analyses are used to highlight the engine-level challenges for 3000, 7500, and 12000 SHP-class engines, which include retention of performance and stability margin at low corrected flows, and matching compressor type, axial-flow or centrifugal, to the low corrected flows and high temperatures in the aft stages. At the component level: power-to-weight and efficiency requirements impel designs with lower inherent aerodynamic stability margin; and, optimum engine overall pressure ratios lead to small blade heights and the associated challenges of scale, particularly increased clearance-to-span ratios. The technical challenges associated with the aerodynamics of low corrected flows and stability management impel the compressor aero research and development efforts reviewed herein. These activities include development of simple models for clearance sensitivities to improve cycle calculations, full-annulus, unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations used to elucidate stall, its inception, and the physics of stall control by discrete tip-injection, development of an actuator-duct-based model for rapid simulation of nonaxisymmetric flow fields (e.g., due inlet circumferential distortion), advanced centrifugal compressor stage development and experimentation, and application of stall control in a T700 engine.

  18. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion concepts of which the Stirling cycle is a viable candidate. Under this program the research findings of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) are presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are initial differences between predicted and experimental power outputs and power output influenced by variations in regenerators. Projections are made for future space-power requirements over the next few decades. A cursory comparison is presented showing the mass benefits that a Stirling system has over a Brayton system for the same peak temperature and output power.

  19. Rationale for New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Cathy; Silver, Lynn D; Kettel Khan, Laura; Leviton, Laura

    2014-10-16

    Childhood obesity is associated with health risks in childhood, and it increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with many chronic diseases. Therefore, implementing policies that may prevent obesity at young ages is important. In 2007, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented new regulations for early childhood centers to increase physical activity, limit screen time, and provide healthful beverage offerings (ie, restrict sugar-sweetened beverages for all children, restrict whole milk for those older than 2 years, restrict juice to beverages that are 100% juice and limit serving of juice to only 6 ounces per day, and make water available and accessible at all times). This article explains why these amendments to the Health Code were created, how information about these changes was disseminated, and what training programs were used to help ensure implementation, particularly in high-need neighborhoods.

  20. Modeling crustal deformation near active faults and volcanic centers: a catalog of deformation models and modeling approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; ,; Peter, F.; Murray, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    This manual provides the physical and mathematical concepts for selected models used to interpret deformation measurements near active faults and volcanic centers. The emphasis is on analytical models of deformation that can be compared with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), leveling surveys, tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal, and horizontal penny-shaped geometries in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. Vertical dikes and faults are described following the mathematical notation for rectangular dislocations in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. All the analytical expressions were verified against numerical models developed by use of COMSOL Multyphics, a Finite Element Analysis software (http://www.comsol.com). In this way, typographical errors present were identified and corrected. Matlab scripts are also provided to facilitate the application of these models.