Science.gov

Sample records for active chemical components

  1. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Wei, Ben-Jun; He, Xuan-Hui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp. PMID:26788113

  2. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells. PMID:20428679

  3. Allergenic components in modified and unmodified rosin. Chemical characterization and studies of allergenic activity.

    PubMed

    Gäfvert, E

    1994-01-01

    Gäfvert, E. 1994. Allergenic components in modified and unmodified rosin. Chemical characterization and studies of allergenic activity. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Suppl. 184. 36pp. Uppsala. Unmodified rosin (colophony) is a well-known cause of contact allergy (delayed type hypersensitivity). Rosin is obtained from coniferous trees and consists mainly of diterpenoid resin acids. Most rosin used in technical products is chemically modified. In the common modification of rosin with maleic anhydride, the major product formed is maleopimaric acid (MPA). MPA was identified in experimental sensitization studies as a potent contact allergen. MPA is also formed when rosin is modified with fumaric acid at high temperature and with prolonged heating. The amounts of MPA in technical quality rosins modified with maleic anhydride or fumaric acid might be enough to sensitize individuals handling these rosins. The major product of the modification of rosin with fumaric acid, fumaropimaric acid (FPA), did not elicit any reactions in the animals tested. In another common rosin modification, glycerol esterification, the major product formed was identified as glyceryl triabietate (GTA). In an experimental sensitization study none of the animals reacted to GTA. However, a minor product formed, glyceryl 1-monoabietate (GMA) showed sensitizing capacity. The presence of new contact allergens due to the modification, together with remaining unmodified material, contributes to the risk of developing allergy from contact with these types of rosin. A new main contact allergen in unmodified rosin was identified; 13,14(beta)-epoxyabietic acid. The allergenicity of this epoxide was comparable to that of an earlier identified rosin allergen, 15-hydroperoxyabietic acid (15-HPA). The allergens were detected as their methyl esters. Experimental sensitization and cross-reactivity of oxidation products of resin acids were studied. A pattern of cross-reactivity was observed which indicates that the

  4. Anticancer activity of essential oils and their chemical components - a review

    PubMed Central

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël HN; Scifo, Riccardo; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Morel, Laurent; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils are widely used in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agriculture and food industries for their bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical and insecticidal properties. Their anticancer activity is well documented. Over a hundred essential oils from more than twenty plant families have been tested on more than twenty types of cancers in last past ten years. This review is focused on the activity of essential oils and their components on various types of cancers. For some of them the mechanisms involved in their anticancer activities have been carried out. PMID:25520854

  5. Modelling of evaporation of a dispersed liquid component in a chemically active gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, V. G.; Naumov, V. I.; Kotov, V. Yu.

    1994-01-01

    A model has been developed to investigate evaporation of dispersed liquids in chemically active gas flow. Major efforts have been directed at the development of algorithms for implementing this model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that, in the boundary layer, significant changes in the composition and temperature of combustion products take place. This gives the opportunity to more correctly model energy release processes in combustion chambers of liquid-propellant rocket engines, gas-turbine engines, and other power devices.

  6. Antidiabetic Effect of an Active Components Group from Ilex kudingcha and Its Chemical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chengwu; Xie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiwen; Yu, Shanggong; Fang, Nianbai

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Ilex kudingcha are used as an ethnomedicine in the treatment of symptoms related with diabetes mellitus and obesity throughout the centuries in China. The present study investigated the antidiabetic activities of an active components group (ACG) obtained from Ilex kudingcha in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice. ACG significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum glycaemic and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and glucokinase were upregulated significantly, while fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic enzyme was downregulated in diabetic mice after treatment of ACG. These findings clearly provided evidences regarding the antidiabetic potentials of ACG from Ilex kudingcha. Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG. They are three dicaffeoylquinic acids that have been reported previously, and three new triterpenoid saponins, which were the first time to be identified in Ilex kudingcha. It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components. Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha. PMID:22474502

  7. Characterization of the antibacterial activity and the chemical components of the volatile oil of the leaves of Rubus parvifolius L.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongqing; Hu, Xiaogang; Huang, Mingchun; Sun, Fengjun; Yang, Bo; He, Juying; Wang, Xianfeng; Xia, Peiyuan; Chen, Jianhong

    2012-01-01

    Rubus parvifolius L. (Rp) is a medicinal herb that possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, we extracted the volatile oil from the leaves of Rp to assess its antibacterial activity and analyze its chemical composition. A uniform distribution design was used to optimize the extraction procedure, which yielded 0.36% (w/w) of light yellowish oil from the water extract of Rp leaves. We found that the extracted oil effectively inhibited the growth of a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Bacillus cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We further analyzed the components contained in the hydro-distillated Rp volatile oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty nine compounds were identified, including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (66%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (10%) and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid (2%). Our results suggest that one or multiple constituents contained in Rp volatile oil may account for its antibacterial activity. PMID:22732887

  8. In Vivo Evaluation of the Antiasthmatic, Antitussive, and Expectorant Activities and Chemical Components of Three Elaeagnus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yuebin; Zhang, Fei; Qin, Qin; Shang, Yingying; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-01-01

    The leaf of Elaeagnus lanceolata and Elaeagnus henryi as well as Elaeagnus pungens has been documented as an effective herb for the treatment of asthma and chronic bronchitis in traditional clinical medicine. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiasthmatic, antitussive, and expectorant activities of the water extracts from the three plants in vivo and analyzing their chemical components by HPLC-DAD. At the medium and high doses, the water extracts of three Elaeagnus leaves significantly prolonged the preconvulsive time (P < 0.01) in guinea pigs, lengthened the latent period of cough (P < 0.01) and decreased the cough frequency caused by aqueous ammonia in mice (P < 0.01), and enhanced tracheal phenol red output in mice (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the pharmacological actions between the three Elaeagnus leaves. Moreover, there was more similarity on overlap peaks in the range of retention time from 10 to 40 min by HPLC and many peaks that belonged to flavonoids compounds. It suggested that the main constituents of the three Elaeagnus leaves were flavonoid for the pharmacological activities. These effects were the important evidence for the traditional use of E. henryi leaf and E. lanceolata leaf as well as E. pungens to treat asthma and chronic bronchitis. PMID:26576193

  9. In Vivo Evaluation of the Antiasthmatic, Antitussive, and Expectorant Activities and Chemical Components of Three Elaeagnus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yuebin; Zhang, Fei; Qin, Qin; Shang, Yingying; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-01-01

    The leaf of Elaeagnus lanceolata and Elaeagnus henryi as well as Elaeagnus pungens has been documented as an effective herb for the treatment of asthma and chronic bronchitis in traditional clinical medicine. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiasthmatic, antitussive, and expectorant activities of the water extracts from the three plants in vivo and analyzing their chemical components by HPLC-DAD. At the medium and high doses, the water extracts of three Elaeagnus leaves significantly prolonged the preconvulsive time (P < 0.01) in guinea pigs, lengthened the latent period of cough (P < 0.01) and decreased the cough frequency caused by aqueous ammonia in mice (P < 0.01), and enhanced tracheal phenol red output in mice (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the pharmacological actions between the three Elaeagnus leaves. Moreover, there was more similarity on overlap peaks in the range of retention time from 10 to 40 min by HPLC and many peaks that belonged to flavonoids compounds. It suggested that the main constituents of the three Elaeagnus leaves were flavonoid for the pharmacological activities. These effects were the important evidence for the traditional use of E. henryi leaf and E. lanceolata leaf as well as E. pungens to treat asthma and chronic bronchitis. PMID:26576193

  10. The Difference of Chemical Components and Biological Activities of the Crude Products and the Salt-Processed Product from Semen Cuscutae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Xu, Hefang; Zhao, Baosheng; Li, Shasha; Li, Tingting; Xu, Xinfang; Zhang, Tianjiao; Lin, Ruichao; Li, Jian; Li, Xiangri

    2016-01-01

    Semen Cuscutae is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used to nourish kidney in China for thousands of years. The crude product of semen Cuscutae (CP) and its salt-processed product (SPP) are separately used in clinic for their different effects. The study was designed to investigate the influence of processing from semen Cuscutae on chemical components and biological effects. The principal component analysis and quantitative analysis were used to study the differences of the chemical components. The effects of nourishing kidney were detected to compare the differences between the CP and SPP. The PCA results showed that the obvious separation was achieved in the CP and SPP samples. The results of quantitative analysis showed that quercetin and total flavonoids had significantly increased after salt processing while hyperoside had decreased. The comparison of CP and SPP on biological activities showed that both of them could ameliorate the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by restoring the level of sex hormone, improving the immune function and antioxidant effect. However, SPP was better in increasing the level of T and the viscera weight of testicle and epididymis, improving the antioxidant effect. The results suggested that salt processing changed its chemical profile, which in turn enhanced its biological activities. PMID:27610186

  11. The Difference of Chemical Components and Biological Activities of the Crude Products and the Salt-Processed Product from Semen Cuscutae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song; Xu, Hefang; Zhao, Baosheng; Li, Shasha; Li, Tingting; Xu, Xinfang; Zhang, Tianjiao; Lin, Ruichao

    2016-01-01

    Semen Cuscutae is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used to nourish kidney in China for thousands of years. The crude product of semen Cuscutae (CP) and its salt-processed product (SPP) are separately used in clinic for their different effects. The study was designed to investigate the influence of processing from semen Cuscutae on chemical components and biological effects. The principal component analysis and quantitative analysis were used to study the differences of the chemical components. The effects of nourishing kidney were detected to compare the differences between the CP and SPP. The PCA results showed that the obvious separation was achieved in the CP and SPP samples. The results of quantitative analysis showed that quercetin and total flavonoids had significantly increased after salt processing while hyperoside had decreased. The comparison of CP and SPP on biological activities showed that both of them could ameliorate the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by restoring the level of sex hormone, improving the immune function and antioxidant effect. However, SPP was better in increasing the level of T and the viscera weight of testicle and epididymis, improving the antioxidant effect. The results suggested that salt processing changed its chemical profile, which in turn enhanced its biological activities. PMID:27610186

  12. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter surveys the analytical techniques used to determine the concentrations of aerosol mass and its chemical components. The techniques surveyed include mass, major ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), organic carbon, elemental carbon, and trace elements. As reported in...

  13. Chemical characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of a single-component polysaccharide from Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mianbin; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Zhangping; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2015-11-20

    An alkali-soluble single-component polysaccharide, named CPTC-2, was isolated and purified from the leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. by ion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography in series. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of CPTC-2 was about 73.53kDa determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The structural characteristics of CPTC-2 were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), Infrared (IR) spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation studies, as well as methylation analysis. The results showed that CPTC-2 consisted of glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:0.32:0.27:3.34:1.22:1.84. CPTC-2 was mainly composed of one type of sugar, α-glycosidic linkage. It had a backbone composed of α-(1→3) Araf, α-(1→5) Araf and α-(1→4) Galp with branches composed of α-(1→3,5) Araf and β-(1→3,6) Manp. In vitro anti-tumor experiments with SGC-7901 cells were performed and assessed by MTS (MPEG-2 Transport Stream) method and flow cytometry. The results showed CPTC-2 could inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration-dependent manner via increased apoptosis. The relationship between the structure of CPTC-2 and its anti-tumor activity indicated that the α-configuration glycosidic bond residues may be essential for the anti-tumor activity of this polysaccharide. PMID:26344284

  14. Chemical components of the Apollo 15 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The lunar regolith is a complex mixture of many components. Compositional data is used to identify and estimate the relative importance of the various chemical components of the regolith. The results and conclusions of four methods that were applied to Apollo 15 regolith data were reviewed to determine the important chemical components: graphical techniques, analysis of individual soil particles, factor analysis, and multicomponent mixing models. This synthesis relies heavily on data and conclusions from the literature as well as new analyses on 28 regolith breccia samples, 28 soil samples, and 50 individual 1 to 2 mm particles from soil 15272.

  15. Chemical quantification and antioxidant assay of four active components in Ficus hirta root using UPLC-PAD-MS fingerprinting combined with cluster analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root of Ficus hirta (RFH) is widely consumed in China as a plant-derived popular food. However, contents of the active constituents of RFH are unknown, and the chemical as well as bioactive properties of RFH may be affected by growing area. In order to ensure the standard efficacy of health products made with RFH, its active constituents should firstly be determined and, secondly, a means of assessing samples for their contents of these constituents is needed. Results Four active components, including two coumarins, namely psoralen and bergapten, and two flavonoids, namely luteolin and apigenin, in twenty RFH samples were quantified using a new ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry (UPLC-PAD-MS) method, and the content level in descending order was psoralen > bergapten > luteolin > apigenin. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity evaluation and cluster analysis were used to assess geographical origin of RFH, and the results revealed a high level of similarity for the tested RFH samples obtained from Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi provinces and Hong Kong. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potencies of the four components, and the results clearly demonstrated that luteolin was most effective; apigenin exhibited a moderate potency, whereas psoralen and bergapten possessed little effect against free radical reactions. Structure-activity relationship of the components was elucidated, and the 3′-hydroxyl group of luteolin was found to be directly responsible for its antioxidant activity. Conclusion The present UPLC-PAD-MS method and DPPH radical scavenging assay performed well for the purpose of constituent quantification and antioxidant assay. Global profiles were highly similar for RFH samples from different origins. Both the coumarins and flavonoids were involved in the health benefit of RFH. PMID:23835498

  16. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils and chemical components from three medicinal plants found in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Magaly L; Lobo, Lis Tavares Coelho; Costa, José M Galberto da; Costa, Leandro S; Rocha, Hugo A O; Rocha e Silva, Luiz F; Pohlit, Adrian M; Neto, Valter F de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic arsenal against malaria is quite restricted and all the antimalarials currently in use have limitations. Thus, there is a need to investigate medicinal plants in the search for phytochemicals which can be developed into drugs. In our investigation, essential oils (EOs) were obtained from Vanillosmopsis arborea (Gardner) Baker, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Croton zehntneri Pax & K. Hoffm., aromatic plants abundant in northeastern Brazil, which are found in the caatinga region and are used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of these EOs was characterized by GC-MS, and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were well represented. We assessed the in vitro activity of these EOs and also individual EO chemical components against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (K1 strain) and the in vivo activity of EOs in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. The acute toxicity of these oils was assessed in healthy mice and in vitro cytotoxicity was determined at different concentrations against HeLa cells and mice macrophages. The EO of V. Arborea was partially active only when using the subcutaneous route (inhibited from 33 up to 47 %). In relation to the EOs, L. sidoides and C. zehntneri were active only by the oral route (per gavage) and partially inhibited the growth of P. berghei from 43 up to 55 % and showed good activity against P. falciparum in vitro (IC (50) = 7.00, 10.50, and 15.20 µg/mL, respectively). Individual EO constituents α-bisabolol, estragole, and thymol also exhibited good activity against P. falciparum (IC (50) = 5.00, 30.70, and 4.50 µg/mL, respectively). This is the first study showing evidence for the antimalarial activity of these species from northeastern Brazil and the low toxicity of their EOs. PMID:22441836

  17. Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Transactivational Effects of Chemical Components of the Roots of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Wei; Song, Seok Bean; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polygonum multiflorum is well-known as “Heshouwu” in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In Northeast Asia, it is often used as a tonic to prevent premature aging of the kidney and liver, tendons, and bones and strengthening of the lower back and knees. Objective: To research the anti-inflammatory activities of components from P. multiflorum. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC R-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry). The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds 1−15 were evaluated by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results: Fifteen compounds (1–15) were isolated from the roots of P. multiflorum. Compounds 1−5 and 14−15 significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced nuclear factor kappa B-luciferase activity, with IC50 values of 24.16-37.56 μM. Compounds 1−5 also greatly enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors transcriptional activity with EC50 values of 18.26−31.45 μM. Conclusion: The anthraquinone derivatives were the active components from the roots of P. multiflorum as an inhibitor on inflammation-related factors in human hepatoma cells. Therefore, we suggest that the roots of P. multiflorum can be used to treat natural inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study presented that fifteen compounds (1-15) isolated from the roots of Polygonum multiflrum exert signifiant anti inflmmatory effects by inhibiting TNF α induced NF κB activation and PPARs transcription. Abbreviation used: NF κB: Nuclear factor kappa B, PPARs: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, PPREs: Peroxisome proliferator response elements, TNF α: Tumor necrosis factor α, ESI-MS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, HepG2: Human hepatoma cells PMID:27019559

  18. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    PubMed

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds. PMID:24987426

  19. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chay-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds. PMID:24987426

  20. A novel near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics method for rapid analysis of several chemical components and antioxidant activity of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjiang; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2014-01-01

    A novel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been researched and developed for the simultaneous analyses of the chemical components and associated properties of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) tea samples. The common analytes were: total polysaccharide content, total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity. To resolve the NIRS data matrix for such analyses, least squares support vector machines was found to be the best chemometrics method for prediction, although it was closely followed by the radial basis function/partial least squares model. Interestingly, the commonly used partial least squares was unsatisfactory in this case. Additionally, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were able to distinguish the mint samples according to their four geographical provinces of origin, and this was further facilitated with the use of the chemometrics classification methods-K-nearest neighbors, linear discriminant analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis. In general, given the potential savings with sampling and analysis time as well as with the costs of special analytical reagents required for the standard individual methods, NIRS offered a very attractive alternative for the simultaneous analysis of mint samples. PMID:24480282

  1. Chemical characterization of components in fingerprints

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, S.G.; Asano, K.G.; Buchanan, M.V.; Bohanan, A.

    1997-12-31

    Investigations into the chemical composition of fingerprints were initiated after it was observed that the latent fingerprints of children disappear more rapidly from surfaces than those of adults. Initial work included the use of GUMS for the identification of compounds present in fingerprints. The relative concentrations of fatty acids and alkyl esters in children and adults appear to contribute to the higher rate of disappearance of prints from the younger subjects. The presence of alkyl esters is linked to sebaceous excretions originating from the face, which increase markedly after puberty. This work has been expanded to include characterization of other classes of components, including amino acids and triacylglycerols. This research is part of an ongoing project to identify various components of fingerprints and explore possible clinical and forensic applications. Through large sampling pools, trends that can indicate personal characteristics (i.e., gender, age), habits (smoking, drug use), and health-related issues (diabetes) are being investigated.

  2. Chemical Activities. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgford, Christie L.; Summerlin, Lee R.

    This sourcebook for chemical activities is designed to be used as a student laboratory book for both junior and senior high school students. The student's role as a knowledgeable consumer and informed citizen is stressed. Each activity includes a list of needed materials, procedures, reactions, questions, and notes for the teacher which include…

  3. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals.

  4. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  6. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  7. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  8. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  9. Processing of Activated Core Components

    SciTech Connect

    Friske, A.; Gestermann, G.; Finkbeiner, R.

    2003-02-26

    Used activated components from the core of a NPP like control elements, water channels from a BWR, and others like in-core measurement devices need to be processed into waste forms suitable for interim storage, and for the final waste repository. Processing of the activated materials can be undertaken by underwater cutting and packaging or by cutting and high-pressure compaction in a hot cell. A hot cell is available in Germany as a joint investment between GNS and the Karlsruhe Research Center at the latter's site. Special transport equipment is available to transport the components ''as-is'' to the hot cell. Newly designed underwater processing equipment has been designed, constructed, and operated for the special application of NPP decommissioning. This equipment integrates an underwater cutting device with an 80 ton force underwater in-drum compactor.

  10. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  11. Laminated plastic microfluidic components for biological and chemical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Matson, D.W.; Bennett, W.D.; Lin, Y.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    Laminated plastic microfluidic components are being developed for biological testing systems and chemical sensors. Applications include a DNA thermal cycler, DNA analytical systems, electrophoretic flow systems, dialysis systems, and metal sensors for ground water. This article describes fabrication processes developed for these plastic microfluidic components, and the fabrication of a chromium metal sensor and a microdialysis device. Most of the components have a stacked architecture. Using this architecture, the fluid flows, or is pumped through, as many as nine laminated functional levels. Functions include pumping, mixing, reaction, detection, reservoirs, separations, and electronics. Polyimide, poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), and polycarbonate materials with thicknesses between 25 and 125 {mu}m are used to construct the components. This makes the components low cost, inert to many biological fluids and chemicals, and disposable. The components are fabricated by excimer laser micromachining the microchannel patterns and microstructures in the various laminates. In some cases, micropumps are integrated into these components to move the fluids. Vias and interconnects are also cut by the laser and integrated with micropumps. The laminates are sealed and bonded by adhesive and thermal processes and are leak tight. The parts withstand pressures as high as 790 kPa. Typical channel widths are 50 to 100 {mu}m, with aspect ratios near 5. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.}

  12. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were β-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. β-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus. PMID:25891110

  13. Component pattern analysis of chemicals using multispectral THz imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuki

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz (THz) imaging, which allows detection and identification of chemicals by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the chemicals were obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra previously measured with a widely tunable THz-wave parametric oscillator. Further we have applied this technique to the detection and identification of illicit drugs concealed in envelopes. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

  14. [Study on the chemical components of Rabdosia excisa].

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Li, C; Yi, X

    1998-07-01

    Four kinds of components were extracted and separated from the stems and leaves of Rabdosia excisa. They had been identified as Kamebakaurin, Ursolic acid, Daucosterol and Liquiritin respectively by physical and chemical methods, as well as spectrum data. It was first time that Liquiritin was obtained from the Robdosia family, and its 13C-NMR data of Liquiritin had not been reported before. PMID:12569856

  15. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six-inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. The experimental results for those component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  16. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Aerosol Components: Chemical Analysis and Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, C.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants in the atmosphere and originate primarily from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels. Their main sources are anthropogenic (e.g. vehicle emissions, domes- tic heating or tobacco smoke), and PAHs consisting of more than four fused aromatic rings reside mostly on combustion aerosol particles, where they can react with atmo- spheric trace gases like O3, NOx or OH radicals leading to a wide variety of partially oxidized and nitrated derivatives. Such chemical transformations can strongly affect the activity of the aerosol particles as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. Moreover some poly- cyclic aromatic compounds (PACs = PAHs + derivatives) are known to have a high carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic potential, and are thus of major importance in air pollution control. Furthermore PACs can be used as well defined soot model sub- stances, since the basic structure of soot can be regarded as an agglomerate of highly polymerized PAC-layers. For the chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic aerosol components a new analyti- cal method based on LC-APCI-MS has been developed, and a data base comprising PAHs, Oxy-PAHs and Nitro-PAHs has been established. Together with a GC-HRMS method it will be applied to identify and quantify PAHs and Nitro-PAHs in atmo- spheric aerosol samples, diesel exhaust particle samples and model soot samples from laboratory reaction kinetics and product studies. As reported before, the adsorption and surface reaction rate of ozone on soot and PAH-like particle surfaces is reduced by competitive adsorption of water vapor at low relative humidity (< 25 %). Recent results at higher relative humidities (ca. 50 %), however, indicate re-enhanced gas phase ozone loss, which may be due to absorbtion of ozone into an aqueous surface layer. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen

  18. Antibacterial activity of essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Moleyar, V; Narasimham, P

    1992-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of fifteen essential oil components towards food borne Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. was studied by an agar plate technique. Cinnamic aldehyde was the most active compound followed by citral, geraniol, eugenol and menthol. At 500 micrograms/ml, cinnamic aldehyde completely inhibited the bacterial growth for more than 30 days at 30 degrees C that was comparable to 200 micrograms/ml of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA). At lower temperatures, 25 and 20 degrees C, antibacterial activity of the five essential oil components increased. Addition of sodium chloride at 4% level (w/v) in the medium had no effect on the inhibitory activity of cinnamic aldehyde. In mixtures of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol or BHA an additive effect was observed. PMID:1457292

  19. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers. PMID:26197558

  20. Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses: 1. Aged pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1991-12-01

    A 4-year Alaska chemical data set of aerosols or "dust" in the air clearly reveals a mixture of distinct aerosol components with different and interesting chemical composition, one or two being ascribed to pollution imported to Alaska by winds all the way from other continents. Of particular note is a strong chemical contrast between what we imagine to be highly scavenged, orographically lifted, northern Pacific air (Pacific marine air mass) and stagnant Arctic air (polar air mass), the latter containing seasonal average concentrations of between 2-4 times the concentration of the former, at least for pollution markers noncrustal vanadium, noncrustal manganese, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and antimony. The findings concur our old discovery that Arctic air is persistently polluted (Arctic haze), but Pacific air is relatively clean, in spite of the fact that Alaska is downwind of major pollution sources in the Orient. This is remarkable. In this the first of a two-part paper, we concentrate on the pollution component found primarily during incursion of Arctic polar air. Two major occurrences of visual haze with optical depths of approximately 0.2 and elevated aerosol concentration lasting about a month (spring 1985 and 1986) were affiliated with strong incoming transport of polar air, temperatures ranging from 10° to 20°C below normal (polar air) and air trajectory hindcasts leading back to industrial pollution sources in Eurasia. These long-range transport pollution events brought metal-rich aerosol of removal-resistant submicron particles. The size, chemistry, and meteorology all strongly suggest the presence of a well-aged (10-100 day) polluted air mass. An important implication is that in spring a large fraction of the Arctic polar air mass becomes charged with by-products of industrial pollution. In this multiyear chemical data set one finds a notable summer-winter contrast, changing by factors of 2 to 4 for pollution markers As, Se, Sb, and noncrustal

  1. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, M.R.; Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  2. Universe Interactive: Static Displays with Active Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Michelle B.

    2005-01-01

    As the World Year of Physics (WYP) approaches, the AAPT WYP Committee would like to encourage everyone to consider ways to engage those around us in celebrating the science that makes us the proud geeks we are. The geek sentiment is my own, and does not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the committee. This paper offers simple and inexpensive astronomy-related ideas for a bulletin-board-type display. The particular ideas presented below are hands-on classroom activities that I've adapted for display purposes. The display is static in that once constructed it does not require a personal facilitator, but each component invites interaction. At the end of the paper I revisit the idea of building a sundial1 as a highly visible and artistic way to engage students and communities in physics. The activities presented here are available for use when constructing your own display. In addition, these examples are meant to illustrate how instructional products might be modified for display purposes, and I encourage others to consider their favorite activities for an interactive display.

  3. Laboratory Inquiry for Determining the Chemical Composition of a Component in a Daily Use Detergent: Sodium Sesquicarbonate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Tomoyasu; Shigedomi, Kana

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based laboratory activity to determine the chemical composition of a component in alkaline detergents, sodium sesquicarbonate (SSC), is proposed. On the basis of introductory demonstrations by the instructor on the chemical properties and reactions of SSC, students propose the hypothetical composition of SSC and possible quantitative…

  4. Chemical components determination via terahertz spectroscopic statistical analysis using microgenetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Cheng, Hong

    2011-03-01

    In public security related applications, many suspicious samples may be a mixture of various chemical components that makes the usual spectral analysis difficult. In this paper, a terahertz spectroscopic statistical analysis method using a microgenetic algorithm (Micro-GA) has been proposed. Various chemical components in the mixture can be identified and the concentration of each component can be estimated based on the known spectral data of the pure chemical components. Five chemical mixtures have been tested using Micro-GA. The simulation results have shown agreement with other analytical methods. It is suggested that Micro-GA has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of chemical mixtures.

  5. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  6. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  7. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  8. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data Separates Chemicals by Class

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in action potential "spikes" in neuronal networks and can be used to screen chemicals for neurotoxicity. Analytical "fingerprinting," using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) on spike trains recorded from prim...

  9. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  10. Chemical Potentials and Activities: An Electrochemical Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, T. L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment which explores the effects of adding inert salts to electrolytic cells and demonstrates the difference between concentration and chemical activity. Examines chemical potentials as the driving force of reactions. Provides five examples of cell potential and concentration change. (JM)

  11. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  12. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the

  13. Laser-machined components for microanalytical and chemical separation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1998-10-01

    Excimer lasers have proven to be powerful tools for machining polymeric components used in microanalytical and microchemical separation devices. We report the use of laser machining methods to produce microfluidic channels and liquid/liquid contact membranes for a number of devices fabricated at our laboratory. Microchannels 50- to 100- micrometers -wide have been produced directly in bulk polycarbonate chips using a direct-write laser micromachining system. Wider microchannels have been produced by laser machining paths through sheets of polyimide film, then sandwiching the patterned piece between solid chips of polycarbonate stock. A comparison of direct-write and mask machining processes used to produce some of the microfluidic features is made. Examples of microanalytical devices produced using these methods are presented. Included are microdialysis units used to remove electrolytes from liquid samples and electrophoretic separation devices, both used for extremely low volume samples intended for mass spectrometric analysis. A multilayered microfluidic device designed to analyze low volume groundwater samples for hazardous metals and a fluidics motherboard are also described. Laser machining processes have also been explored for producing polymeric membranes suitable for use in liquid/liquid contactors used for removal of soluble hazardous components from waste streams. A step-and-repeat mask machining process was used to produce 0.5 X 8 cm membranes in 25- and 50-micrometers -thick polyimide. Pore diameters produced using this method were five and ten micrometers. The laser machined membranes were sputter coated with PTFE prior to use to improve fluid breakthrough characteristics.

  14. Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Ryanne; Cogdill, Robert P; Short, Steven M; Drennen, James K; Taday, Philip F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate suitable procedures for generating multivariate prediction vectors for quantitative composition and density analysis of intact solid oral dosage forms using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) spectroscopy. Both frequency- (absorbance and refractive index) and time-domain data are presented. A set of calibration and prediction samples were created according to a quaternary mixture design with five levels of compaction at each concentration design point. Calibration models were generated by partial least-squares, type II (PLS-2) regression of the TPI spectra against nominal composition and relative density reference measurements. Quantitative frequency-domain composition calibration models were created for all crystalline components (R(2)>0.90), but the calibration models for individual amorphous components (R(2)<0.76) did not perform as well in testing. Combining both amorphous components into a single component variable for regression resulted in lower error statistics and equally good predictions of crystalline components. A non-linear attenuation of time-domain spectra was observed as a function of compaction force, which corresponded to compact density predictions (R(2)=0.948). While refractive index spectra were sensitive to density (R(2)=0.937), the absorbance spectra were not. Surface density maps were prepared based on refractive index calibrations. PMID:18053671

  15. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to

  16. Qualification of active mechanical components for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1983-11-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has undertaken a study of active safety related mechanical components in domestic nuclear plants to determine what qualification information exists and to establish a plan for qualification of those components. Active safety related mechanical components are those which undergo mechanical motion to perform a safety function. The overall objective of the study is to recommend appropriate methods and realistic criteria for the environmental, seismic and dynamic qualification of active mechanical components. This paper presents the results of progress in this project through May 1983.

  17. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  18. Spatial pattern separation of chemicals and frequency-independent components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Kawase, Kodo; Ikari, Tomofumi; Ito, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Youichi; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2003-10-01

    We separated the component spatial patterns of frequency-dependent absorption in chemicals and frequency-independent components such as plastic, paper, and measurement noise in terahertz (THz) spectroscopic images, using known spectral curves. Our measurement system, which uses a widely tunable coherent THz-wave parametric oscillator source, can image at a specific frequency in the range 1-2 THz. The component patterns of chemicals can easily be extracted by use of the frequency-independent components. This method could be successfully used for nondestructive inspection for the detection of illegal drugs and devices of bioterrorism concealed, e.g., inside mail and packages.

  19. Activity Therapy Services and Chemical Dependency Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark R.; Townsley, Robin K.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how music, occupational, and recreation therapies can contribute to comprehensive treatment programs for chemical dependency. Sees prime contribution of activity therapy as lying in nature of experiential education, applying insight gained in counseling sessions and discussion groups to practical real-life situations. (Author/NB)

  20. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, M.D.; Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A.

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Compatibility between active components of a commercial drug.

    PubMed

    Rodante, Fabrizio; Vecchio, Stefano; Catalani, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro

    2002-10-01

    A thermal and a kinetic analysis on the decomposition processes of a commercial drug named diamplicil (AD), obtained by an antibiotic combination of ampicillin (A) and dicloxacillin (D), have been carried out to find their thermal stability. The DSC/TG curves of this commercial drug were compared with those of its active components and an excipient, the magnesium stearate (M). Kinetic study was carried out using both isothermal and dynamic TG curves. Decomposition mechanisms for both active components and commercial drug tested were not found. The kinetic data obtained by the non-isothermal isoconversional method showed that D component causes a decrease of the kinetic stability of the active A component. Additive magnesium stearate does not decrease the stability of the two components. Moreover, storage time values at room temperature were calculated. PMID:12420879

  2. Primary chemical and physical characterization of acute toxic components in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Svenson, A.; Linlin, Z.; Kaj, L. )

    1992-10-01

    A chemical and physical primary characterization work sheet was developed based on the Microtox test, a bacterial bioluminescence system used as a rapid estimate of acute aquatic toxic effects. Measurements of the variation in light reduction upon different pretreatments provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the main toxic component(s) in test wastewater samples. This primary characterization of a wastewater sample was performed within 1 day. Tests of pure toxic chemical compounds and wastewaters with known and unknown primary toxicants are presented. Outlines to the chemical analysis and identification of toxic components may be deduced from the primary characterization. The provisional characterization may also provide information on wastewater treatment techniques.

  3. Antioxidant components and physico-chemical characteristics of jamun powder supplemented pear juice.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Swati; Ranote, Pushpinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    Studies were conducted to develop jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Two drying methods (Hot air cabinet drying and freeze drying) were used to prepare jamun pulp powder. Jamun powder was then blended with pear juice at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % levels for preparation of jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Among the drying methods used, freeze dried powder retained better bioactive compounds and possessed higher antioxidant activity as compared to hot air dried jamun powder. Analysis of color properties (L*, a*, b*) revealed lower L*, b* values and higher a* values with progression of supplementation levels indicating decreased brightness of product. Pear juice supplemented with 4 % jamun powder received highest overall acceptability scores and was chosen for development of final product. Physico-chemical characteristics of control pear juice did not vary much from when compared to jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Bioactive components mainly total phenols enhanced (9.24 % higher) with addition of jamun powder in pear juice. Addition of anthocyanins from jamun powder to pear juice upon blending improved antioxidant activity of the final product. Supplemented pear juice had 18.13 % higher antioxidant activity than pear juice without supplementation. Storage period of 6 months resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in jamun powder supplemented pear juice. PMID:27407197

  4. Semantic-Aware Components and Services of ActiveMath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Erica; Goguadze, Giorgi; Homik, Martin; Libbrecht, Paul; Ullrich, Carsten; Winterstein, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    ActiveMath is a complex web-based adaptive learning environment with a number of components and interactive learning tools. The basis for handling semantics of learning content is provided by its semantic (mathematics) content markup, which is additionally annotated with educational metadata. Several components, tools and external services can…

  5. Collective surfing of chemically active particles.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures. PMID:24724685

  6. Collective Surfing of Chemically Active Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures.

  7. Independent Components of Neural Activity Carry Information on Individual Populations

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Helena; Potworowski, Jan; Łęski, Szymon; Wójcik, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP), the low-frequency part of the potential recorded extracellularly in the brain, reflects neural activity at the population level. The interpretation of LFP is complicated because it can mix activity from remote cells, on the order of millimeters from the electrode. To understand better the relation between the recordings and the local activity of cells we used a large-scale network thalamocortical model to compute simultaneous LFP, transmembrane currents, and spiking activity. We used this model to study the information contained in independent components obtained from the reconstructed Current Source Density (CSD), which smooths transmembrane currents, decomposed further with Independent Component Analysis (ICA). We found that the three most robust components matched well the activity of two dominating cell populations: superior pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 (rhythmic spiking) and tufted pyramids from layer 5 (intrinsically bursting). The pyramidal population from layer 2/3 could not be well described as a product of spatial profile and temporal activation, but by a sum of two such products which we recovered in two of the ICA components in our analysis, which correspond to the two first principal components of PCA decomposition of layer 2/3 population activity. At low noise one more cell population could be discerned but it is unlikely that it could be recovered in experiment given typical noise ranges. PMID:25153730

  8. Differentiation of the Chemical Profile of Piper arboreum Tissues Using NIR Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, M. S.; Pontes, M. J. C.; Ramos, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of chemical profiles from Piper arboreum tissues using near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA) was addressed. The NIR analyses were performed with a small quantity of dried and ground tissues. Differences in the chemical composition of leaf, stem, and root tissues were observed. The results obtained were compared to those produced by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as the reference method, confirming the NIR results.

  9. Influence of ingredients and chemical components on the quality of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2014-11-15

    Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a staple food in China since ancient time. The basic ingredients include wheat flour, yeast/sourdough, and water. Current consumer trends urge the production of CSB on a large scale as well as the formulation of healthier CSB with specific nutritional benefits. This requires a better definition of the relationship between the properties of ingredients/chemical components and CSB quality. This review summarises the recent advances in understanding the roles of basic and optional ingredients and their chemical components in the appearance, textural, sensory, and shelf-life properties of CSB, and provides suggestions for further research to match the current trends. PMID:24912711

  10. Report of the Workshop on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Herd, Christopher D. K. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Geochemical and petrologic studies of the Martian meteorites (nicknamed the SNCs) have proliferated in the past few years, from a wealth of new samples and the perfection of new analytical methods. An intriguing result from these studies is that the chemical and isotopic compositions of the Martian meteorites, all basalts or derived from basaltic magma, can be modeled as mixtures of a limited number of components. These mixing components were the focus of the workshop.

  11. Transient assembly of active materials fueled by a chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhoven, Job; Hendriksen, Wouter E.; Koper, Ger J. M.; Eelkema, Rienk; van Esch, Jan H.

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-driven self-assembly of actin filaments and microtubules is a key component of cellular organization. Continuous energy supply maintains these transient biomolecular assemblies far from thermodynamic equilibrium, unlike typical synthetic systems that spontaneously assemble at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we report the transient self-assembly of synthetic molecules into active materials, driven by the consumption of a chemical fuel. In these materials, reaction rates and fuel levels, instead of equilibrium composition, determine properties such as lifetime, stiffness, and self-regeneration capability. Fibers exhibit strongly nonlinear behavior including stochastic collapse and simultaneous growth and shrinkage, reminiscent of microtubule dynamics.

  12. Chemical activity of simple basic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André; Barbier, Bernard

    1990-03-01

    Alternating all-L poly(leucyl-lysyl) increases markedly the rate of hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides. Pure D poly (leucyl-lysyl) is as active as the all-L polymer. The homochiral polypeptides adopt aβ-sheet structure when complexed to the oligonucleotides. Alternating poly(D,L-Leu-D,L-Lys) made of racemic amino acids is much less efficient and is unable to adopt aβ-sheet structure. A set of alternating poly (leucyl-lysyl) ranging from the racemic to the homochiral all-L polymer has been checked. Their conformations can be described as a mixture of random coil andβ-sheet conformations, the amount ofβ-sheet increasing with the optical purity of the polymer. The hydrolytic activity follows the proportion ofβ-sheets, suggesting that the chemical activity is related to the geometry of the chain. Short peptides were prepared in order to evaluate the critical chain length required for the hydrolytic activity. A decapeptide is long enough to present 90% of the activity of the corresponding polypeptide.

  13. Active Chemical Thermodynamics promoted by activity of cortical actin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Bhaswati; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Gowrishankar, Kripa; Rao, Madan

    2011-03-01

    The spatial distribution and dynamics of formation and breakup of the nanoclusters of cell surface proteins is controlled by the active remodeling dynamics of the underlying cortical actin. To explain these observations, we have proposed a novel mechanism of nanoclustering, involving the transient binding to and advection along constitutively occuring ``asters'' of cortical actin. We study the consequences of such active actin-based clustering, in the context of chemical reactions involving conformational changes of cell surface proteins. We find that the active remodeling of cortical actin, can give rise to a dramatic increase in efficiency and extent of conformational spread, even at low levels of expression at the cell surface. We define a activity temperature (τa) arising due to actin activities which can be used to describe chemical thermodynamics of the system. We plot TTT (time-temparature-transformation) curves and compute the Arrhenius factors which depend on τa . With this, the active asters can be treated as enzymes whose enzymatic reaction rate can be related to the activity.

  14. Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M M

    1991-01-01

    Search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continuously appears in international literature. Perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of antitumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. The new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. In near future "the accessibility of super computers and emergence of computer net systems, will open new avenues to rational drug design" (Portoghese, P. S., J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 1). Unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this electronic devices, as traditional medicine has pointed out in many countries, and give rise to a new drug. These compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as FAA, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inhibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. In this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplastic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by Brazilian researches. PMID:1842015

  15. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  16. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yang; Ke-Qiang, Qiu

    2009-05-01

    Activated carbons especially used for gaseous adsorption were prepared from Chinesefir sawdust by zinc chloride activation under vacuum condition. The micropore structure, adsorption properties, and surface morphology of activated carbons obtained under atmosphere and vacuum were investigated. The prepared activated carbons were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the structure of the starting material is kept after activation. The activated carbon prepared under vacuum exhibited higher values of the BET surface area (up to 1079 m2 g(-1)) and total pore volume (up to 0.5665 cm3 g(-1)) than those of the activated carbon obtained under atmosphere. This was attributed to the effect of vacuum condition that reduces oxygen in the system and limits the secondary reaction of the organic vapor. The prepared activated carbon has well-developed microstructure and high microporosity. According to the data obtained, Chinese fir sawdust is a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation. The obtained activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent with favorable surface properties. Compared with the traditional chemical activation, vacuum condition demands less energy consumption, simultaneity, and biomass-oil is collected in the procedure more conveniently. FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment would result in the aromatization of the carbon structure. PMID:19534162

  17. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence: plant β-glucosidases as the main target for herbivore adaptation.

    PubMed

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Fred; Bak, Søren

    2014-08-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists and specialists, and can act on different classes of defence compounds. We discuss how generalist and specialist insects appear to differ in their ability to use these different types of adaptations: in generalists, adaptations are often inducible, whereas in specialists they are often constitutive. Future studies are suggested to investigate in detail how insect adaptations act in combination to overcome plant chemical defences and to allow ecologically relevant conclusions. PMID:25165798

  18. CHEMICAL STRUCTURES IN COAL: GEOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF MIXED STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Maciel, G.E.; Szeverenyi, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize work on the chemical structural components of coal, comparing them with their possible plant precursors in modern peat. Solid-state **1**3C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analysis and, in some cases, individual compound analyses formed the bases for these comparisons.

  19. Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of the Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites, September 11-12, 2002, in Houston, Texas. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  20. New adaptive methods for sensing of chemical components and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy A.; Chiarini, Bruno H.; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2004-02-01

    It is known that leaf reflectance spectra can be used to estimate the contents of chemical components in vegetation. Recent novel applications include the detection of harmful biological agents that can originate from agricultural bioterrorism attacks. Such attacks have been identified as a major threat to the United States" agriculture. Nevertheless, the usefulness of such approach is currently limited by distorting factors, in particular soil reflectance. The quantitative analysis of the spectral curves from the reflection of plant leaves may be the basis for the development of new methods for interpreting the data obtained by the remote measurement of plants. We consider the problem of characterizing the chemical composition from noisy spectral data using an experimental optical method. Using our experience in signal processing and optimization of complex systems we propose a new mathematical model for sensing of chemical components in vegetation. Estimates are defined as minimizers of penalized cost functionals with sequential quadratic programming (SQR) methods. A deviation measure used in risk analysis is also considered. This framework is demonstrated for different agricultural plants using adaptive filtration, principal components analysis, and optimization techniques for classification of spectral curves of chemical components. Various estimation problems will be considered to illustrate the computational aspects of the proposed method.

  1. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley; Hunter, Raymond Paul

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality. PMID:27314370

  2. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley; Hunter, Raymond Paul

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality. PMID:27314370

  3. Bioactive Components of Chinese Propolis Water Extract on Antitumor Activity and Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Aifeng; Fu, Chongluo; Wang, Yuanjun; Peng, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    To understand the material basis of antitumor activity of Chinese propolis water extract (CPWE), we developed a simple and efficient method using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography and separated and purified eleven chemical components (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin) from CPWE; then we tested the antitumor activities of these eleven components using different human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549). Furthermore, cell migration, procaspase 3 level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of effective components from CPWE were investigated. Our data showed that antitumor activities of the eleven components from CPWE were different from each other. CPWE and its effective components induced apoptosis by inhibiting tumor cell migration, activating caspase 3, and promoting ROS production. It can be deduced that the antitumor effects of propolis did not depend on a single component, and there must exist "bioactive components," which also provides a new idea for Chinese propolis quality control. PMID:27123037

  4. Bioactive Components of Chinese Propolis Water Extract on Antitumor Activity and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Aifeng; Fu, Chongluo; Wang, Yuanjun; Peng, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    To understand the material basis of antitumor activity of Chinese propolis water extract (CPWE), we developed a simple and efficient method using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography and separated and purified eleven chemical components (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin) from CPWE; then we tested the antitumor activities of these eleven components using different human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549). Furthermore, cell migration, procaspase 3 level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of effective components from CPWE were investigated. Our data showed that antitumor activities of the eleven components from CPWE were different from each other. CPWE and its effective components induced apoptosis by inhibiting tumor cell migration, activating caspase 3, and promoting ROS production. It can be deduced that the antitumor effects of propolis did not depend on a single component, and there must exist “bioactive components,” which also provides a new idea for Chinese propolis quality control. PMID:27123037

  5. Orthogonal, three-component, alkanethiol-based surface-chemical gradients on gold.

    PubMed

    Beurer, Eva; Venkataraman, Nagaiyanallur V; Rossi, Antonella; Bachmann, Florian; Engeli, Roman; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2010-06-01

    An orthogonal surface-chemical gradient composed of self-assembled monolayers on gold has been prepared by successive, controlled immersions in orthogonal directions into dilute solutions of dodecanethiol and perfluorododecanethiol. The resulting two-component orthogonal gradient in surface coverage was backfilled with 11-mercaptoundecanol, leading to a two-directional, three-component surface-chemical gradient. Water and hexadecane show distinctly different wetting behaviors on the gradient surface because of the differences in the hydrophobic and oleophobic natures of the three different constituents. These results are correlated with the chemical composition maps of the surface obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The homogeneity and the ordering of the self-assembled monolayer were investigated by dynamic water contact angle measurements and polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. PMID:20166727

  6. ChemDoodle Web Components: HTML5 toolkit for chemical graphics, interfaces, and informatics.

    PubMed

    Burger, Melanie C

    2015-01-01

    ChemDoodle Web Components (abbreviated CWC, iChemLabs, LLC) is a light-weight (~340 KB) JavaScript/HTML5 toolkit for chemical graphics, structure editing, interfaces, and informatics based on the proprietary ChemDoodle desktop software. The library uses and WebGL technologies and other HTML5 features to provide solutions for creating chemistry-related applications for the web on desktop and mobile platforms. CWC can serve a broad range of scientific disciplines including crystallography, materials science, organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry and chemical biology. CWC is freely available for in-house use and is open source (GPL v3) for all other uses.Graphical abstractAdd interactive 2D and 3D chemical sketchers, graphics, and spectra to websites and apps with ChemDoodle Web Components. PMID:26185528

  7. Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils.

    PubMed

    Miraliakbari, H; Shahidi, F

    2008-11-15

    The antioxidative components of tree nut oils were extracted using a solvent stripping process. Tree nut oil extracts contained phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and tocopherols. The chloroform/methanol extracted oils had higher amounts of phenolic compounds than their hexane extracted counterparts. The antioxidant activity of tree nut oil minor component extracts were assessed using the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, β-carotene bleaching test, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and photochemiluminescence inhibition assays. Results of these studies demonstrated that extracts of chloroform/methanol extracted oils possessed higher antioxidant activities than extracts of their hexane extracted counterparts. Meanwhile the extract of chloroform/methanol extracted pecan oil possessed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:26047445

  8. Four-Component Relativistic DFT Calculations of (13)C Chemical Shifts of Halogenated Natural Substances.

    PubMed

    Casella, Girolamo; Bagno, Alessandro; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Saielli, Giacomo

    2015-12-14

    We have calculated the (13)C NMR chemical shifts of a large ensemble of halogenated organic molecules (81 molecules for a total of 250 experimental (13)C NMR data at four different levels of theory), ranging from small rigid organic compounds, used to benchmark the performance of various levels of theory, to natural substances of marine origin with conformational degrees of freedom. Carbon atoms bonded to heavy halogen atoms, particularly bromine and iodine, are known to be rather challenging when it comes to the prediction of their chemical shifts by quantum methods, due to relativistic effects. In this paper, we have applied the state-of-the-art four-component relativistic density functional theory for the prediction of such NMR properties and compared the performance with two-component and nonrelativistic methods. Our results highlight the necessity to include relativistic corrections within a four-component description for the most accurate prediction of the NMR properties of halogenated organic substances. PMID:26541625

  9. Low-power MOEMS components for active optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Yan, Dong; Madison, Seth; Xu, Bai

    2004-01-01

    The eventual, widespread insertion of Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) into the marketplace rests fundamentally on the ability to produce viable components that maximize optical performance while minimizing power consumption and size. In addition, the incorporation of optical reconfigurability into custom MOEMS devices offers an extra degree of freedom not possible with conventional components. Active control of surface topology allows for one component to perform multiple functions thus reducing cost and complexity. This paper will focus on the current status of the MOEMS research program at the University at Albany Institute for Materials" (UAIM) NanoFab 200 with several examples described to illustrate component and system development. In particular, among the MOEMS research portfolio at UAIM, the development of selected MOEMS-based, active optics will be discussed. This active control of diffraction and reflection forms the basis for the utility of such devices. Leveraging the extensive research expertise on the patented MEMS Compound Grating (MCG), emphasis will be placed on the extension of the approach to novel designs, materials and fabrication methods to yield low power, high performance prototypes. The main focus of this paper is on the development of a polymer version (including sacrificial layer, in some designs) of the MCG which allows for ease of fabrication and a reduced electrostatic actuation voltage. Following a system design effort, several generations of the component were fabricated to optimize the process flow. Component metrology, electromechanical characterization and initial results of optical tests will be reported. A second example presented is the design and prototype fabrication of a spring micrograting using a customized SOI process. This highly flexible component builds on the MCG concept and yields an order of magnitude reduction in actuation voltage. These examples will be presented against a backdrop of the broad UAIM

  10. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  11. A viscoplastic model for the active component in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Rubin, M B

    2016-08-01

    The HMK model (Hunter et al. in Prog Biophys Mol Biol 69:289-331, 1998) proposes mechanobiological equations for the influence of intracellular calcium concentration [Formula: see text] on the evolution of bound calcium concentration [Formula: see text] and the tropomyosin kinetics parameter z, which model processes in the active component of the tension in cardiac muscle. The inelastic response due to actin-myosin crossbridge kinetics is modeled in the HMK model with a function Q that depends on the history of the rate of total stretch of the muscle fiber. Here, an alternative model is proposed which models the active component of the muscle fiber as a viscoplastic material. In particular, an evolution equation is proposed for the elastic stretch [Formula: see text] in the active component. Specific forms of the constitutive equations are proposed and used to match experimental data. The proposed viscoplastic formulation allows for separate modeling of three processes: the high rate deactivation of crossbridges causing rapid reduction in active tension; the high but lower rate reactivation of crossbridges causing recovery of active tension; and the low rate relaxation effects characterizing the Hill model of muscles. PMID:26476735

  12. Chemical structure and immunobiological activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipid A.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tomohiko; Asai, Yasuyuki; Makimura, Yutaka; Tamai, Riyoko

    2007-01-01

    In 1933, Boivin et al. extracted an endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium for the first time, after which a variety of chemical and biological studies on endotoxins have been performed. In 1952, the structural and functional properties of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), extracted by a hot phenol and water method devised by Westphal et al., were reported, which led to a number of studies of Gram-negative bacteria in regards to the host defense mechanism. Since 1960, the unique chemical structure and biological activity of Bacteroides species LPS have received a great deal of attention, and there is a long history of such studies. In addition, among oral bacterial strains that have received attention as causative periodontopathic bacteria, many have been classified as Bacteroides species. In particular, a number of researchers have investigated whether LPS of Porphyromonas gingivalis (formerly Bacteroides gingivalis), a black-pigmented oral anaerobic rod, is a virulent factor of the bacterium. The active center of the LPS of these Bacteroides species, the lipid A molecule, is known to be an active participant in endotoxic activation, though its other biological activities are weak, due to its unique chemical structure and action as an antagonist of LPS. On the other hand, many reports have noted that the LPS of those species activate cells in C3H/HeJ mice, which generally do not respond to LPS. We were the first to reveal the chemical structure of P. gingivalis lipid A and, together with other researchers, reported that P. gingivalis LPS and its lipid A have activities toward C3H/HeJ mice. Since that time, because of the popularity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) studies, a great deal of evidence has been reported indicating that P. gingivalis LPS and its lipid A are ligands that act on TLR2. In order to solve such problems as heterogeneity and contamination of the biologically active components of P. gingivalis lipid A, we produced a chemical synthesis counterpart

  13. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Daishi; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Azechi, Sotaro; Nakaema, Fumiya; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Tanahara, Akira

    2010-05-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the long-range transported air pollution from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan because of increase in photochemical oxidants in relatively remote islands. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the bulk aerosols collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We will report water-soluble chemical components data of anions, cations and DOC in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS during August, 2005 to April, 2010. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions. In addition, we calculated background concentration of water-soluble chemical components at Okinawa

  14. Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Silymarin Components

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Kevin P.; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    Silymarin is an over the counter food supplement that is sold as a liver enhancement and liver protection preparation. It is a major constituent of the seeds of Silybum marianum which is composed of a mixture of seven major components and several minor compounds. The seven major components: taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, iso-silybin A and iso-silybin B were isolated and purified from the crude mixture of silymarin using preparative high performance liquid chromatography to determine which were the most effective for liver protection. Free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity, trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity and total antioxidant capacity antioxidant activities were determined for each of the individual purified components as well as the crude silymarin mixture. Taxifolin was the most effective component for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH assay with an EC50 of 32 µM far more effective than all other components which showed EC50 ranging from 115 to 855 µM. Taxifolin was also found to be the most effective antioxidant in the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay with a trolox equivalent of 2.43 and the second most effective in the hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) assay with a gallic acid equivalent of 0.57. Other antioxidants assays did not show significant differences between samples. PMID:26784472

  15. Chemistry, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of volatile oils and their components.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reports the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of several essential oils and their components. Analysis showed that three oils (Carum carvi L., Verbena officinalis L. and Majorana hortensis L.) contained predominantly oxygenated monoterpenes, while others studied (Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mainly contained anethole. C. carvi, V. officinalis and M. hortensis oils exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity, due their contents of carvacrol, anethole and estragol. Antibacterial action was assessed against a range of pathogenic and useful bacteria and fungi of agro-food interest. V. officinalis and C. carvi oils proved the most effective, in particular against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carvacrol proved most active against Escherichia coli, and completely inhibited the growth of Penicillium citrinum. The oils proved inactive towards some Lactobacilli strains, whereas single components showed an appreciable activity. These results may be important for use of the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products. PMID:20120118

  16. Plant active components - a resource for antiparasitic agents?

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean-Paul; Fyfe, Lorna; Smith, Huw

    2005-10-01

    Plant essential oils (and/or active components) can be used as alternatives or adjuncts to current antiparasitic therapies. Garlic oil has broad-spectrum activity against Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Giardia and Leishmania, and Cochlospermum planchonii and Croton cajucara oils specifically inhibit Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania amazonensis, respectively. Some plant oils have immunomodulatory effects that could modify host-parasite immunobiology, and the lipid solubility of plant oils might offer alternative, transcutaneous delivery routes. The emergence of parasites resistant to current chemotherapies highlights the importance of plant essential oils as novel antiparasitic agents. PMID:16099722

  17. Chemical elements diffusion in the stainless steel components brazed with Cu-Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voiculescu, I.; Geanta, V.; Vasile, I. M.; Binchiciu, E. F.; Winestoock, R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the study of diffusion of chemical elements through a brazing joint, between two thin components (0.5mm) made of stainless steel 304. An experimental brazing filler material has been used for brazing stainless steel component and then the diffusion phenomenon has been studied, in terms of chemical element displacement from the brazed separation interface. The filler material is in the form of a metal rod coated with ceramic slurry mixture of minerals, containing precursors and metallic powders, which can contribute to the formation of deposit brazed. In determining the distance of diffusion of chemical elements, on both sides of the fusion line, were performed measurements of the chemical composition using electron microscopy SEM and EDX spectrometry. Metallographic analysis of cross sections was performed with the aim of highlight the microstructural characteristics of brazed joints, for estimate the wetting capacity, adherence of filler metal and highlight any imperfections. Analyzes performed showed the penetration of alloying elements from the solder (Ag, Cu, Zn and Sn) towards the base material (stainless steel), over distances up to 60 microns.

  18. On the visual binary υ Car and the chemical composition of its brighter component.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samedov, Z. A.

    On the basis of the method for studying the composite spectrum of a double system, the following values of effective temperatures and surface gravities are obtained for the components of the visual binary υ Car: Teff = 7600±350K, lg g = 1.1±0.3 for the brighter component υ Car A, Teff = 23000±1600K, lg g = 3.3±0.1 for the fainter component υ Car B. By comparing the evolutionary calculations the author has found masses, radii, luminosities; the age is 107years. Using spectroscopic data, the microturbulent velocity and the chemical composition are studied in the atmosphere of υ Car A. The analysis of Ti II, Fe II, Cr II lines showed higher values in comparison with Fe I lines. The element abundances are defined using relatively weak lines, on average it is close to that of the Sun.

  19. Comparative defect evaluation of aircraft components by active thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauner, G.; Mayr, G.; Hendorfer, G.

    2009-02-01

    Active Thermography has become a powerful tool in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT) in recent years. This infrared thermal imaging technique is used for non-contact inspection of materials and components by visualizing thermal surface contrasts after a thermal excitation. The imaging modality combined with the possibility of detecting and characterizing flaws as well as determining material properties makes Active Thermography a fast and robust testing method even in industrial-/production environments. Nevertheless, depending on the kind of defect (thermal properties, size, depth) and sample material (CFRP carbon fiber reinforced plastics, metal, glass fiber) or sample structure (honeycomb, composite layers, foam), active thermography can sometimes produce equivocal results or completely fails in certain test situations. The aim of this paper is to present examples of results of Active Thermography methods conducted on aircraft components compared to various other (imaging) NDT techniques, namely digital shearography, industrial x-ray imaging and 3D-computed tomography. In particular we focus on detection limits of thermal methods compared to the above-mentioned NDT methods with regard to: porosity characterization in CFRP, detection of delamination, detection of inclusions and characterization of glass fiber distributions.

  20. Chemical activation of the mechanotransduction channel Piezo1

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Ruhma; Xu, Jie; Dubin, Adrienne E; Coste, Bertrand; Mathur, Jayanti; Huynh, Truc; Matzen, Jason; Lao, Jianmin; Tully, David C; Engels, Ingo H; Petrassi, H Michael; Schumacher, Andrew M; Montal, Mauricio; Bandell, Michael; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Piezo ion channels are activated by various types of mechanical stimuli and function as biological pressure sensors in both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date, mechanical stimuli are the only means to activate Piezo ion channels and whether other modes of activation exist is not known. In this study, we screened ∼3.25 million compounds using a cell-based fluorescence assay and identified a synthetic small molecule we termed Yoda1 that acts as an agonist for both human and mouse Piezo1. Functional studies in cells revealed that Yoda1 affects the sensitivity and the inactivation kinetics of mechanically induced responses. Characterization of Yoda1 in artificial droplet lipid bilayers showed that Yoda1 activates purified Piezo1 channels in the absence of other cellular components. Our studies demonstrate that Piezo1 is amenable to chemical activation and raise the possibility that endogenous Piezo1 agonists might exist. Yoda1 will serve as a key tool compound to study Piezo1 regulation and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07369.001 PMID:26001275

  1. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25870697

  2. The chemical effects of the Martian environment on power system component materials: A theoretical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.

    1990-01-01

    In the foreseeable future, an expedition may be undertaken to explore the planet Mars. Some of the power source options being considered for such a mission are photovoltaics, regenerative fuel cells and nuclear reactors. In addition to electrical power requirements, environmental conditions en route to Mars, in the planetary orbit and on the Martian surface must be simulated and studied in order to anticipate and solve potential problems. Space power systems components such as photovoltaic arrays, radiators, and solar concentrators may be vulnerable to degradation in the Martian environment. Natural characteristics of Mars which may pose a threat to surface power systems include high velocity winds, dust, ultraviolet radiation, large daily variation in temperature, reaction to components of the soil, atmosphere and atmospheric condensates as well as synergistic combinations. Most of the current knowledge of the characteristics of the Martian atmosphere and soil composition was obtained from the Viking 1 and 2 missions in 1976. A theoretical study is presented which was used to assess the effects of the Martian atmospheric conditions on the power systems components. A computer program written at NASA-Lewis for combustion research that uses a free energy minimization technique was used to calculate chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states of temperature and pressure. The power system component materials selected for this study include: silicon dioxide, silicon, carbon, copper, and titanium. Combinations of environments and materials considered include: (1) Mars atmosphere with power surface material, (2) Mars atmosphere and dust component with power surface material, and (3) Mars atmosphere and hydrogen peroxide or superoxide or superoxide with power system material. The chemical equilibrium calculations were performed at a composition ratio (oxidant to reactant) of 100. The temperature for the silicon dioxide material and silicon, which simulate

  3. Chemical Components of Noncommercial Alcohol Beverage Samples: A Study With the Viewpoint of Toxic Components in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dadpour, Bita; Hedjazi, Arya; Ghorbani, Hamideh; Khosrojerdi, Hamid; Vaziri, Seyed Mohsen; Malek Zadeh, Haleh; Habibi Tamijani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background Iran has one of the lowest alcoholic beverage use rates in comparison with other countries, because it is legally forbidden and because of religious beliefs. Even so, unrecorded and noncommercial alcohol remains a considerable concern, which needs special attention. Objectives In the current research, we have studied the general composition of noncommercial alcohol samples to identify potentially toxic components in the context of the city of Mashhad in IR Iran. Patients and Methods Using a descriptive study, chemical composition records of alcohol samples obtained from Mashhad and its suburbs (from March 2013 to March 2014) were evaluated in terms of ethanol percentage and methanol percentage using gas chromatography. Likewise, the pH of the alcohol and the location of the sample were also considered. Some substances, such as inorganic elements, were not included because there was no information about these substances in the records. Results Of 877 reports of alcohol samples, more than 50% were obtained from Mashhad and the rest were from the suburbs. Of the reports, 57.5% were in the spring and summer, followed by 42.5% in the fall and winter. The mean (min-max) of ethanol percentage was 30.04% (0 - 98.4). In four cases, methanol was detected. The mean (min-max) of methanol percentage was 23% (4 - 95).The majority of the samples had an acidic pH. Conclusions The composition of unrecorded samples did not raise major toxicological concern beyond ethanol in alcohol products. However, concentration levels of methanol in some unrecorded alcohol samples made these samples detrimental for human consumption. PMID:27622171

  4. Mineral components and anti-oxidant activities of tropical seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso

    2005-07-01

    Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.

  5. The influence of chemical chaperones on enzymatic activity under thermal and chemical stresses: common features and variation among diverse chemical families.

    PubMed

    Levy-Sakin, Michal; Berger, Or; Feibish, Nir; Sharon, Noa; Schnaider, Lee; Shmul, Guy; Amir, Yaniv; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Gazit, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    Molecular and chemical chaperones are key components of the two main mechanisms that ensure structural stability and activity under environmental stresses. Yet, chemical chaperones are often regarded only as osmolytes and their role beyond osmotic regulation is not fully understood. Here, we systematically studied a large group of chemical chaperones, representatives of diverse chemical families, for their protective influence under either thermal or chemical stresses. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that in spite of the structural similarity between sugars and sugar alcohols, they have an apparent difference in their protective potential. Our results support the notion that the protective activity is mediated by the solvent and the presence of water is essential. In the current work we revealed that i) polyols and sugars have a completely different profile of protective activity toward trifluoroethanol and thermal stress; ii) minor changes in solvent composition that do not affect enzyme activity, yet have a great effect on the ability of osmolytes to act as protectants and iii) increasing the number of active groups of carbohydrates makes them better protectants while increasing the number of active groups of methylamines does not, as revealed by attempts to synthesize de novo designed methylamines with multiple functional groups. PMID:24520396

  6. The Influence of Chemical Chaperones on Enzymatic Activity under Thermal and Chemical Stresses: Common Features and Variation among Diverse Chemical Families

    PubMed Central

    Feibish, Nir; Sharon, Noa; Schnaider, Lee; Shmul, Guy; Amir, Yaniv; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Gazit, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    Molecular and chemical chaperones are key components of the two main mechanisms that ensure structural stability and activity under environmental stresses. Yet, chemical chaperones are often regarded only as osmolytes and their role beyond osmotic regulation is not fully understood. Here, we systematically studied a large group of chemical chaperones, representatives of diverse chemical families, for their protective influence under either thermal or chemical stresses. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that in spite of the structural similarity between sugars and sugar alcohols, they have an apparent difference in their protective potential. Our results support the notion that the protective activity is mediated by the solvent and the presence of water is essential. In the current work we revealed that i) polyols and sugars have a completely different profile of protective activity toward trifluoroethanol and thermal stress; ii) minor changes in solvent composition that do not affect enzyme activity, yet have a great effect on the ability of osmolytes to act as protectants and iii) increasing the number of active groups of carbohydrates makes them better protectants while increasing the number of active groups of methylamines does not, as revealed by attempts to synthesize de novo designed methylamines with multiple functional groups. PMID:24520396

  7. Chemical composition and variability of the volatile components from inflorescences of Cirsium species.

    PubMed

    Kozyra, Małgorzata; Mardarowicz, Marek; Kochmańska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils of inflorescences Cirsium spp. (Asteraceae) by GC/MS method. Essential oils were extracted from the inflorescences of Cirsium pannonicum (Link), Cirsium ligulare Boiss., Cirsium heterophyllum (L.) Hill., Cirsium acaule (L.) Scop., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop., Cirsium dissectum (L.) Hill., Cirsium decussatum (Janka) and Cirsium eriophorum (L.) Scop., using the steam distillation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was employed for the analysis of essential oils. Our study shows the differences in chemical composition of volatile oils in the inflorescences of Cirsium spp. The main components of the essential oil were ketones and aldehydes with a long carbon side-chain. Volatile oils also contained small amounts of terpenes: thymol, β-linalool, eugenol, carvacrol and fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms-waxes. The compounds in the essential oils obtained from inflorescences Cirsium L. species have been identified for the first time. PMID:25674834

  8. Changes in the chemical components of light crude oil during simulated short term weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qimin; Luo, Xia; Yu, Zhigang

    2007-07-01

    To unambiguously identify spilled oils and to link them to the known sources are extremely important in settling questions of environmental impact and legal liability. The fate and behavior of spilled oils in the environment depend on a number of physicochemical and biological factors. This paper presents the results regarding changes in chemical composition of light crude oil during simulated short-term weathering based on natural environmental conditions. The results show that the saturated hydrocarbons of the light crude oil mainly distribute between n-C8 and n-C23 and the most abundant n-alkanes are found in the n-C10 to n-C16. The main chemical components of the light crude oil are n-alkanes and isoprenoids. The aromatic compounds are subordinate chemical components. Under the conditions of the weathering simulation experiment, n-alkanes less than n-C12, toluene and 1,3-dimethyl benzene are lost after 1 d weathering, the n-C13, n-C14, naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene are lost on the fifth day of weathering, and n-C15 alkane components show certain weatherproof capability. The ratios n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane are unaltered and can be used to identify the source of the light crude oil during the first 8 d of weathering. After 21 d, the ratio pristine/phytane can not provide much information on the source of the spilled light crude oil. Triterpanes (m/z 191) as biomarker compounds of light crude oil are more valuable.

  9. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed.

  10. Analysis of chemical components of shiitake polysaccharides and its anti-fatigue effect under vibration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hongbo; Xu, Haibo

    2009-11-01

    The shiitake polysaccharides were obtained from shiitake mushroom. Four fractions were isolated from the polysaccharides using a Sephadex G-100 gel column. Chemical components of the two main fractions were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). F1 was composed of rhamnose, glucose, and mannose. F3 was composed of xylose, mannose, arabinose and galactose. The obtained results still showed that administration of shiitake polysaccharides could improve muscle's comfortability of animals under a long period of vibration. The above findings might be applicable to studies of vibration ergonomics. PMID:19643126

  11. Chemically selective NMR imaging of a 3-component (solid-solid-liquid) sedimenting system.

    PubMed

    Beyea, Steven D; Altobelli, Stephen A; Mondy, Lisa A

    2003-04-01

    A novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique which resolves the separate components of the evolving vertical concentration profiles of 3-component non-colloidal suspensions is described. This method exploits the sensitivity of MRI to chemical differences between the three phases to directly image the fluid phase and one of the solid phases, with the third phase obtained by subtraction. 19F spin-echo imaging of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) oil was interlaced with 1H SPRITE imaging of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) particles. The third phase was comprised of borosilicate glass spheres, which were not visible while imaging the PTFE or LDPE phases. The method is demonstrated by performing measurements on 2-phase materials containing only the floating (LDPE) particles, with the results contrasted to the experimental behaviour of the individual phases in the full 3-phase system. All experiments were performed using nearly monodisperse particles, with initial suspension volume fractions, phi(i), of 0.1. PMID:12713970

  12. [Effects of composting with earthworm on the chemical and biological properties of agricultural organic wastes: a principal component analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Zong-Ling; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Xu-Fei; Zhou, Bo; Dai, Jun

    2012-03-01

    Taking mixed agricultural organic wastes cattle manure and rice straw (C:N = 28.7:1) as the substrate of earthworm Eisenia foetida, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of earthworm on the changes of the chemical and biological properties of wastes during vermi-composting. After 30 days of vermi-composting, the substrate' s pH and C/N decreased while the total P content increased significantly, and the total N, available N, dissolved organic carbon, available P content, microbial biomass-C, respiration rate, and microbial quotient increased by 8.5% , 2.6%, 1.8%, 6.3%, 21.2%, 4.4%, and 30.0% whereas the organic matter content and metabolic quotient decreased by 5.0% and 21.9%, respectively, as compared with natural composting. Vermi-composting made the substrate have higher invertase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase activities but lower catalase and urease activities. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis confirmed the significant differences in the substrate' s chemical and biological properties between vermi-composting and natural composting. This study indicated that vermi-composting was superior to natural composting, which could obviously improve the chemical and biological properties of composted organic materials, being a high efficient technology for the management of agricultural organic wastes. PMID:22720625

  13. Identification of chemical components of combustion emissions that affect pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seilkop, Steven K.; Campen, Matthew J.; Lund, Amie K.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion emissions cause pro-atherosclerotic responses in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE/−) mice, but the causal components of these complex mixtures are unresolved. In studies previously reported, ApoE−/− mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 50 consecutive days to multiple dilutions of diesel or gasoline exhaust, wood smoke, or simulated “downwind” coal emissions. In this study, the analysis of the combined four-study database using the Multiple Additive Regression Trees (MART) data mining approach to determine putative causal exposure components regardless of combustion source is reported. Over 700 physical–chemical components were grouped into 45 predictor variables. Response variables measured in aorta included endothelin-1, vascular endothelin growth factor, three matrix metalloproteinases (3, 7, 9), metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, heme-oxygenase-1, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Two or three predictors typically explained most of the variation in response among the experimental groups. Overall, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide were most highly predictive of responses, although their rankings differed among the responses. Consistent with the earlier finding that filtration of particles had little effect on responses, particulate components ranked third to seventh in predictive importance for the eight response variables. MART proved useful for identifying putative causal components, although the small number of pollution mixtures (4) can provide only suggestive evidence of causality. The potential independent causal contributions of these gases to the vascular responses, as well as possible interactions among them and other components of complex pollutant mixtures, warrant further evaluation. PMID:22486345

  14. Measurement of the components of nonexercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Levine, J; Melanson, E L; Westerterp, K R; Hill, J O

    2001-10-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) accounts for the vast majority of nonresting metabolic rate and changes in NEAT-predicted susceptibility to fat gain with overfeeding. Measuring physical activity and its components in free-living humans has been a long-standing challenge. In this study, we combine information about lightweight sensors that capture data on body position and motion with laboratory measures of energy expenditure to calculate nonfidgeting NEAT. This measurement of nonfidgeting NEAT was compared with total NEAT measured in a room calorimeter in 11 healthy subjects. The measurement of nonfidgeting NEAT accounted for 85 +/- 9% of total NEAT measured in the room calorimeter. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the two methods was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.56, 0.96; P < 0.05). This suggests that 86% of the variance is attributable to between-subject variance and 14% to between-method disagreement. These instruments are applicable to free-living subjects; they are stand-alone, are lightweight, and allow normal daily activities. This novel technology has potential application for not only assessing NEAT but also tracking physical activity in free-living humans. PMID:11551842

  15. Chemical Fingerprints of Star Forming Regions and Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo

    2010-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and Galactic star-forming regions, using mostly single-dish millimeter observations. I first study the excitation conditions of dense gas in a group of Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer models (Chapter 2). I then study the galaxy NGC 1068, and try to distinguish signatures of the contributions from the AGN and the starburst ring by incorporating observations of high-J transitions of dense gas tracers (Chapter 3). Later, I venture into the mid-infrared spectral region to study different aspects of the AGN and starburst components in the galaxy NGC 4945 (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5 I delve into theoretical aspects of the dynamical evolution of gas in an AGN torus. I use a 3D hydrodynamic simulation with chemical abundances driven by X-rays. The aim is to understand the effects of X-ray irradiation by the AGN on the temperature, formation and destruction of the molecular gas. I finally explore a Galactic star-forming region, the Omega Nebula, with high resolution single dish observations, to study the properties of the warm gas and to constrain chemical models (Chapters 6 and 7).

  16. SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES UNDERLYING ARSENIC'S BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    In this paper some of the chemical properties of arsenicals (atomic
    and molecular orbitals, electronegativity, valence state, changes between
    valence state, nucleophilicity, the hard/soft acid/base principle) that may
    account for some of the b...

  17. [Chemical constituents from Callicarpa nudiflora and their cytotoxic activities].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Min; Xu, Wen-Tong; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Lei, Ming; Yi, Bo

    2014-08-01

    The chemical consitituents from cytotoxic fraction of the Callicarpa nudiflora extract were isolated and purified by a combination of HP-20 macroporous resin, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. The structures were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data and comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported data. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. The 50% and 70% EtOH elutions of EtOH-extract showed significant cytotoxic activities, leading to the isolation of twelve compounds, which were identified as luteoloside(1), lutedin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside(2), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside(3), lutedin-7-O-neohesperidoside(4), rhoifolin (5), luteolin-7, 4'-di-O-glucoside (6), forsythoside B (7), acteoside (8), alyssonoside (9), catalpol(10), nudifloside(11), and leonuride(12). Compounds 3-6, 10 and 12 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and compound 9 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that flavonoids 1-6, in various concentrations, showed monolithic proliferation inhibitory activities against Hela, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. Compounds 3, 5 and iridoid glycoside 11 possessed higher cytotoxicacivities. In short, flavonoids are the main components of cytotoxic extract from C. nudiflora, while phenylethanoid glycosides are the predominant ingredient but inactive to cancer cell lines. In addition, the minor iridoid glycoside expressed weak cytotoxic activity. PMID:25509294

  18. Chemical Components and Meat Quality Traits Related to Palatability of Ten Primal Cuts from Hanwoo Carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun-Young; Hwang, Young-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    To determine chemical components and meat quality traits related to palatability of 10 primal cuts, 25 Hanwoo carcasses were selected from 5 carcasses × 5 quality grades and used to obtain proximate data and meat quality characteristics. Significant differences (p<0.05) in chemical component and meat quality were found among the 10 primal cuts. The highest fat content was found in the kalbi, followed by dungsim, yangjee, chaekeut, ansim, abdari, suldo, moksim, udun, and satae. Protein and moisture contents in the 10 primal cuts were in reverse order of fat content. Moksim had the highest drip loss % and cooking loss % than all other primal cuts while kalbi showed the lowest (p<0.05) percentage of drip and cooking loss. Ansim had the longest sarcomere length but the lowest shear force values than all other cuts (p<0.05). The highest (p<0.05) score for overall acceptability was observed in ansim. Moksim, udun, abdari, and satae were rated the lowest (p<0.05) in overall acceptability among the 10 primal cuts from Hanwoo carcasses. In conclusion, ansim, dungsim, chaekeut, and kalbi had the highest overall acceptability due to their higher fat contents and lower shear force values. PMID:26877647

  19. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin. PMID:26323130

  20. Chemical Components for the Design of Temperature-Responsive Vesicles as Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2016-03-23

    In this Review, we attempt to offer a thorough description of all of the chemical components and the rationale behind the design of temperature-sensitive vesicle systems, as well as the critical pharmacological parameters that need to be combined to achieve their successful clinical translation. The focus of this Review will be predominantly on the design principles around the construction of temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSL) and their use in combination with external local hyperthermia to achieve heat-triggered drug release. The emphasis lies on the chemical components synthesized and incorporated in the design and engineering of TSL. We conclude that the development of TSL with ultrafast drug release capabilities needs to progress in parallel with vesicle pharmacokinetic profiling, imaging, and monitoring capacity and technologies for accurate temperature elevation and control. The development of heat-triggered liposome systems offer the greatest opportunity for clinical translation of the next generation, nanoscale "smart" vesicle systems of enhanced functionality, following from the successful legacy and rich clinical history from multiple earlier liposome technologies. PMID:26934630

  1. The chemical effects of the Martian environment on power system component materials: A theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Gaier, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    In the foreseeable future, an expedition may be undertaken to explore the planet Mars. Some of the power source options being considered for such a mission are photovoltaics, regenerative fuel cells and nuclear reactors. In addition to electrical power requirements, environmental conditions en route to Mars, in the planetary orbit and on the Martian surface must be simulated and studied in order to anticipate and solve potential problems. Space power systems components such as photovoltaic arrays, radiators, and solar concentrators may be vulnerable to degradation in the Martian environment. Natural characteristics of Mars which may pose a threat to surface power systems include high velocity winds, dust, ultraviolet radiation, large daily variations in temperature, reaction to components of the soil, atmosphere and atmospheric condensates as well as synergistic combinations. Most of the current knowledge of the characteristics of the Martian atmosphere and soil composition was obtained from the Viking 1 and 2 missions in 1976. This paper presents a theoretical study used to assess the effects of the Martian atmospheric conditions on the power systems components. A computer program written at NASA Lewis Research Center in 1961 to 1962 for combustion research that uses a free-energy minimization technique was used to calculate chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states of temperature and pressure. The power system component materials selected for this study include: Silicon dioxide, silicon, carbon, copper, and titanium. Combinations of environments and materials considered in this study include: (1) Mars atmosphere with power surface material, (2) Mars atmosphere and dust component with power surface material, (3) Mars atmosphere and hydrogen peroxide or superoxide with power system material.

  2. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  3. [Characteristics of Chemical Components in PM₂.₅ from the Coal Dust of Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-xiu; Peng, Lin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Hai-li; Mu, Ling

    2016-01-15

    The ashes under dust catcher of typical power plants in Yangquan was collected and the contents of elements, irons, EC (elemental carbon) and OC (organic carbon) were measured in PM₂. The characteristics of its chemical composition was studied and the degree of similarity of coal dust's source profiles of PM₂.₅ between Yangquan and other cities were compared using the coefficient of divergence method. The result indicated that the main chemical components of PM₂.₅ from the coal dust were SO₄²⁻,Ca, NO₃⁻, OC, EC, Al, Si, Na, Fe, Mg and Cl⁻, accounting for 57.22% of the total mass. The enrichment factor of Pb in PM₂.₅ of coal dust was the largest with a significant enrichment condition, reaching 10.66-15.91. The coefficient of divergence of source profiles of PM₂.₅ between blind coal and fault coal was 0.072, so it was believed that they must be similar. Compared with other cities, the chemical composition of coal dust in Yangquan had specificity, in particular, the content of Ca was obviously higher than those in other domestic cities. PMID:27078941

  4. Complement activating factor(s) of Trypanosoma lewisi: some physiochemical characteristics of the active components.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, K; Sheppard, J; Tizard, I; Holmes, W

    1978-01-01

    Of the complement activating factors present in Trypanosoma lewisi, the major component, a carbohydrate containing substance was further investigated. This component was found to have a lag time of complete activation of 2 CH50 units of bovine complement of approximately 15 minutes while 1% trypsin (a known activator of complement, used as a control system) was capable of instant consumption of a similar quantity of complement. In addition, the complement activating factor of trypanosomes was observed to be stable at 100 degrees C for 15 minutes and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. Thin layer chromatography studies suggested that at least part of the active component contained lipid, perhaps indicating that it may be glycolipid in nature. PMID:25701

  5. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana I.; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John’s wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  6. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana I; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C P

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John's wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  7. Reinvestigation of the proteolytically active components of Bromelia pinguin fruit.

    PubMed

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Natalucci, Claudia L; Caffini, Néstor O

    2005-09-01

    Pinguinain is the name given to a proteolytic enzyme preparation obtained from Bromelia pinguin fruits that has been scarcely studied. The present paper deals on the reexamination of the proteases present in fruits of B. pinguin grown in Cienfuegos, Cuba. The preparation (partially purified pinguinain, PPP) showed the main characteristics of the cysteine proteases, i.e., optimum pH within alkaline range (pH 7.2-8.8), inhibition of proteolytic activity by thiol blocking reagents, which is usually reverted by addition of cysteine, a remarkable thermal stability and notable stability at high ionic strength values. Isoelectric focusing and zymogram of PPP revealed the presence of several proteolytic components between pI 4.6 and 8.1. Preliminary peptidase purification by cationic exchange chromatography showed the presence of two main proteolytic fractions with molecular masses of approximately 20.0 kDa, according to SDS-PAGE. PMID:15978746

  8. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) smith

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The aim was designed to study the biological activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith. The essential oil extracted from the rhizome of the plant was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and its major components amounting t...

  9. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety. PMID:12909402

  10. TWO-COMPONENT GALACTIC BULGE PROBED WITH RENEWED GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Bekki, Kenji

    2012-03-10

    Results of recent observations of the Galactic bulge demand that we discard a simple picture of its formation, suggesting the presence of two stellar populations represented by two peaks of stellar metallicity distribution (MDF) in the bulge. To assess this issue, we construct Galactic chemical evolution models that have been updated in two respects: first, the delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) recently revealed by extensive SN Ia surveys is incorporated into the models. Second, the nucleosynthesis clock, the s-processing in asymptotic giant branch stars, is carefully considered in this study. This novel model first shows that the Galaxy feature tagged by the key elements, Mg, Fe, and Ba, for the bulge as well as thin and thick disks is compatible with a short-delay SN Ia. We present a successful modeling of a two-component bulge including the MDF and the evolutions of [Mg/Fe] and [Ba/Mg], and reveal its origin as follows. A metal-poor component (([Fe/H]) {approx} -0.5) is formed with a relatively short timescale of {approx}1 Gyr. These properties are identical to the thick disk's characteristics in the solar vicinity. Subsequently from its remaining gas mixed with a gas flow from the disk outside the bulge, a metal-rich component (([Fe/H]) {approx} +0.3) is formed with a longer timescale ({approx}4 Gyr) together with a top-heavy initial mass function that might be identified with the thin disk component within the bulge.

  11. Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Angın, Dilek; Altintig, Esra; Köse, Tijen Ennil

    2013-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from biochar obtained through pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake by chemical activation with zinc chloride. The influences of process variables such as the activation temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated. Also, the adsorptive properties of activated carbons were tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 128.21 mg g(-1) and carbon content 76.29%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume corresponded to 801.5m(2)g(-1) and 0.393 cm(3)g(-1), respectively. This study demonstrated that high surface area activated carbons can be prepared from the chemical activation of biochar with zinc chloride as activating agents. PMID:24080293

  12. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Kartal, Murat; Kan, Yüksel; Sener, Bilge

    2008-01-01

    We have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of nineteen essential oils obtained from cultivated plants, namely one from Anethum graveolens L. (organic fertilizer), two from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. collected at fully-mature and flowering stages (organic fertilizer), two from Melissa officinalis L. (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Mentha piperita L. and M. spicata L. (organic fertilizer), two from Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Villars (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Ocimum basilicum L. (green and purple-leaf varieties cultivated using only organic fertilizer), four from Origanum onites L., O. vulgare L., O. munitiflorum Hausskn., and O. majorana L. (cultivated using organic fertilizer), two from Salvia sclarea L. (organic and chemical fertilizers), one from S. officinalis L. (organic fertilizer), and one from Satureja cuneifolia Ten. (organic fertilizer) by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 1 mg/ml concentration. In addition, a number of single components widely encountered in most of the essential oils [gamma-terpinene, 4-allyl anisole, (-)-carvone, dihydrocarvone, (-)-phencone, cuminyl alcohol, cumol, 4-isopropyl benzaldehyde, trans-anethole, camphene, iso-borneol, (-)-borneol, L-bornyl acetate, 2-decanol, 2-heptanol, methyl-heptanol, farnesol, nerol, iso-pulegol, 1,8-cineole, citral, citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, linalool, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, piperitone, iso-menthone, menthofurane, linalyl oxide, linalyl ester, geranyl ester, carvacrol, thymol, menthol, vanilline, and eugenol] was also screened for the same activity in the same manner. Almost all of the essential oils showed a very high inhibitory activity (over 80%) against both enzymes, whereas the single components were not as active as the essential oils. PMID:18810999

  13. Assessment of the differences in the physical, chemical and phytochemical properties of four strawberry cultivars using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Šamec, Dunja; Maretić, Marina; Lugarić, Ivana; Mešić, Aleksandar; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Duralija, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide established strawberry cultivar 'Albion' and three recently introduced cultivars in Europe: 'Monterey', 'Capri', and 'Murano', grown hydroponically, were studied to ascertain the influence of cultivar and harvesting date on the physical, chemical, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of their fruits. Interrelationships of investigated parameters and these cultivars were investigated by the statistical approach of principal component analysis (PCA). Results indicated that cultivar had a more significant effect on the analyzed parameters than harvesting date. Thus grouping of the variables in a PCA plot indicated that each cultivar has specific characteristics important for consumer or industrial use. Cultivar 'Monterey' was the richest in phytochemical contents and consequently in antioxidant activity, 'Albion' showed the highest contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity content and ascorbic acid, 'Capri' had the highest value of firmness, while 'Murano' had lighter color in comparison to others. Potential use of these cultivars has been assessed according to these important measured attributes. PMID:26471624

  14. Molecular emission in chemically active protostellar outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, B.

    2011-12-01

    Protostellar outflows play an important role in the dynamical and chemical evolution of cloud through shocks. The Herschel Space Observatory (HSO) brings new insight both on the molecular content and the physical conditions in protostellar shocks through high spectral and angular resolution studies of the emission of major gas cooling agents and hydrides. The Herschel/CHESS key-program is carrying out an in depth study of the prototypical shock region L1157-B1. Analysis of the line profiles detected allows to constrain the formation/destruction route of various molecular species, in relation with the predictions of MHD shock models. The Herschel/WISH key-program investigates the properties and origin of water emission in a broad sample of protostellar outflows and envelopes. Implications of the first results for future studies on mass-loss phenomena are discussed.

  15. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry. PMID:27173552

  16. High spectral specificity of local chemical components characterization with multichannel shift-excitation Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kun; Wu, Tao; Wei, Haoyun; Wu, Xuejian; Li, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a promising tool for its noninvasive and nondestructive characterization of local chemical structures. However, spectrally overlapping components prevent the specific identification of hyperfine molecular information of different substances, because of limitations in the spectral resolving power. The challenge is to find a way of preserving scattered photons and retrieving hidden/buried Raman signatures to take full advantage of its chemical specificity. Here, we demonstrate a multichannel acquisition framework based on shift-excitation and slit-modulation, followed by mathematical post-processing, which enables a significant improvement in the spectral specificity of Raman characterization. The present technique, termed shift-excitation blind super-resolution Raman spectroscopy (SEBSR), uses multiple degraded spectra to beat the dispersion-loss trade-off and facilitate high-resolution applications. It overcomes a fundamental problem that has previously plagued high-resolution Raman spectroscopy: fine spectral resolution requires large dispersion, which is accompanied by extreme optical loss. Applicability is demonstrated by the perfect recovery of fine structure of the C-Cl bending mode as well as the clear discrimination of different polymorphs of mannitol. Due to its enhanced discrimination capability, this method offers a feasible route at encouraging a broader range of applications in analytical chemistry, materials and biomedicine.

  17. Experimental evidence of chemical components in the bonding of helium and neon with neutral molecules.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, David; Bartocci, Alessio; Grandinetti, Felice; Falcinelli, Stefano; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Pirani, Fernando

    2015-04-13

    The complexes of helium and neon with gaseous neutral molecules are generally perceived to be van der Waals adducts held together by physical (non-covalent) forces, owing to the combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. Molecular beam experiments confirm that this is the case for He-CF4 , Ne-CF4 adducts, but revealed that the interaction of He and Ne with CCl4 features an appreciable contribution of chemical components that arise from the anisotropy of the electron density of CCl4 that enhances a charge transfer from Ng (Ng=He, Ne). These findings furnish a novel assay of the bonding capabilities of helium and neon, and invite to revisit the neutral complexes of these elements as systems of chemical relevance. The CCl4 -Ng are also peculiar examples of halogen bonds, a group of interactions of major current concern. Finally, this investigation is a prelude to the development of semi-empirical models for force fields aimed to the unified description of static and dynamical properties of systems of comparable or higher complexity. PMID:25755007

  18. High spectral specificity of local chemical components characterization with multichannel shift-excitation Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; Wu, Tao; Wei, Haoyun; Wu, Xuejian; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a promising tool for its noninvasive and nondestructive characterization of local chemical structures. However, spectrally overlapping components prevent the specific identification of hyperfine molecular information of different substances, because of limitations in the spectral resolving power. The challenge is to find a way of preserving scattered photons and retrieving hidden/buried Raman signatures to take full advantage of its chemical specificity. Here, we demonstrate a multichannel acquisition framework based on shift-excitation and slit-modulation, followed by mathematical post-processing, which enables a significant improvement in the spectral specificity of Raman characterization. The present technique, termed shift-excitation blind super-resolution Raman spectroscopy (SEBSR), uses multiple degraded spectra to beat the dispersion-loss trade-off and facilitate high-resolution applications. It overcomes a fundamental problem that has previously plagued high-resolution Raman spectroscopy: fine spectral resolution requires large dispersion, which is accompanied by extreme optical loss. Applicability is demonstrated by the perfect recovery of fine structure of the C-Cl bending mode as well as the clear discrimination of different polymorphs of mannitol. Due to its enhanced discrimination capability, this method offers a feasible route at encouraging a broader range of applications in analytical chemistry, materials and biomedicine. PMID:26350355

  19. Analysis of the multiple system with chemically peculiar component φ Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liška, J.

    2016-09-01

    The star ϕ Dra comprises a spectroscopic binary and a third star that together form a visual triple system. It is one of the brightest chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence. Despite these facts, no comprehensive study of its multiplicity has been performed yet. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of the triple system based on available measurements. We use radial velocities taken from four sources in the literature in a re-analysis of the inner spectroscopic binary (Aab). An incorrect value of the orbital period of the inner system Aab about 27 d was accepted in literature more than 40 yr. A new solution of orbit with the 128-d period was determined. Relative position measurements of the outer visual binary system (AB) from Washington Double Star Catalog were compared with known orbital models. Furthermore, it was shown that astrometric motion in system AB is well described by the model of Andrade with a 308-yr orbital period. Parameters of A and B components were utilized to estimate individual brightness for all components and their masses from evolutionary tracks. Although we found several facts which support the gravitational bond between them, unbound solution cannot be fully excluded yet.

  20. The method of decreasing of chemical activity of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Nazimov, S.A.

    1998-07-01

    The investigations of the tendency of coal products to self-ignite show the decreasing of chemical activity of this product after its modification in cool oxygen plasma. A new method for the passivation of coal products was suggested.

  1. Method of decreasing of chemical activity of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Nazimov, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    The investigations of tendency of coal products to selfignition show the decreasing of chemical activity of this product after its modification in cool oxygen plasma. Was suggested a new method of coal products passivation.

  2. Investigation of the chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship of essential oils by chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Nikolić, Nikola D; Miladinović, Ljiljana C; Cvetković, Olga G

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and Calamintha nepeta (Lamiaceae) Savi subsp. nepeta var. subisodonda (Borb.) Hayek essential oils on five different bacteria were estimated. Laboratory control strain and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media were researched by broth microdilution method, with an emphasis on a chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95%) and p-cymene (18.34%). Linalool acetate (38.23%) and β-linalool (35.01%) were main compounds in lavender oil. C. nepeta essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of piperitone oxide (59.07%) and limonene (9.05%). Essential oils have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Classification and comparison of essential oils on the basis of their chemical composition and antibacterial activity were made by utilization of appropriate chemometric methods. The chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierachical cluster analysis (HCA) separated essential oils into two groups and two sub-groups. Thyme essential oil forms separate chemical HCA group and exhibits highest antibacterial activity, similar to tetracycline. Essential oils of lavender and C. nepeta in the same chemical HCA group were classified in different groups, within antibacterial PCA and HCA analyses. Lavender oil exhibits higher antibacterial ability in comparison with C. nepeta essential oil, probably based on the concept of synergistic activity of essential oil components. PMID:22389175

  3. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    PubMed

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM. PMID:11409991

  4. Comparative activities of milk components in reversing chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, J R; Kanwar, R K; Stathopoulos, S; Haggarty, N W; MacGibbon, A K H; Palmano, K P; Roy, K; Rowan, A; Krissansen, G W

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a poorly understood chronic immune disorder for which there is no medical cure. Milk and colostrum are rich sources of bioactives with immunomodulatory properties. Here we compared the therapeutic effects of oral delivery of bovine milk-derived iron-saturated lactoferrin (Fe-bLF), angiogenin, osteopontin (OPN), colostrum whey protein, Modulen IBD (Nestle Healthsciences, Rhodes, Australia), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat in a mouse model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis. The CLA-enriched milk fat significantly increased mouse body weights after 24d of treatment, reduced epithelium damage, and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and nitrous oxide. Modulen IBD most effectively decreased the clinical score at d 12, and Modulen IBD and OPN most effectively lowered the inflammatory score. Myeloperoxidase activity that denotes neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower in mice fed Modulen IBD, OPN, angiogenin, and Fe-bLF. A significant decrease in the numbers of T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in cytokine expression were observed in mice fed the treatment diets compared with dextran sulfate administered mice. The Fe-bLF, CLA-enriched milk fat, and Modulen IBD inhibited intestinal angiogenesis. In summary, each of the milk components attenuated IBD in mice, but with differing effectiveness against specific disease parameters. PMID:26805965

  5. A near infrared spectroscopic discrimination of noodle flours using a principal-component analysis coupled with chemical information.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Masanori; Karube, Kikuko; Sato, Tomoaki; Ohisa, Naganori; Amano, Toshio; Kikuchi, Ryoei; Ogawa, Nobuaki

    2002-10-01

    Using a portable near infrared (NIR) spectrometer, we discriminated flours for making Japanese noodles (Soba), not only relying on a statistical and mathematical approach, but also on a chemical interpretation of the NIR spectra. In original NIR spectra, the particle-size difference, which results in an undesired systematic variation, was extracted and interpreted as the first-principal component factor by a principal-component analysis. The discrimination of flour materials cannot be satisfied by this factor. However, after a standardized treatment for the original spectra, the particle-size effects were eliminated; alternatively, differences in the chemical contents were extracted as principal-component factors. Using these factors, flour material discrimination was achieved much better. This study suggests a novel idea of utilizing the wavelength contribution ratio spectra for interpreting the factors extracted from the principal-component analysis for the NIR spectra. This report also describes the relationship between the NIR spectra and the chemical-analysis data. PMID:12400663

  6. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Brazilian Propolis: Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salomão, Kelly; Pereira, Paulo Roberto S.; Campos, Leila C.; Borba, Cintia M.; Cabello, Pedro H.; Marcucci, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of ethanol extracts from samples of Brazilian propolis (EEPs) determined by HPLC and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were determined. Based on the predominant botanical origin in the region of samples' collection, the 10 extracts were separated into three groups: A (B. dracunculifolia + Auraucaria spp), B (B. dracunculifolia) and C (Araucaria spp). Analysis by the multiple regression of all the extracts together showed a positive correlation, higher concentrations leading to higher biological effect, of S. aureus with p-coumaric acid (PCUM) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-(oxo-butenyl)-phenylacrylic acid (DHCA1) and of trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative 4 (DHCA4) and 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DCBEN). When the same approach was employed for each group, due to the small number of observations, the statistical test gave unreliable results. However, an overall analysis revealed for group A an association of S. aureus with caffeic acid (CAF) and dicaffeoylquinic acid 3 (CAFQ3), of S. pneumoniae with CAFQ3 and monocaffeoylquinic acid 2 (CAFQ2) and of T. cruzi also with CAFQ3. For group B, a higher activity against S. pneumoniae was associated DCBEN and for T. cruzi with CAF. For group C no association was observed between the anitmicrobial effect and any component of the extracts. The present study reinforces the relevance of PCUM and derivatives, especially prenylated ones and also of caffeolyquinic acids, on the biological activity of Brazilian propolis. PMID:18830454

  8. Active Emulsions: Synchronization of Chemical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraden, Seth

    2012-02-01

    We explore the dynamical behavior of emulsions consisting of nanoliter volume droplets of the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction separated by a continuous oil phase. Some of the aqueous BZ reactants partition into the oil leading to chemical coupling of the drops. We use microfluidics to vary the size, composition and topology of the drops in 1D and 2D. Addition of a light sensitive catalyst to the drops and illumination with a computer projector allows each drop to be individually perturbed. A variety of synchronous regimes are found that systematically vary with the coupling strength and whether coupling is dominated by activatory or inhibitory species. In 1D we observe in- and anti-phase oscillations, stationary Turing patterns in which drops stop oscillating, but form spatially periodic patterns of drops in the oxidized and reduced states, and more complex combinations of stationary and oscillatory drops. In 2D, the attractors are more complex and vary with network topology and coupling strength. For hexagonal lattices as a function of increasing coupling strength we observe right and left handed rotating oscillations, mixed oscillatory and Turing states and finally full Turing states. Reaction -- diffusion models based on a simplified description of the BZ chemistry and diffusion of messenger species reproduce a number of the experimental results. For a range of parameters, a simplified phase oscillator model provides an intuitive understanding of the complex synchronization patterns. [4pt] ``Coupled oscillations in a 1D emulsion of Belousov--Zhabotinsky droplets,'' Jorge Delgado, Ning Li, Marcin Leda, Hector O. Gonzalez-Ochoa, Seth Fraden and Irving R. Epstein, Soft Matter, 7, 3155 (2011).

  9. Antifungal activity of Brevibacillus laterosporus JX-5 and characterization of its antifungal components.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaohui; Xiao, Chengze; Wang, Weiyan; Zhao, Xu; Sui, Junkang; Sa, Rongbo; Guo, Tai L; Liu, Xunli

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of safe and effective methods for controlling fungal disease is an urgent issue in agriculture and forestry. Microbiological control of plant disease is expected to achieve better results than use of chemically derived fungicides. This study aimed to establish Brevibacillus laterosporus JX-5 as a potential microbiological control agent of poplar canker. The bacterium was isolated from the poplar rhizosphere and demonstrated significant growth inhibition of several pathogenic fungi in vitro. The antifungal components of Br. laterosporus JX-5 were isolated and identified. The fermentation broth of Br. laterosporus JX-5 and its main antifungal component, designated as component B, reduced Botryosphaeria dothidea associated canker of the excised poplar branch by 70 and 90%, respectively. Component B is considerably heat-stable, adaptable to a broad pH range, and UV-resistant. It could inhibit Bo. dothidea by permeating the fungal membrane, fracturing the nuclei, damaging the cell wall, and eventually killing the pathogenic fungus. The antifungal activity exhibited by Br. laterosporus JX-5 and its bioactive metabolic products indicate its feasibility as a potential biocontrol agent for plant diseases. PMID:26265360

  10. Crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice.

    PubMed

    Giaccio, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The known properties of saffron (Crocus sativus, L.) and its components have been examined. Recently, hormone like effects in green algae and the anti-cancerogenic and anti-toxic effects, have been observed. In particular, the effects of crocetin, a carotenoids (8,8'-diapo-8,8'-carotenoic acid) present in saffron and characterized by a diterpenic and symmetrical structure with seven double bonds and four methyl groups, have been taken into consideration. It has been found that this compound enhances the oxygen diffusivity through liquids, such as plasma. As a consequence of this property, it has been observed that crocetin increases alveolar oxygen transport and enhances pulmonary oxygenation. It improves cerebral oxygenation in hemorrhaged rats and positively acts in the atherosclerosis and arthritis treatment. It inhibits skin tumor promotion in mice (i.e., with benzo(a)pyrene); it has an inhibitory effect on intracellular nucleic acid and protein synthesis in malignant cells, as well as on protein-kinase-C and prorooncogene in INNIH/3T3 cells. This is most likely due to its anti-oxidant activity. Furthermore, crocetin protects against oxidative damage in rat primary hepatocytes. It also suppresses aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotoxic lesions and has a modulatory effect on aflatoxin, B1 cytotoxicity, and DNA adduct formation on C3H10/T1/2 fibroblast cells. It also has a protective effect on the bladder toxicity, induced by cyclophosphamide. The experiments reported in the scientific literature and the interesting results obtained have been carried out in vitro or on laboratory animals, but not yet on man. PMID:15239370

  11. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Nakajima, H.; Nakaema, F.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2008-12-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the air pollution transported from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asian atmospheric aerosols because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. In 2005, Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) was established by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) at the northern tip of Okinawa Island, Japan to monitor the air quality of Asia. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon in the bulk aerosols collected at the CHAAMS, using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions.

  12. Evaluation of a comprehensive Eulerian air quality model with multiple chemical species measurements using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-Meng; Anlauf, K. G.; Wiebe, H. A.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Puckett, K. J.

    Using a principal component analysis technique and data on atmospheric gases and aerosols at a rural site in Ontario, Canada from the Eulerian model evaluation field study (EMEFS), the Eulerian acid deposition and oxidant model (ADOM) is evaluated. Seventy-nine and 76% of the variances in the data and model output, respectively, are explained by three principal components. They are a chemically aged/ transported component, a diurnal cycle component, and an area emission component, all characterized by their ratios of gases and temporal variation patterns. The ADOM component contributions to sulphur species are in general agreement with the EMEFS components, but with notable differences for key photochemical species including O 3. The temporal variations of the ADOM components are close to those of the EMEFS components. The EMEFS chemically aged/transported component shows a high degree of photochemical processing, with the ratios [NO x]/[TNO y]=0.3 and [O 3]/([TNO y]-[NO x])=9±1. The corresponding ADOM component predicts lower G[NO x]/[TNO y] and [NO 3]/([TNO y]-[NO x]) ratios, probably caused by a chemical mechanism in the model that is too fast, and lower contributions to O 3, NO 2, TNO 3, PAN, TNO y, and HCHO, probably caused by model grid dilution or lower model emissions. The EMEFS diurnal component owes its variance to the daily photochemistry and nighttime dry deposition of the chemical species. In comparison, the matching ADOM component underpredicts the ratio [O 3]/([TNO y]-[NO x]) and the NO 2 consumption and O 3 production but overpredicts the contributions to the other species. The EMEFS emission component represents emissions from local/regional area sources. The corresponding ADOM component underpredicts TNO y by 44% and the fraction of TNO y as NO x compared to the EMEFS component, suggesting that the model has lower emissions of NO x and a photochemical mechanism that converts NO x faster than indicated by the EMEFS results.

  13. A physico-chemical assessment of the thermal stability of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine components

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fang; Lockyer, Kay; Burkin, Karena; Crane, Dennis T; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Physico-chemical analysis of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PS)-protein conjugate vaccine components used for two commercially licensed vaccines was performed to compare the serotype- and carrier protein-specific stabilities of these vaccines. Nineteen different monovalent pneumococcal conjugates from commercial vaccines utilizing CRM197, diphtheria toxoid (DT), Protein D (PD) or tetanus toxoid (TT) as carrier proteins were incubated at temperatures up to 56°C for up to eight weeks or were subjected to freeze-thawing (F/T). Structural stability was evaluated by monitoring their size, integrity and carrier protein conformation. The molecular size of the vaccine components was well maintained for Protein D, TT and DT conjugates at -20°C, 4°C and F/T, and for CRM197 conjugates at 4°C and F/T. It was observed that four of the eight serotypes of Protein D conjugates tended to form high molecular weight complexes at 37°C or above. The other conjugated carrier proteins also appeared to form oligomers or ‘aggregates’ at elevated temperatures, but rarely when frozen and thawed. There was evidence of degradation in some of the conjugates as evidenced by the formation of lower molecular weight materials which correlated with measured free saccharide. In conclusion, pneumococcal-Protein D/TT/DT and most CRM197 bulk conjugate vaccines were stable when stored at 2–8°C, the recommended temperature. In common between the conjugates produced by the two manufacturers, serotypes 1, 5, and 19F were relatively less stable and 6B was the most stable, with types 7F and 23F also showing good stability. PMID:25483488

  14. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening. PMID:16390196

  15. Summertime aerosol chemical components in the marine boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhouqing; Sun, Liguang; Blum, Joel D.; Huang, Yuying; He, Wei

    2006-05-01

    Samples of aerosols from the marine boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean were collected aboard the R/V Xuelong during summer on the Second Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (July-September 2003). Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) was used to determine chemical compositions of aerosol particles. Multivariate analysis of the SR-XRF data resolved a number of components (factors), which, on the basis of their chemical compositions and from their affiliation with specific meteorological flow patterns, were assigned physical meanings. Five factors explaining 94.7% of the total variance were identified. Ship emissions accounted for 35.3% of the variance (factor 1 (F1)) and are loaded significantly with S, Fe, V, and Ni. The total Fe emitted from ships globally was estimated at 8.60 × 106 kg yr-1. Heavy-metal-rich factors included 34.0% of the variance (F2 and F3) and were interpreted to be pollution carried into the Arctic Ocean by long-range transport. Anthropogenic contributions from industrial regions to the Arctic Ocean during the summer vary and depend on the source locations. Air mass backward trajectories indicate that the metals including Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn come mainly from northern Russia. The third source controlling the chemical compositions of aerosols was sea salt (F4, 12.8%). The role of sea salt decreased from the open sea to areas near pack ice. On the basis of the factor scores of aerosol samples, we infer that chlorine volatilization from sea salt may occur, enhanced by nitrogen and sulfur contamination emitted from ships. Because the global inventories of nitrogen and sulfur for ship exhausts are large, and halogens could have important consequences in possible tropospheric ozone destruction, the role of ships in influencing halogen depression in sea salt should be further investigated. Finally, we also identified a crustal factor (F5, 12.6%) and suggest that crustal elements (e.g., Ca) contaminating sea ice may become reinjected into

  16. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  17. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution. PMID:23011851

  18. Changes in thyroid peroxidase activity in response to various chemicals.

    PubMed

    Song, Mee; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Yong-Keun; Ryu, Jae-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a large heme-containing glycoprotein that catalyzes the transfer of iodine to thyroglobulin during thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis. Previously, we established an in vitro assay for TPO activity based on human recombinant TPO (hrTPO) stably transfected into human follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC-238) cells. It is important to determine whether environmental chemicals can disrupt TPO activity because it is an important factor in the TH axis. In this study, we used our assay to examine the changes in TPO activity in response to various chemicals, including benzophenones (BPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Overall, BPs, PAHs, and POPs slightly altered TPO activity at low doses, as compared with the positive controls methimazole (MMI), genistein, and 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy BP. Benzophenone, benzhydrol, 3-methylchloranthracene, pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and heptachlor decreased TPO activity, while 2,4-dihydroxy BP, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy BP, and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene increased TPO activity. From these data, we can predict the disruption of TPO activity by various chemicals as a sensitive TH end point. TPO activity should be considered when enacting measures to regulate environmental exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals. PMID:22699773

  19. Selection of independent components based on cortical mapping of electromagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Fen

    2012-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used to attenuate interference caused by noise components from the electromagnetic recordings of brain activity. However, the scalp topographies and associated temporal waveforms provided by ICA may be insufficient to distinguish functional components from artifactual ones. In this work, we proposed two component selection methods, both of which first estimate the cortical distribution of the brain activity for each component, and then determine the functional components based on the parcellation of brain activity mapped onto the cortical surface. Among all independent components, the first method can identify the dominant components, which have strong activity in the selected dominant brain regions, whereas the second method can identify those inter-regional associating components, which have similar component spectra between a pair of regions. For a targeted region, its component spectrum enumerates the amplitudes of its parceled brain activity across all components. The selected functional components can be remixed to reconstruct the focused electromagnetic signals for further analysis, such as source estimation. Moreover, the inter-regional associating components can be used to estimate the functional brain network. The accuracy of the cortical activation estimation was evaluated on the data from simulation studies, whereas the usefulness and feasibility of the component selection methods were demonstrated on the magnetoencephalography data recorded from a gender discrimination study.

  20. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula C; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2005-10-01

    The wood of Acacia mangium, a prominent fast-growing plantation species used in the pulp-and-paper industry and, so far, poorly investigated for its chemical structure, was submitted to a detailed characterization of its main macromolecular components. Lignin (28% wood weight) isolated by mild acidolysis and characterized by permanganate oxidation, 1H and 13C NMR, and GPC, showed a very low content of syringylpropane-derived units (S:G:H of 48:49:3), a high degree of condensation, a low content of beta-O-4 ( approximately 0.40-0.43 per C6) structures, and a Mw of 2230. Glucuronoxylan (14% wood weight) isolated by alkaline (KOH) or by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction was characterized by methylation analysis, 1H NMR, and GPC. About 10% of the xylopyranose (Xylp) units constituting the linear backbone were substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. Almost half of the Xylp units (45%) were O-2 (18%), O-3 (24%) or O-2,3 (3%) acetylated. X-ray diffraction analysis of cellulose (46% wood weight), isolated according to the Kürschner-Hoffer method, showed a degree of crystallinity of 67.6%. PMID:16190642

  1. Relationship between the chemical components of taro rhizome mucilage and its emulsifying property.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of taro mucilage (TM) and explain its emulsification properties using different commercial emulsifiers and gums as benchmarks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ether extract, protein, fiber, ash, sugar fraction, starch content, infrared spectroscopy and determination of monosaccharides and amino acids using HPLC. The analyses showed that TM has a high carbohydrate content and small protein fraction, similar to commercial gums. Commercial emulsifiers have a high content of lipids compared to TM. Therefore, it can be concluded that the emulsifying power of the studied mucilage is primarily caused by the protein content along with weakly polar amino acids, which occur in gums. The methyl group (CH3), which was observed in the infrared spectrum, and the lipid content may also contribute to the emulsifying activity by providing a hydrophobic moiety. PMID:25704720

  2. Guiding Catalytically Active Particles with Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, W. E.; Popescu, M. N.; Dietrich, S.; Tasinkevych, M.

    2016-07-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemiosmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemiosmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemiosmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials or follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  3. Emodin is identified as the active component of ether extracts from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, for anti-MRSA activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Peng, Wei; Li, Xiaoli; Liu, Ming; Li, Bin; Qin, Rongxin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cen, Yanyan; Pan, Xichun; Yan, Zifei; Xiao, Kangkang; Zhou, Hong

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) activity and chemical compositions of ether extracts from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (ET-RPC). Significant anti-MRSA activities of ET-RPC against MRSA252 and MRSA clinical strains were tested in in vitro antibacterial experiments, such as inhibition zone diameter test, minimal inhibitory concentration test, and dynamic bacterial growth assay. Subsequently, 7 major compounds of ET-RPC were purified and identified as polydatin, resveratrol-4-O-d-(6'-galloyl)-glucopyranoside, resveratrol, torachryson-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, 6-hydroxy-emodin, and emodin using liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry. After investigation of anti-MRSA activities of the 7 major compounds, only emodin had significant anti-MRSA activity. Further, transmission electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes in the cell wall of MRSA252, and the result revealed that emodin could damage the integrity of cell wall, leading to loss of intracellular components. In summary, our results showed ET-RPC could significantly inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains. Emodin was identified as the major compound with anti-MRSA activity; this activity was related to destruction of the integrity of the cell wall and cell membrane. PMID:25966789

  4. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aridoğan, Buket Cicioğlu; Baydar, Hasan; Kaya, Selçuk; Demirci, Mustafa; Ozbaşar, Demir; Mumcu, Ethem

    2002-12-01

    In this study the composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils obtained from Origanum onites, Mentha piperita, Juniperus exalsa, Chrysanthemum indicum, Lavandula hybrida, Rosa damascena, Echinophora tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare were examined. To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of these eight aromatic extracts; their in vitro antimicrobial activities were determined by disk diffusion testing, according to the NCCLS criteria. Escherichia coli (ATTC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC 27853 were used as standard test bacterial strains. Origanum onites recorded antimicrobial activity against all test bacteria, and was strongest against Staphylococcus aureus. For Rosa damascena, Mentha piperita and Lavandula hybrida antimicrobial activity was recorded only to Staphylococcus aureus. Juniperus exalsa, and Chrysanthemum indicum exhibited antibacterial activities against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We also examined the in vitro antimicrobial activities of some components of the essential oils and found some components with antimicrobial activity. PMID:12510839

  5. Antifungal activity of chemically different essential oils from wild Tunisian Thymus spp.

    PubMed

    Maissa, Ben Jabeur; Walid, Hamada

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils isolated by using hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Thymus algeriensis and Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. from different locations of Tunisia (Kef, Takelsa, Zaghouan, Fahs and Toukeber) were characterised. The chemical composition was analysed by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the major component of T. capitatus from Kef and T. algeriensis was thymol while carvacrol was the main component of T. capitatus from Zaghouan, Fahs and Toukeber. The antifungal activity of the oils and some pure components was assessed by the in vitro assay against several fungi and oomycetes. T. capitatus (chemotype carvacrol) exhibited the strongest antifungal activity followed by T. capitatus (chemotype thymol) and T. algeriensis, indicating that carvacrol might have a stronger antifungal activity than thymol. PMID:25484099

  6. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation.

    PubMed

    Aram, Lior; Braun, Tslil; Braverman, Carmel; Kaplan, Yosef; Ravid, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Arama, Eli

    2016-04-01

    How cells avoid excessive caspase activity and unwanted cell death during apoptotic caspase-mediated removal of large cellular structures is poorly understood. We investigate caspase-mediated extrusion of spermatid cytoplasmic contents in Drosophila during spermatid individualization. We show that a Krebs cycle component, the ATP-specific form of the succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (A-Sβ), binds to and activates the Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex required for caspase activation in spermatids. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that this interaction occurs on the mitochondrial surface, thereby limiting the source of CRL3 complex activation to the vicinity of this organelle and reducing the potential rate of caspase activation by at least 60%. Domain swapping between A-Sβ and the GTP-specific SCSβ (G-Sβ), which functions redundantly in the Krebs cycle, show that the metabolic and structural roles of A-Sβ in spermatids can be uncoupled, highlighting a moonlighting function of this Krebs cycle component in CRL activation. PMID:27052834

  7. Pressure activated interconnection of micro transfer printed components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevatte, Carl; Guven, Ibrahim; Ghosal, Kanchan; Gomez, David; Moore, Tanya; Bonafede, Salvatore; Raymond, Brook; Trindade, António Jose; Fecioru, Alin; Kneeburg, David; Meitl, Matthew A.; Bower, Christopher A.

    2016-05-01

    Micro transfer printing and other forms of micro assembly deterministically produce heterogeneously integrated systems of miniaturized components on non-native substrates. Most micro assembled systems include electrical interconnections to the miniaturized components, typically accomplished by metal wires formed on the non-native substrate after the assembly operation. An alternative scheme establishing interconnections during the assembly operation is a cost-effective manufacturing method for producing heterogeneous microsystems, and facilitates the repair of integrated microsystems, such as displays, by ex post facto addition of components to correct defects after system-level tests. This letter describes pressure-concentrating conductor structures formed on silicon (1 0 0) wafers to establish connections to preexisting conductive traces on glass and plastic substrates during micro transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. The pressure concentrators penetrate a polymer layer to form the connection, and reflow of the polymer layer bonds the components securely to the target substrate. The experimental yield of series-connected test systems with >1000 electrical connections demonstrates the suitability of the process for manufacturing, and robustness of the test systems against exposure to thermal shock, damp heat, and mechanical flexure shows reliability of the resulting bonds.

  8. Double-Knudsen-Cell Apparatus Measures Alloy-Component Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Moore, Warren A.

    1995-01-01

    Double-Knudsen-cell apparatus provides molecular beam from selected one of two Knudsen cells. Both cells maintained at same temperature. Molecular beam directed into mass spectrometer for measurement of vapor pressure of selected material component. Designed to minimize undesired thermal gradients, provides appropriate translation to place selected cell in position for sampling, and minimizes mixing of molecular beams from cells.

  9. Modeling injection molding of net-shape active ceramic components.

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Tomas; Cote, Raymond O.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Yang, Pin; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Noble, David R.; Notz, Patrick K.; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Halbleib, Laura L.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Burns, George Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    To reduce costs and hazardous wastes associated with the production of lead-based active ceramic components, an injection molding process is being investigated to replace the current machining process. Here, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles are suspended in a thermoplastic resin and are injected into a mold and allowed to cool. The part is then bisque fired and sintered to complete the densification process. To help design this new process we use a finite element model to describe the injection molding of the ceramic paste. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element based, Newton-Raphson numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. Thermal, rheological, and wetting properties of the PZT paste are measured for use as input to the model. The viscosity of the PZT is highly dependent both on temperature and shear rate. One challenge in modeling the injection process is coming up with appropriate constitutive equations that capture relevant phenomenology without being too computationally complex. For this reason we model the material as a Carreau fluid and a WLF temperature dependence. Two-dimensional (2D) modeling is performed to explore the effects of the shear in isothermal conditions. Results indicate that very low viscosity regions exist near walls and that these results look similar in terms of meniscus shape and fill times to a simple Newtonian constitutive equation at the shear-thinned viscosity for the paste. These results allow us to pick a representative viscosity to use in fully three-dimensional (3D) simulation, which because of numerical complexities are restricted to using a Newtonian constitutive equation. Further 2D modeling at nonisothermal conditions shows that the choice of

  10. Chemical defence in a sawfly: genetic components of variation in relevant life-history traits.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Zwaan, B J; de Vos, H; Brakefield, P M

    2003-06-01

    Larvae of several tenthredinid sawfly species readily release droplets of haemolymph through their integument when attacked by predators. This defence mechanism via 'bleeding' is characterised by a low integument resistance and a high haemolymph deterrence. Both traits are variable, and negatively correlated among species. We sought to determine if such differences in the propensity to bleed also occur intraspecifically by studying the heritability of traits potentially associated with the bleeding phenomenon in the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae ruficornis Jakovlev (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, Allantinae). For three European populations, heritabilities were estimated in the laboratory in a parent-offspring and a full-sib design for haemolymph deterrence (measured as concentration of sequestered glucosinolate), integument resistance, body mass of eonymph and adult, and developmental time. Within A. rosae, no significant negative phenotypic correlation was found between the two traits directly related to the defence mechanism: integument resistance and haemolymph deterrence. However, the significant heritabilities found for these traits in the full-sib analysis (0.39 and 0.35, respectively, for males in the Swiss population) show that the variation has a genetic component. While full-sib analysis revealed highly significant heritabilities for most traits in all the three populations, parent-offspring regression revealed little or no evidence of heritable variation. Effects of common environment for siblings and variation in the host-plant quality between insect generations are likely to be the main factors explaining these differences. A consequence of such host-plant variation in the wild might be that genetic variation of such chemical defensive traits is largely invisible to natural selection. PMID:12764422

  11. Heat-activated Plasmonic Chemical Sensors for Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Michael; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    A passive plasmonics based chemical sensing system to be used in harsh operating environments was investigated and developed within this program. The initial proposed technology was based on combining technologies developed at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and at the University of Minnesota (UM). Specifically, a passive wireless technique developed at UM was to utilize a heat-activated plasmonic design to passively harvest the thermal energy from within a combustion emission stream and convert this into a narrowly focused light source. This plasmonic device was based on a bullseye design patterned into a gold film using focused ion beam methods (FIB). Critical to the design was the use of thermal stabilizing under and overlayers surrounding the gold film. These stabilizing layers were based on both atomic layer deposited films as well as metal laminate layers developed by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS). While the bullseye design was never able to be thermally stabilized for operating temperatures of 500oC or higher, an alternative energy harvesting design was developed by CNSE within this program. With this new development, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The method was further improved by patterning rods which harvested energy in the near infrared, which led to a factor of 10 decrease in data acquisition times as well as demonstrated selectivity with a reduced wavelength data set. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting

  12. Punicalagin, an active component in pomegranate, ameliorates cardiac mitochondrial impairment in obese rats via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Pu, Wenjun; Dong, Zhizhong; Sun, Lei; Zang, Weijin; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Yong; Feng, Zhihui; Liu, Jiankang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. It is of paramount importance to reduce obesity-associated cardiac dysfunction and impaired energy metabolism. In this study, the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by punicalagin (PU), a major ellagitannin in pomegranate was investigated in the heart of a rat obesity model. In male SD rats, eight-week administration of 150 mg/kg pomegranate extract (PE) containing 40% punicalagin sufficiently prevented high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity associated accumulation of cardiac triglyceride and cholesterol as well as myocardial damage. Concomitantly, the AMPK pathway was activated, which may account for prevention of mitochondrial loss via upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis and amelioration of oxidative stress via enhancing phase II enzymes in the hearts of HFD rats. Together with the normalized expression of uncoupling proteins and mitochondrial dynamic regulators, PE significantly prevented HFD-induced cardiac ATP loss. Through in vitro cultures, we showed that punicalagin was the predominant component that activated AMPK by quickly decreasing the cellular ATP/ADP ratio specifically in cardiomyocytes. Our findings demonstrated that punicalagin, the major active component in PE, could modulate mitochondria and phase II enzymes through AMPK pathway to prevent HFD-induced cardiac metabolic disorders. PMID:26369619

  13. Near-infrared microscopy imaging for quantitative analysis of active component in counterfeit imidacloprid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue; Cao, Jinli; Ye, Shengfeng; Duan, Jia; Wu, Lijun; Li, Qianqian; Min, Shungeng

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) imaging systems simultaneously record spectral and spatial information. Near-infrared imaging was applied to the identification of imidacloprid in both artificially mixed samples and commercial formulation in this study. The distributions of technical imidacloprid and additive in the heterogeneous counterfeit were obtained by the relationship imaging (RI) mode. Furthermore a series of samples which consisted of different contents of uniformly distributed imidacloprid were prepared and three data cubes were generated at each content. Extracted spectra from those images were imported to establish the partial least squares model. The model's results were: R2 99.21%, RMSEC 0.0306, RMSECV 0.0183, RMSECV/mean value 0.0348 and RSEP 0.0784. The prediction relative error of commercial formulation is 0.0680, indicating the predicted value was correlated to the real content. Lastly the chemical value reconstruction image of imidacloprid formulation products was calculated by MATLAB program. NIR microscopy imaging manifests herein its potential in qualitatively identifying the active component in counterfeit pesticide and quantifying the active component in scanned image.

  14. Incident diagnoses of cancers in the active component and cancer-related deaths in the active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terrence; Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S., surpassed only by heart disease. It is estimated that approximately one of every four deaths in the U.S. is due to cancer. Between 2005 and 2014 among active component service members in the U.S. military, crude incidence rates of most cancer diagnoses have remained relatively stable. During this period, 8,973 active component members were diagnosed with at least one of the cancers of interest and no specific increasing or decreasing trends were evident. Cancers accounted for 1,054 deaths of service members on active duty during the 10-year surveillance period; this included 727 service members in the active component and 327 in the reserve component. PMID:27501939

  15. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data for 16 Chemicals Describe at Least Three Effects Classes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in neuronal network function and have been used for neurotoxicity screening. As a proof-•of-concept, the current study assessed the utility of analytical "fingerprinting" using Principal Components Analysis (P...

  16. [Progress in study of chemical constituents and anti-tumor activities of Cnidium monnieri].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ze-wei; Liu, Pei-xun

    2005-09-01

    The main pharmacological constituents of Chinese traditional medicine herb Cnidium monnieri are coumarin compounds and volatile oil. In addition, it contains monoterpene polyols, glucides, as well as recently discovered sesquiterpene components. In recent years, rather active investigations of its anti-tumor were performed at home and abroad. C. monnieri possesses multi-aspect and comprehensive anti-tumor functions, involving directly tumor-inhibitory activity, anti-mutagenicity, reversing multi-drug tolerance of tumor, as well as improving immune functions and so on. In this review, chemical constituents, anti-tumor activities and relevant investigations of Fructus Cnidii were summarized recent decade. PMID:16323535

  17. Essential Oil Composition of Phagnalon sordidum (L.) from Corsica, Chemical Variability and Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Marion; Vitrac, Caroline; Costa, Jean; Mzali, Fatima; Vitrac, Xavier; Muselli, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition of Phagnalon sordidum (L.) essential oil was investigated for the first time using gas chromatography and chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy-six compounds, which accounted for 87.9% of the total amount, were identified in a collective essential oil of P. sordidum from Corsica. The main essential oil components were (E)-β-caryophyllene (14.4%), β-pinene (11.0%), thymol (9.0%), and hexadecanoic acid (5.3%). The chemical compositions of essential oils from 19 Corsican locations were investigated. The study of the chemical variability using statistical analysis allowed identifying direct correlation between the three populations of P. sordidum widespread in Corsica and the essential oil compositions they produce. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of P. sordidum essential oil was evaluated and it exhibited a notable activity on a large panel of clinically significant microorganisms. PMID:26916729

  18. Modeling Chemical Detection Sensitivities of Active and Passive Remote Sensing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scharlemann, E T

    2003-07-28

    During nearly a decade of remote sensing programs under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL has developed a set of performance modeling codes--called APRS--for both Active and Passive Remote Sensing systems. These codes emphasize chemical detection sensitivity in the form of minimum detectable quantities with and without background spectral clutter and in the possible presence of other interfering chemicals. The codes have been benchmarked against data acquired in both active and passive remote sensing programs at LLNL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The codes include, as an integral part of the performance modeling, many of the data analysis techniques developed in the DOE's active and passive remote sensing programs (e.g., ''band normalization'' for an active system, principal component analysis for a passive system).

  19. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective. PMID:18404321

  20. Bioorthogonal Chemical Activation of Kinases in Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective manipulation of protein kinases under living conditions is highly desirable yet extremely challenging, particularly in a gain-of-function fashion. Here we employ our recently developed bioorthogonal cleavage reaction as a general strategy for intracellular activation of individual kinases. Site-specific incorporation of trans-cyclooctene-caged lysine in place of the conserved catalytic lysine, in conjunction with the cleavage partner dimethyl-tetrazine, allowed efficient lysine decaging with the kinase activity chemically rescued in living systems. PMID:27280167

  1. Total Chemical Synthesis of Biologically Active Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2011-09-15

    The 204-residue covalent-dimer vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, see picture) with full mitogenic activity was prepared from three unprotected peptide segments by one-pot native chemical ligations. The covalent structure of the synthetic VEGF was confirmed by precise mass measurement, and the three-dimensional structure of the synthetic protein was determined by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.

  2. Ring closure dynamics for a chemically active polymer.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debarati; Thakur, Snigdha; Tao, Yu-Guo; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-12-21

    The principles that underlie the motion of colloidal particles in concentration gradients and the propulsion of chemically-powered synthetic nanomotors are used to design active polymer chains. The active chains contain catalytic and noncatalytic monomers, or beads, at the ends or elsewhere along the polymer chain. A chemical reaction at the catalytic bead produces a self-generated concentration gradient and the noncatalytic bead responds to this gradient by a diffusiophoretic mechanism that causes these two beads to move towards each other. Because of this chemotactic response, the dynamical properties of these active polymer chains are very different from their inactive counterparts. In particular, we show that ring closure and loop formation are much more rapid than those for inactive chains, which rely primarily on diffusion to bring distant portions of the chain in close proximity. The mechanism presented in this paper can be extended to other chemical systems which rely on diffusion to bring reagents into contact for reactions to occur. This study suggests the possibility that synthetic systems could make use of chemically-powered active motion or chemotaxis to effectively carry out complex transport tasks in reaction dynamics, much like those that molecular motors perform in biological systems. PMID:25365034

  3. EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the operation of a 17-MW Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) demonstration unit, retrofitted to a natural gas boiler. The CAFB process gasifies high-sulfur, high-metals-content liquid and solid fuels. Residual oil, lignite, and bituminous coal were gasi...

  4. QUANTITATIVE GENETIC ACTIVITY GRAPHICAL PROFILES FOR USE IN CHEMICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A graphic approach termed a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) has been developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. he profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each...

  5. A new active solder for joining electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH,RONALD W.; VIANCO,PAUL T.; HERNANDEZ,CYNTHIA L.; LUGSCHEIDER,E.; RASS,I.; HILLEN,F.

    2000-05-11

    Electronic components and micro-sensors utilize ceramic substrates, copper and aluminum interconnect and silicon. The joining of these combinations require pre-metallization such that solders with fluxes can wet such combinations of metals and ceramics. The paper will present a new solder alloy that can bond metals, ceramics and composites. The alloy directly wets and bonds in air without the use flux or premetallized layers. The paper will present typical processing steps and joint microstructures in copper, aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and silicon joints.

  6. Improved Convergence for Two-Component Activity Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, H E; Rogers, F J; Sonnad, V

    2007-03-06

    It is well known that an activity expansion of the grand canonical partition function works well for attractive interactions, but works poorly for repulsive interactions, such as occur between atoms and molecules. The virial expansion of the canonical partition function shows just the opposite behavior. This poses a problem for applications that involve both types of interactions, such as occur in the outer layers of low-mass stars. We show that it is possible to obtain expansions for repulsive systems that convert the poorly performing Mayer activity expansion into a series of rational polynomials that converge uniformly to the virial expansion. In the current work we limit our discussion to the second virial approximation. In contrast to the Mayer activity expansion the activity expansion presented herein converges for both attractive and repulsive systems.

  7. Evaluation of chemical components and properties of the jujube fruit using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2016-01-15

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the discrimination of spectra of the jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruit samples from four geographical regions. Prediction models were developed for the quantitative prediction of the contents of jujube fruit, i.e., total sugar, total acid, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity. Four pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back propagation-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), were used for the geographical origin classification. Furthermore, three multivariate calibration models based on the standard normal variate (SNV) pretreated NIR spectroscopy, partial least squares (PLS), BP-ANN, and LS-SVM were constructed for quantitative analysis of the four analytes described above. PCA provided a useful qualitative plot of the four types of NIR spectra from the fruit. The LS-SVM model produced best quantitative prediction results. Thus, NIR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics, is a very useful and rapid technique for the discrimination of jujube fruit. PMID:26296251

  8. Evaluation of chemical components and properties of the jujube fruit using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the discrimination of spectra of the jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruit samples from four geographical regions. Prediction models were developed for the quantitative prediction of the contents of jujube fruit, i.e., total sugar, total acid, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity. Four pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back propagation-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), were used for the geographical origin classification. Furthermore, three multivariate calibration models based on the standard normal variate (SNV) pretreated NIR spectroscopy, partial least squares (PLS), BP-ANN, and LS-SVM were constructed for quantitative analysis of the four analytes described above. PCA provided a useful qualitative plot of the four types of NIR spectra from the fruit. The LS-SVM model produced best quantitative prediction results. Thus, NIR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics, is a very useful and rapid technique for the discrimination of jujube fruit.

  9. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-12-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance. A systematic evaluation of the evidence-based findings in these articles was then conducted. With the exception of some weak evidence for glucose and guaraná extract, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that components of EDs, other than caffeine, contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products. PMID:23206286

  10. The triple binary star EQ Tau with an active component

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.; Hu, S.-M.; Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J. E-mail: likai@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-05-01

    New photometric data of EQ Tau observed in 2010 and 2013 are presented. Light curves obtained in 2000 and 2004 by Yuan and Qian and 2001 by Yang and Liu, together with our two newly determined sets of light curves, were analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code. The five sets of light curves exhibit very obvious variations, implying that the light curves of EQ Tau show a strong O'Connell effect. We found that EQ Tau is an A-type shallow contact binary with a contact degree of f = 11.8%; variable dark spots on the primary component of EQ Tau were also observed. Using 10 new times of minimum light, together with those collected from the literature, the orbital period change of EQ Tau was analyzed. We found that its orbital period includes a secular decrease (dP/dt = –3.63 × 10{sup –8} days yr{sup –1}) and a cyclic oscillation (A {sub 3} = 0.0058 days and P {sub 3} = 22.7 yr). The secular increase of the period can be explained by mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one or/and angular momentum loss due to a magnetic stellar wind. The Applegate mechanism cannot explain the cyclic orbital period change. A probable transit-like event was observed in 2010. Therefore, the cyclic orbital period change of EQ Tau may be due to the light time effect of a third body.

  11. Chemical and structural features influencing the biological activity of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic natural product, exhibits therapeutic activity against a number of diseases, attributed mainly to its chemical structure and unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. It is a diferuloyl methane molecule [1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione)] containing two ferulic acid residues joined by a methylene bridge. It has three important functionalities: an aromatic o-methoxy phenolic group, α, β-unsaturated β-diketo moiety and a seven carbon linker. Extensive research in the last two decades has provided evidence for the role of these different functional groups in its crucial biological activities. A few highlights of chemical structural features associated with the biological activity of curcumin are: The o-methoxyphenol group and methylenic hydrogen are responsible for the antioxidant activity of curcumin, and curcumin donates an electron/ hydrogen atom to reactive oxygen species. Curcumin interacts with a number of biomolecules through non-covalent and covalent binding. The hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity of curcumin, arising from the aromatic and tautomeric structures along with the flexibility of the linker group are responsible for the non-covalent interactions. The α, β-unsaturated β-diketone moiety covalently interacts with protein thiols, through Michael reaction. The β-diketo group forms chelates with transition metals, there by reducing the metal induced toxicity and some of the metal complexes exhibit improved antioxidant activity as enzyme mimics. New analogues with improved activity are being developed with modifications on specific functional groups of curcumin. The physico-chemical and structural features associated with some of the biological activities of curcumin and important analogues are summarized in this article. PMID:23116315

  12. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    SciTech Connect

    Auletta, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  13. Sensitive detection of chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals using active open-path FTIRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William T.

    2004-03-01

    Active open-path FTIR sensors provide more sensitive detection of chemical agents than passive FTIRs, such as the M21 RSCAAL and JSLSCAD, and at the same time identify and quantify toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). Passive FTIRs are bistatic sensors relying on infrared sources of opportunity. Utilization of earth-based sources of opportunity limits the source temperatures available for passive chemical-agent FTIR sensors to 300° K. Active FTIR chemical-agent sensors utilize silicon carbide sources, which can be operated at 1500° K. The higher source temperature provides more than an 80-times increase in the infrared radiant flux emitted per unit area in the 7 to 14 micron spectral fingerprint region. Minimum detection limits are better than 5 μgm/m3 for GA, GB, GD, GF and VX. Active FTIR sensors can (1) assist first responders and emergency response teams in their assessment of and reaction to a terrorist threat, (2) provide information on the identification of the TIC present and their concentrations and (3) contribute to the understanding and prevention of debilitating disorders analogous to the Gulf War Syndrome for military and civilian personnel.

  14. Exploring the Everyday Context of Chemical Elements: Discovering the Elements of Car Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project about the chemical elements made by 15-year-old Spanish high school students of Chemistry. It focuses on context-based teaching combined with the advantages of creating a large mural which subsequently is exposed in the school. The project consisted of researching the chemical elements in the different materials that…

  15. Chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at determining the chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities. The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical methods, and comparison with reported spectroscopic data. One new phenolic glycoside, methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with 12 known compounds (2-13), were isolated from the aerial parts of Solanum coagulans. Compound 1 was a new phenolic glycoside, and 2-6 were isolated from Solanum genus for the first time. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Compound 7 showed remarkable antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum and E. floccosum with MIC values being 3.13, 1.56 and 3.13 μg·mL(-1), respectively. PMID:27114320

  16. Chemical tools for probing histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) enzymes are responsible for removing epigenetic markers on histone proteins, which results in chromatin inactivation and gene repression. An evaluation of HDAC activity is essential for not only determining the physiological function of HDACs, but also for developing HDAC-targeting drugs. This review focuses on the chemical tools used to detect HDAC activity. We highlight activity-based probes and positron emission tomography probes based on the chemical structure of the inhibitors. We also summarize fluorogenic probes used in single-step methods for HDAC detection. These fluorogenic probes are designed based on the nucleophilicity of the amino group, aggregation via electrostatic interactions, and changes in the DNA binding properties. These fluorogenic systems may enable facile and rapid screening to evaluate HDAC inhibitors, which will contribute to the development of epigenetic drugs. PMID:25864671

  17. Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived product: its chemical composition depends on the local flora at the site of collection, thus it offers a significant chemical diversity. The role of propolis volatiles in identification of its plant origin is discussed. The available data about chemical composition of propolis volatiles from different geographic regions are reviewed, demonstrating significant chemical variability. The contribution of volatiles and their constituents to the biological activities of propolis is considered. Future perspectives in research on propolis volatiles are outlined, especially in studying activities other than antimicrobial. PMID:24812573

  18. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-01

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status. PMID:17263455

  19. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Three Polysaccharide Fractions from Pine Cones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Bo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Lu, Wei-Hong; Cui, Jie; Cheng, Cui-Lin; Zou, Pan; Huang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Pu; Li, Wen-Jing; Hu, Xing-Long

    2012-01-01

    The traditional method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for monosaccharide component analysis with pretreatment of acetylation is described with slight modifications and verified in detail in this paper. It was then successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of component monosaccharides in polysaccharides extracted from the pine cones. The results demonstrated that the three pine cone polysaccharides all consisted of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios. According to the recovery experiment, the described method was proved accurate and practical for the analysis of pine cone polysaccharides, meeting the need in the field of chemical analysis of Pinus plants. Furthermore; the chemical characteristics, such as neutral sugar, uronic acids, amino acids, molecular weights, and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were investigated by chemical and instrumental methods. The results showed that the chemical compositions of the polysaccharides differed from each other, especially in the content of neutral sugar and uronic acid. In the antioxidant assays, the polysaccharide fractions exhibited effective scavenging activities on ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical, with their antioxidant capabilities decreasing in the order of PKP > PAP > PSP. Therefore, although the polysaccharide fractions had little effect on superoxide radical scavenging, they still have potential to be developed as natural antioxidant agents in functional foods or medicine. PMID:23203063

  20. Dynamics of self-propelled nanomotors in chemically active media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Snigdha; Kapral, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Synthetic chemically powered nanomotors often rely on the environment for their fuel supply. The propulsion properties of such motors can be altered if the environment in which they move is chemically active. The dynamical properties of sphere dimer motors, composed of linked catalytic and noncatalytic monomers, are investigated in active media. Chemical reactions occur at the catalytic monomer and the reactant or product of this reaction is involved in cubic autocatalytic or linear reactions that take place in the bulk phase environment. For these reactions, as the bulk phase reaction rates increase, the motor propulsion velocity decreases. For the cubic autocatalytic reaction, this net effect arises from a competition between a reduction of the nonequilibrium concentration gradient that leads to smaller velocity and the generation of fuel in the environment that tends to increase the motor propulsion. The role played by detailed balance in determining the form of the concentration gradient in the motor vicinity in the active medium is studied. Simulations are carried out using reactive multiparticle collision dynamics and compared with theoretical models to obtain further insight into sphere dimer dynamics in active media.

  1. A review of DOE HEPA filter component test activities

    SciTech Connect

    Slawski, J.W.; Bresson, J.F.; Scripsick, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    All HEPA filters purchased for installation in DOE nuclear facilities are required to be tested at a Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. The number of HEPA filters purchased by DOE has been reduced so much that the Hanford FTF was closed. From Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 to 1994, funding was not provided to the FTF Technical Support Group (TSG) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As a consequence, Round Robin Tests (RRTs), performed twice each year by the FTFs to assess constituency of test results among the FTFs, were not performed in FY 1992 and FY 1993. The Annual Reports of FTF test activities were not prepared for FY 1992 - 1995. Technical support provided to the FTFs was minimal. There is talk of closing a second FTF, and ongoing discussions as to whether DOE will continue to fund operation of the FTFs. In FY 1994, DOE Defense Programs commenced funding the TSG. RRT data for FY 1994 and 1995 have been entered into the database; the FY 1994 RRT report has been issued; and the FY 1995 RRT report is in progress. Data from semiannual reports have been retrieved and entered into the database. Standards related to HEPA filter test and procurement activities are now scheduled for issuance by FY 1996. Continuation of these activities depends on whether DOE will continue to support the HEPA filter test program. The history and activities of the FTFs and the TSG at Los Alamos have been reported at previous Air Cleaning Conferences. Data from the FY 1991 Annual Report of FTF activities was presented at the 1992 Air Cleaning Conference. Preparation of the Annual Reports was temporarily suspended in 1992. However, all of the FTF Semiannual report data have been retrieved and entered into the data base. This paper focuses primarily on the results of HEPA filter tests conducted by FTFs during FY 1992 - FY 1995, and the possible effects of the DOE program uncertainties on the quality of HEPA filters for installation at the DOE sites. 15 refs., 13 tabs.

  2. Alternative Feedstocks Program Technical and Economic Assessment: Thermal/Chemical and Bioprocessing Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J. J.; Landucci, R.

    1993-07-01

    This resource document on biomass to chemicals opportunities describes the development of a technical and market rationale for incorporating renewable feedstocks into the chemical industry in both a qualitative and quantitative sense. The term "renewable feedstock?s" can be defined to include a huge number of materials such as agricultural crops rich in starch, lignocellulosic materials (biomass), or biomass material recovered from a variety of processing wastes.

  3. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Wedelia prostrata

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jiali; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Qiu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The following study deals with the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Wedelia prostrata and their main constituents in vitro. A total of 70 components representing 99.26 % of the total oil were identified. The main compounds in the oil were limonene (11.38 %) and α-pinene (10.74 %). Antioxidant assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide anion radical, and reducing power test) demonstrate moderate activities for the essential oil and its main components (limonene and α-pinene). The essential oil (1000 μg/disc) exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against 10 strains of test microorganisms as a diameter of zones of inhibition (20.8 to 22.2 mm) and MIC values (125 to 250 µg/ml). The activities of limonene and α-pinene were also determined as main components of the oil. α-Pinene showed higher antimicrobial activity than the essential oil with a diameter of zones of inhibition (20.7 to 22.3 mm) and MIC values (62.5 to 125 µg/ml). The antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. PMID:26648809

  4. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  5. Use of component analyses to identify active variables in treatment packages for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, L J; Wacker, D P; McComas, J J; Brown, K; Peck, S M; Richman, D; Drew, J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the separate components in treatment packages for food refusal of 4 young children. First, treatment packages were implemented until food acceptance improved. Next, a component analysis was conducted within a multielement or reversal design to identify the active components that facilitated food acceptance. The results indicated that escape extinction was always identified as an active variable when assessed; however, other variables, including positive reinforcement and noncontingent play, were also identified as active variables for 2 of the children. The results suggest that the component analysis was useful for identifying variables that affected food acceptance. PMID:7601802

  6. Single DNA molecule stretching measures the activity of chemicals that target the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Cruceanu, Margareta; Stephen, Andrew G.; Beuning, Penny J.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Fisher, Robert J.; Williams, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a biophysical method for investigating chemical compounds that target the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7). We used an optical tweezers instrument to stretch single λ-DNA molecules through the helix-to-coil transition in the presence of NCp7 and various chemical compounds. The change in the helix-coil transition width induced by wild-type NCp7 and its zinc finger variants correlates with in vitro nucleic acid chaperone activity measurements and in vivo assays. The compound-NC interaction measured here reduces NCp7’s capability to alter the transition width. Purified compounds from the NCI Diversity set, 119889, 119911, and 119913 reduce the chaperone activity of 5 nM NC in aqueous solution at 10 nM, 25 nM, and 100 nM concentration, respectively. Similarly, gallein reduced the activity of 4 nM NC at 100 nM concentration. Further analysis allows us to dissect the impact of each compound on both sequence-specific and non-sequence-specific DNA binding of NC, two of the main components of NC’s nucleic acid chaperone activity. These results suggest that DNA stretching experiments can be used to screen chemical compounds targeting NC proteins, and to further explore the mechanisms by which these compounds interact with NC and alter its nucleic acid chaperone activity. PMID:17034752

  7. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  8. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation. PMID:25862996

  9. Cytotoxic and phytotoxic effects of the main chemical components of spent pot-liner: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Luber, Jaquelini; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2014-03-15

    Spent pot-liner (SPL) is a hazardous solid waste produced by the aluminum industry. Although its composition may vary, fluoride and cyanide salts as well as aluminum are predominant components. A seed-germination and root-elongation test was performed with Lactuca sativa seeds as a test system. SPL induced decrease of seed germination rate and root elongation. The concentration of 26.5g/L SPL was established from a regression curve as the IC50 (inhibition concentration 50%). Through chemical analyses, the concentrations of fluoride, cyanide and aluminum in SPL solutions of 26.5g/L (IC50), 39.75g/L (1.5IC50) and 13.25g/L (0.5IC50) were determined. Further, a cell-cycle test was conducted with root tips of L. sativa exposed to these same SPL solutions. All test chemicals presented toxic effects on meristematic cells of L. sativa. Aluminum was identified as the SPL component mainly responsible for reduction of the mitotic index. Chromosomal alterations resulted from the interactions among the three main chemical components of SPL, without a clear predominantly responsible agent. Induction of condensed nuclei was mainly due to effects of aluminum and fluoride, and may serve as an indicator of induced cell death. PMID:24561381

  10. Chemical basis of the photosensitizing activity of angelicins.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, F; Vedaldi, D; Caffieri, S; Guiotto, A; Bordin, F; Rodighiero, G

    1984-12-01

    Angelicins are a group of compounds that show marked photobiologic activity on various substrates; some of them have been proposed as potential agents for the photochemotherapy of skin diseases. A good correlation exists between the photosensitizing activity of these compounds and their capacity to induce monofunctional lesions to DNA; therefore, we believe the chemical nature of these photolesions, we isolated from the products of hydrolysis of the photocombinations between 5 angelicins (angelicin, 4-methyl, 5-methyl, 5'-methyl, and 5,5'-dimethylangelicin) and DNA, the corresponding new fluorescent monoadducts between the 4',5'-double bond of the furocoumarins and the 5,6-double bond of thymine. PMID:6531039

  11. [Disturbance of active sleep components in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Toyoura, T; Kohyama, J; Shimohira, M; Iwakawa, Y

    1996-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism during the early development on the functional brainstem maturation, polysomnograms were recorded on 7 patients with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening before treatment. The following two sleep indices for phasic muscle activity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were evaluated: dissociation index (DI) and % body movements in REMs burst (% BM). The DI is defined as the ratio of the number of twitch movements (TMs) during REM sleep to the sum of TMs and localized movements (LMs) during REM sleep. The % BM is the percentage of TMs and LMs which occur during bursts of REMs in relation to the sum of TMs and LMs during REM sleep. The DI and % BM can reflect maturation of the tonic and phasic inhibitory system functioning during REM sleep, respectively. In congenital hypothyroidism, DI was lower than that in controls, while % BM was identical. The tonic inhibitory system was specifically involved, whereas the phasic one was preserved. It is suggested that thyroid hormone could play an important role on the functional brainstem maturation. We propose to investigate their neuropsychological development over the long term to elucidate the influence of hypothyroidism. PMID:8940874

  12. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  13. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP STUIDES AND THEIR ROLE IN PREDICTING AND INVESTIGATING CHEMICAL TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and their Role in Predicting and Investigating Chemical Toxicity

    Structure-activity relationships (SAR) represent attempts to generalize chemical information relative to biological activity for the twin purposes of generating insigh...

  14. Mixed waste chemical compatibility: A testing program for plastic packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the United States have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). The design requirements for both hazardous [49 CFR 173.24 (e)(1)] and radioactive [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging @d any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] and Type B (10 CFR 71.43) packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program attempts to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. This program has been described in considerable detail in an internal SNL document, the Chemical Compatibility Test Plan & Procedure Report (Nigrey 1993).

  15. Chemically programmed bispecific antibodies that recruit and activate T cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huiting; Thomas, Joshua D; Burke, Terrence R; Rader, Christoph

    2012-08-17

    Bispecific antibodies (biAbs) that mediate cytotoxicity by recruiting and activating endogenous immune cells are an emerging class of next-generation antibody therapeutics. Of particular interest are biAbs of relatively small size (∼50 kDa) that can redirect cytotoxic T cells through simultaneous binding of tumor cells. Here we describe a conceptually unique class of biAbs in which the tumor cell specificity of a humanized antibody fragment that recognizes CD3 on T cells is chemically programmed through a C-terminal selenocysteine (Sec) residue. We demonstrate that through chemically programmed specificity for integrin α(4)β(1) or folate receptor 1 (FOLR1), and common specificity for CD3, these hybrid molecules exert potent and specific in vitro and ex vivo cytotoxicity toward tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells in the presence of primary T cells. Importantly, the generic nature of chemical programming allows one to apply our approach to virtually any specificity, promising a broad utility of chemically programmed biAbs in cancer therapy. PMID:22761439

  16. Dioxinlike components in incinerator fly ash: a comparison between chemical analysis data and results from a cell culture bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Till, M; Behnisch, P; Hagenmaier, H; Bock, K W; Schrenk, D

    1997-01-01

    Potent polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most relevant toxic emissions from incinerators. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in mammalian cell culture (EROD bioassay) is thought to be a selective and sensitive parameter used for the quantification of dioxinlike compounds. Fly ash extracts from municipal waste incinerators (MWI), a crematorium, wood combustors, and a noble metal recycling facility were analyzed in the EROD bioassay using rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Fractions containing 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs, dioxinlike PCBs, and 16 major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were isolated from the extract and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by the EROD bioassay. It was found that with MWI samples the bioassay of the extract resulted in a two- to fivefold higher estimate of TCDD equivalents (TEQ) than the chemical analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs. However, the outcome of both methods was significantly correlated, making the bioassay useful as a rough estimate for the sum of potent PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxinlike PCBs in extracts from MWI fly ash samples and in a fly ash sample from a crematorium. In noble metal recycling facility and wood combustor samples, higher amounts of PAHs were found, contributing to more pronounced differences between the results of both methods. The remaining unexplained inducing potency in fly ash samples probably results from additional dioxinlike components including certain PAHs not analyzed in this study.The hypothesis that emissions from MWI of hitherto unidentified dioxinlike compounds are higher by orders of magnitude than emissions of potent PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxinlike PCBs could not be confirmed. We found no indication for a marked synergistic interaction of dioxinlike fly ash components in the bioassay. Images Figure 1. Figure

  17. Sila-fulleranes: promising chemically active fullerene analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsusi, Farah; Qasemnazhand, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Density-functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the geometry and electronic properties of bare Si60 and H-terminated Si-fullerene. DFT predicts outward sites on a bare Si60 cage. By using π-orbital axis analysis (POAV), it is shown that these sites result from a strong tendency of silicon atoms to form sp3 hybridization bonds. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the sp3 hybridization nature of Si–Si bonds in Si-fulleranes. The quantum confinement effect (QCE) does not affect band gap (BG) so strongly in the size between 1 and 1.7 nm. In contrast, the geometry and symmetry of the cage have a significant influence on the BG. In contrast to their carbon analogs, pentagon rings increase the stability of the cages. Functionalized Si-cages are stable and can be chemically very active. The electronic properties are highly sensitive to the surface chemistry via functionalization with different chemical groups. As a result, BGs and chemical activities of these cages can be drastically tuned through the chemistry of the surface.

  18. Sila-fulleranes: promising chemically active fullerene analogs.

    PubMed

    Marsusi, Farah; Qasemnazhand, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Density-functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the geometry and electronic properties of bare Si60 and H-terminated Si-fullerene. DFT predicts outward sites on a bare Si60 cage. By using π-orbital axis analysis (POAV), it is shown that these sites result from a strong tendency of silicon atoms to form sp(3) hybridization bonds. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the sp(3) hybridization nature of Si-Si bonds in Si-fulleranes. The quantum confinement effect (QCE) does not affect band gap (BG) so strongly in the size between 1 and 1.7 nm. In contrast, the geometry and symmetry of the cage have a significant influence on the BG. In contrast to their carbon analogs, pentagon rings increase the stability of the cages. Functionalized Si-cages are stable and can be chemically very active. The electronic properties are highly sensitive to the surface chemistry via functionalization with different chemical groups. As a result, BGs and chemical activities of these cages can be drastically tuned through the chemistry of the surface. PMID:27240656

  19. Influences of chemical activators on incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X C; Cheeseman, C R; Poon, C S

    2009-02-01

    This research has applied different chemical activators to mechanically and thermally treated fine fraction (<14 mm) of incinerator bottom ash (IBA), in order to investigate the influences of chemical activators on this new pozzolanic material. IBA has been milled and thermally treated at 800 degrees C (TIBA). The TIBA produced was blended with Ca(OH)(2) and evaluated for setting time, reactivity and compressive strength after the addition of 0.0565 mole of Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), Na(2)CO(3), K(2)CO(3), NaOH, KOH and CaCl(2) into 100g of binder (TIBA+Ca(OH)(2)). The microstructures of activated IBA and hydrated samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis. Thermal treatment is found to produce gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) and mayenite (Ca(12)Al(14)O(33)) phases. The thermally treated IBA samples are significantly more reactive than the milled IBA. The addition of Na(2)CO(3) can increase the compressive strength and calcium hydroxide consumption at 28-day curing ages. However, the addition of Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), K(2)CO(3), NaOH and KOH reduces the strength and hydration reaction. Moreover, these chemicals produce more porous samples due to increased generation of hydrogen gas. The addition of CaCl(2) has a negative effect on the hydration of TIBA samples. Calcium aluminium oxide carbonate sulphide hydrate (Ca(4)Al(2)O(6)(CO(3))(0.67)(SO(3))(0.33)(H(2)O)(11)) is the main hydration product in the samples with activated IBA, except for the sample containing CaCl(2). PMID:18718749

  20. Chemical activation of a food deprivation signal extends lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lucanic, Mark; Garrett, Theo; Yu, Ivan; Calahorro, Fernando; Asadi Shahmirzadi, Azar; Miller, Aaron; Gill, Matthew S; Hughes, Robert E; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Lithgow, Gordon J

    2016-10-01

    Model organisms subject to dietary restriction (DR) generally live longer. Accompanying this lifespan extension are improvements in overall health, based on multiple metrics. This indicates that pharmacological treatments that mimic the effects of DR could improve health in humans. To find new chemical structures that extend lifespan, we screened 30 000 synthetic, diverse drug-like chemicals in Caenorhabditis elegans and identified several structurally related compounds that acted through DR mechanisms. The most potent of these NP1 impinges upon a food perception pathway by promoting glutamate signaling in the pharynx. This results in the overriding of a GPCR pathway involved in the perception of food and which normally acts to decrease glutamate signals. Our results describe the activation of a dietary restriction response through the pharmacological masking of a novel sensory pathway that signals the presence of food. This suggests that primary sensory pathways may represent novel targets for human pharmacology. PMID:27220516

  1. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression. PMID:27598154

  2. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Hornstedtia havilandii (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Hashim, Siti Ernieyanti; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Yen, Khong Heng

    2014-01-01

    The chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the fresh rhizome and flower oils of Hornstedtia havilandii were studied. The components present were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. A total of forty-eight constituents were successfully identified from the flower and rhizome oils, representing 93.4% and 89.6%, respectively. The most abundant components of the flower oil were beta-pinene, (19.5%), beta-elemene, (10.0%), beta-cubebene, (6.2%), alpha-pinene, (5.6%), gamma-cadinene, (4.3%) and germacrene D, (3.3%), while alpha-copaene, (10.2%), beta-selinene, (8.4%), beta-elemene, (7.0%), gamma-cadinene, (6.9%), beta-cubebene, (5.3%) and germacrene D, (5.3%) were found as the main components of the rhizome oil. The essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. Both oils showed activity against the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, with moderate MIC values of 112.5 micro/mL, however, for Gram-negative bacteria, the flower oil showed weak antimicrobial activity with a MIC value of 225 microg/mL. Only very weak activity was shown against the yeasts Candida albicans and C. glabrata, with MIC values of 900-1800 microg/mL. PMID:24660478

  3. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  4. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery. PMID:23611786

  5. Quantifying components of the hydrologic cycle in Virginia using chemical hydrograph separation and multiple regression analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Nelms, David L.; Pope, Jason P.; Selnick, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This study by the U.S. Geological Survey, prepared in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, quantifies the components of the hydrologic cycle across the Commonwealth of Virginia. Long-term, mean fluxes were calculated for precipitation, surface runoff, infiltration, total evapotranspiration (ET), riparian ET, recharge, base flow (or groundwater discharge) and net total outflow. Fluxes of these components were first estimated on a number of real-time-gaged watersheds across Virginia. Specific conductance was used to distinguish and separate surface runoff from base flow. Specific-conductance data were collected every 15 minutes at 75 real-time gages for approximately 18 months between March 2007 and August 2008. Precipitation was estimated for 1971–2000 using PRISM climate data. Precipitation and temperature from the PRISM data were used to develop a regression-based relation to estimate total ET. The proportion of watershed precipitation that becomes surface runoff was related to physiographic province and rock type in a runoff regression equation. Component flux estimates from the watersheds were transferred to flux estimates for counties and independent cities using the ET and runoff regression equations. Only 48 of the 75 watersheds yielded sufficient data, and data from these 48 were used in the final runoff regression equation. The base-flow proportion for the 48 watersheds averaged 72 percent using specific conductance, a value that was substantially higher than the 61 percent average calculated using a graphical-separation technique (the USGS program PART). Final results for the study are presented as component flux estimates for all counties and independent cities in Virginia.

  6. Chemical Signaling and Functional Activation in Colloidosome-Based Protocells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyong; Li, Mei; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Shengjie; Tian, Liangfei; Mann, Stephen

    2016-04-13

    An aqueous-based microcompartmentalized model involving the integration of partially hydrophobic Fe(III)-rich montmorillonite (FeM) clay particles as structural and catalytic building blocks for colloidosome membrane assembly, self-directed membrane remodeling, and signal-induced protocell communication is described. The clay colloidosomes exhibit size- and charge-selective permeability, and show dual catalytic functions involving spatially confined enzyme-mediated dephosphorylation and peroxidase-like membrane activity. The latter is used for the colloidosome-mediated synthesis and assembly of a temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM)/clay-integrated hybrid membrane. In situ PNIPAM elaboration of the membrane is coupled to a glucose oxidase (GOx)-mediated signaling pathway to establish a primitive model of chemical communication and functional activation within a synthetic "protocell community" comprising a mixed population of GOx-containing silica colloidosomes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-containing FeM-clay colloidosomes. Triggering the enzyme reaction in the silica colloidosomes gives a hydrogen peroxide signal that induces polymer wall formation in a coexistent population of the FeM-clay colloidosomes, which in turn generates self-regulated membrane-gated ALP-activity within the clay microcompartments. The emergence of new functionalities in inorganic colloidosomes via chemical communication between different protocell populations provides a first step toward the realization of interacting communities of synthetic functional microcompartments. PMID:26923794

  7. Atypical Hydrogen Uptake on Chemically Activated, Ultramicroporous Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Frederick S

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen adsorption at near-ambient temperatures on ultramicroporous carbon (UMC), derived through secondary chemical activation from a wood-based activated carbon was studied using volumetric and gravimetric methods. The results showed that physisorption is accompanied by a process of different nature that causes slow uptake at high pressures and hysteresis on desorption. In combination, this results in unusually high levels of hydrogen uptake at near-ambient temperatures and pressures (e.g. up to 0.8 wt % at 25 oC and 2 MPa). The heat of adsorption corresponding to the slow process leading to high uptake (17 20 kJ/mol) is higher than usually reported for carbon materials, but the adsorption kinetics is slow, and the isotherms exhibit pronounced hysteresis. These unusual properties were attributed to contributions from polarization-enhanced physisorption caused by traces of alkali metals residual from chemical activation. The results support the hypothesis that polarization-induced physisorption in high surface area carbons modified with traces of alkali metal ions is an alternate route for increasing the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon adsorbents.

  8. Ascaroside activity in Caenorhabditis elegans is highly dependent on chemical structure

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Kyle A.; Conner, Elizabeth S.; Zhang, Xinxing; Spell, Mark; Bernard, Gary M.; Patel, Pratik; de Carvalho, Ana Carolina G.V.; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Ragains, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascarosides, structurally diverse derivatives of the 3,6-dideoxysugar ascarylose, and uses them in chemical communication. At high population densities, specific ascarosides, which are together known as the dauer pheromone, trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. In order to study the structure-activity relationships for the ascarosides, we synthesized a panel of ascarosides and tested them for dauer-inducing activity. This panel includes a number of natural ascarosides that were detected in crude pheromone extract, but as yet have no assigned function, as well as many unnatural ascaroside derivatives. Most of these ascarosides, some of which have significant structural similarity to the natural dauer pheromone components, have very little dauer-inducing activity. Our results provide a primer to ascaroside structure-activity relationships and suggest that slight modifications to ascaroside structure dramatically influence binding to the relevant G protein-coupled receptors that control dauer formation. PMID:23920482

  9. Migration and Retardation of Chemical Toxic Components from Radioactive Waste - Hydrochemical Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Jedinakova-Krizova, V.; Hanslik, E.

    2003-02-24

    A systematic analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) operation and radioactive wastes disposal (near-surface disposal and geologic disposal) in underground repositories has provided the basis for a comparison between the radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity as part of an EIA (environmental impact assessment) procedure. This contribution summarizes the hydrochemical mechanisms of transport and retardation processes, chemistry and migration behavior of radionuclides and chemical toxics in natural sorbents, especially bentonites. The effect of solubility and dissolution reactions, diffusion and sorption/desorption, complexation and variations in the aqueous phase composition, pH-value and oxidation-reduction properties and other phenomena affecting distribution coefficients (Kd values) is discussed.

  10. Fabrication of optically active nanostructures by chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Cristin Erin

    A new method of fabricating long-range, planar arrays of discrete, submicron metal structures on glass or SiO2/Si surfaces has been developed without the use of resist masks or chemical etching. The approach combines microcontact printing and electroless plating for the controlled deposition of islands or lines of gold or silver. The metallic structures are varied in size, separation and shape by using a variety of commercial diffraction gratings to mold the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer stamps. An assortment of distinct geometrical patterns have been fabricated and imaged on a range of length scales using scanning probe, scanning electron, and optical microscopies. Additionally, the same chemical techniques can be used to pattern surfaces with biomolecules and ordered arrays of metal nanoshells. These arrays of metal nanostructures support surface plasmon propagation and also show plasmon-plasmon interactions dependent on the geometry of the metal features. These structures were used to investigate the effects of molecular functionalization on the excitation and propagation properties of the surface plasmons that are supported by this geometry. Distinct variations in the dispersion and energy gaps of surface plasmons on these structures due to chemical functionalization of the metal structures is observed. A second type of optically active structure, rare-earth doped silica particles, has been synthesized using wet chemistry. The polydispersity of the particles can be controlled by changing the concentration of dopant salt. These particles may be useful for microlaser or display technologies.

  11. Particulate matter mass and chemical component concentrations over four Chinese cities along the western Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Bi, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Jian-Hui; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2015-02-01

    China has witnessed rapid economic growth in the past three decades, especially in coastal areas. Particulate matter (PM) pollution is becoming increasingly serious in China's cities along the western Pacific coast with the rapid development of China's society and economy. This study analyzed PM (PM10 and PM2.5) in terms of their mass and chemical composition in four coastal Chinese cities. The goal was to study the spatial variation and characteristics of PM pollution in sites under different levels of economic development and in diverse natural environments. A distinct trend for concentrations of PM and related chemical species was observed and increased from south to north in Haikou, Ningbo, Qingdao, and Tianjin. Secondary inorganic aerosols, crustal materials, and organic matter dominated the composition of both PM10 and PM2.5. Crustal materials were the most abundant species in the northern coastal areas because these areas have less vegetation cover and lower humidity than southern coastal areas. The presence of high SO4 (2-)/nitrate (NO3 (-)) concentrations indicated that the burning of coals gives significant contributions to PM10 and PM2.5. The differences observed in the characteristics of PM pollution in these coastal cities are probably caused by different levels of industrial and urban development. PMID:25292296

  12. Geometric and chemical components of the giant piezoresistance in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClarty, M. M.; Jegenyes, N.; Gaudet, M.; Toccafondi, C.; Ossikovski, R.; Vaurette, F.; Arscott, S.; Rowe, A. C. H.

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of apparently contradictory piezoresistance (PZR) behaviors have been reported in p-type silicon nanowires (SiNW), from the usual positive bulk effect to anomalous (negative) PZR and giant PZR. The origin of such a range of diverse phenomena is unclear, and consequently so too is the importance of a number of parameters including SiNW type (top down or bottom up), stress concentration, electrostatic field effects, or surface chemistry. Here, we observe all these PZR behaviors in a single set of nominally p-type, <110 > oriented, top-down SiNWs at uniaxial tensile stresses up to 0.5 MPa. Longitudinal π-coefficients varying from -800 × 10-11 Pa-1 to 3000 × 10-11 Pa-1 are measured. Micro-Raman spectroscopy on chemically treated nanowires reveals that stress concentration is the principal source of giant PZR. The sign and an excess PZR similar in magnitude to the bulk effect are related to the chemical treatment of the SiNW.

  13. Crystallization of urine mineral components may depend on the chemical nature of Proteus endotoxin polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Staczek, Paweł; Rózalski, Antoni

    2003-06-01

    Formation of infectious urinary calculi is the most common complication accompanying urinary tract infections by members of the genus Proteus. The major factor involved in stone formation is the urease produced by these bacteria, which causes local supersaturation and crystallization of magnesium and calcium phosphates as carbonate apatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6).CO(3)] and struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O), respectively. This effect may also be enhanced by bacterial polysaccharides. Macromolecules of such kind contain negatively charged residues that are able to bind Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), leading to the accumulation of these ions around bacterial cells and acceleration of the crystallization process. The levels of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions bound by whole Proteus cells were measured, as well as the chemical nature of isolated LPS polysaccharides, and the intensity of the in vitro crystallization process was compared in a synthetic urine. The results suggest that the sugar composition of Proteus LPS may either enhance or inhibit the crystallization of struvite and apatite, depending on its chemical structure and ability to bind cations. This points to the increased importance of endotoxin in urinary tract infections. PMID:12748265

  14. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Croton oblongifolius and its Antibacterial Activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of C. oblongifolius Roxb. stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis by GC-MS identified 29 compounds. Terpinen-4-ol (17.8%) was a major component, together with α-guaiene (7.9%), E-caryophyllene (7.0%), myrcene (6.7%), (+)-cyclosativene (5.1%), sabinene (4.8%), aciphyllene (4.7%), pogostol (4.6%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%), α-muurolol (3.2%) and germecrene D (3.2%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 with an MIC of 0.125%, v/v. PMID:26434141

  15. Microbial conversion of synthesis gas components to useful fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Madhukar, G.R.; Elmore, B.B.; Huckabay, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    Enriched culture techniques have been used to isolate microbial cultures exhibiting growth on synthesis gas components. Three rod-shaped, gram-positive cultures have been isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, a cow manure-soil mixture, and sheep rumen fluid. Each culture exhibits growth on carbon monoxide as its primary carbon source, producing alcohols and acids in the fermentation medium. Quantities of up to 7.5, 0.58, and 0.25 g/L of acetate, ethanol, and methanol, respectively, have been produced in batch culture with lesser amounts of acetone, butyric, and propionic acid detected. 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. INHIBITION OF RETINOID ACTIVITY BY COMPONENTS OF A PAPER MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cell line stably transfected with reporter genes activated by retinoic acid was used to test a paper mill effluent for the presence of retinoids or components that interfere with retinoic acid-stimulated gene transcription.

  17. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Anette M.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized thataselected subset of chemicalsusedin natural gas drilling operationsandalso surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas–related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operationsmayresult in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  18. Relativistically corrected nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts calculated with the normalized elimination of the small component using an effective potential-NMR chemical shifts of molybdenum and tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2003-07-01

    A new method for relativistically corrected nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts is developed by combining the individual gauge for the localized orbital approach for density functional theory with the normalized elimination of a small component using an effective potential. The new method is used for the calculation of the NMR chemical shifts of 95Mo and 183W in various molybdenum and tungsten compounds. It is shown that quasirelativistic corrections lead to an average improvement of calculated NMR chemical shift values by 300 and 120 ppm in the case of 95Mo and 183W, respectively, which is mainly due to improvements in the paramagnetic contributions. The relationship between electronic structure of a molecule and the relativistic paramagnetic corrections is discussed. Relativistic effects for the diamagnetic part of the magnetic shielding caused by a relativistic contraction of the s,p orbitals in the core region concern only the shielding values, however, have little consequence for the shift values because of the large independence from electronic structure and a cancellation of these effects in the shift values. It is shown that the relativistic corrections can be improved by level shift operators and a B3LYP hybrid functional, for which Hartree-Fock exchange is reduced to 15%.

  19. Changes in structural and chemical components of wood delignified by fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, R.A.; Otjen, L.; Effland, M.J.; Eslyn, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Cerrena unicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Ischnoderma resinosum and Poria medulla-panis were associated with birch (Betula papyrifera) wood that had been selectively delignified in the forest. Preferential lignin degradation was not uniformly distributed throughout the decayed wood. A typical white rot causing a simultaneous removal of all cell wall components was also present. In the delignified wood, 95 to 98% of the lignin was removed as well as substantial amounts of hemicelluloses. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the micromorphological and ultrastructural changes that occurred in the cells during degradation. In delignified areas the compound middle lamella was extensively degraded causing a defibration of cells. The secondary wall, especially the S2 layer, remained relatively unaltered. In simultaneously white-rotted wood all cell wall layers were progressively removed from the lumen toward the middle lamella causing erosion troughs or holes to form. Large voids filled with fungal mycelia resulted from a coalition of degraded areas. Birch wood decayed in laboratory soil-block tests was also intermittently delignified, selective delignification, sparsely distributed throughout the wood, and a simultaneous rot resulting in the removal of all cell wall components were evident. SEM appears to be an appropriate technique for examining selectively delignified decayed wood. 30 references.

  20. Estimating Brain Network Activity through Back-Projection of ICA Components to GLM Maps

    PubMed Central

    James, G. Andrew; Tripathi, Shanti Prakash; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2014-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a data-driven approach frequently used in neuroimaging to model functional brain networks. Despite ICA’s increasing popularity, methods for replicating published ICA components across independent datasets have been underemphasized. Traditionally, the task-dependent activation of a component is evaluated by first back-projecting the component to a functional MRI (fMRI) dataset, then performing general linear modeling (GLM) on the resulting timecourse. We propose the alternative approach of back-projecting the component directly to univariate GLM results. Using a sample of 37 participants performing the Multi-Source Interference Task, we demonstrate these two approaches to yield identical results. Furthermore, while replicating an ICA component requires back-projection of component beta-values (βs), components are typically depicted only by t-scores. We show that while back-projection of component βs and t-scores yielded highly correlated results (ρ=0.95), group-level statistics differed between the two methods. We conclude by stressing the importance of reporting ICA component βs so – rather than component t-scores – so that functional networks may be independently replicated across datasets. PMID:24513233

  1. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  2. [Advances on chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of genus Scilla].

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng-Yang; Wang, Yan-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Gao, Hui-Min

    2014-01-01

    The genus Scilla consists of 90 species widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa, one and its variant of which can be found in China Some species of the genus have been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases related to inflammation and pain. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of triterpene and tritepenoid saponins derived from eucosterol, bufadienolides, alkaloids, stilbenoids and lignan in the plants of this genus. Various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and glycosidase inhibitory activities, have been reported. In this review, the advance of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Scilla species are summarized for further development and utilization of the resource. PMID:24761625

  3. Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring.

    PubMed

    Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike; Lynen, Frederic; Danthine, Sabine; Brown, Allison; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons - HCs, free fatty acids - FFAs, free fatty alcohols - FALs and wax esters - WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC-ELSD and GC-MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products. PMID:27507530

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Fahima; Boudjella, Hadjira; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Hassani, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Family of Lamiaceae) growing in Algeria, was investigated for its chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition was determined by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Sixty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 94.10 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.34 %. The major component was geranial (44.20 %). Other predominant components were neral (30.20 %) and citronellal (6.30 %). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was determined by paper disk agar diffusion testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 7 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. The results showed that the essential oil presented high antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms targeted mainly against five human pathogenic bacteria, one yeast Candida albicans and two phytopathogenic fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 1.00 to 5.00 µL/mL. PMID:26417300

  5. Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigourd, D.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Matton, S.; Bocquet, R.; Mouret, G.; Cazier, F.; Dewaele, D.; Nouali, H.

    2007-03-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy and photomixing have been used alongside one another for the detection and the quantification of small polar species in mainstream cigarette smoke. The broadband submillimeter source used in time domain spectroscopy allowed a rapid and simultaneous detection of several pure rotational transitions of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) in realistic conditions of pressure and temperature. The spectral purity of the continuous wave terahertz source produced by photomixing, permitted the concentrations of these molecules to be measured at pressures of tens of hPa. Moreover, at lower pressure, traces of formaldehyde (H2CO) have been unambiguously identified at frequencies above 1 THz. A comparison with chemical analytical methods has been completed for each molecule highlighting the advantages of the direct measurement by THz spectroscopy.

  6. Formation of a two-component Bose condensate during the chemical-potential curve crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Kayali, M.A.; Sinitsyn, N.A.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we study the coherent dissociation of a molecular condensate into a multiple-mode atomic condensate during the chemical-potential curve crossing beyond the mean-field approximation. We show that the problem can be reduced to the dissociation of a molecular condensate into a two-mode atomic one. We employ the time-dependent Landau-Zener theory and derive analytical expression for the transition amplitudes. We calculate the number of produced atoms and show that they exist in squeezed state. We also study the formation of multiple-mode atomic condensate by inelastic scatterings of atoms in a single-mode atomic condensate. We show that the problem is also a Landau-Zener-like and exact solution can be found by imposing an additional symmetry.

  7. Effects of olfactory stimulation with jasmin and its component chemicals on the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Tanida, M; Uenoyama, S; Nakayama, Y

    1992-01-01

    The effect of olfactory stimulation with jasmin and its component chemicals on pentobarbital sleep time was investigated using mice. In the present study we sought to determine which component of jasmin influences pentobarbital sleep time via olfactory stimulation. Sleep time was defined as the time elapsed between intraperitoneal pentobarbital administration and the first time that the animal was able to spontaneously right itself. Sleep time was significantly decreased by olfactory stimulation with jasmin, and also by one of the fractions obtained by fractional distillation at 150 degrees C and 0.1 mmHg. The fraction which influenced the sleep time was found to consist of benzyl benzoate, isophytol, geranyl linalool, phytol and phytyl acetate, which were identified using gas chromatography with mass and infrared spectrometry. In experiments using authentic samples of these components, phytol significantly shortened the pentobarbital sleep time, while the others had no effect. We conclude that phytol is the component of jasmin which reduces the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep. PMID:1556904

  8. Chemical Component and Proteomic Study of the Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite Shell

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-sheng; Wong, Yue-Him; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-yuan

    2015-01-01

    As typical biofoulers, barnacles possess hard shells and cause serious biofouling problems. In this study, we analyzed the protein component of the barnacle Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite shell using gel-based proteomics. The results revealed 52 proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. Among them, 40 proteins were categorized into 11 functional groups based on KOG database, and the remaining 12 proteins were unknown. Besides the known proteins in barnacle shell (SIPC, carbonic anhydrase and acidic acid matrix protein), we also identified chorion peroxidase, C-type lectin-like domains, serine proteases and proteinase inhibitor proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. The sequences of these proteins were characterized and their potential functions were discussed. Histology and DAPI staining revealed living cells in the shell, which might secrete the shell proteins identified in this study. PMID:26222041

  9. Chemical Component and Proteomic Study of the Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite Shell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue-Him; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    As typical biofoulers, barnacles possess hard shells and cause serious biofouling problems. In this study, we analyzed the protein component of the barnacle Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite shell using gel-based proteomics. The results revealed 52 proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. Among them, 40 proteins were categorized into 11 functional groups based on KOG database, and the remaining 12 proteins were unknown. Besides the known proteins in barnacle shell (SIPC, carbonic anhydrase and acidic acid matrix protein), we also identified chorion peroxidase, C-type lectin-like domains, serine proteases and proteinase inhibitor proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. The sequences of these proteins were characterized and their potential functions were discussed. Histology and DAPI staining revealed living cells in the shell, which might secrete the shell proteins identified in this study. PMID:26222041

  10. Effect of second cooling on the chemical components of essential oils from orange peel (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Fu, Manqing; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2014-09-01

    A second cooling was added to the oil collectors of an improved Clevenger-type apparatus (ICT) to investigate the thermal reaction of essential oils from orange peel compared to a traditional Clevenger-type apparatus (CT). The results demonstrated the yield rate of essential oil from ICT was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that from CT. The major components of the essential oils consisted of monoterpenes, such as d-limonene, β-myrcene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, α-pinene. Interestingly, ICT prevented the thermal reaction-the transformation of β-myrcene to β-thujene-and reduced the oxidation on α-pinene and β-pinene of the essential oil in comparison to CT. In addition, the yield rate of γ-terpinene can also be improved via ICT compared to CT. Thus, ICT is an effective improvement to traditional CT. PMID:24945493

  11. Biological activities and chemical composition of lichens from Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Kosanic, Marijana; Rankovic, Branislav; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Vasiljevic, Perica; Manojlovic, Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Parmelia arseneana and Acarospora fuscata and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and gyrophoric acid isolated from A. fuscata. The HPLC-UV method was used for the identification of secondary metabolites. Stictic acid, norstictic acid, gyrophoric acid, usnic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were identified in the A. fuscata. In P. arseneana, we detected stictic acid, norstictic acid, usnic acid and atranorin, while gyrophoric acid was not identified. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of tested samples on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, reducing the power of samples and determination of total phenolic compounds in extracts. As a result of the study, gyrophoric acid was found to have the largest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 105.75 µg/ml. Moreover, the tested samples had an effective superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power. The total content of phenol in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was also gyrophoric acid, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.019 to 1.25 mg/ml. Anticancer activity was tested against LS174 (human colon carcinoma cell line), A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), Fem-x (malignant melanoma cell line), and a chronic myelogeneous leukaemia K562 cell line using the MTT method. Extract of P. arseneana expressed the strongest anticancer activity against all cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 11.61 to 47.06 µg/ml. PMID:26417336

  12. Chemical characterization and biological activity of Macfadyena unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Duarte, D S; Dolabela, M F; Salas, C E; Raslan, D S; Oliveiras, A B; Nenninger, A; Wiedemann, B; Wagner, H; Lombardi, J; Lopes, M T

    2000-03-01

    Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) has been widely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antimalarial and antivenereal. The purpose of this study was to chemically characterize the main plant components, and to evaluate the biological properties of some of the fractions derived from leaves (MACb) and liana (MACa) of this plant. Chemical characterization allowed the identification of the compounds corymboside, vicenin-2, quercitrin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterylglucoside, allantoin and lapachol. The biological screening of fractions and/or purified substances derived from fractions revealed antitumoral and antitrypanosomal activities in fractions MACa/lapachol and MACb/MACb21, respectively. The anti-lipoxygenase and anti-cyclooxygenase effect seen in fractions MACa and MACb showed a partial correlation with the anti-inflammatory property attributed to this plant. PMID:10757425

  13. Influences of chemical activators on incinerator bottom ash

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, X.C. Cheeseman, C.R.; Poon, C.S.

    2009-02-15

    This research has applied different chemical activators to mechanically and thermally treated fine fraction (<14 mm) of incinerator bottom ash (IBA), in order to investigate the influences of chemical activators on this new pozzolanic material. IBA has been milled and thermally treated at 800 deg. C (TIBA). The TIBA produced was blended with Ca(OH){sub 2} and evaluated for setting time, reactivity and compressive strength after the addition of 0.0565 mole of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH, KOH and CaCl{sub 2} into 100 g of binder (TIBA+Ca(OH){sub 2}). The microstructures of activated IBA and hydrated samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis. Thermal treatment is found to produce gehlenite (Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}), wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}) and mayenite (Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33}) phases. The thermally treated IBA samples are significantly more reactive than the milled IBA. The addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} can increase the compressive strength and calcium hydroxide consumption at 28-day curing ages. However, the addition of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH and KOH reduces the strength and hydration reaction. Moreover, these chemicals produce more porous samples due to increased generation of hydrogen gas. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} has a negative effect on the hydration of TIBA samples. Calcium aluminium oxide carbonate sulphide hydrate (Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.67}(SO{sub 3}){sub 0.33}(H{sub 2}O){sub 11}) is the main hydration product in the samples with activated IBA, except for the sample containing CaCl{sub 2}.

  14. Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Nylund, Göran M.; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  15. Speciation and chemical activities in superheated sodium borate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O. )

    1993-06-01

    The system H[sub 2]O-B[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Na[sub 2]O has been studied experimentally at 277[degrees] and 317[degrees]C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 80 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modelled using the Pitzer-Simonson Model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. These data will allow prediction of the composition and chemical behavior of sodium borate liquids that may accumulate in the superheated crevices within a steam generator. A modified form of the model is provided for use with MULTEQ. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317[degrees]C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios.

  16. Validation of the physico-chemical processes determining the state of the components of liquid nuclear wastes in underground repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Kosareva, I.M.; Savushkina, M.K.; Egorov, N.N.; Kudryavtsev, E.G.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Korotkevich, V.M.; Revenko, Yu.A.; Nosukhin, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study of the physico-chemical properties of liquid nuclear wastes formed during the treatment of wastes of nuclear enterprises and nuclear power plants. The parameters of underground layers which can be used for the disposal of liquid nuclear wastes are discussed. When wastes are injected into a collector layer, various chemical interactions occur which may change the compositions of the wastes and the collector layer. To predict the state of the waste components during the dangerous period of the repository operation, a physico-chemical study of the processes occurring in nuclear waste repositories was carried out. For each type of waste, main peculiarities of possible transformations, including chemical interactions, hydrolysis, thermolysis, radiolysis, and sorption were determined. The disposal of liquid nuclear wastes into deep geological formations is a unique pilot experiment on the concentration of liquid nuclear wastes in a comparatively small area of an underground collector layer. This makes the implementation of the method and the period after the end of the operation of the repositories, i.e., their conservation, essential stages of this work. The development of the method of disposing of liquid nuclear wastes deep in water-bearing layers was carried out along several lines: (1) a comprehensive geohydrological study of the matter; (2) a study of the physico-chemical conditions of the disposal; (3) solution of scientific and technological problems; and (4) control and assessment of sanitary radiation safety. To exercise control over the state of deep underground repositories of liquid nuclear wastes, various mathematical models are being developed.

  17. Estimation of the time component in the movement of chemicals in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed Central

    Freni, S C; Phillips, D L

    1987-01-01

    For a proper analysis of the potentially causal relationship between exposure to volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in drinking water and health events, it is essential to know T1, the time when exposure started, and C = f(T), which is the change of the VOC concentration C as a function of time T and the total accumulated exposure (TAE) to VOCs to which an individual was exposed. In the typical situation of incidentally detected pollution of groundwater, no such information is available. This paper describes the development of a method for estimating T1, C = f(T), and TAE as part of an epidemiologic study of the health effects of VOC contamination of an aquifer serving public and private wells. Pooled test results of city wells, tested periodically since 1981, provided the data base for developing a statistical model for estimating C = f(T). This model was then applied to private wells, for which the data of only one water sample were available, to retrospectively estimate their T1. The best-fitting model was a multiple linear regression equation consisting of the natural logarithm of the VOC concentration as the response variable, with the time of sampling, the distance of the wells from the source (expressed as coordinates), the well depth, and the well capacity as determinants. The TAE was calculated by integrating the area under the time-concentration curve. PMID:3691428

  18. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857

  19. Chemical Characterization of Beer Aging Products Derived from Hard Resin Components in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Makiko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Matsukura, Yasuko; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2015-11-25

    The bitter taste of beer originates from resins in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which are classified into two subtypes (soft and hard). Whereas the nature and reactivity of soft-resin-derived compounds, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are well studied, there is only a little information on the compounds in hard resin. For this work, hard resin was prepared from stored hops and investigated for its compositional changes in an experimental model of beer aging. The hard resin contained a series of α-acid oxides. Among them, 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones were unstable under beer storage conditions, and their transformation induced primary compositional changes of the hard resin during beer aging. The chemical structures of the products, including novel polycyclic compounds scorpiohumulinols A and B and dicyclohumulinols A and B, were determined by HRMS and NMR analyses. These compounds were proposed to be produced via proton-catalyzed cyclization reactions of 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones. Furthermore, they were more stable than their precursor 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones during prolonged storage periods. PMID:26507444

  20. Variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of different pigeon pea cultivars during growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuo-Fu; Jin, Shuang; Luo, Meng; Pan, You-Zhi; Li, Ting-Ting; Qi, Xiao-Lin; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2013-10-23

    Pigeon pea is an important and multiuse grain legume crop, and its leaves are a very valuable natural resource. To obtain a high-quality biological resource, it is necessary to choose the excellent cultivar and determine the appropriate harvest time. In this study, the variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of six pigeon pea cultivars during growth were investigated. The level of each individual active component significantly varied during growth, but with a different pattern, and this variation was different among cultivars. Flavonoid glycosides orientin, vitexin, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside showed two peak values at mid-late and final stages of growth in most cases. Pinostrobin chalcone, longistyline C, and cajaninstilbene acid showed remarkablely higher values at the mid-late stage of growth than at other stages. Pinostrobin had an extremely different variation pattern compared to other active components. Its content was the highest at the earlier stage of growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that vitexin and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside were mainly responsible for distinguishing cultivars analyzed. In a comprehensive consideration, the leaves should preferentially be harvested at the 135th day after sowing when the level of active components and antioxidant activity reached higher values. Cultivars ICP 13092, ICPL 87091, and ICPL 96053 were considered to be excellent cultivars with high antioxidant activity. Our findings can provide valuable information for producing a high-quality pigeon pea resource. PMID:24066714

  1. Hydrogeology, Chemical and Microbial Activity Measurement Through Deep Permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with ??18O values ???5??? lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH4 was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH4 is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with {delta}{sup 18}O values {approx}5{per_thousand} lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH{sub 4} was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH{sub 4} is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination.

  3. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emel Maden; Güntert, Peter

    2015-09-01

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary. PMID:26123317

  4. Chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of Melastoma malabathricum L.

    PubMed

    Wong, Keng-Chong; Hag Ali, Dafaalla Mohamed; Boey, Peng-Lim

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous methanolic extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. exhibited antibacterial activity when assayed against seven microorganisms by the agar diffusion method. Solvent fractionation afforded active chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions from the leaves and the flowers, respectively. A phytochemical study resulted in the identification of ursolic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (2), asiatic acid (3), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and the glycolipid glycerol 1,2-dilinolenyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyanoside (5) from the chloroform fraction. Kaempferol (6), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-E-p-coumaryl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (10), quercetin (11) and ellagic acid (12) were found in the ethyl acetate fraction. The structures of these compounds were determined by chemical and spectral analyses. Compounds 1-4, the flavonols (6 and 11) and ellagic acid (12) were found to be active against some of the tested microorganisms, while the kaempferol 3-O-glycosides (7-9) did not show any activity, indicating the role of the free 3-OH for antibacterial activity. Addition of p-coumaryl groups results in mild activity for 10 against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Compounds 2-5, 7 and 9-12 are reported for the first time from M. malabathricum. Compound 10 is rare, being reported only once before from a plant, without assignment of the double bond geometry in the p-coumaryl moiety. PMID:21834640

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from the Tunisian Allium nigrum L.

    PubMed Central

    Rouis-Soussi, Lamia Sakka; Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma El; Mahjoub, Aouni; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of different Allium nigrum L. organs and the antibacterial activity were evaluated. The study is particularly interesting because hitherto there are no reports on the antibacterial screening of this species with specific chemical composition. Therefore, essential oils from different organs (flowers, stems, leaves and bulbs) obtained separately by hydrodistillation were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc and microdilution assays. In total, 39 compounds, representing 90.8-96.9 % of the total oil composition, were identified. The major component was hexadecanoic acid (synonym: palmitic acid) in all the A. nigrum organs oils (39.1-77.2 %). We also noted the presence of some sesquiterpenes, mainly germacrene D (12.8 %) in leaves oil) and some aliphatic compounds such as n-octadecane (30.5 %) in bulbs oil. Isopentyl isovalerate, 14-oxy-α-muurolene and germacrene D were identified for the first time in the genus Allium L. All the essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity, especially against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The oil obtained from the leaves exhibited an interesting antibacterial activity, with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 62.50 µg/mL against these two latter strains. The findings showed that the studied oils have antibacterial activity, and thus great potential for their application in food preservation and natural health products. PMID:26417280

  6. Health hazards of natural and introduced chemical components of boatbuilding woods.

    PubMed

    Jagels, R

    1985-01-01

    The major components of untreated wood--cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin--have not been implicated as toxicants, but extractive substances, especially in heartwood, can be toxic. Decay-resistant woods are more likely to contain irritants or sensitizers than nondurable woods. Short-term exposures to certain wood dusts may result in asthma, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, or allergic dermatitis, but long-term effects may include nasal cancer and Hodgkin's disease. Some thermophilic microorganisms found in wood are human pathogens, and septic splinters (chromomycosis) and inhalation of ascomycete spores from stored wood chips have been implicated in human illnesses. Reconstituted wood can contain formaldehyde resins, which pose health risks in enclosed humid areas. Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood is particularly toxic--short-term exposures to PCP-treating solutions can lead to aplastic anemia and mortality, while diseases such as Hodgkin's disease are associated with long-term exposures. Since much commercial lumber is dipped in PCP, the separation of the chronic effects of wood dust from PCP exposure is difficult. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)- and ammoniacal copper arsenite (ACA)-treated wood may leach arsenic. CCA-treated wood is potentially safer, since it contains the pentavalent arsenic, which is a common constituent in the environment. ACA contains the trivalent arsenic, which is more toxic. PMID:3901739

  7. Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. PMID:24768063

  8. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-10

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data. PMID:24967544

  9. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Efficacy of Various Chemical Disinfectants on Biofilms Formed in Spacecraft Potable Water System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Willy; Garcia, Veronica; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Duane

    2009-01-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the vehicle. Pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with non-sterile water and left at room temperature for over one month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, which included Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides., and Cupriavidus pauculus. After 5 days of incubation, these hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide, colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. Disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts following exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% hydrogen peroxide solution or a mixture of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to less than 1 CFU/ml for a period of up to 2 months. Testing results indicated that hydrogen peroxide and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and colloidal silver have tremendous potential as alternative disinfectants for ISS water systems.

  11. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents. PMID:26727903

  12. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Activities in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Gloiopeltis tenax

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaojiao; Chen, Yicun; Yao, Fen; Chen, Weizhou; Shi, Ganggang

    2012-01-01

    Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax) is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO2-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)), lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction), and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical), compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.9 mg/mL), Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL), and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO2-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing. PMID:23342386

  13. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  14. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kilpinen, Ole; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical analysis. Here we present for the first time, a combination of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and video analysis for real-time measurement of semiochemicals emitted by isolated groups of bed bugs during specific behavioural activities. The most distinct peaks in the proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry recordings were always observed close to the termination of mating attempts, corresponding to the defensive emissions that bed bugs have been suspected to exploit for prevention of unwanted copulations. The main components of these emissions were (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal recorded in ratios between 1∶3 and 3∶1. In the current study, the quantity varied over 1000 fold for both of the compounds with up to 40 µg total release in a single emission. Males also emit defensive compounds due to homosexual copulation attempts by other males, and no significant differences were observed in the ratio or the amount of the two components released from males or females. In summary, this study has demonstrated that combining proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry with video analysis can provide detailed information about semiochemicals emitted during specific behavioural activities. PMID:23227225

  15. Suppression of Chemically Induced and Spontaneous Mouse Oocyte Activation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase1

    PubMed Central

    Ya, Ru; Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oocyte activation is an important process triggered by fertilization that initiates embryonic development. However, parthenogenetic activation can occur either spontaneously or with chemical treatments. The LT/Sv mouse strain is genetically predisposed to spontaneous activation. LT oocytes have a cell cycle defect and are ovulated at the metaphase I stage instead of metaphase II. A thorough understanding of the female meiosis defects in this strain remains elusive. We have reported that AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA) has an important role in stimulating meiotic resumption and promoting completion of meiosis I while suppressing premature parthenogenetic activation. Here we show that early activation of PRKA during the oocyte maturation period blocked chemically induced activation in B6SJL oocytes and spontaneous activation in LT/SvEiJ oocytes. This inhibitory effect was associated with high levels of MAPK1/3 activity. Furthermore, stimulation of PRKA partially rescued the meiotic defects of LT/Sv mouse oocytes in concert with correction of abnormal spindle pole localization of PRKA and loss of prolonged spindle assembly checkpoint activity. Altogether, these results confirm a role for PRKA in helping sustain the MII arrest in mature oocytes and suggest that dysfunctional PRKA contributes to meiotic defects in LT/SvEiJ oocytes. PMID:23390161

  16. Antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites synthesized by chemical reduction route

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of polymers and size of nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites (Ag BNCs). In this research, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were incorporated into biodegradable polymers that are chitosan, gelatin and both polymers via chemical reduction method in solvent in order to produce Ag BNCs. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were employed as a metal precursor and reducing agent respectively. On the other hand, chitosan and gelatin were added as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of silver nanoparticles was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar. Results The properties of Ag BNCs were studied as a function of the polymer weight ratio in relation to the use of chitosan and gelatin. The morphology of the Ag BNCs films and the distribution of the Ag NPs were also characterized. The diameters of the Ag NPs were measured and their size is less than 20 nm. The antibacterial trait of silver/chitosan/gelatin bionanocomposites was investigated. The silver ions released from the Ag BNCs and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag BNC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (S. aureus and M. luteus) by diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar. Conclusions The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs with size less than 20 nm was demonstrated and showed positive results against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The Ag NPs stabilized well in the polymers matrix. PMID:22967920

  17. Dynamic model for selective metabolic activation in chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, J.K.; MacLeod, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical calculations predict the relative ease of formation of carbonium ions from 7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene-9,10-oxide or from either of the 2 symmetrical bay regions of B(e)P, and suggest their attraction to cellular nucleophiles. When both isomers were metabolized by hamster embryo fibroblasts (HEF) and the products analyzed, the results showed that the probable reason for benzo(e)pyrene's lack of carcinogenicity was its metabolic preference to attack the molecule away from the bay-region area. Particularly striking was the absence of any evidence for the formation of a significant amount of B(e)P-9,10-dihydrodiol. This suggests a metabolic basis for the relative lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of B(e)P. The reason for this is not clear but may be due to physical or chemical factors such as membrane solubility or stereochemical requirements of the active site of the enzyme. The bay-region theory of PAH carcinogenesis predicts that carbonium ion formation from 9,10-dihydro-9,10-dihydroxybenzo(e)pyrene-11, 12-oxide, if formed, would be energetically favorable. Thus, the inability of HEF and microcomes to form B(e)P-9,10-dihydrodiol, the precursor of its potentially highly reactive diol-epoxide, would explain the relative inertness of B(e)P in several biological systems. As the subtle biochemical interactions of the various carcinogen intermediates become clarified, it becomes apparent that susceptibility and resistance to malignant transformation are based on a complex set of both chemical and physical parameters. It is becoming clear that metabolism kinetics, membrane interaction, and the role of nuclear metabolism help dictate the passage of the carcinogen and its reactive intermediates into and through the metabolic machinery of the cell. (ERB)

  18. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  19. Chemical fingerprinting by RP-RRLC-DAD and principal component analysis of Ziziphora clinopodioides from different locations.

    PubMed

    Tiana, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Xin, Lude; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Upur, Halmuart

    2012-09-01

    An efficient and accurate fingerprinting method using reversed-phase rapid-resolution liquid-chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection has been developed and optimized to examine the variance in active compounds among Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different locations. Three active components, diosmin, linarin and pulegone, were identified by matching their retention times and UV spectra with the corresponding reference compounds. Our results indicated that chromatographic fingerprints, in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), could efficiently identify and distinguish Z. clinopodioides from different sources. Our fingerprinting methods and data will be useful for quality control, and thus, more effective dosing in clinical application of Z. clinopodioides. PMID:23074902

  20. Default-Mode Network Activity Identified by Group Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Conghui; Zhuang, Jie; Peng, Danling; Yu, Guoliang; Yang, Yanhui

    Default-mode network activity refers to some regional increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during baseline than cognitive tasks. Recent functional imaging studies have found co-activation in a distributed network of cortical regions, including ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PPC) that characterize the default mode of human brain. In this study, general linear model and group independent component analysis (ICA) were utilized to analyze the fMRI data obtained from two language tasks. Both methods yielded similar, but not identical results and detected a resting deactivation network at some midline regions including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Particularly, the group ICA method segregated functional elements into two separate maps and identified ventral cingulate component and fronto-parietal component. These results suggest that these two components might be linked to different mental function during "resting" baseline.

  1. Omani propolis: chemical profiling, antibacterial activity and new propolis plant sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous honeybee product having a long history of application in many countries as a traditional remedy for treating wounds, burns, soar throat, stomach disorders, etc. It has been proved to possess beneficial biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiulcer, and many others. Bees gather propolis from diverse resinous plant parts and in different phytogeographic regions its chemical composition might vary significantly. In this article we report the results of the first study on the chemical profiles of propolis from Oman, its plant origin and antibacterial activity. Results The chemical profiles of Omani propolis extracts were obtained by GC-MS analysis after silylation. Over 50 individual compounds were identified in the samples, belonging to different compound types: sugars, polyols, hydroxy acids, fatty acids, cardanols and cardols, anacardic acids, flavan derivatives, triterpenes, prenylated flavanones and chalcones. The profiles were dissimilar from other known propolis types. They demonstrate that although Oman is not a large country, the plant sources of propolis vary significantly, even in the same apiary and the same season. Based on chemical profiles, and isolation and identification of major marker compounds (new propolis constituents), new plant sources of propolis were found: Azadiracta indica (neem tree) and Acacia spp. (most probably A. nilotica). The ethanol extracts of the studied propolis samples demonstrated activity against S. aureus (MIC < 100 μg. mL-1) and E. coli (MIC < 380 μg. mL-1). Conclusion Omani propolis is different form the known propolis types and demonstrates significant chemical diversity. Its most important plant source is the resin of Azadirachta indica, and as a result its typical components are С5-prenyl flavanones. Other plant sources have been identified, too, playing some role in resin collection by bees in Oman: Acacia spp

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2005-12-28

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

  3. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from the sporophores and cultured products of Armillaria mellea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Yan, Lihua; Zhang, Qiwei; Zhu, Jingjing; Huang, Na; Wang, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Armillaria mellea is a traditional Chinese medicinal and edible mushroom. Many cultured products of A. mellea have been used to develop commercial medicines in recent years. The chemical composition and activities of the major bioactive chemical components-polysaccharides-may be different because of differences in the raw materials used. Four polysaccharides (SP, CMP, CFBP and CFMP) were obtained from wild sporophores and cultured products (including mycelia, fermentation broth and fermentation mixture) of A. mellea. Their yields, carbohydrate contents, monosaccharide compositions, FT-IR spectra, NMR spectroscopy and antioxidant activities were investigated. All of the polysaccharides were composed of xylose, glucose and galactose without protein. Glucose was the dominant monosaccharide in SP, CMP and CFMP, whereas galactose was the dominant monosaccharide in CFBP. SP and CMP showed higher scavenging DPPH• and ABTS•+ activities and reducing power among four polysaccharides. The carbohydrate content and corresponding glucose percentage were positive influences on the antioxidant activities, whereas the corresponding xylose and galactose percentage were negative influences. A. mellea polysaccharides are potential natural antioxidants. Polysaccharides from cultured products, especially mycelia, are good substitutes for SP and are also potential sources for both dietary supplements and food industries. PMID:25838171

  4. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J.; Gao, Yue X.; Xu, Guang F.; Huang, Jian P.; Xu, Qiong Q.; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. Methods The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Results Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15–40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15–30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Conclusions Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also

  5. Chemical labelling of active serum thioester proteins for quantification.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lotta; Ackland, Gareth L; Edwards, Mark R; Breckenridge, Ross A; Sim, Robert B; Offer, John

    2012-02-01

    The complement serum proteins C3 and C4 and the protease inhibitor α-2 macroglobulin are all members of the C3/α-2M thioester protein family, an evolutionarily ancient and conserved family that contains an intrachain thioester bond. The chemistry of the thioester bond is a key to the function of the thioester proteins. All these proteins function by covalently linking to their target by acyl transfer of the protein via the thioester moiety. We show that the signature thioester bond can be targeted with nucleophiles linked to a bioreporter molecule, site-specifically modifying the whole, intact thioester protein. Conditions were optimised to label selectively and efficiently pull-down unprocessed thioester-containing proteins from serum. We demonstrated pull-down of full-length C3, α-2M and C4 from sera in high salt, using a biotinylated nucleophile and streptavidin-coated resin, confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS identification of the gel bands. The potential for the development of a quantitative method for measuring active C3 in serum was investigated in patient sera pre and post operation. Quantifying active C3 in clinical assays using current methods is difficult. Methods based on antibody detection (e.g. nephelometry) do not distinguish between active C3 and inactive breakdown products. C3-specific haemolytic assays can be used, but these require use of relatively unstable reagents. The current work represents a promising robust, enzyme- and antibody-free chemical method for detecting active thioester proteins in blood, plasma or serum. PMID:21852021

  6. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jyh-Ferng; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Liang, Ming-Tsai; Gao, Zi-Jie; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%), were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene) at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15-19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95-3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90-3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed that the Litchi

  7. Spatial correspondence of brain alpha activity component in fMRI and EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Kim, Sung-Heon; Singh, Manbir

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach to investigate the spatial correlation of brain alpha activity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). To avoid potential problems of simultaneous fMRI and EEG acquisitions in imaging brain alpha activity, data from each modality were acquired separately under a "three conditions" setup where one of the conditions involved closing eyes and relaxing, thus making it conducive to generation of alpha activity. The other two conditions -- eyes open in a lighted room or engaged in a mental arithmetic task, were designed to attenuate alpha activity. Using the Mixture Density Independent Component Analysis (MD-ICA) that incorporates flexible non-linearity functions into the conventional ICA framework, we could identify the spatiotemporal components of fMRI activations and EEG activities associated with the alpha rhythm. The sources of the individual EEG alpha activity component were localized by a Maximum Entropy (ME) method that solves an inverse problem in the framework of a classical four-sphere head model. The resulting dipole sources of EEG alpha activity were spatially transformed to 3D MRIs of the subject and compared to fMRI ICA-determined alpha activity maps.

  8. Experience of handling beryllium, tritium and activated components from JET ITER like wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdowson, A.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Batistoni, P.; Belonohy, E.; Coad, J. P.; Dinca, P.; Flammini, D.; Fox, F.; Heinola, K.; Jepu, I.; Likonen, J.; Lilley, S.; Lungu, C. P.; Matthews, G. F.; Naish, J.; Pompilian, O.; Porosnicu, C.; Rubel, M.; Villari, R.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    JET components are removed periodically for surface analysis to assess material migration and fuel retention. This paper describes issues related to handling JET components and procedures for preparing samples for analysis; in particular a newly developed procedure for cutting beryllium tiles is presented. Consideration is also given to the hazards likely due to increased tritium inventory and material activation from 14 MeV neutrons following the planned TT and DT operations (DTE2) in 2017. Conclusions are drawn as to the feasibility of handling components from JET post DTE2.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Thymus Syriacus Boiss Essential Oil and Its Components against Some Syrian Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Swied, Ghayath; Oda, Adnan; Al Hallab, Laila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the medical discoveries of different medicines and advanced ways of treatment, statistics have shown that the number of patients is increasing. This may be due to chemical drugs used in healthcare, agriculture, and diets. This soaring demand in medicines urges us to look for natural sources such as aromatic plants and essential oils, which are rich in efficient compounds. Methods: Extraction of essential oils was performed using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Identification was achieved using the GC-FID technique. Confirmation was made using the GC-MS technique, and isolation was done using a preparative HPLC, equipped with an aliquots collector. The microdilution broth susceptibility assay was utilized to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Our in vitro study demonstrated the antibacterial activity of the Thymus syriacus Boiss essential oil and its components against the tested isolates at levels between 0.375 and 50 µl/ml. The main components of the T. syriacus essential oil were carvacrol, γ-terpinene, and ß–caryophyllene. MIC90 values for the T. syriacus essential oil against the gram-negative organisms varied between 3.125 and 12.5 µl/ml. The most effective components against the gram-negative bacteria were thymol, carvacrol, dihydro-carvon, and linalool respectively. Conclusions: The T. syriacus essential oil and some of its components exhibited very good inhibitory effects against Syrian gram-negative isolates. PMID:24031109

  10. Chemical activation by mechanochemical mixing, microwave, and ultrasonic irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of emerging MW-assisted chemistry techniques in conjunction with benign reaction media is dramatically reducing chemical waste ad reaction times in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. This editorial comments on the recent developments in mechanochemica...

  11. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks.

    PubMed

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model "modality atypical," that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks. PMID:25767443

  12. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or “simple” (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model “modality atypical,” that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks. PMID:25767443

  13. Enhancement of neutralizing activity of influenza virus-specific antibodies by serum components.

    PubMed

    Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Feng, Jingqi; Eid, Mark; Zharikova, Darya; Gerhard, Walter

    2006-09-01

    The role of serum components in enhancing virus neutralizing (VN) activity of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific MAbs in vitro was investigated. The degree of enhancement depended on the MAb's fine specificity and heavy chain isotype and on type of serum. Greatest enhancement (>100-fold) was seen with sera from immunodeficient mice that lacked serum immunoglobulin. At least two serum components were involved: C1q and a heat-resistant factor. C1q was mandatory for enhancement, and other components of the complement system were not required. C1q appeared to operate by improving MAb-mediated inhibition of virus attachment to host cells and was most effective with MAbs that inhibited virus attachment poorly on their own. The heat-resistant factor enhanced VN activity only in the presence of C1q and appeared to operate by enhancing VN activity at a post-attachment stage. PMID:16777168

  14. Removal of toxic chemicals from water with activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Activated carbon was effective in removing fish toxicants and anesthetics from water solutions. Its capacity to adsorb 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), antimycin, NoxfishA? (5% rotenone), Dibrorms, juglone, MSa??222, and benzocaine ranged from 0.1 to 64 mg per gram of carbon. The adsorptive capacity (end point considered as a significant discharge) of activated carbon for removal of TFM was determined at column depths of 15, 30, and 60 cm; temperatures of 7, 12, 17, and 22 C; pH's of 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5; and flow rates of 50, 78, 100, 200, and 940 ml/min. Adsorptive capacity increased when the contact time was increased by reducing the flow rate or increasing the column depth. The adsorptive capacity was not significantly influenced by temperature but was substantially higher at pH 6.5 than at the other pH's tested. A practical and efficient filter for purifying chemically treated water was developed.

  15. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oil components--an experimental and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Wink, Michael; Setzer, William N

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of eighteen different essential oil components have been determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The phenolic compounds, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, showed the best antioxidant activities, while camphor, menthol, and menthone were the least active. The structural and electronic properties of the essential oil components were assessed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. Correlations between calculated electronic properties and antioxidant activities were generally poor, but bond-dissociation energies (BDEs) seem to correlate with DPPH radical-scavenging activities, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay correlated with vertical ionization potentials calculated at the Hartree-Fock/6-311++G** level. PMID:25920239

  16. Quantum chemical and statistical study of megazol-derived compounds with trypanocidal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosselli, F. P.; Albuquerque, C. N.; da Silva, A. B. F.

    In this work we performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study with the aim to correlate molecular properties of the megazol compound and 10 of its analogs with the biological activity against Trypanosoma cruzi (trypanocidal or antichagasic activity) presented by these molecules. The biological activity indication was obtained from in vitro tests and the molecular properties (variables or descriptors) were obtained from the optimized chemical structures by using the PM3 semiempirical method. It was calculated ˜80 molecular properties selected among steric, constitutional, electronic, and lipophilicity properties. In order to reduce dimensionality and investigate which subset of variables (descriptors) would be more effective in classifying the compounds studied, according to their degree of trypanocidal activity, we employed statistical methodologies (pattern recognition and classification techniques) such as principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). These methods showed that the descriptors molecular mass (MM), energy of the second lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO+1), charge on the first nitrogen at substituent 2 (qN'), dihedral angles (D1 and D2), bond length between atom C4 and its substituent (L4), Moriguchi octanol-partition coefficient (MLogP), and length-to-breadth ratio (L/Bw) were the variables responsible for the separation between active and inactive compounds against T. cruzi. Afterwards, the PCA, KNN, and DFA models built in this work were used to perform trypanocidal activity predictions for eight new megazol analog compounds.

  17. THE USE OF STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS IN INTEGRATING THE CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure activity relationships (SARs) are based on the principle that structurally similar chemicals should have similar biological activity. SARs relate specifically-defined toxicological activity of chemicals to their molecular structure and physico-chemical properties. To de...

  18. [Chemical structural characterization of some components from essential oil of Rosa banksiae for estimation and prediction of their retention time].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wan-Ping; Mei, Hu; Shu, Mao; Liao, Li-Min; Yang, Juan; Li, Zhi-Liang

    2008-03-01

    The molecular electronegativity-distance vector (MEDV) was used to describe the chemical structural characterization of 46 components of essential oils in the flower of Rosa banksiae. Various multiple linear regression (MLR) models were created with variable screening by the stepwise multiple regression technique and statistics. The QSRR models of 10 and 6 variables were built by MLR with the correlation coefficients (R) of molecular modeling being 0.906 and 0.903. Cross-validation of the models, which contain selected vectors were performed by leave-one -out procedure (LOO) and the satisfied results with correlation coefficients (Rcv) of 0.904 and 0.903, respectively. The results showed that the models constructed can provide estimation stability and favorable predictive ability. PMID:18536392

  19. [A study on the chemical components of essential oil of oak moss concrete by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Liu, B Z; Zhu, X L; Shi, L; Chen, J L; Gong, M; Zhang, L G

    2000-05-01

    The essential oil of oak moss concrete was extracted by volatile oil content equipment. The chemical compositions and their relative contents were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A Supelco-5 fused silica capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm i.d.; 0.25 micron thickness) and a flame ionization detector (FID) were employed in GC analysis. The temperature program included temperature increase of 4 degrees C/min from 50 degrees C to 250 degrees C, and a 10 min isothermal period at 250 degrees C. Mass spectra were obtained by electron impact at 70 eV and a source temperature of 170 degrees C. Twenty-four volatile compounds of oak mass concrete were identified, which comprised more than 83% of volatile fraction. The major components were diethyl phthalate, alpha-terpineol, cedrane and linalool. PMID:12541566

  20. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  1. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  2. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  3. Anisotropic chemical pressure effects in single-component molecular metals based on radical dithiolene and diselenolene gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Yzambart, Gilles; Bellec, Nathalie; Nasser, Ghassan; Jeannin, Olivier; Roisnel, Thierry; Fourmigué, Marc; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Íñiguez, Jorge; Canadell, Enric; Lorcy, Dominique

    2012-10-17

    On the basis of the reported radical neutral complex [Au(Et-thiazdt)(2)] (Et-thiazdt = N-ethyl-1,3-thiazoline-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate), a series of single-component conductors derived from [Au(Et-thiazdt)(2)], also noted as [AuS(4)(═S)(2)], has been developed, by replacing the outer sulfur atoms of the thiazoline-2-thione rings by oxygen atoms and/or by replacing the coordinating sulfur atoms by selenium atoms toward the corresponding diselenolene complexes. Comparison of the X-ray crystal structures and transport properties of the four isostructural complexes, noted as [AuS(4)(═S)(2)], [AuS(4)(═O)(2)], [AuSe(4)(═S)(2)], and [AuSe(4)(═O)(2)], shows that the oxygen substitution on the outer thiazoline ring actually decreases the conductivity by a factor of 100, despite a contracted unit cell volume reflecting a positive chemical pressure effect. On the other hand, the S/Se substitution increases the conductivity by a factor of 100, and the pressure needed to transform these semiconductors into the metallic state is shifted from 13 kbar in [AuS(4)(═S)(2)] to only ≈6 kbar in [AuSe(4)(═S)(2)]. Analysis of unit cell evolutions and ab initio band structure calculations demonstrates the strongly anisotropic nature of this chemical pressure effect and provides an explanation for the observed changes in conductivity. The greater sensitivity of these neutral single-component conductors to external pressure, as compared with "classical" radical salts, is also highlighted. PMID:23009033

  4. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Broussonetia papyrifera Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li

    2012-01-01

    Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC–MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of hexane leaf extract of Anisopus mannii (Asclepiadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Aliyu Muhammad; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Abdullahi, Mikhail Sabo; Tajuddeen, Nasir; Ibrahim, Halliru; Oyewale, Adebayo Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the hexane leaf extract of Anisopus mannii against a wide range of human pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: The chemical constituents of the hexane leaf extract was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis; and the antimicrobial activity was evaluated on “standard strains”, clinical susceptible and resistant bacterial and fungal isolates using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results: GC-MS analysis of the hexane leaf extract revealed 32 compounds, representing 73.8% of the identified components. The major compounds were hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (34%), oxirane, hexadecyl- (11%) and 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester, (Z, Z, Z) (9.6%). Results from the antimicrobial activity demonstrated higher inhibition zones against Bacillus cereus (29 mm), followed by Streptococcus pyogenes (28 mm). Other notable inhibitions were observed with Enterococcus faecalis (27 mm), Proteus vulgaris (26 mm) and MRSA (25 mm). The MIC values ranged from 0.625 mg/mL to 1.25 mg/mL while the MBC/MFC values ranged from 2.5 mg/mL to 5.0 mg/mL. Conclusion: These results support the traditional use of the plant and demonstrate the huge potential of A. mannii as a source of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:26401399

  6. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite.

    PubMed

    David, Jan; Smejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Sárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified hydroponic method was applied to determine the effects of their potassium salts on Zea mays seedlings roots with respect to the plant weight, root length, root division, and starch and protein content. The relations between the determined parameters were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicated that the most important factor determining the biological activity of South-Moravian lignite potassium humates is related to the nature of self-assemblies, while the chemical composition had no direct connection with the root growth of Zea mays seedlings. It was demonstrated a controlled processing that provided humic substances with different chemical and physicochemical properties and variable biological activity. PMID:24790812

  7. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Davis, J Wade; Hormann, Annette M; Nagel, Susan C

    2014-03-01

    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized that a selected subset of chemicals used in natural gas drilling operations and also surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas-related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operations may result in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water. PMID:24424034

  8. Aluminum: a requirement for activation of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase by fluoride.

    PubMed Central

    Sternweis, P C; Gilman, A G

    1982-01-01

    Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-. PMID:6289322

  9. PREDICTING TOXICOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS OF CHEMICALS USING QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are being developed to predict the toxicological endpoints for untested chemicals similar in structure to chemicals that have known experimental toxicological data. Based on a very large number of predetermined descriptors, a...

  10. Differences in the chemical profiles and biological activities of Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia obovata.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jong Hee; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Paeonia lactiflora and P. obovata are perennial herbs, each root of which has been consumed as a major oriental medicine, Paeoniae Radix and a famous folk medicine, Mountain Paeony Root, respectively. Although morphological studies have been performed comparing these two plants, there is insufficient scientific evidence that characterizes the differences in their chemical profiles and biological activities. Hence, the present study was undertaken to compare these two medicinal foods using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and a gastric ulcer model in mice. HPLC analysis employed to assess the nine components revealed that P. lactiflora exhibited higher contents of phenolic compounds than P. obovata. Although a monoterpene glycoside, 6'-O-acetylpaeoniflorin was identified in P. obovata, it was not detected in P. lactiflora. Multivariate statistical analysis for HPLC data revealed that the orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis is more appropriate than principal component analysis for differentiating the two groups. Moreover, the 50% methanol P. lactiflora extract (PL) was more effective against experimental gastric ulcer than P. obovata extract (PO) in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In addition, PL displayed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and lower nitric oxide production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, than PO. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of PL was as high as that of the positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene, at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. PMID:25299493

  11. Helichrysum gymnocephalum essential oil: chemical composition and cytotoxic, antimalarial and antioxidant activities, attribution of the activity origin by correlations.

    PubMed

    Afoulous, Samia; Ferhout, Hicham; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Valentin, Alexis; Moukarzel, Béatrice; Couderc, François; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2011-01-01

    Helichrysum gymnocephalum essential oil (EO) was prepared by hydrodistillation of its leaves and characterized by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. Twenty three compounds were identified. 1,8-Cineole (47.4%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.6%), γ-curcumene (5.6%), α-amorphene (5.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (5%) were the main components. Our results confirmed the important chemical variability of H. gymnocephalum. The essential oil was tested in vitro for cytotoxic (on human breast cancer cells MCF-7), antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum: FcB1-Columbia strain, chloroquine-resistant) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH assays) activities. H. gymnocephalum EO was found to be active against MCF-7 cells, with an IC(50) of 16 ± 2 mg/L. The essential oil was active against P. falciparum (IC(50) = 25 ± 1 mg/L). However, the essential oil exhibited a poor antioxidant activity in the DPPH (IC(50) value > 1,000 mg/L) and ABTS (IC(50) value = 1,487.67 ± 47.70 mg/L) assays. We have reviewed the existing results on the anticancer activity of essential oils on MCF-7 cell line and on their antiplasmodial activity against the P. falciparum. The aim was to establish correlations between the identified compounds and their biological activities (antiplasmodial and anticancer). β-Selinene (R² = 0.76), α-terpinolene (R² = 0.88) and aromadendrene (R² = 0.90) presented a higher relationship with the anti-cancer activity. However, only calamenene (R² = 0.70) showed a significant correlation for the antiplasmodial activity. PMID:21959299

  12. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of volatile components and various extracts of the red alga Jania rubens.

    PubMed

    Karabay-Yavasoglu, N Ulku; Sukatar, Atakan; Ozdemir, Guven; Horzum, Zerrin

    2007-02-01

    The methanol, dichloromethane, hexane, chloroform and volatile oil extracts of the red alga Jania rubens were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity (five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans ATCC 10239). GC-MS analysis of the volatile components of J. rubens identified 40 compounds which constituted 77.53% of the total. The volatile components of J. rubens consisted of n-docosane (6.35%), n-eicosane (5.77%) and n-tetratriacontane (5.58%) as major components. The methanol and chloroform extracts (4 mg/disc) showed more potent antimicrobial activity than the hexane and dichloromethane extracts and the volatile oil of J. rubens. PMID:17128433

  14. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery.

    PubMed

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-22

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form. PMID:24164775

  15. Meaningful Components of Exercise and Active Recreation for Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Luchauer, Bryna; Shurtleff, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study used focus groups to identify meaningful components of exercise and active recreation (E/AR) related to consistent participation for those with spinal cord injury (SCI). Transcripts from each focus group were analyzed with classical content analysis, grounded theory coding, and meaning condensation using the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF). Variables within each of the ICF domains (body structures and functions, activities/participation, and environment) were indicated as meaningful components leading to increased participation, independence, and reasons why people consistently participated in E/AR. Occupational therapists can utilize these components to implement therapeutic intervisions, which provide clients with a sense of purpose and being, thus improving outcomes in meaningful occupations. PMID:27505903

  16. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides. PMID:22422292

  17. Chemical and thermal modulation of molecular motor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Weili

    Molecular motors of kinesin and dynein families are responsible for various intracellular activities, from long distance movement of organelles, vesicles, protein complexes, and mRNAs to powering mitotic processes. They can take nanometer steps using chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and their dysfunction is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases that require long distance transport of cargos. Here I report on the study of the properties of molecular motors at a single-molecule level using optical trappings. I first studied the inhibition properties of kinesin motors by marine natural compound adociasulfates. I showed that adociasulfates compete with microtubules for binding to kinesins and thus inhibit kinesins' activity. Although adociasulfates are a strong inhibitor for all kinesin members, they show a much higher inhibition effect for conventional kinesins than for mitotic kinesins. Thus adociasulfates can be used to specifically inhibit conventional kinesins. By comparing the inhibition of kinesins by two structurally similar adociasulfates, one can see that the negatively charged sulfate residue of adociasulfates can be replaced by other negative residues and thus make it possible for adociasulfate-derived compounds to be more cell permeable. Kinesins and dyneins move cargos towards opposite directions along a microtubule. Cargos with both kinesins and dyneins attached often move bidirectionally due to undergoing a tug-of-war between the oppositely moving kinesin and dynein motors. Here I studied the effect of temperature on microtubule-based kinesin and dynein motor transport. While kinesins' and dyneins' velocities are closely matched above 15 °C, below this temperature the dyneins' velocity decreases much faster than the kinesins'. The kinesins' and dyneins' forces do not measurably change with temperature. The results suggest that temperature has significant effects on bidirectional transport and can be used to

  18. Two-phase flow in a chemically active porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Darmon, Alexandre Dauchot, Olivier; Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas

    2014-12-28

    We study the problem of the transformation of a given reactant species into an immiscible product species, as they flow through a chemically active porous medium. We derive the equation governing the evolution of the volume fraction of the species, in a one-dimensional macroscopic description, identify the relevant dimensionless numbers, and provide simple models for capillary pressure and relative permeabilities, which are quantities of crucial importance when tackling multiphase flows in porous media. We set the domain of validity of our models and discuss the importance of viscous coupling terms in the extended Darcy’s law. We investigate numerically the steady regime and demonstrate that the spatial transformation rate of the species along the reactor is non-monotonous, as testified by the existence of an inflection point in the volume fraction profiles. We obtain the scaling of the location of this inflection point with the dimensionless lengths of the problem. Eventually, we provide key elements for optimization of the reactor.

  19. Chemical synthesis and immunosuppressive activity of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside.

    PubMed

    Ainge, Gary D; Compton, Benjamin J; Hayman, Colin M; Martin, William John; Toms, Steven M; Larsen, David S; Harper, Jacquie L; Painter, Gavin F

    2011-06-17

    Phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) isolated from mycobacteria have been identified as an important class of phosphoglycolipids with significant immune-modulating properties. We present here the synthesis of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside (PIM(6)) 1 and the first reported functional biology of a synthetic PIM(6). Key steps in the synthetic protocol included the selective glycosylation of an inositol 2,6-diol with a suitably protected mannosyl donor and construction of the glycan core utilizing a [3 + 4] thio-glycosylation strategy. The target 1 was purified by reverse phase chromatography and characterized by standard spectroscopic methods, HPLC, and chemical modification by deacylation to dPIM(6). The (1)H NMR spectrum of synthetic dPIM(6) obtained from 1 matched that of dPIM(6) obtained from nature. PIM(6) (1) exhibited dendritic cell-dependent suppression of CD8(+) T cell expansion in a human mixed lymphocyte reaction consistent with the well established immunosuppressive activity of whole mycobacteria. PMID:21574597

  20. Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-07-01

    An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

  1. Internal Activation of Peptidyl Prolyl Thioesters in Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yue; Qiu, Lingqi; Li, Yaohao; Li, Hongxing; Dong, Suwei

    2016-04-13

    Prolyl thioesters have shown significantly lower reactivities in native chemical ligation (NCL) in comparison to that of the alanyl thioester. This report describes a mild and efficient internal activation protocol of peptidyl prolyl thioesters in NCL without using any thiol-based additives, where the introduction of a 4-mercaptan substituent on the C-terminal proline significantly improves the reactivity of prolyl thioesters via the formation of a bicyclic thiolactone intermediate. The kinetic data indicate that the reaction rate is comparable to that of the reported data of alanyl thioesters, and the mechanistic studies suggest that the ligation of two peptide segments proceeds through an NCL-like pathway instead of a direct aminolysis, which ensures the chemoselectivity and compatibility of various amino acid side chains. This 4-mercaptoprolyl thioester-based protocol also allows an efficient one-pot ligation-desulfurization procedure. The utility of this method has been further demonstrated in the synthesis of a proline-rich region of Wilms tumor protein 1. PMID:26982082

  2. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at...

  3. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Cochlospermum planchoni Hook.f. ex Planch essential oil from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Lassina; Koudou, Jean; Obame, Louis C E; Karou, Damintoti S; Traore, Alfred; Bessière, Jean Marie

    2007-11-15

    The water distilled oil obtained from rhizomes of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook.f.ex Planch (Apocynaceae) from Burkina Faso was examined by GC and GC/MS. Cochlospermum planchonii oil presents a particular chemical composition with a high rate of oxygenated components with predominance of ketones and esters (86.4%). The essential oil was tested against twelve strains of bacteria using a broth microdilution method. The results suggest that Cochlospermum planchonii essential oil has significant bactericidal activity. PMID:19090305

  4. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  5. The Components of Effective Professional Development Activities in Terms of Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparedness is linked to student achievement, yet regularly teachers are entering the profession unprepared. In-service training, or professional development activities, are increasingly being used to remedy this situation. There is little agreement regarding exactly what key components should be included in an effective professional…

  6. Suicide Risk by Military Occupation in the DoD Active Component Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Lily; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide risk based on occupational cohorts within the U.S. military was investigated. Rates of suicide based on military occupational categories were computed for the Department of Defense (DoD) active component population between 2001 and 2010. The combined infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialist group was at increased risk of suicide…

  7. Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yüksel; Kartal, Murat

    2011-10-01

    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 μg/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 μg/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose. Practical Application:  The essential oils obtained from Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, O.cimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, and Satureja cuneifolia as well as common essential oil components have shown notable inhibitory effects against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme and they might be used as food preservative or ingredient. PMID:22417594

  8. External Perturbation of the Trunk in Standing Humans Differentially Activates Components of the Medial Back Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Hodges, Paul W; Gandevia, S C

    2003-01-01

    During voluntary arm movements, the medial back muscles are differentially active. It is not known whether differential activity also occurs when the trunk is perturbed unpredictably, when the earliest responses are initiated by short-latency spinal mechanisms rather than voluntary commands. To assess this, in unpredictable and self-initiated conditions, a weight was dropped into a bucket that was held by the standing subject (n= 7). EMG activity was recorded from the deep (Deep MF), superficial (Sup MF) and lateral (Lat MF) lumbar multifidus, the thoracic erector spinae (ES) and the biceps brachii. With unpredictable perturbations, EMG activity was first noted in the biceps brachii, then the thoracic ES, followed synchronously in the components of the multifidus. During self-initiated perturbations, background EMG in the Deep MF increased two- to threefold, and the latency of the loading response decreased in six out of the seven subjects. In Sup MF and Lat MF, this increase in background EMG was not observed, and the latency of the loading response was increased. Short-latency reflex mechanisms do not cause differential action of the medial back muscles when the trunk is loaded. However, during voluntary tasks the central nervous system exerts a ‘tuned response’, which involves discrete activity in the deep and superficial components of the medial lumbar muscles in a way that varies according to the biomechanical action of the muscle component. PMID:12562944

  9. Chemical Processing. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reviews major organic and inorganic chemicals, their products, and the sociocultural impact of the chemical industry. Provides the following learning activity components: objectives, list of materials and equipment, procedures, student quiz with answers, and three references. (SK)

  10. Analysis of active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza injection based on vascular endothelial cell protection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Yang, Kai; Sun, Caihua; Zheng, Minxia

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI). HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties. PMID:25296678

  11. Phase matching of four-wave interactions of SRS components in birefringent SRS-active crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanin, Sergei N; Basiev, Tasoltan T

    2012-03-31

    A new method has been proposed for achieving wave vector matching in four-wave interactions of frequency components upon SRS in birefringent SRS-active crystals. The method ensures anti-Stokes wave generation and enables a substantial reduction in higher order Stokes SRS generation thresholds. Phase matching directions in BaWO{sub 4} SRS-active negative uniaxial crystals and SrWO{sub 4} SRS-active positive uniaxial crystals have been found in the wavelength range 0.4 - 0.7 {mu}m.

  12. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound. PMID:27095146

  13. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound. PMID:27095146

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mentha (longifolia L. and viridis) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mkaddem, Mounira; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2009-09-01

    The study was aimed to investigate essential oil chemical composition (gas chromatography/flame ionization detection [GC-FID] and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS] assays) and antimicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and yeast) activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Mentha longifolia L. and Mentha viridis. GC-MS analysis revealed that M. longifolia was constituted by pulegone (54.41%) as a major component followed by isomenthone (12.02%), 1,8-cineole (7.41%), borneol (6.85%), and piperitenone oxide (3.19%). M. viridis was rich in carvone (50.47%), 1,8-cineole (9.14%), and limonene (4.87%). The antioxidant activity by ABTS assay showed IC(50) values of 476.3 +/- 11.7 and 195.1 +/- 4.2 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively, the DPPH assays have resulted in a moderate IC(50) (>8000 mg/L and 3476.3 +/- 133 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively). Antimicrobial activity showed that Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria were more inhibited by the 2 essential oils tested. Escherichia coli was least susceptible. A strong activity was also observed on fungi and yeasts. Carvone, thymol, and piperitone oxide have not been detected in Tunisian M. longifolia. Camphor is reported for the 1st time for M. viridis. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities were correlated to chemical composition. PMID:19895481

  15. Components and Anti-HepG2 Activity Comparison of Lycopodium Alkaloids from Four Geographic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong-Qiang; Hu, Guang-Wan; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. has attracted great interests due to its rich alkaloids with significant anticancer activity. However, significant chemical differences often exist in a plant species from different geographic origins and affect its quality and bioactivities. Thus, it is urgent to reveal their chemical and biological distinctions at the molecular level. In this context, a comparative chemical analysis of LAs using HPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS was firstly conducted and resulted in the detection of 46 LAs, 28 of which were identified, and a series of unique LAs markers, such as peaks 2, 9, 10, and 11, were further found to be characteristic LAs and selected as markers from four different origins for their quality control. In parallel, the comparative bioactivity assay revealed that the total LAs from Hubei province exhibited much higher inhibitory rate at 65.95% against HepG2 cells than those at 26.72%, 20.26%, and 33.62% for Kenya, Guangxi province, and Zhejiang province in China, respectively. To this end, significant chemical fingerprinting differences and discrepancies in bioactivity of LAs were explored firstly, which could provide valuable information for quality control and further activity studies on LAs from different sources and promote their better pharmaceutical applications in the future as well. PMID:27022402

  16. Sideritis spp.: uses, chemical composition and pharmacological activities--a review.

    PubMed

    González-Burgos, E; Carretero, M E; Gómez-Serranillos, M P

    2011-05-17

    The genus Sideritis (Lamiaceae) comprises more than 150 perennial and annual vegetal species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area, together with Canary and Madeira islands. It is a controversial botanic genus, with a complex taxonomical classification due to the high number of hybridizations that occur between species; their study requires a deep research experience. Sideritis species have been traditionally used as teas for feeding, flavoring agents and in folk medicine as antiinflammatory, antiulcerative, antimicrobial, vulnerary, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and carminative agents. The chemical components found in Sideritis genus include terpenes, flavonoids, essential oil, iridoids, coumarins, lignanes and sterols, among others. Diterpenes, flavonoids and essential oil occur in almost every species and are the main compounds responsible for the observed in vivo and in vitro pharmacological activities. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects from the genus Sideritis, with the objective of establishing scientific basis that explains its ethnopharmacological use. PMID:21420484

  17. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. barks.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Orlando V; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Alves, Maria S; Araújo, Aílson A L; Pinto, Míriam A O; Amaral, Maria P H; Rodarte, Mírian P; Kaplan, Maria A C

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata. PMID:22976469

  18. Dynamics of sinking particles in northern Japan trench in the western North Pacific: biogenic chemical components and fatty acids biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, K. H.; Noriki, S.; Itou, M.; Tsunogai, S.

    Biogenic opal was predominant component, and had strongly positive correlation with organic carbon in both traps. The average atomic ratios of biogenic opal and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) were also large (7.1 and 11 in the shallow and deep trap, respectively) and the highest ratio was found in May 1995, when the biogenic opal proportion (%) to the total particle flux and C org/C inorg ratio increased concomitantly. However, transient switching of the biogenic opal and CaCO 3 ratios (0.6 and 0.8) was observed in winter 1995, which seems to be related to a warm-core ring developed in the northwestern Pacific. Downward fluxes of fatty acids as molecular markers were determined and compared with major biogenic chemical components in sinking particles. As a diatom index of fatty acids, the 16:1(n-7)/16:0 ratio is positively related to biogenic opal contribution (%) to the sinking particles in the shallow and deep traps. 20:5(n-3) proportion (%) was also correlated with opal content (%) in sinking particles in the 1-km trap. In addition, a major source of sinking fatty acids in the western North Pacific might be characterized by algal fatty acids as a diatom marker (16:1(n-7)), comparing to a zooplankton fatty acid (18:1(n-9)) in the central North Pacific and fecal pellets and coccolithophores in the eastern North Pacific, respectively. Also, PUFA index (a measure of polyunsaturated fatty acids contribution to the total fatty acids) correlated well with Chl a inventory in surface 0-50 m water. These results suggest that undegraded diatomaceous fatty acids are present in sinking particles, and the composition of fatty acids is useful to understand the origin of sinking organic particles.

  19. Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and main components: activity against Leishmania, their mitochondria and other microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; García, Marley; Pastor, Jacinta; Gil, Lizette; Scull, Ramón; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Gille, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an aromatic herb used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. The aim of this work is to compare the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of the essential oil (EO) from C. ambrosioides and its major components (ascaridole, carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide) and study their mechanism of action and activity against a panel of microorganism. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the EO and major components was study. In addition, experiments to elucidate the mechanism of action were perform and activities against other microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and protozoa) were evaluate. All products were active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania. Ascaridole exhibited the better antileishmanial activity and the EO the highest selectivity index. The exploration of the mechanism suggests that the products cause a breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and a modification of redox indexes. Only EO showed antiprotozoal effect against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei; while no activity against bacteria and fungi was observed. Our results demonstrate the potentialities of EO in cellular and molecular system, which could be consider in future studies to develop new antileishmanial drugs with a wide anti-parasitic spectrum. PMID:24184772

  20. Activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-staphylococcal components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Manubolu, Manjunath; Goodla, Lavanya; Ravilla, Sivajyothi; Obulum, Vijayasarathi Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-Staphylococcus aures components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. (S. tenuifolius). Methods Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of S. tenuifolius were prepared by soxilation for antimicrobial activity against one registered Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC No: 25923) and two clinical isolates, methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus. NCCL standard methods were followed for antibacterial activity. GC-MS was performed to identify the chemical composition of bio active fraction. Results Among all solvent extracts, methanol extract significantly reduced the growth of S. aureus (ATCC No: 25923), methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus with the best zone of inhibition at 16.23, 14.06 and 15.23 mm and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values at 426.16, 683.22 and 512.12 µg/mL, respectively. In order to detect the active component in methanol extract, it was further purified by column chromatography, which yielded four fractions (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Among these four fractions, St3 was effective against the tested strains of S. aures, with the best zone of inhibition at 15.09, 13.25 and 14.12 mm and with best MIC values at 88.16, 128.11 and 116.12 µg/mL, respectively. Effective fraction partially purified from S. tenuifolius (St3) yielded MIC's that were at least 20 fold less when compared to crude extract. GC-MS analysis of St3 revealed the presence of 3-[methyl-6,7-dihydro benzofuran-4 (5H)-one], 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, hydroquinone, methyl ester and 3 unknown compounds. Conclusions The study provides scientific evidence for traditional and folklore medicinal use of S. tenuifolius in skin infections treatment. PMID:23620836

  1. Preparation of activated carbon from cherry stones by chemical activation with ZnCl 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Macías-García, A.; Gómez-Serrano, V.

    2006-06-01

    Cherry stones (CS), an industrial product generated abundantly in the Valle del Jerte (Cáceres province, Spain), were used as precursor in the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonisation temperature and the ZnCl 2:CS ratio (impregnation ratio) on textural and chemical-surface properties of the products obtained was studied. Such products were characterised texturally by adsorption of N 2 at -196 °C, mercury porosimetry and density measurements. Information on the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons was provided by FT-IR spectroscopy. Activated carbon with a high development of surface area and porosity is prepared. When using the 4:1 impregnation ratio, the specific surface area (BET) of the resultant carbon is as high as 1971 m 2 g -1. The effect of the increase in the impregnation ratio on the porous structure of activated carbon is stronger than that of the rise in the carbonisation temperature, whereas the opposite applies to the effect on the surface functional groups and structures.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  7. Active targeting in a random porous medium by chemical swarm robots with secondary chemical signaling.

    PubMed

    Grančič, Peter; Štěpánek, František

    2011-08-01

    The multibody dynamics of a system of chemical swarm robots in a porous environment is investigated. The chemical swarm robots are modeled as brownian particles capable of delivering an encapsulated chemical payload toward a given target location and releasing it in response to an external stimulus. The presence of chemical signals (chemo-attractant) in the system plays a crucial role in coordinating the collective movement of the particles via chemotaxis. For a number of applications, such as distributed chemical processing and targeted drug delivery, the understanding of factors that govern the collective behavior of the particles, especially their ability to localize a given target, is of immense importance. A hybrid modeling methodology based on the combination of the brownian dynamics method and diffusion problem coupled through the chemotaxis phenomena is used to analyze the impact of a varying signaling threshold and the strength of chemotaxis on the ability of the chemical robots to fulfill their target localization mission. The results demonstrate that the selected performance criteria (the localization half time and the success rate) can be improved when an appropriate signaling process is chosen. Furthermore, for an optimum target localization strategy, the topological complexity of the porous environment needs to be reflected. PMID:21929036

  8. Active targeting in a random porous medium by chemical swarm robots with secondary chemical signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grančič, Peter; Štěpánek, František

    2011-08-01

    The multibody dynamics of a system of chemical swarm robots in a porous environment is investigated. The chemical swarm robots are modeled as Brownian particles capable of delivering an encapsulated chemical payload toward a given target location and releasing it in response to an external stimulus. The presence of chemical signals (chemo-attractant) in the system plays a crucial role in coordinating the collective movement of the particles via chemotaxis. For a number of applications, such as distributed chemical processing and targeted drug delivery, the understanding of factors that govern the collective behavior of the particles, especially their ability to localize a given target, is of immense importance. A hybrid modeling methodology based on the combination of the Brownian dynamics method and diffusion problem coupled through the chemotaxis phenomena is used to analyze the impact of a varying signaling threshold and the strength of chemotaxis on the ability of the chemical robots to fulfill their target localization mission. The results demonstrate that the selected performance criteria (the localization half time and the success rate) can be improved when an appropriate signaling process is chosen. Furthermore, for an optimum target localization strategy, the topological complexity of the porous environment needs to be reflected.

  9. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  10. Size distributions of mass and chemical components in street-level and rooftop PM 1 particles in Helsinki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkanen, Tuomo A.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Loukkola, Kati; Hillamo, Risto E.; Aarnio, Päivi; Koskentalo, Tarja; Maenhaut, Willy

    In June 1997, five pairs of simultaneous 24 h atmospheric aerosol samples were collected on working days using Berner low-pressure impactors at 3.5 and 20 m heights at an urban site in Helsinki, Finland. The weather was dry and sunny during the campaign. The results were compared to earlier observations made at the lower site. Average submicron masses were 11 μg/m 3 at both heights. Local vehicle exhaust emissions seemed to accumulate particulate mass especially in the 0.15-0.4 μm size range with the average mass concentration being 12% higher at street level for 0.24 μm particles. Long-range transport and sea salt were important for the 0.4-1.3 μm particles leading to slightly higher average mass concentration at the rooftop site for this size-range. Average concentrations of most components, including mass and sulphate, were higher at the rooftop site in the 0.07-0.15 μm size range suggesting that regional or long-range-transported particles and/or local high-level sources might have enhanced these concentrations at the rooftop site. Average submicron concentrations of Cu, Ba, Fe, Sb, Bi, Al and nitrate were higher at street level suggesting that local traffic and road dust were important sources for these components. Concentrations of Ca, Co, Li, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, MSA, pyruvate, succinate, malonate, SO 42-, Cl -, Na +, K + and Ca 2+ were similar at the two heights or higher at the rooftop site pointing to long-range transport and/or local high-level sources. Comparison of size distributions and concentrations revealed several groups of correlating chemical components: (1) SO 42-, oxalate, NH 4+ and methane sulphonate, (2) Tl, As, K +, Cd, B, glutarate, succinate and Pb, (3) V, Ni, and, to a lesser extent, Co and Mo, (4) Ba, Cu, Fe and Sb, and (5) Zn, Rb, Pb and Mo. The suggested principal sources for the above groups are (1) long-range transport, (2) mainly long-range transport with some local contribution, (3) local oil combustion, (4

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Pinus halepensis Miller growing in West Northern of Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Fekih, Nadia; Allali, Hocine; Merghache, Salima; Chaïb, Faïza; Merghache, Djamila; El Amine, Mohamed; Djabou, Nassim; Muselli, Alain; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find new bioactive natural products, the chemical composition and to sudy the antibacterial activity of essential oil components extracted from the aerial parts of the Algerian aromatic plant Pinus halepensis Miller (P. halepensis) (needles, twigs and buds). Methods The essential oil used in this study was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The chemical composition was investigated using GC-retention indices (RI) and GC-MS. Results Forty-nine compounds, representing 97.9% of the total collective oil, were identified. Essential oil was dominated by hydrocarbon compounds (80.6%) especially monoterpenes (65.5%). The major compounds from ten oils stations were: myrcene (15.2%-32.0%), α-pinene (12.2%-24.5%), E-β-caryophyllene (7.0%-17.1%), terpinolene (1.8%-13.3%), 2-phenyl ethyl isovalerate (4.8%-10.9%), terpinene-4-ol (1.0%-8.2 %) and sabinene (1.5%-6.3%). The intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of P. halepensis aerial parts essential oils from ten Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Essential oil samples were clustered in 2 groups by hierarchical cluster analysis, according to their chemical composition. The essential oil revealed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Lysteria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions These results suggest that the essential oil from P. halepensis may be a new potential source as natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  12. METABOLISM AND METABOLIC ACTIVATION OF CHEMICALS: IN-SILICO SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of metabolism in prioritizing chemicals according to their potential adverse health effects is extremely important because innocuous parents can be transformed into toxic metabolites. This work presents the TIssue MEtabolism Simulator (TIMES) platform for simulating met...

  13. The Effects of Training on the Time Components of the Left Ventricle, and Cardiac Time Components: Sedentary versus Active Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    A review of previous research was completed to determine (a) the response of the cardiac time components of the left ventricle to varying types and intensities of training programs, (b) the probable physiological explanations for these responses, and (c) the significance of the changes which did or did not occur. It was found that, at rest,…

  14. Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Beilschmiedia glabra.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Ahmada, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical compositions of essential oils from Beilschmiedia glabra and their antioxidant, antimicrobial, antityrosinase, acetylcholinesterase and anti-inflammatory activities. In total, 47 components were identified in the essential oils, which made up 86.8% and 89.7% of the leaf and bark oils, respectively. The leaf oil is composed mainly of β-eudesmol (15.4%), β-selinene (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and γ-gurjunene (5.2%), while the bark oil contains high percentages of β-eudesmol (19.3%), β-selinene (16.9%), δ-cadinene (15.8%), germacrene D (9.8%) and β-caryophyllene (5.5%). Antioxidant activity showed that the leaf oil has the highest phenolic content at 233.4 mg GA/g, while the bark oil showed potent activity in the β- carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. However, both oils showed weak activity in the DPPH and ABTS assays. For antimicrobial activity, the leaf and bark oils displayed strong activity against Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with MIC values of 31.3 and 62.5 μg/mL, respectively. Percentage inhibitions against tyrosinase (leaf 73.7%; bark 76.0%) and acetylcholinesterase (leaf 48.1%; bark 45.2%) were tested at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, while anti-inflammatory activity (leaf 59.7%; bark 48.9%) was evaluated at a concentration of 100 μM. Evaluation of these assays indicated moderate levels of activity. PMID:26411034

  15. Distribution of iodine into blood components of the Sprague-Dawley rat differs with the chemical form administered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, K. D.; Bull, R. J.; Sauer, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been reported previously that radioactivity derived from iodine distributes differently in the Sprague-Dawley rat depending on the chemical form administered (Thrall and Bull, 1990). In the present communication we report the differential distribution of radioactivity derived from iodine (I2) and iodide (I-) into blood components. Twice as much radioiodine is in the form of I- in the plasma of animals treated with 125I- compared to 125I2-treated rats. No I2 could be detected in the plasma. With an increase in dose, increasing amounts of radioactivity derived from 125I2-treated animals distribute to whole blood compared to equivalent doses of 125I-, reaching a maxima at a dose of 15.8 mumol I/kg body weight. Most of the radioactivity derived from I2 associates with serum proteins and lipids, in particular with albumin and cholesteryl iodide. These data indicate a differential distribution of radioactivity depending on whether it is administered as iodide or iodine. This is inconsistent with the commonly held view that iodine (I2) is reduced to iodide (I-) before it is absorbed systemically from the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. The alteration of components in the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang and its neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Choong Je

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hwangryunhaedok-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that has sedative activity, hypotensive and anti-bacterial effects. Objective: In this study, we investigated the alteration of contents of components in Hwangryunhaedok-tang, antioxidant activity and neuroprotective activity by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI 128. Materials and Methods: Contents of three marker compounds (geniposide, berberine and palmatine) and unknown compounds in the Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HR) and the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang (FHR) were measured and compared using the established high-performance liqued chromatograph coupled with a photodiode (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant activity of HR and FHR were determined by DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay. Also, the neuroprotective activities of HR and FHR against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The contents of geniposide and palmatine were decreased but the content of berberine was increased in the FHR. And the contents of unknown compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) in the HR were altered by fermentation. Electron donating activity (EDA, %) value of FHR was higher than HR for DPPH radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity, respectively. In the MTT assay, FHR showed more potent neuroprotective activity than HR by 513.90%. Conclusion: The FHR using microorganism could convert compounds in HR and enhance the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. PMID:21969791

  17. Ethnobotany, chemical constituents and biological activities of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae).

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Ali, N A A; Kilian, N; Franke, K; Arnold, N; Kuhnt, C; Schmidt, J; Lindequist, U

    2016-04-01

    Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae), a holoparasitic herb, is for the first time recorded for Abyan governorate of South Yemen. Flowers of this species were studied for their ethnobotanical, biological and chemical properties for the first time. In South Yemen, they are traditionally used as wild food and to cure stomach diseases, gastric ulcer and cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The volatile components of the air-dried powdered flowers were identified using a static headspace GC/MS analysis as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, sabinene, α-terpinene, (+)-D-limonene and γ-terpinene. These volatile compounds that characterize the odor and taste of the flowers were detected for the first time in a species of the family Hydnoraceae. The flowers were extracted by n-hexane, dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. With exception of the water extract all extracts demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria as well as remarkable radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited good antifungal activities. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against FL cells, measured in neutral red assay, was only weak (IC50 > 500 μg/mL). The results justify the traditional use of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica in South Yemen. PMID:27209704

  18. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antiradical and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil of Pulicaria stephanocarpa from Soqotra.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Setzer, William N; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled leaf essential oil from Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. Fil was determined by GC-MS analysis, and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase (AChE) activities were evaluated. Eighty-three compounds were identified representing 97.2% of the total oil. (E)-Caryophyllene 13.4%, (E)-nerolidol 8.5%, caryophyllene oxide 8.5%, alpha-cadinol 8.2% spathulenol 6.8% and tau-cadinol 4.7%, were the main components. Antimicrobial activity of the oil, evaluated using the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods, demonstrated the highest susceptibility on Gram-positive bacteria and Candida albicans. The free radical scavenging ability of the oil was assessed by the DPPH assay to show antiradical activity with IC50 of 330 microg/mL. Moreover, the oil revealed an AChE inhibitory activity of 47% at a concentration of 200 microg/mL using Ellman's method. PMID:22428262

  19. Improved quality control method for Danshen products--consideration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic active components.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Chow, Moses; Zuo, Zhong

    2006-06-01

    The current study intends to provide an improved quality control analysis for Danshen product-a representative herbal product with known active components that are both hydrophilic and lipophilic in nature. A simple HPLC method with photodiode-array (PDA) ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major lipophilic components (cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA) and three major hydrophilic components (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B) of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These six components were successfully separated using Radial-pak C18 cartridge with the elution gradient consisting of 0.5% acetic acid in water and 0.5% acetic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the analysis were within 2.32 and 2.0%, respectively. The detection limits were 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.05, 0.005 and 0.02 microg/ml for cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of above six major components in Fufang Danshen Tablet and Dripping Pill products by extraction with methanol and water. It has been demonstrated that salvianolic acid B and danshensu are the major components among the eight commercial Fufang Danshen products studied. The current developed method with methanol as extraction solvent provides a simple and efficient method for simultaneous detection of both lipophilic and hydrophilic major components in Danshen products. PMID:16458472

  20. Ulysses observations of electron and proton components in a magnetic cloud and related wave activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to a smooth rotation of the magnetic field vector, magnetic clouds have a low proton temperature T(sub p). Their expansion in the solar wind leads to depletion and therefore the ion component cools down. It has been shown recently that the electron component in magnetic clouds behaves differently: when the cloud expands, electron temperature Te anti correlates with density and therefore Te increases in the cloud, creating favorable conditions for the rise of ion-acoustic waves. For the magnetic cloud observed by Ulysses on June 10 - 12, 1993 at 4.64 AU at S 32.5 deg, we present observations for both electron and proton components and related plasma wave activity. Our results confirm the anti correlation between T(sub e) and electron density and also exhibit a high ratio of T(sub e)/T(sub P) in the cloud. Since Landau damping is not effective for T(sub e)/T(sub p) much greater than 1, Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves are expected in the cloud. Calculation of ion acoustic wave frequencies in the cloud and comparison with observed wave activity confirm this expectation. As in our previous work, we show that the electron component in the cloud obeys a polytropic law with gamma is less than 1 (gamma approximately equals 0.3-0.4). The dynamics of the magnetic cloud are determined to a large degree by the dominating electron pressure.

  1. Tying Biological Activity to Changes in Sea Spray Aerosol Chemical Composition via Single Particle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Collins, D. B.; Axson, J. L.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In remote marine environments, sea spray aerosols (SSA) often represent the greatest aerosol burden, thus having significant impacts on direct radiative interactions and cloud processes. Previous studies have shown that SSA is a complex mixture of inorganic salts and an array of dissolved and particulate organic components. Enrichment of SSA organic content is often correlated to seawater chlorophyll concentrations, a measure of oceanic biological activity. As the physical and chemical properties of aerosols control their radiative effects, recent studies conducted by the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment have endeavored to further elucidate the ties between marine biological activity and primary SSA chemical composition using highly time resolved single particle analyses. A series of experiments performed in the recently developed Marine Aerosol Reference Tank evaluated the effect of changing marine microbial populations on SSA chemical composition, which was monitored via an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a variety of offline spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Each experiment was initiated using unfiltered and untreated seawater, thus maintaining a high level of biogeochemical complexity. This study is the first of its kind to capture daily changes in the primary SSA mixing state over the growth and death of a natural phytoplankton bloom. Increases in organic aerosol types (0.4-3 μm), internally and externally mixed with sea salt, could not be correlated to chlorophyll concentrations. Maximum production of these populations occurred two to four days after the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence peaked in intensity. This work is in contrast to the current paradigm of correlating SSA organic content to seawater chlorophyll concentration.

  2. AMDE-1 Is a Dual Function Chemical for Autophagy Activation and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Yang, Zuolong; Vollmer, Laura L.; Gao, Ying; Fu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Cui; Chen, Xiaoyun; Liu, Peiqing; Vogt, Andreas; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is the process by which cytosolic components and organelles are delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy plays important roles in cellular homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Small chemical molecules that can modulate autophagy activity may have pharmacological value for treating diseases. Using a GFP-LC3-based high content screening assay we identified a novel chemical that is able to modulate autophagy at both initiation and degradation levels. This molecule, termed as Autophagy Modulator with Dual Effect-1 (AMDE-1), triggered autophagy in an Atg5-dependent manner, recruiting Atg16 to the pre-autophagosomal site and causing LC3 lipidation. AMDE-1 induced autophagy through the activation of AMPK, which inactivated mTORC1 and activated ULK1. AMDE-1did not affect MAP kinase, JNK or oxidative stress signaling for autophagy induction. Surprisingly, treatment with AMDE-1 resulted in impairment in autophagic flux and inhibition of long-lived protein degradation. This inhibition was correlated with a reduction in lysosomal degradation capacity but not with autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Further analysis indicated that AMDE-1 caused a reduction in lysosome acidity and lysosomal proteolytic activity, suggesting that it suppressed general lysosome function. AMDE-1 thus also impaired endocytosis-mediated EGF receptor degradation. The dual effects of AMDE-1 on autophagy induction and lysosomal degradation suggested that its net effect would likely lead to autophagic stress and lysosome dysfunction, and therefore cell death. Indeed, AMDE-1 triggered necroptosis and was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells. In conclusion, this study identified a new class of autophagy modulators with dual effects, which can be explored for potential uses in cancer therapy. PMID:25894744

  3. Principal component analysis of Birkeland currents determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principal component analysis is performed on Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The regions 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns.

  4. Digestibility and Bioavailability of the Active Components of Erica australis L. Aqueous Extracts and Their Therapeutic Potential as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Pilar; Falé, Pedro L.; Martins, Alice; Rauter, Amélia P.

    2015-01-01

    Erica australis L. (Ericaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat many free-radical related ailments. In the present work, the stability and biological activity of the plant aqueous extracts submitted to an in vitro digestive process were investigated. Chemical stability was monitored by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS, while the bioactivities were evaluated through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Both extracts, whose main components were flavonol glycosides, inhibited AChE, showing IC50 values of 257.9 ± 6.2 µg/mL and 296.8 ± 8.8 µg/mL for the decoction and for the infusion, respectively. Significant radical scavenging activities were also revealed by both extracts, as denoted by the IC50 values for the decoction, 6.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL, and for the infusion, 10.5 ± 0.3 µg/mL. After submission to gastric and pancreatic juices, no remarkable alterations in the composition or in the bioactivities were observed, suggesting that the extracts may pass through the gastrointestinal tract, keeping their composition and therefore their biological properties. Moreover, the bioavailability of the components of both extracts, as studied in a Caco-2 cell model, showed that compounds can permeate the membrane, which is a condition to exert their biological activities. Our results add further support to the potential of E. australis for its antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. PMID:26347794

  5. Active Components of Fungus Shiraia bambusiscola Can Specifically Induce BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shubing; Qiu, Dewen; Liu, Jingjiang; Li, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gastric cancer is a major health issue worldwide. Using a therapeutic approach, with minor side-effects, is very essential for the treatment of the gastric cancer. Shiraia bambusicola is a parasitic fungus which is widely used in China for curing several diseases with little side-effects. However, the mechanisms are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to further understand the pharmacological mechanisms of Shiraia bambusicola and investigate whether it can be used for curing gastric cancer. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we mainly tested the effect of active components extracted from Shiraia bambusicola on BGC823, A549 and HepG2 cells. We used MTT assay to test cell viability. We also analyzed morphologic changes caused by apoptosis using Hoechst 33342 fluorescence staining, as well as cell cycle status and apoptosis ratio using flow-cytometer. In addition, protein expression level was tested by Western-blotting assay. Results BGC-823 cell proliferation was specifically inhibited by active components of Shiraia bambusicola. Meanwhile, these active components could induce BGC-823 cells apoptosis and retard the cell cycle in S/G2 phase. We also determined that two critical protein markers cleaved Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), involved in apoptosis process, were regulated by these active components. Conclusion These data shed light on the treatment of human gastric cancer and conclude that Shiraia bambusicola can be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27540519

  6. Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity.

    PubMed

    Agnieszka, Baran; Tomasz, Czech; Jerzy, Wieczorek

    2014-09-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the total content and soluble forms of metals (zinc, lead and cadmium) and toxicity of soils subjected to strong human pressure associated with mining of zinc and lead ores. The research area lay in the neighbourhood of the Bolesław Mine and Metallurgical Plant in Bukowno (Poland). The study obtained total cadmium concentration between 0.29 and 51.91 mg, zinc between 7.90 and 3,614 mg, and that of lead between 28.4 and 6844 mg kg(-1) of soil d.m. The solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 was 1-49% for zinc, 5-45% for cadmium, and <1-10% for lead. In 1 mol HCl dm(-3), the solubility of the studied metals was much higher and obtained values depending on the collection site, from 45 to 92% for zinc, from 74 to 99%, and from 79 to 99% for lead. The lower solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 than 1 mol HCl dm(-3) is connected with that, the ammonium nitrate has low extraction power, and it is used in determining the bioavailable (active) form of heavy metals. Toxicity assessment of the soil samples was performed using two tests, Phytotoxkit and Microtox(®). Germination index values were between 22 and 75% for Sinapis alba, between 28 and 100% for Lepidium sativum, and between 10 and 28% for Sorghum saccharatum. Depending on the studied soil sample, Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition was 20-96%. The sensitivity of the test organisms formed the following series: S. saccharatum > S. alba = V. fischeri > L. sativum. Significant positive correlations (p ≤ 0.05) of the total and soluble contents of the metals with luminescence inhibition in V. fischeri and root growth inhibition in S. saccharatum were found. The general trend observed was an increase in metal toxicity measured by the biotest with increasing available metal contents in soils. All the soil samples were classified into toxicity class III, which means that they are toxic and present severe danger. Biotest are a good complement to

  7. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Betül; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-12-01

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents. PMID:23948523

  8. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

    2008-05-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils. PMID:18417176

  9. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed. PMID:27069488

  10. Application of chromatography technology in the separation of active components from nature derived drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H-Y; Jiang, J-G

    2010-11-01

    Chromatography technology has been widely applied in various aspects of the pharmacy research on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This paper reviews literatures, published in the past decades, on the separation of active component from TCM using chromatography technology. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), affinity chromatography (AC), and bio-chromatography (BC) are introduced in detail. Compared to high performance of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), analysis time and solvent loss are significantly reduced by UPLC with increase in resolution and sensitivity. Some ingredients from nature derived drugs can be separated more completely by HSCCC, which has remarkable characteristics such as low cost, simple operation and no pollution. Trace components from complex systems can be selectively and efficiently separated and purified by AC, This feature makes it effective in isolation and identification of active components of Chinese herbs. Interference of some impurities could be excluded by BC. Active ingredients that are difficult to be separated by normal method can be acquired by SFC. Currently, application of novel chromatography techniques in TCM is still in the exploratory stage and many problems, such as preparation of stationary phase and detection, need to be solved. PMID:20701587

  11. Effect of linalool as a component of Humulus lupulus on doxorubicin-induced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Michiko; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki

    2013-03-01

    As malignant neoplasm is a major public health problem, there is a need for the development of a novel modulator that enhances antitumor activity and reduces adverse reactions to antitumor agents. In this study, the effects of some volatile oil components in Humulus lupulus on doxorubicin (DOX) permeability in tumor cells and DOX-induced antitumor activity were examined. In vitro, DOX levels in tumor cells by combined linalool as its component significantly increased in the DOX influx system, and the increased effect by linalool on DOX cytotoxicity was shown. In vivo, the combination of DOX with linalool significantly decreased tumor weight compared with that of DOX alone treated group. The promotion of DOX influx level by combined linalool did not depend on energy, whereas it was suppressed by the absence of Na(+). This promoting effect was suppressed by the presence of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine and inhibited dependently on phlorizin concentration. It is considered that linalool promoted DOX influx in tumor cells because of its action on DOX transport through concentrative Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter 3, which increased DOX concentration in tumor cells and thus enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX. Therefore, linalool as a food component is anticipated to be an effective DOX modulator. PMID:23220514

  12. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed. PMID:27069488

  13. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary leucine.

    PubMed

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2007-04-01

    1. Regulation of meat taste is one effective method for improvement of meat quality. In this study, effects of dietary leucine (Leu) content on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were fed on diets with graded dietary Leu content (100, 130 or 150% of Leu requirement in NRC, 1994) for 10 d before marketing. Taste-active components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory score of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary Leu. Compared with the Leu 130% group, free Glu was increased by 17% in the Leu 100% group. Free Glu of meat tended to decrease in the Leu 150% group. In contrast, inosine monophosphate content in meat did not change among all groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soup from the Leu 100 and 150% groups showed that they had different meat tastes. Sensory scores of overall preference, umami taste and chicken-like taste were significantly higher in the Leu 100% group. 5. These results suggest that dietary Leu content is a regulating factor of free Glu in meat. Decreasing dietary Leu induces an increase in the free Glu content of meat and improves meat taste. PMID:17453808

  14. Evaluation of impact factors on PM2.5 based on long-term chemical components analyses in the megacity Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Cen, Kuang; Liu, Xiuli; Yu, Yang; Zibat, Volker; Dietze, Volker; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future. PMID:27115848

  15. Facile reversibility by design: tuning small molecule capture and activation by single component frustrated Lewis pairs.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Kolychev, Eugene L; Rit, Arnab; Campos, Jesús; Niu, Haoyu; Aldridge, Simon

    2015-09-30

    A series of single component FLPs has been investigated for small molecule capture, with the finding that through tuning of both the thermodynamics of binding/activation and the degree of preorganization (i.e., ΔS(⧧)) reversibility can be brought about at (or close to) room temperature. Thus, the dimethylxanthene system {(C6H4)2(O)CMe2}(PMes2)(B(C6F5)2): (i) heterolytically cleaves dihydrogen to give an equilibrium mixture of FLP and H2 activation product in solution at room temperature and (ii) reversibly captures nitrous oxide (uptake at room temperature, 1 atm; release at 323 K). PMID:26356306

  16. Coaching younger practitioners and students using components of the co-active coaching model.

    PubMed

    Tofade, Toyin

    2010-04-12

    Coaching is used to improve performance, achieve preset goals and obtain desired results. Several coaching models have been used in health professions for leadership and professional development. This article describes some components of Co-Active Coaching(R) that can be applied while coaching pharmacy students and younger practitioners. Co-Active Coaching requires the coach to use a broad range of communication skills, including listening, asking powerful questions, making insightful comments, offering encouragement, and giving sincere praise. The characteristics of the ideal candidate for coaching and the value of coaching are also discussed. PMID:20498744

  17. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer.

    PubMed

    Köster, Darius Vasco; Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-03-22

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization. PMID:26929326

  18. Growth of multi-component alloy films with controlled graded chemical composition on sub-nanometer scale

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa; Vernon, Stephen P.

    2005-03-15

    The chemical composition of thin films is modulated during their growth. A computer code has been developed to design specific processes for producing a desired chemical composition for various deposition geometries. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was achieved.

  19. The ghost component of the mass balances at the Critical Zone scale: the chemical reactivity of immobile water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsir, K.; Mercury, L.; Azaroual, M.; Coquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    and without capillary effects, according to a wide range of conditions (climate, recharge rate, water potential in each domain, etc). It demonstrates how the capillary component acts on the chemical dynamics at the CZ scale. Keywords: critical zone, unsaturated zone, capillarity, reactive transport modeling,"stretched water".

  20. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  1. Combined Chemical Activation and Fenton Degradation to Convert Waste Polyethylene into High-Value Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Ho, Keith Yat-Fung; Chan, Chung-Sum; Gong, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste is a valuable organic resource. However, proper technologies to recover usable materials from plastic are still very rare. Although the conversion/cracking/degradation of certain plastics into chemicals has drawn much attention, effective and selective cracking of the major waste plastic polyethylene is extremely difficult, with degradation of C-C/C-H bonds identified as the bottleneck. Pyrolysis, for example, is a nonselective degradation method used to crack plastics, but it requires a very high energy input. To solve the current plastic pollution crisis, more effective technologies are needed for converting plastic waste into useful substances that can be fed into the energy cycle or used to produce fine chemicals for industry. In this study, we demonstrate a new and effective chemical approach by using the Fenton reaction to convert polyethylene plastic waste into carboxylic acids under ambient conditions. Understanding the fundamentals of this new chemical process provides a possible protocol to solve global plastic-waste problems. PMID:27168079

  2. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  3. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to characterize use of CPC; de...

  4. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to • characterize use of CPC...

  5. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC) McLeisch (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silvério, Marcelo S; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Pinto, Míriam A O; Alves, Maria S; Sousa, Orlando V

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of different parts of Eremanthus erythropappus, including leaves, branches and inflorescences, was investigated by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was assessed by the disc diffusion and microdilution methods, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and reducing power tests. The main compounds found in the essential oils derived from the inflorescences and leaves were β-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, α-copaene and β-pinene. α-Bisabolol was the major component in the branches. The oils were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi, but not Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC values ranged from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/mL. Using the DPPH test, the IC50 values ranged from 38.77 ± 0.76 to 102.24 ± 1.96 μg/mL, while the reducing power test produced IC50 values between 109.85 ± 1.68 and 169.53 ± 0.64 μg/mL. The results revealed that the E. erythropappus oils are new promising potential sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds with good future practical applications for human health. PMID:23959191

  6. Component Analysis of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions To Enhance Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Leo; Kim, Janie; Chen, Hope; Kowalski, Regis; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    More than 125 million people wear contact lenses worldwide, and contact lens use is the single greatest risk factor for developing microbial keratitis. We tested the antibacterial activity of multipurpose contact lens solutions and their individual component preservatives against the two most common pathogens causing bacterial keratitis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus The in vitro antibacterial activity of five multipurpose contact lens solutions (Opti-Free GP, Boston Simplus, Boston Advance, Menicare GP, and Lobob) was assayed by the standard broth dilution method. Synergy between the preservative components found in the top performing solutions was assayed using checkerboard and time-kill assays. The ISO 14729 criteria and the standard broth dilution method were used to define an optimized contact lens solution formulation against a clinical panel of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains. Preservatives with the biguanide function group, chlorhexidine and polyaminopropylbiguanide (PAPB), had the best antistaphylococcal activity, while EDTA was the best antipseudomonal preservative. The combination of chlorhexidine and EDTA had excellent synergy against P. aeruginosa A solution formulation containing chlorhexidine (30 ppm), PAPB (5 ppm), and EDTA (5,000 ppm) had three to seven times more antipseudomonal activity than anything available to consumers today. A multipurpose contact lens solution containing a combination of chlorhexidine, PAPB, and EDTA could help to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis for contact lens users worldwide. PMID:27139484

  7. Selenium enrichment on Cordyceps militaris link and analysis on its main active components.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing Z; Lei, C; Ai, Xun R; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of selenium on the main active components of Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies, selenium-enriched cultivation of C. militaris and the main active components of the fruit bodies were studied. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, and organic selenium of fruit bodies were sodium selenite concentration dependent; contents of adenosine and cordycep polysaccharides were significantly enhanced by adding sodium selenite in the substrates, but not proportional to sodium selenite concentrations. In the cultivation of wheat substrate added with 18.0 ppm sodium selenite, SOD activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, adenosine, cordycep polysaccharides, and total amino acids were enhanced by 121/145%, 124/74%, 325/520%, 130/284%, 121/145%, and 157/554%, respectively, compared to NS (non-selenium-cultivated) fruit bodies and wild Cordyceps sinensis; organic selenium contents of fruit bodies reached 6.49 mg/100 g. So selenium-enriched cultivation may be a potential way to produce more valuable medicinal food as a substitute for wild C. sinensis. PMID:22246726

  8. Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a fungus that parasitizes on the larva of Lepidoptera, has been used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), and particularly focused on its anticancer and antimetastatic actions. Based on in vitro studies, we report that WECS showed an anticancer action, and this action was antagonized by an adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, this anticancer action of WECS was promoted by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. These results suggest that one of the components of WECS with an anticancer action might be an adenosine or its derivatives. Therefore, we focused on cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) as one of the active ingredients of WECS. According to our experiments, cordycepin showed an anticancer effect through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor, followed by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation and cyclin D1 suppression. Cordycepin also showed an antimetastatic action through inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by cancer cells and suppressing the invasiveness of cancer cells via inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and accelerating the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 from cancer cells. In conclusion, cordycepin, an active component of WECS, might be a candidate anticancer and antimetastatic agent. PMID:25704018

  9. Chemical analysis and biological activity of the essential oils of two endemic Soqotri Commiphora species.

    PubMed

    Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Schultze, Wulf

    2010-02-01

    The barks of two endemic Commiphora species namely, Commiphora ornifolia (Balf.f.) Gillett and Commiphora parvifolia Engl., were collected from Soqotra Island in Yemen and their essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of both oils was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one yeast species by using a broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and for their antioxidant activity by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity. A total of 45 constituents of C. ornifolia (85.6%) and 44 constituents of C. parvifolia (87.1%) were identified. The oil of C. ornifolia was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (56.3%), of which camphor (27.3%), alpha-fenchol (15.5%), fenchone (4.4%) and borneol (2.9%) were identified as the main components. High contents of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (36.1%) and aliphatic acids (22.8%) were found in C. parvifolia oil, in which caryophyllene oxide (14.2%), beta-eudesmol (7.7%), bulnesol (5.7%), T-cadinol (3.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (18.4%) predominated. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that both oils exhibited moderate to high antibacterial activity especially against Gram-positive bacteria. C. ornifolia oil was the most active. In addition, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited only weak antioxidant activities for both oils at the high concentration tested. PMID:20335939

  10. Chemical and enzymatic reductive activation of acylfulvene to isomeric cytotoxic reactive intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Kathryn E.; Neels, James F.; Yu, Xiang; Gong, Jiachang; Sturla, Shana J.

    2011-01-01

    Acylfulvenes, a class of semisynthetic analogues of the sesquiterpene natural product illudin S, are cytotoxic towards cancer cells. The minor structural changes between illudin S and AFs translate to an improved therapeutic window in preclinical cell-based assays and xenograft models. AFs are, therefore, unique tools for addressing the chemical and biochemical basis of cytotoxic selectivity. AFs elicit cytotoxic responses by alkylation of biological targets, including DNA. While AFs are capable of direct alkylation, cytosolic reductive bioactivation to an electrophilic intermediate is correlated with enhanced cytotoxicity. Data obtained in this study illustrates chemical aspects of the process of AF activation. By tracking reaction mechanisms with stable isotope-labeled reagents, enzymatic versus chemical activation pathways for AF were compared for reactions involving the NADPH-dependent enzyme prostaglandin reductase 1 (PTGR1) or sodium borohydride, respectively. These two processes resulted in isomeric products that appear to give rise to similar patterns of DNA modification. The chemically activated isomer has been newly isolated and chemically characterized in this study, including an assessment of its relative stereochemistry, and stability at varying pH and under bioassay conditions. In mammalian cancer cells, this chemically activated analog was shown to not rely on further cellular activation to significantly enhance cytotoxic potency, in contrast to the requirements of AF. On the basis of this study, we anticipate that the chemically activated form of AF will serve as a useful chemical probe for evaluating biomolecular interactions independent of enzyme-mediated activation. PMID:21939268

  11. New insights into the antioxidant activity and components in crude oat oil and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Qiu, Shuang; Gan, Jing; Li, Zaigui; Nirasawa, Satoru; Yin, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Developing new antioxidants and using natural examples is of current interest. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities and the ability to inhibit soybean oil oxidation of oat oil obtained with different solvents. Oat oil extract obtained by ethanol extraction gave the highest antioxidant activity with a DPPH radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity of 88.2 % and a reducing power (A 700) of 0.83. Oat oil extracted by ethanol contained the highest polyphenol and α-tocopherol content. Significant correlation was observed between the total polyphenol contents, individual phenolic acid, α-tocopherol, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Soybean oil with 2 % added oat oil showed low malondialdehyde content (8.35 mmol mL(-1)), suggesting that the added oat oil inhibited oxidation. Oat oil showed good antioxidant activity, especially when extracted with ethanol which could also retard the oxidation of soybean oil . DPPH radical scavenging activity was the best method to evaluate the antioxidant activity and components of oat oil. PMID:26788002

  12. Phenolic Components and Antioxidant Activity of Wood Extracts from 10 Main Spanish Olive Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Salido, Sofía; Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Adams, Robert P; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2015-07-29

    The chemical composition and radical-scavenging activity of wood samples from 10 main Spanish olive cultivars were studied. The wood samples were collected during the pruning works from trees growing under the same agronomical and environmental conditions. The 10 ethyl acetate extracts were submitted to HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis to determine the phenolic constituents. Seventeen compounds were identified (10 secoiridoids, 3 lignans, 2 phenol alcohols, 1 iridoid, and 1 flavonoid) by comparison with authentic samples. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were found among olive cultivars. The lignan (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside was the major compound in all olive cultivars, except in cultivars 'Farga' and 'Picual'. The multivariate analysis of all data revealed three sets of cultivars with similar compositions. Cultivars 'Gordal sevillana' and 'Picual' had the most distinct chemical profiles. With regard to the radical-scavenging activity, cultivar 'Picual', with oleuropein as the major phenolic, showed the highest activity (91.4 versus 18.6-32.7%). PMID:26154988

  13. The GATOR2 Component Wdr24 Regulates TORC1 Activity and Lysosome Function.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weili; Wei, Youheng; Jarnik, Michal; Reich, John; Lilly, Mary A

    2016-05-01

    TORC1 is a master regulator of metabolism in eukaryotes that responds to multiple upstream signaling pathways. The GATOR complex is a newly defined upstream regulator of TORC1 that contains two sub-complexes, GATOR1, which inhibits TORC1 activity in response to amino acid starvation and GATOR2, which opposes the activity of GATOR1. While the GATOR1 complex has been implicated in a wide array of human pathologies including cancer and hereditary forms of epilepsy, the in vivo relevance of the GATOR2 complex remains poorly understood in metazoans. Here we define the in vivo role of the GATOR2 component Wdr24 in Drosophila. Using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and cell biological techniques we demonstrate that Wdr24 has both TORC1 dependent and independent functions in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Through the characterization of a null allele, we show that Wdr24 is a critical effector of the GATOR2 complex that promotes the robust activation of TORC1 and cellular growth in a broad array of Drosophila tissues. Additionally, epistasis analysis between wdr24 and genes that encode components of the GATOR1 complex revealed that Wdr24 has a second critical function, the TORC1 independent regulation of lysosome dynamics and autophagic flux. Notably, we find that two additional members of the GATOR2 complex, Mio and Seh1, also have a TORC1 independent role in the regulation of lysosome function. These findings represent a surprising and previously unrecognized function of GATOR2 complex components in the regulation of lysosomes. Consistent with our findings in Drosophila, through the characterization of a wdr24-/- knockout HeLa cell line we determined that Wdr24 promotes lysosome acidification and autophagic flux in mammalian cells. Taken together our data support the model that Wdr24 is a key effector of the GATOR2 complex, required for both TORC1 activation and the TORC1 independent regulation of lysosomes. PMID:27166823

  14. The GATOR2 Component Wdr24 Regulates TORC1 Activity and Lysosome Function

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weili; Wei, Youheng; Jarnik, Michal; Reich, John; Lilly, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    TORC1 is a master regulator of metabolism in eukaryotes that responds to multiple upstream signaling pathways. The GATOR complex is a newly defined upstream regulator of TORC1 that contains two sub-complexes, GATOR1, which inhibits TORC1 activity in response to amino acid starvation and GATOR2, which opposes the activity of GATOR1. While the GATOR1 complex has been implicated in a wide array of human pathologies including cancer and hereditary forms of epilepsy, the in vivo relevance of the GATOR2 complex remains poorly understood in metazoans. Here we define the in vivo role of the GATOR2 component Wdr24 in Drosophila. Using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and cell biological techniques we demonstrate that Wdr24 has both TORC1 dependent and independent functions in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Through the characterization of a null allele, we show that Wdr24 is a critical effector of the GATOR2 complex that promotes the robust activation of TORC1 and cellular growth in a broad array of Drosophila tissues. Additionally, epistasis analysis between wdr24 and genes that encode components of the GATOR1 complex revealed that Wdr24 has a second critical function, the TORC1 independent regulation of lysosome dynamics and autophagic flux. Notably, we find that two additional members of the GATOR2 complex, Mio and Seh1, also have a TORC1 independent role in the regulation of lysosome function. These findings represent a surprising and previously unrecognized function of GATOR2 complex components in the regulation of lysosomes. Consistent with our findings in Drosophila, through the characterization of a wdr24-/- knockout HeLa cell line we determined that Wdr24 promotes lysosome acidification and autophagic flux in mammalian cells. Taken together our data support the model that Wdr24 is a key effector of the GATOR2 complex, required for both TORC1 activation and the TORC1 independent regulation of lysosomes. PMID:27166823

  15. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are essential components of distinct mechanically-activated cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Bertrand; Mathur, Jayanti; Schmidt, Manuela; Earley, Taryn J.; Ranade, Sanjeev; Petrus, Matt J.; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli drive many physiological processes, including touch and pain sensation, hearing, and blood pressure regulation. Mechanically-activated (MA) cation channel activities have been recorded in many cells, but the responsible molecules have not been identified. We characterized a rapidly-adapting MA current in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line. Expression profiling and RNAi knockdown of candidate genes identified Piezo1 (Fam38A) to be required for MA currents in these cells. Piezo1 and related Piezo2 (Fam38B) are vertebrate multipass transmembrane proteins with homologs in invertebrates, plants, and protozoa. Overexpression of mouse Piezo1 or Piezo2 induced two kinetically-distinct MA currents. Piezos are expressed in several tissues, and knockdown of Piezo2 in dorsal root ganglia neurons specifically reduced rapidly-adapting MA currents. We propose that Piezos are components of mechanically-activated cation channels. PMID:20813920

  16. Activity of carbohydrate oxidases as influenced by wheat flour dough components.

    PubMed

    Degrand, L; Rakotozafy, L; Nicolas, J

    2015-08-15

    The carbohydrate oxidase (COXMn) from Microdochium nivale may well have desired functionalities as a dough and bread improver, similarly to Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOX). COXMn catalyses the oxidation of various monosaccharides as well as maltooligosaccharides for which the best activity is obtained towards the maltooligosaccharides of polymerisation degrees 3 and 4. For the same activity towards glucose under air saturation, we show that COXMn exhibits a similar efficiency towards maltose as GOX towards glucose whatever the oxygen supply. Assays with COXMn show that no competition exists between carbohydrates naturally present in the wheat flour. We show that reaction products (d-glucono-δ-lactone and hydrogen peroxide) and the wheat flour dough component, ferulic acid, have no noticeable specific effect on the COXMn activity. The demonstrated differences in kinetics between COXMn and GOX allow predicting of differences in the functional behaviours of those enzymes during wheat flour dough formation. PMID:25794758

  17. Relative effectiveness coefficient: a quality characteristic of toothpastes containing active components.

    PubMed

    Borissova, R; Kirova, E

    1996-12-01

    It has been proposed that the parameter of relative effectiveness coefficient (REC) be used for the qualitative assessment of toothpastes containing active ingredients. REC is the ratio between the concentration of the active component in water eluates obtained after three minutes and adequately prolonged (up to the reaching of equilibrium state) dispersion of the toothpaste in distilled water at a 1:4 ratio (condition simulating the use of toothpaste in the oral cavity). The change in REC after storage following its production, as well as testing the toothpaste stability at high and low temperatures, provides an evidence for deviations in its quality. REC was applied for the assessment of toothpastes containing 0.5% zinc citrate as an active ingredient. PMID:8996867

  18. Fracture of the cemented femoral component following hemiarthroplasty in physically active patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Deniz; Yoldas, Burak; Yılmaz, Serdar; Tecirli, Ali; Ozkurt, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fracture of the femoral stem following hip arthroplasty has become very rare since the developments in modern prosthetic designs. Prevention by identifying the risk factors is the best way to overcome these complex problems, as treatment is difficult. Case Report: Femoral component fracture after cemented hemiarthroplasty in a physically active 64-year-old, male patient is reported in this present article. Conclusion: The present case emphasizes the importance of preserving the joint after hip fracture and avoidance of using mono block prosthesis in younger patients. If the patient is physically active, he/she should be advised to limit her/his daily activities to moderate intensity after hemiarthroplasty surgery. PMID:27299090

  19. Mode of action and the assessment of chemical hazards in the presence of limited data: use of structure-activity relationships (SAR) under TSCA, Section 5.

    PubMed Central

    Auer, C M; Nabholz, J V; Baetcke, K P

    1990-01-01

    Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that manufacturers and importers of new chemicals must submit a Premanufacture Notification (PMN) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 90 days before they intend to commence manufacture or import. Certain information such as chemical identity, uses, etc., must be included in the notification. The submission of test data on the new substance, however, is not required, although any available health and environmental information must be provided. Nonetheless, over half of all PMNs submitted to the agency do not contain any test data; because PMN chemicals are new, no test data is generally available in the scientific literature. Given this situation, EPA has had to develop techniques for hazard assessment that can be used in the presence of limited test data. EPA's approach has been termed "structure-activity relationships" (SAR) and involves three major components: the first is critical evaluation and interpretation of available toxicity data on the chemical; the second component involves evaluation of test data available on analogous substances and/or potential metabolites; and the third component involves the use of mathematical expressions for biological activity known as "quantitative structure-activity relationships" (QSARs). At present, the use of QSARs is limited to estimating physical chemical properties, environmental toxicity, and bioconcentration factors. An important overarching element in EPA's approach is the experience and judgment of scientific assessors in interpreting and integrating the available data and information. Examples are provided that illustrate EPA's approach to hazard assessment for PMN chemicals. PMID:2269224

  20. Communication between Thiamin Cofactors in the Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex E1 Component Active Centers

    PubMed Central

    Nemeria, Natalia S.; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Mossad, Madouna; Tittmann, Kai; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and structural analysis tested the hypothesis that a chain of residues connecting the 4′-aminopyrimidine N1′ atoms of thiamin diphosphates (ThDPs) in the two active centers of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component provides a signal transduction pathway. Substitution of the three acidic residues (Glu571, Glu235, and Glu237) and Arg606 resulted in impaired binding of the second ThDP, once the first active center was filled, suggesting a pathway for communication between the two ThDPs. 1) Steady-state kinetic and fluorescence quenching studies revealed that upon E571A, E235A, E237A, and R606A substitutions, ThDP binding in the second active center was affected. 2) Analysis of the kinetics of thiazolium C2 hydrogen/deuterium exchange of enzyme-bound ThDP suggests half-of-the-sites reactivity for the E1 component, with fast (activated site) and slow exchanging sites (dormant site). The E235A and E571A variants gave no evidence for the slow exchanging site, indicating that only one of two active sites is filled with ThDP. 3) Titration of the E235A and E237A variants with methyl acetylphosphonate monitored by circular dichroism suggested that only half of the active sites were filled with a covalent predecarboxylation intermediate analog. 4) Crystal structures of E235A and E571A in complex with ThDP revealed the structural basis for the spectroscopic and kinetic observations and showed that either substitution affects cofactor binding, despite the fact that Glu235 makes no direct contact with the cofactor. The role of the conserved Glu571 residue in both catalysis and cofactor orientation is revealed by the combined results for the first time. PMID:20106967

  1. Independent Component Analysis of Resting State Activity in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Patricia; Vo, An; Argyelan, Miklos; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Degnan, Andrew J.; John, Majnu; Peters, Bart D.; Malhotra, Anil K.; Uluğ, Aziz M.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an often severely disabling illness with onset generally in childhood or adolescence. Little is known, however, regarding the pattern of brain resting state activity in OCD early in the course of illness. We therefore examined differences in brain resting state activity in patients with pediatric OCD compared to healthy volunteers and their clinical correlates. Twenty-three pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy volunteers (age range 9–17), matched for sex, age, handedness, and IQ completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging exam at 3T. Patients completed the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Scale. Data were decomposed into 36 functional networks using spatial group independent component analysis (ICA) and logistic regression was used to identify the components that yielded maximum group separation. Using ICA we identified 3 components that maximally separated the groups: a middle frontal/dorsal anterior cingulate network, an anterior/posterior cingulate network, and a visual network yielding an overall group classification of 76.1% (sensitivity = 78.3% and specificity = 73.9%). Independent component expression scores were significantly higher in patients compared to healthy volunteers in the middle frontal/dorsal anterior cingulate and the anterior/posterior cingulate networks, but lower in patients within the visual network. Higher expression scores in the anterior/posterior cingulate network correlated with greater severity of compulsions among patients. These findings implicate resting state fMRI abnormalities within the cingulate cortex and related control regions in the pathogenesis and phenomenology of OCD early in the course of the disorder and prior to extensive pharmacologic intervention. PMID:24867148

  2. Degradation of malathion by Pseudomonas during activated sludge treatment system using principal component analysis (PCA).

    PubMed

    Imran, Hashmi; Altaf, Khan M; Jong-Guk, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Popular descriptive multivariate statistical method currently employed is the principal component analyses (PCA) method. PCA is used to develop linear combinations that successively maximize the total variance of a sample where there is no known group structure. This study aimed at demonstrating the performance evaluation of pilot activated sludge treatment system by inoculating a strain of Pseudomonas capable of degrading malathion which was isolated by enrichment technique. An intensive analytical program was followed for evaluating the efficiency of biosimulator by maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at 4.0 mg/L. Analyses by high performance liquid chromatographic technique revealed that 90% of malathion removal was achieved within 29 h of treatment whereas COD got reduced considerably during the treatment process and mean removal efficiency was found to be 78%. The mean pH values increased gradually during the treatment process ranging from 7.36-8.54. Similarly the mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) values were found to be fluctuating between 19.425-28.488 mg/L, mean nitrite-nitrogen (NO3-N) ranging between 1.301-2.940 mg/L and mean nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) ranging between 0.0071-0.0711 mg/L. The study revealed that inoculation of bacterial culture under laboratory conditions could be used in bioremediation of environmental pollution caused by xenobiotics. The PCA analyses showed that pH, COD, organic load and total malathion concentration were highly correlated and emerged as the variables controlling the first component, whereas dissolved oxygen, NO3-N and NH3-N governed the second component. The third component repeated the trend exhibited by the first two components. PMID:17078564

  3. Update on the Chemical Composition Of Crystalline, Smectite, and Amorphous Components for Rocknest Soil and John Klein and Cumberland Mudstone Drill Fines at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Rampe, E. B.; Treiman, A. H.; Yen, A. S.; Achilles, C. N.; Archer, P. D.; Bristow, T. F.; Cavanaugh, P.; Fenrdrich, K.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; McAdam, A. C.; Morookian, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously calculated the chemical compositions of the X-ray-diffraction (XRD) amorphous component of three solid samples (Rocknest (RN) soil, John Klein (JK) drill fines, and Cumberland (CB) drill fines) using major-element chemistry (APXS), volatile-element chemistry (SAM), and crystalline- phase mineralogy (CheMin) obtained by the Curiosity rover as a part of the ongoing Mars Science Laboratory mission in Gale Crater. According to CheMin analysis, the RN and the JK and CB samples are mineralogically distinct in that RN has no detectable clay minerals and both JK and CB have significant concentrations of high-Fe saponite. The chemical composition of the XRD amorphous component is the composition remaining after mathematical removal of the compositions of crystalline components, including phyllosilicates if present. Subsequent to, we have improved the unit cell parameters for Fe-forsterite, augite, and pigeonite, resulting in revised chemical compositions for the XRD-derived crystalline component (excluding clay minerals). We update here the calculated compositions of amorphous components using these revised mineral compositions.

  4. Development of Double Eastern Blotting for Major Licorice Components, Glycyrrhizin and Liquiritin for Chemical Quality Control of Licorice Using anti-Glycyrrhizin and anti-Liquiritin Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shunsuke; Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Nomura, Shuichi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2016-02-10

    Licorice is utilized in various food industries around the world for seasoning agents, confectioneries, drinks, and functional foods. Glycyrrhizin (GL) and liquiritin (Liq) are major quality control chemical markers of licorice that have multifunctional bioactivities. Chemical quality control of licorice is important because its component profiles change depending environmental factors (climate, soil condition, and water deficit) and differences between species. Double eastern blotting using anti-GL and anti-Liq monoclonal antibodies was developed for more convenient, rapid, and specific quality control analysis of GL and Liq, respectively. Moreover, double eastern blotting was applied to investigate the immunohistochemical distributions of GL and Liq in the root of fresh licorice; the localization of both components was then clarified visually. This double eastern blotting technique for GL and Liq may serve as a powerful approach for visually determining the chemical quality of licorice. PMID:26765784

  5. 32 CFR 21.425 - How does a DoD Component's authority flow to awarding and administering activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the contracting activity for procurement contracts, as defined at 48 CFR 2.101. The intent is that... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a DoD Component's authority flow to... a DoD Component's authority flow to awarding and administering activities? The Head of a...

  6. Chemical modification of capuramycins to enhance antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Bogatcheva, Elena; Dubuisson, Tia; Protopopova, Marina; Einck, Leo; Nacy, Carol A.; Reddy, Venkata M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To extend capuramycin spectrum of activity beyond mycobacteria and improve intracellular drug activity. Methods Three capuramycin analogues (SQ997, SQ922 and SQ641) were conjugated with different natural and unnatural amino acids or decanoic acid (DEC) through an ester bond at one or more available hydroxyl groups. In vitro activity of the modified compounds was determined against Mycobacterium spp. and representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Intracellular activity was evaluated in J774A.1 mouse macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv). Results Acylation of SQ997 and SQ641 with amino undecanoic acid (AUA) improved in vitro activity against most of the bacteria tested. Conjugation of SQ922 with DEC, but not AUA, improved its activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor phenylalanine arginine β-naphthyl amide, MICs of SQ997-AUA, SQ641-AUA and SQ922-DEC compounds improved even further against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In Gram-negative bacteria, EDTA-mediated permeabilization caused 4- to 16-fold enhancement of the activity of AUA-conjugated SQ997, SQ922 and SQ641. Conjugation of all three capuramycin analogues with AUA improved intracellular killing of H37Rv in murine macrophages. Conclusions Conjugation of capuramycin analogues with AUA or DEC enhanced in vitro activity, extended the spectrum of activity in Gram-positive bacteria and increased intracellular activity against H37Rv. PMID:21186194

  7. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of (/sup 14/C)methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little (/sup 14/C)methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  8. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products. PMID:25216803

  9. Activated persulfate for organic chemical degradation: A review.

    PubMed

    Matzek, Laura W; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-05-01

    Activated persulfate reactions have widespread application for groundwater and environmental remediation, as many of these reactions involve destruction of environmental contaminants. Within the last five years, knowledge of activated persulfate degradation reactions has grown to include novel means of activating persulfate for enhanced removal of organic species. These current studies cover a long list of organic analytes, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, halogenated compounds and dyes. An extensive review of recently published experimental parameters and results for the destruction of organic compounds via activated persulfate is presented. Focus is placed on emerging methodologies and manipulation of traditional activation techniques. Knowledge gaps are identified and discussed, as despite the number of publications on this subject, more broad-reaching guidelines are needed for optimizing applications of activated persulfate in water treatment. PMID:26938680

  10. A Subset of Protective γ9δ2 T Cells Is Activated by Novel Mycobacterial Glycolipid Components.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mei; Hesser, Danny C; De, Prithwiraj; Sakala, Isaac G; Spencer, Charles T; Kirkwood, Jay S; Abate, Getahun; Chatterjee, Delphi; Dobos, Karen M; Hoft, Daniel F

    2016-09-01

    γ9δ2 T cells provide a natural bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, rapidly and potently respond to pathogen infection in mucosal tissues, and are prominently induced by both tuberculosis (TB) infection and bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Mycobacterium-expanded γ9δ2 T cells represent only a subset of the phosphoantigen {isopentenyl pyrophosphate [IPP] and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enylpyrophosphate [HMBPP]}-responsive γ9δ2 T cells, expressing an oligoclonal set of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences which more efficiently recognize and inhibit intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Based on this premise, we have been searching for M. tuberculosis antigens specifically capable of inducing a unique subset of mycobacterium-protective γ9δ2 T cells. Our screening strategy includes the identification of M. tuberculosis fractions that expand γ9δ2 T cells with biological functions capable of inhibiting intracellular mycobacterial replication. Chemical treatments of M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysates (MtbWL) ruled out protein, nucleic acid, and nonpolar lipids as the M. tuberculosis antigens inducing protective γ9δ2 T cells. Mild acid hydrolysis, which transforms complex carbohydrate to monomeric residues, abrogated the specific activity of M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysates, suggesting that a polysaccharide was required for biological activity. Extraction of MtbWL with chloroform-methanol-water (10:10:3) resulted in a polar lipid fraction with highly enriched specific activity; this activity was further enriched by silica gel chromatography. A combination of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of bioactive fractions indicated that 6-O-methylglucose-containing lipopolysaccharides (mGLP) are predominant components present in this active fraction. These results have important implications for the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of TB. PMID:27297390

  11. A Subset of Protective γ9δ2 T Cells Is Activated by Novel Mycobacterial Glycolipid Components

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mei; Hesser, Danny C.; De, Prithwiraj; Sakala, Isaac G.; Spencer, Charles T.; Kirkwood, Jay S.; Abate, Getahun; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2016-01-01

    γ9δ2 T cells provide a natural bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, rapidly and potently respond to pathogen infection in mucosal tissues, and are prominently induced by both tuberculosis (TB) infection and bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Mycobacterium-expanded γ9δ2 T cells represent only a subset of the phosphoantigen {isopentenyl pyrophosphate [IPP] and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enylpyrophosphate [HMBPP]}-responsive γ9δ2 T cells, expressing an oligoclonal set of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences which more efficiently recognize and inhibit intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Based on this premise, we have been searching for M. tuberculosis antigens specifically capable of inducing a unique subset of mycobacterium-protective γ9δ2 T cells. Our screening strategy includes the identification of M. tuberculosis fractions that expand γ9δ2 T cells with biological functions capable of inhibiting intracellular mycobacterial replication. Chemical treatments of M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysates (MtbWL) ruled out protein, nucleic acid, and nonpolar lipids as the M. tuberculosis antigens inducing protective γ9δ2 T cells. Mild acid hydrolysis, which transforms complex carbohydrate to monomeric residues, abrogated the specific activity of M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysates, suggesting that a polysaccharide was required for biological activity. Extraction of MtbWL with chloroform-methanol-water (10:10:3) resulted in a polar lipid fraction with highly enriched specific activity; this activity was further enriched by silica gel chromatography. A combination of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of bioactive fractions indicated that 6-O-methylglucose-containing lipopolysaccharides (mGLP) are predominant components present in this active fraction. These results have important implications for the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of TB. PMID:27297390

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of the essential oils from Senecio flammeus

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Xia; Dai, Jia-Li; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Many species from Senecio genus have been used in traditional medicine, and their pharmacological activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Senecio flammeus. A total of 48 components representing 98.41 % of the total oils were identified. The main compounds in the oils were α-farnesene (11.26 %), caryophyllene (8.69 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.23 %), and α-pinene (6.36 %). The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was evaluated in rodents (10–90 mg/kg bw) in classical models of inflammation [carrageenan-induced paw edema, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma]. The essential oils at doses of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg bw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 17.42 % (P < 0.05), 52.90 % (P < 0.05), and 66.45 % (P < 0.05) 4 h after carrageenan injection, respectively, and significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity (P < 0.05). The essential oils (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) also produced a significant dose-dependent response to reduce TPA-induced ear edema by 20.27 % (P < 0.05), 33.06 % (P < 0.05), and 53.90 % (P < 0.05), respectively. The essential oils produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against cotton pellet-induced granuloma that peaked at the highest dose of 90 mg/kg (49.08 % wet weight and 47.29 % dry weight). Results demonstrate that the essential oils of S. flammeus were effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, thereby supporting the traditional use of this herb. PMID:26417301

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of the essential oils from Senecio flammeus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Xia; Dai, Jia-Li; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Many species from Senecio genus have been used in traditional medicine, and their pharmacological activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Senecio flammeus. A total of 48 components representing 98.41 % of the total oils were identified. The main compounds in the oils were α-farnesene (11.26 %), caryophyllene (8.69 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.23 %), and α-pinene (6.36 %). The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was evaluated in rodents (10-90 mg/kg bw) in classical models of inflammation [carrageenan-induced paw edema, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma]. The essential oils at doses of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg bw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 17.42 % (P < 0.05), 52.90 % (P < 0.05), and 66.45 % (P < 0.05) 4 h after carrageenan injection, respectively, and significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity (P < 0.05). The essential oils (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) also produced a significant dose-dependent response to reduce TPA-induced ear edema by 20.27 % (P < 0.05), 33.06 % (P < 0.05), and 53.90 % (P < 0.05), respectively. The essential oils produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against cotton pellet-induced granuloma that peaked at the highest dose of 90 mg/kg (49.08 % wet weight and 47.29 % dry weight). Results demonstrate that the essential oils of S. flammeus were effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, thereby supporting the traditional use of this herb. PMID:26417301

  14. Can active components of licorice, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid, lick rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qing-Chun; Wang, Mao-Jie; Chen, Xiu-Min; Yu, Wan-Lin; Chu, Yong-Liang; He, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Run-Yue

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This review stated the possible application of the active components of licorice, glycyrrhizin (GL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment based on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/thromboxane A2 (TxA2) pathway. METHODS The extensive literature from inception to July 2015 was searched in PubMed central, and relevant reports were identified according to the purpose of this study. RESULTS The active components of licorice GL and GA exert the potential anti-inflammatory effects through, at least in part, suppressing COX-2 and its downstream product TxA2. Additionally, the COX-2/TxA2 pathway, an auto-regulatory feedback loop, has been recently found to be a crucial mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of RA. However, TxA2 is neither the pharmacological target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) nor the target of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and the limitations and side effects of those drugs may be, at least in part, attributable to lack of the effects on the COX-2/TxA2 pathway. Therefore, GL and GA capable of targeting this pathway hold the potential as a novel add-on therapy in therapeutic strategy, which is supported by several bench experiments. CONCLUSIONS The active components of licorice, GL and GA, could not only potentiate the therapeutic effects but also decrease the adverse effects of NSAIDs or DMARDs through suppressing the COX-2/TxA2 pathway during treatment course of RA. PMID:26498361

  15. Evaluation of Kinase Activity Profiling Using Chemical Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Zecha, Jana; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Médard, Guillaume; Lemeer, Simone; Kuster, Bernhard

    2015-12-18

    Protein kinases are important mediators of intracellular signaling and are reversibly activated by phosphorylation. Immobilized kinase inhibitors can be used to enrich these often low-abundance proteins, to identify targets of kinase inhibitors, or to probe their selectivity. It has been suggested that the binding of kinases to affinity beads reflects a kinase's activation status, a concept that is under considerable debate. To assess the merits of the idea, we performed a series of experiments including quantitative phosphoproteomics and purification of kinases by single or mixed affinity matrices from signaling activated or resting cancer cells. The data show that mixed affinity beads largely bind kinases independent of their activation status, and experiments using individual immobilized kinase inhibitors show mixed results in terms of preference for binding the active or inactive conformation. Taken together, activity- or conformation-dependent binding to such affinity resins depends (i) on the kinase, (ii) on the affinity probe, and (iii) on the activation status of the lysate or cell. As a result, great caution should be exercised when inferring kinase activity from such binding data. The results also suggest that assaying kinase activity using binding data is restricted to a limited number of well-chosen cases. PMID:26378887

  16. Metabolites of ginger component [6]-shogaol remain bioactive in cancer cells and have low toxicity in normal cells: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingdong; Warin, Renaud F; Soroka, Dominique N; Chen, Huadong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study found that [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component in ginger, is extensively metabolized in cancer cells and in mice. It is unclear whether these metabolites retain bioactivity. The aim of the current study is to synthesize the major metabolites of [6]-shogaol and evaluate their inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Twelve metabolites of [6]-shogaol (M1, M2, and M4-M13) were successfully synthesized using simple and easily accessible chemical methods. Growth inhibition assays showed that most metabolites of [6]-shogaol had measurable activities against human cancer cells HCT-116 and H-1299. In particular, metabolite M2 greatly retained the biological activities of [6]-shogaol, with an IC(50) of 24.43 µM in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and an IC(50) of 25.82 µM in H-1299 human lung cancer cells. Also exhibiting a relatively high potency was thiol-conjugate M13, with IC(50) values of 45.47 and 47.77 µM toward HCT-116 and H-1299 cells, respectively. The toxicity evaluation of the synthetic metabolites (M1, M2, and M4-M13) against human normal fibroblast colon cells CCD-18Co and human normal lung cells IMR-90 demonstrated a detoxifying metabolic biotransformation of [6]-shogaol. The most active metabolite M2 had almost no toxicity to CCD-18Co and IMR-90 normal cells with IC(50)s of 99.18 and 98.30 µM, respectively. TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay indicated that apoptosis was triggered by metabolites M2, M13, and its two diastereomers M13-1 and M13-2. There was no significant difference between the apoptotic effect of [6]-shogaol and the effect of M2 and M13 after 6 hour treatment. PMID:23382939

  17. Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Components and Low Birth Weight in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies on air pollutants and birth outcomes have reported inconsistent results. Chemical components of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) composition are spatially -heterogeneous, which might contribute to discrepancies across PM2.5 studies. Objectives: We explored whether birth weight at term is affected by PM2.5, PM10 (PM ≤ 10 µm), and gaseous pollutants. Methods: We calculated exposures during gestation and each trimester for PM2.5 chemical components, PM10, PM2.5, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide for births in 2000–2007 for states in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic United States. Associations between exposures and risk of low birth weight (LBW) were adjusted by family and individual characteristics and region. Interaction terms were used to investigate whether risk differs by race or sex. Results: Several PM2.5 chemical components were associated with LBW. Risk increased 4.9% (95% CI: 3.4, 6.5%), 4.7% (3.2, 6.2%), 5.7% (2.7, 8.8%), and 5.0% (3.1, 7.0%) per interquartile range increase of PM2.5 aluminum, elemental carbon, nickel, and titanium, respectively. Other PM2.5 chemical components and gaseous pollutants showed associations, but were not statistically significant in multipollutant models. The trimester associated with the highest relative risk differed among pollutants. Effect estimates for PM2.5 elemental carbon and nickel were higher for infants of white mothers than for those of African-American mothers, and for males than females. Conclusions: Most exposure levels in our study area were in compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution standards; however, we identified associations between PM2.5 components and LBW. Findings suggest that some PM2.5 components may be more harmful than others, and that some groups may be particularly susceptible. PMID:23008268

  18. Active Components of Essential Oils as Anti-Obesity Potential Drugs Investigated by in Silico Techniques.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giosuè; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Alcaro, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In this study, for the first time, we have considered essential oils (EOs) as possible resources of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), in particular against the mitochondrial isoform VA that, actually, represents an innovative target for the obesity treatment. In silico structure-based virtual screening was performed in order to speed up the identification of promising antiobesity agents. The potential hit compounds were submitted to in vitro assays and experimental results, corroborated by molecular modeling studies, showed EOs components as a new class of CAIs with a competitive mechanism of action due to the zinc ion coordination within the active sites of these metallo-enzymes. PMID:27268752

  19. Suicide risk by military occupation in the DoD active component population.

    PubMed

    Trofimovich, Lily; Reger, Mark A; Luxton, David D; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne A

    2013-06-01

    Suicide risk based on occupational cohorts within the U.S. military was investigated. Rates of suicide based on military occupational categories were computed for the Department of Defense (DoD) active component population between 2001 and 2010. The combined infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialist group was at increased risk of suicide compared to the overall military population even when adjusted for gender, age, and deployment history. The results provide useful information that can help inform the DoD's suicide prevention mission. Data limitations and recommended areas for future research are discussed. PMID:23347281

  20. Discovery of active components in herbs using chromatographic separation coupled with online bioassay.

    PubMed

    De-Qiang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Dong; Shao-Ping, Li

    2016-05-15

    Discovery of bioactive compounds from complex mixtures is a challenge. In past decades, several strategies were developed and implemented for rapid and effective screening and characterization of bioactive components in complex matrices. This review mainly focused on the online strategies, which integrated the separation science, mass spectrometry, and bioactivity screening in a single platform, allowing simultaneous screening and characterization of active compounds from complex matrices, especially from the herbs. The online screening methodologies, including pre-column affinity-based screening and post-column bioassay, were discussed and their applied examples were also presented to illustrate the strengths and limitations of these approaches. PMID:26896311

  1. Oncogene activation in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors: implications for risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Stowers, S.J.; Patterson, R.M.; Maronpot, R.R.; Anderson, M.W.

    1988-06-01

    The validity of rodent tumor end points in assessing the potential hazards of chemical exposure to humans is a somewhat controversial but very important issue since most chemicals are classified as potentially hazardous to humans on the basis of long-term carcinogenesis studies in rodents. The ability to distinguish between genotoxic, cytotoxic, or receptor-mediated promotion effects of chemical treatment would aid in the interpretation of rodent carcinogenesis data. Activated oncogenes in spontaneously occurring and chemically induced rodent tumors were examined and compared as one approach to determine the mechanism by which chemical treatment caused an increased incidence of rodent tumors. Different patterns of activated oncogenes were found not only in spontaneous versus chemically induced mouse liver tumors but also in a variety of spontaneous rat tumors versus chemically induced rat lung tumors. In the absence of cytotoxic effects, it could be argued that the chemicals in question activated protooncogenes by a direct genotoxic mechanism. These results provided a basis for the analysis of activated oncogenes in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors to provide information at a molecular level to aid in the extrapolation of rodent carcinogenesis data to human risk assessment.

  2. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent. PMID:26351584

  3. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent. PMID:26351584

  4. Chemical Composition, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oil from the Tunisian Ononis angustissima L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghribi, Lotfi; Nejma, Aymen Ben; Besbes, Malek; Harzalla-Skhiri, Fethia; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben

    2016-04-01

    The chemical composition, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Ononis angustissima from south Tunisia has been evaluated. The oil yield was 0.04% (w/w). The chemical composition, determined by GC and GC-MS is reported for the first time. Forty-five components, accounting for 93.7% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%) and apocarotenoids (10.3%). The main components of the oil were α-eudesmol (22.4%), 2-tridecanone (9.3%) and acetophenone (7.4%). The essential oil was tested for its possible cytotoxic activity towards the human cervical cell line HeLa using the MTT assay and the antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and the clinical strain Acinetobacter sp. This oil exerted a cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL and a significant antibacterial effect against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. PMID:26972463

  5. A new chemical probe for phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Allison R; Nasheri, Neda; McKay, Craig S; O'Hara, Shifawn; Hunt, Ashley; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Goto, Natalie K; Pezacki, John Paul

    2014-06-16

    Phosphatidylinositol kinases (PIKs) are key enzymatic regulators of membrane phospholipids and membrane environments that control many aspects of cellular function, from signal transduction to secretion, through the Golgi apparatus. Here, we have developed a photoreactive "clickable" probe, PIK-BPyne, to report the activity of PIKs. We investigated the selectivity and efficiency of the probe to both inhibit and label PIKs, and we compared PIK-BPyne to a wortmannin activity-based probe also known to target PIKs. We found that PIK-BPyne can act as an effective in situ activity-based probe, and for the first time, report changes in PI4K-IIIβ activity induced by the hepatitis C virus. These results establish the utility of PIK-BPyne for activity-based protein profiling studies of PIK function in native biological systems. PMID:24850173

  6. Phospholipase A2 Activity Triggers the Wound-Activated Chemical Defense in the Diatom Thalassiosira rotula

    PubMed Central

    Pohnert, Georg

    2002-01-01

    The activation of oxylipin-based chemical defense in the diatom Thalassiosira rotula is initiated by phospholipases that act immediately after cell damage. This lipase activity is responsible for the preferential release of free mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among these, eicosatetraenoic- and eicosapentaenoic acid are further converted by lipoxygenases to reactive defensive metabolites such as the antiproliferative α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehydes 2,4-decadienal and 2,4,7-decatrienal. We show that mainly saturated free fatty acids are present in the intact diatom T. rotula, whereas the amount of free polyunsaturated eicosanoids is drastically increased in the first minutes after wounding. Using fluorescent probes, the main enzyme activity responsible for initiation of the aldehyde-generating lipase/lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase cascade was characterized as a phospholipase A2. All enzymes involved in this specific defensive reaction are active in seawater over several minutes. Thus, the mechanism allows the unicellular algae to overcome restrictions arising out of potential dilution of defensive metabolites. Only upon predation are high local concentrations of aldehydes formed in the vicinity of the herbivores, whereas in times of low stress, cellular resources can be invested in the formation of eicosanoid-rich phospholipids. In contrast to higher plants, which use lipases acting on galactolipids to release C18 fatty acids for production of leaf-volatile aldehydes, diatoms rely on phospholipids and the transformation of C20 fatty acids to form 2,4-decadienal and 2,4,7-decatrienal as an activated defense. PMID:12011342

  7. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar; Grunwald, Ingo

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  8. Radical-scavenging Activity and Antioxidative Effects of Olive Leaf Components Oleuropein and Hydroxytyrosol in Comparison with Homovanillic Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Umeno, Aya; Takashima, Mizuki; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Koike, Taisuke; Matsuo, Toshiki; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    Olive leaf has great potential as a natural antioxidant, and one of its major phenolic components is oleuropein. In this study, the antioxidant activity of oleuropein against oxygen-centered radicals was measured by examining its sparing effects on the peroxyl radical-induced decay of fluorescein and pyrogallol red, in comparison with related compounds. The antioxidant capacity of oleuropein against lipid peroxidation was also assessed through its effect on the free radical-induced oxidation of methyl linoleate in a micelle system. On a molar basis, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the decay of fluorescein for longer than both homovanillic alcohol and the vitamin-E mimic 2-carboxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-6-chromanol (Trolox), but did not suppress pyrogallol red decay in a concentration-dependent manner. Measurement of the fluorescein decay period revealed that the stoichiometric number of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol against peroxyl radicals was twice that of Trolox, which is substantially higher than expectations based on chemical structure. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were also more effective than Trolox and homovanillic alcohol at suppressing the oxidation of methyl linoleate in the micelle system. Thus, both oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol exhibit high antioxidative activity against lipid peroxidation induced by oxygen-centered radicals, but the high reactivity of phenolic/catecholic radicals makes their mechanism of action complex. PMID:26136177

  9. Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cecilia; Quesada, Silvia; Brenes, Oscar; Aguilar, Gilda; Cicció, José F

    2008-01-01

    The leaf essential oil hydrodistilled from Schinus molle grown in Costa Rica was characterised in terms of its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, ability to induce cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death involved in the process. As a result, 42 constituents, accounting for 97.2% of the total oil, were identified. The major constituents of the oil were beta-pinene and alpha-pinene. The antioxidant activity showed an IC(50) of 36.3 microg mL(-1). The essential oil was cytotoxic in several cell lines, showing that it is more effective on breast carcinoma and leukemic cell lines. The LD(50) for cytotoxicity at 48 h in K562 corresponded to 78.7 microg mL(-1), which was very similar to the LD(50) obtained when apoptosis was measured. The essential oil did not induce significant necrosis up to 200 microg mL(-1), which together with the former results indicate that apoptosis is the main mechanism of toxicity induced by S. molle essential oil in this cell line. In conclusion, the essential oil tested was weak antioxidant and induced cytotoxicity in different cell types by a mechanism related to apoptosis. It would be interesting to elucidate the role that different components of the oil play in the effect observed here, since some of them could have potential anti-tumoural effects, either alone or in combination. PMID:19023816

  10. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA. PMID:26246740

  11. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond.

    PubMed

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide. PMID:27589723

  12. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activities of fourteen mentha essential oils and their components.

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, Judith; Habegger, Ruth; Schnitzler, Wilfried H; Grassmann, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The essential oils of 14 species and hybrids, respectively, of the genus Mentha were examined for their antioxidant capacity in the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay and in a lipid-peroxidation (LPO) assay. The ABTS(.+) -scavenging capacity of pure essential-oil components and mixtures of them was also tested. In both assays, Mentha×dumetorum (classification not fully confirmed), Mentha suaveolens, and Mentha×villosa (classification not fully confirmed) showed the highest antioxidant capacity, which was ascribed to the components germacrene D, piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide. The high antioxidant activity in the LPO assay of the two hybrids Mentha×gracilis and, to a lower degree, of Mentha×dalmatica (classification not fully confirmed) was ascribed to their high contents of cis-ocimene and β-caryophyllene. Of the pure components tested (germacrene D, piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide were not tested, as not commercially available), only cis-ocimene showed a distinct antioxidant effect, whereas dihydrocarvone and linalool had pro-oxidant effects in the ABTS assay. PMID:25491341

  13. C75 activates malonyl-CoA sensitive and insensitive components of the CPT system.

    PubMed

    Nicot, Carine; Napal, Laura; Relat, Joana; González, Silvia; Llebaria, Amadeu; Woldegiorgis, Gebre; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego

    2004-12-17

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) and II (CPT-II) enzymes are components of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase shuttle system which allows entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for subsequent oxidation. This system is tightly regulated by malonyl-CoA levels since this metabolite is a strong reversible inhibitor of the CPT-I enzyme. There are two distinct CPT-I isotypes (CPT-Ialpha and CPT-Ibeta), that exhibit different sensitivity to malonyl-CoA inhibition. Because of its ability to inhibit fatty acid synthase, C75 is able to increase malonyl-CoA intracellular levels. Paradoxically it also activates long-chain fatty acid oxidation. To identify the exact target of C75 within the CPT system, we expressed individually the different components of the system in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We show here that C75 acts on recombinant CPT-Ialpha, but also on the other CPT-I isotype (CPT-Ibeta) and the malonyl-CoA insensitive component of the CPT system, CPT-II. PMID:15541339

  14. Antimicrobial activity of natural Respitol-B and its main components against poultry microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Valian, Mahdi

    2013-10-01

    Poultries are infected to different kinds of microbial infections during their growth. For prevent of these diseases, many farmers use the synthetic antimicrobial agents. Whereas, the poultries participate in food cycle of human, the residues of these agents enter in human and cause many undesired side effects. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Respitol-B and its main components (eucalyptus oil and menthol) was evaluated on different kinds of microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi in vitro conditions by disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The gram positive bacteria, yeast and fungi is more sensitive than Gram negative ones to Respitol-B. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is less sensitive to Respitol-B. Evaluation of menthol and eucalyptus oil for their antimicrobial activities exhibited that the antimicrobial activity of menthol is higher than that of eucalyptus oil. Eucalyptus oil had the best effect on Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus but had no effect on others. The antimicrobial activity of menthol is observable and its presence in Respitol-B enhances the antimicrobial activity of Respitol-B. Respitol-B as a 100% herbal drug has antimicrobial effect and can be used as alternative therapy for preventing and controlling of infections. PMID:24502173

  15. The chemical nature of the hypothalamocortical activation underlying drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Batuev, A S; Gafurov, B G

    1993-01-01

    The injection of cholinergic substances (carbocholine, carbathin [karbatin], acetylcholine) into the lateral field of the hypothalamus of cats is accompanied by the appearance in the electrohypothalamogram of characteristic hypersynchronized activity and drinking behavior. The swallowing of water temporarily stops the hypersynchronized activity; the injection of adrenaline into the hypothalamus elicits the same effect. The injection of the same cholinergic preparations into the posterior sigmoid gyrus of the cerebral cortex is accompanied by similar, but less pronounced bioelectrical and behavioral effects. The presentation of a closed drink dispenser containing water to the animals against the background of cholinergic activation of the hypothalamus or cortex leads to desynchronization of the bioelectrical activity and suppression of the bursts of hypersynchronized activity. The drinking behavior of cats which appears on the basis of centrally created thirst motivation reflects the activity of a primary dominant focus in the hypothalamus and of a secondary dominant focus in the sensorimotor cortex. These foci are cholinergic in nature. The cessation of the drinking behavior may be related to the activation of adrenergic mechanisms of the same brain structures. PMID:8464543

  16. Functional Imaging of Chemically Active Surfaces with Optical Reporter Microbeads

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Punkaj; Nair, Sumitha; Narayan, Sreenath; Gratzl, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a novel approach to allow for continuous imaging of concentration fields that evolve at surfaces due to release, uptake, and mass transport of molecules, without significant interference of the concentration fields by the chemical imaging itself. The technique utilizes optical “reporter” microbeads immobilized in a thin layer of transparent and inert hydrogel on top of the surface. The hydrogel has minimal density and therefore diffusion in and across it is like in water. Imaging the immobilized microbeads over time provides quantitative concentration measurements at each location where an optical reporter resides. Using image analysis in post-processing these spatially discrete measurements can be transformed into contiguous maps of the dynamic concentration field across the entire surface. If the microbeads are small enough relative to the dimensions of the region of interest and sparsely applied then chemical imaging will not noticeably affect the evolution of concentration fields. In this work colorimetric optode microbeads a few micrometers in diameter were used to image surface concentration distributions on the millimeter scale. PMID:26332766

  17. Handling High Activity Components on the SNS (Collimators and Linac Passive Dump Window)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, G.; Decarlo, A.; Potter, K.; Roseberry, T.; Schubert, J.; Brodowski, J.; Ludewig, H.; Tuozzolo, J.; Simos, N.; Hirst, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator will provide a 1 GeV, 1.44 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The expected highest doses to components are in the collimation regions. This paper presents the mechanical engineering design of a typical collimator highlighting the features incorporated to assist with collimator removal once it is activated. These features include modular shielding, integrated crane mounting, remote water fittings and vacuum clamps. Also presented is the design work in progress at present to validate the remote vacuum clamp design. This includes a test rig that mimics an active handling scenario where vacuum bellows can be compressed and clamps removed/replaced from a safe distance.

  18. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are essential components of distinct mechanically activated cation channels.

    PubMed

    Coste, Bertrand; Mathur, Jayanti; Schmidt, Manuela; Earley, Taryn J; Ranade, Sanjeev; Petrus, Matt J; Dubin, Adrienne E; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical stimuli drive many physiological processes, including touch and pain sensation, hearing, and blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) cation channel activities have been recorded in many cells, but the responsible molecules have not been identified. We characterized a rapidly adapting MA current in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line. Expression profiling and RNA interference knockdown of candidate genes identified Piezo1 (Fam38A) to be required for MA currents in these cells. Piezo1 and related Piezo2 (Fam38B) are vertebrate multipass transmembrane proteins with homologs in invertebrates, plants, and protozoa. Overexpression of mouse Piezo1 or Piezo2 induced two kinetically distinct MA currents. Piezos are expressed in several tissues, and knockdown of Piezo2 in dorsal root ganglia neurons specifically reduced rapidly adapting MA currents. We propose that Piezos are components of MA cation channels. PMID:20813920

  19. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zhirong; Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PPNWF) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PPNWF samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activities of methanolic extract and alkaloidal components from Corydalis tuber.

    PubMed

    Kubo, M; Matsuda, H; Tokuoka, K; Ma, S; Shiomoto, H

    1994-02-01

    A methanolic extract (CM-ext) from Corydalis tuber (Corydalis turtschaninovii Besser forma yanhusuo Y. H. Chou et C. C. Hsu) has been screened for activity in experimental models of inflammation. CM-ext (200 or 500 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited an increase in vascular permeability in mice induced by acetic acid, and reduced acute paw edema in rats induced by compound 48/80 or carrageenin. CM-ext suppressed the development of adjuvant-induced edema in arthritic rats. CM-ext and its alkaloidal components, dehydrocorydaline, d-glaucine and l-tetrahydrocoptisine inhibited compound 48/80-induced histamine release from peritoneal mast cells of rats. Since these substances from C. tuber were found to be effective in both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation, the crude drug C. tuber can be considered to exert anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:7515744

  1. CBP histone acetyltransferase activity is a critical component of memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Korzus, Edward; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Mayford, Mark

    2004-06-24

    The stabilization of learned information into long-term memories requires new gene expression. CREB binding protein (CBP) is a coactivator of transcription that can be independently regulated in neurons. CBP functions both as a platform for recruiting other required components of the transcriptional machinery and as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that alters chromatin structure. To dissect the chromatin remodeling versus platform function of CBP or the developmental versus adult role of this gene, we generated transgenic mice that express CBP in which HAT activity is eliminated. Acquisition of new information and short-term memory is spared in these mice, while the stabilization of short-term memory into long-term memory is impaired. The behavioral phenotype is due to an acute requirement for CBP HAT activity in the adult as it is rescued by both suppression of transgene expression or by administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) in adult animals. PMID:15207240

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zantar, Said; Haouzi, Rachid; Chabbi, Mohamed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mouhib, Mohammed; Mohammed Boujnah; Bakkali, Mohammed; Zerrouk, Mounir Hassani

    2015-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils (EOs) have been studied. The chromatographic analysis showed that the studied EOs were constituted mainly by carvacrol for T. vulgaris and pulegone for M. pulegium. Gamma irradiation on the studied doses, affects quantitatively and not qualitatively some components of the investigated oils. This effect was dose dependent. While the antioxidant activity remains stable at any dose applied for the plants studied, the antimicrobial activity increased in the irradiated samples for gram negative bacteria and did not change for gram+bacteria. This study supports that gamma irradiation employed at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities of medicinal and aromatic plants.

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay. PMID:25920235

  4. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-11-10

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Koenigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R {sub S} (R {sub S} = 2GM/c {sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  5. Associations between physical activity and sedentary time on components of metabolic syndrome among adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Jaggers, Jason R; Prasad, Vivek K; Dudgeon, Wesley D; Blair, Steven N; Sui, Xuemei; Burgess, Stephanie; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could possibly be explained by an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) due to the known toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between physical activity (PA) and components of MetSyn in a sample of PLWHA taking ART. A total of 31 males and 32 females living with HIV and currently taking ART were enrolled in a home-based PA intervention aimed to reduce risk factors for CVD. Clinical assessments included measures of resting blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, height, weight, PA levels via accelerometer, and a fasted blood draw. Components of MetSyn were divided into three clusters (1 = 0-1; 2 = 2; 3 = 3 or more). A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between clusters. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify significant associations between moderate intensity PA (MPA) and sedentary time among components of MetSyn. MPA was significantly lower across MetSyn clusters (p < 0.001), whereas sedentary time was significantly higher (p = 0.01). A multiple linear regression showed MPA to be a significant predictor of waist circumference after controlling for age, race, gender, and sedentary time. Routine PA can be beneficial in helping PLWHA reduce waist circumference ultimately leading to metabolic improvements. This in turn would help PLWHA self-manage known components of MetSyn, thus reducing their risk of CVD and mortality. PMID:24861098

  6. Rhythmic Components in Extracranial Brain Signals Reveal Multifaceted Task Modulation of Overlapping Neuronal Activity.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Roemer; van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neuronal activity is implicated in many cognitive functions, and its phase coupling between sensors may reflect networks of communicating neuronal populations. Oscillatory activity is often studied using extracranial recordings and compared between experimental conditions. This is challenging, because there is overlap between sensor-level activity generated by different sources, and this can obscure differential experimental modulations of these sources. Additionally, in extracranial data, sensor-level phase coupling not only reflects communicating populations, but can also be generated by a current dipole, whose sensor-level phase coupling does not reflect source-level interactions. We present a novel method, which is capable of separating and characterizing sources on the basis of their phase coupling patterns as a function of space, frequency and time (trials). Importantly, this method depends on a plausible model of a neurobiological rhythm. We present this model and an accompanying analysis pipeline. Next, we demonstrate our approach, using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings during a cued tactile detection task as a case study. We show that the extracted components have overlapping spatial maps and frequency content, which are difficult to resolve using conventional pairwise measures. Because our decomposition also provides trial loadings, components can be readily contrasted between experimental conditions. Strikingly, we observed heterogeneity in alpha and beta sources with respect to whether their activity was suppressed or enhanced as a function of attention and performance, and this happened both in task relevant and irrelevant regions. This heterogeneity contrasts with the common view that alpha and beta amplitude over sensory areas are always negatively related to attention and performance. PMID:27336159

  7. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity.

    PubMed

    Khoa, D V A; Wimmers, K

    2015-09-01

    The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS), Duroc (DU), Berlin miniature pig (BMP), German Landrace (LR), Pietrain (PIE), and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig). Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP) that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE) show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK). Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9) as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future. PMID:26194222

  8. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Khoa, D. V. A.; Wimmers, K.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS), Duroc (DU), Berlin miniature pig (BMP), German Landrace (LR), Pietrain (PIE), and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig). Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP) that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE) show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK). Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9) as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future. PMID:26194222

  9. Rhythmic Components in Extracranial Brain Signals Reveal Multifaceted Task Modulation of Overlapping Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neuronal activity is implicated in many cognitive functions, and its phase coupling between sensors may reflect networks of communicating neuronal populations. Oscillatory activity is often studied using extracranial recordings and compared between experimental conditions. This is challenging, because there is overlap between sensor-level activity generated by different sources, and this can obscure differential experimental modulations of these sources. Additionally, in extracranial data, sensor-level phase coupling not only reflects communicating populations, but can also be generated by a current dipole, whose sensor-level phase coupling does not reflect source-level interactions. We present a novel method, which is capable of separating and characterizing sources on the basis of their phase coupling patterns as a function of space, frequency and time (trials). Importantly, this method depends on a plausible model of a neurobiological rhythm. We present this model and an accompanying analysis pipeline. Next, we demonstrate our approach, using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings during a cued tactile detection task as a case study. We show that the extracted components have overlapping spatial maps and frequency content, which are difficult to resolve using conventional pairwise measures. Because our decomposition also provides trial loadings, components can be readily contrasted between experimental conditions. Strikingly, we observed heterogeneity in alpha and beta sources with respect to whether their activity was suppressed or enhanced as a function of attention and performance, and this happened both in task relevant and irrelevant regions. This heterogeneity contrasts with the common view that alpha and beta amplitude over sensory areas are always negatively related to attention and performance. PMID:27336159

  10. Coumarin heterocyclic derivatives: chemical synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Medina, Fernanda G; Marrero, Joaquín G; Macías-Alonso, Mariana; González, Magdalena C; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Teissier García, Ariana G; Osegueda-Robles, Soraya

    2015-09-23

    This review highlights the broad range of science that has arisen from the synthesis of coumarin-linked and fused heterocycle derivatives. Specific topics include their synthesis and biological activity. PMID:26151411

  11. Chemically sulfated natural galactomannans with specific antiviral and anticoagulant activities.

    PubMed

    Muschin, Tegshi; Budragchaa, Davaanyam; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Ichiyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shuqin, Han; Yoshida, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Naturally occurring galactomannans were sulfated to give sulfated galactomannans with degrees of substitution of 0.7-1.4 per sugar unit and molecular weights of M¯n=0.6×10(4)-2.4×10(4). Sulfated galactomannans were found to have specific biological activities in vitro such as anticoagulant, anti-HIV and anti-Dengue virus activities. The biological activities were compared with those of standard dextran and curdlan sulfates, which are polysaccharides with potent antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity. It was found that sulfated galactomannans had moderate to high anticoagulant activity, 13.4-36.6unit/mg, compared to that of dextran and curdlan sulfates, 22.7 and 10.0unit/mg, and high anti-HIV and anti-Dengue virus activities, 0.04-0.8μg/mL and 0.2-1.1μg/mL, compared to those curdlan sulfates, 0.1μg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxicity on MT-4 and LCC-MK2 cells was low. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of sulfated galactomannans revealed strong interaction with poly-l-lysine as a model compound of virus proteins, and suggested that the specific biological activities might originate in the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged sulfate groups of sulfated galactomannans and positively charged amino groups of surface proteins of viruses. These results suggest that sulfated galactomannans effectively prevented the infection of cells by viruses and the degree of substitution and molecular weights played important roles in the biological activities. PMID:27154517

  12. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

    2013-03-01

    Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

  13. Extraction of the anti-sepsis component from Terminaliachebula Retz and evaluation of its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jie; Zheng, Jun Song; Fu, WeiLing; Zheng, Jiang

    2010-02-01

    Many clinical experiments and studies have demonstrated that traditional Chinese medicines possess the capacity for being used in anti-sepsis. In this paper, we screened 78 herbs based on biosensor technology by targeting of lipid A. Terminaliachebula Retz was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. With CER (cation-exchange resin) and HPLC, we obtained three active components extracted from Terminaliachebula Retz, and named them TCR1, TCR2 and TCR3 respectively. These three components were evaluated with the biosensor, and it was found that the TCR3 was the most capable candidate to bind lipid A. We also studied the biological activities of TCR3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo. in vitro, TCR3 could significantly inhibit LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced LAL (Limulus amoebocyte lysate)) from agglutination and decrease TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha) release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. in vivo, TCR3 could significantly protect mice against a lethal challenge with LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli 35218 in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Terminaliachebula Retz is an important herb to neutralize LPS and it has the potential to serve as a treatment for sepsis. PMID:19203350

  14. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries. PMID:24885879

  15. M. leprae components induce nerve damage by complement activation: identification of lipoarabinomannan as the dominant complement activator.

    PubMed

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Das, Pranab K; Fluiter, Kees; Rosa, Patricia S; Vreijling, Jeroen; Troost, Dirk; Morgan, B Paul; Baas, Frank; Ramaglia, Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral nerve damage is the hallmark of leprosy pathology but its etiology is unclear. We previously identified the membrane attack complex (MAC) of the complement system as a key determinant of post-traumatic nerve damage and demonstrated that its inhibition is neuroprotective. Here, we determined the contribution of the MAC to nerve damage caused by Mycobacterium leprae and its components in mouse. Furthermore, we studied the association between MAC and the key M. leprae component lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in nerve biopsies of leprosy patients. Intraneural injections of M. leprae sonicate induced MAC deposition and pathological changes in the mouse nerve, whereas MAC inhibition preserved myelin and axons. Complement activation occurred mainly via the lectin pathway and the principal activator was LAM. In leprosy nerves, the extent of LAM and MAC immunoreactivity was robust and significantly higher in multibacillary compared to paucibacillary donors (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), with a highly significant association between LAM and MAC in the diseased samples (r = 0.9601, p = 0.0001). Further, MAC co-localized with LAM on axons, pointing to a role for this M. leprae antigen in complement activation and nerve damage in leprosy. Our findings demonstrate that MAC contributes to nerve damage in a model of M. leprae-induced nerve injury and its inhibition is neuroprotective. In addition, our data identified LAM as the key pathogen associated molecule that activates complement and causes nerve damage. Taken together our data imply an important role of complement in nerve damage in leprosy and may inform the development of novel therapeutics for patients. PMID:25772973

  16. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-01-01

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. PMID:26287238

  17. HIGH-DIMENSIONAL PROFILING OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVITY DIFFERENTIATES TOXCAST CHEMICAL GROUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxCast™ project at the U.S. EPA uses a diverse battery of high throughput screening assays and informatics models to rapidly characterize the activity of chemicals. A central goal of the project is to provide empirical evidence to aid in the prioritization of chemicals for a...

  18. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR SCREENING ORGANIC CHEMICALS FOR POTENTIAL ECOTOXICITY EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for estimating the bioconcentration factor and acute toxicity of some classes of industrial chemicals using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Log P) which is derived from chemical structure. The bioconcentra...

  19. Chemical Constituents Antioxidant and Anticholinesterasic Activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to analyze the alkaloid content of the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae family) and its fractions as well as to evaluate their antioxidant and anticholinesterasic activities. The analyses of the ethanolic extract of T. catharinensis by mass spectrometry allowed identifying the presence of the alkaloids 16-epi-affinine, coronaridine-hydroxyindolenine, voachalotine, voacristine-hydroxyindolenine, and 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, as well as an alkaloid with m/z 385.21 whose spectrum suggests a derivative of voacristine or voacangine. The extract and its alkaloid rich fractions showed antioxidant activity, especially those that contain the alkaloid m/z 385.21 or 16-epi-affinine with DPPH scavenging activity (IC50) between 37.18 and 74.69 μg/mL. Moreover, the extract and its fractions exhibited anticholinesterasic activity, particularly the fractions characterized by the presence of 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, with IC50 = 2.1 to 2.5 μg/mL. Fractions with 16-epi-affinine combined good antioxidant (IC50 = 65.59 to 74.69 μg/mL) and anticholinesterasic (IC50 = 7.7 to 8.3 μg/mL) activities, representing an option for further studies aimed at treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23983637

  20. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Mariko; Nakata, Rieko; Katsukawa, Michiko; Hori, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Saori; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, plays a key role in inflammation and circulatory homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and are involved in the control of COX-2 expression, and vice versa. Here, we show that COX-2 promoter activity was suppressed by essential oils derived from thyme, clove, rose, eucalyptus, fennel, and bergamot in cell-based transfection assays using bovine arterial endothelial cells. Moreover, from thyme oil, we identified carvacrol as a major component of the suppressor of COX-2 expression and an activator of PPARalpha and gamma. PPARgamma-dependent suppression of COX-2 promoter activity was observed in response to carvacrol treatment. In human macrophage-like U937 cells, carvacrol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that carvacrol regulates COX-2 expression through its agonistic effect on PPARgamma. These results may be important in understanding the antiinflammatory and antilifestyle-related disease properties of carvacrol. PMID:19578162

  1. Intrinsic Negative Feedback Governs Activation Surge in Two-Component Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Won-Sik; Zwir, Igor; Huang, Henry V.; Shin, Dongwoo; Kato, Akinori; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY PhoP and PhoQ comprise a two-component system in the bacterium Salmonella enterica. PhoQ is the sensor kinase/phosphatase that modifies the phosphorylation state of the regulator PhoP in response to stimuli. The amount of phosphorylated PhoP surges after activation, then declines to reach a steady-state level. We now recapitulate this surge in vitro by incubating PhoP and PhoQ with ATP and ADP. Mathematical modeling identified PhoQ’s affinity for ADP as the key parameter dictating phosphorylated PhoP levels, as ADP promotes PhoQ’s phosphatase activity toward phosphorylated PhoP. The lid covering the nucleotide-binding pocket of PhoQ governs the kinase to phosphatase switch because a lid mutation that decreased ADP binding compromised PhoQ’s phosphatase activity in vitro and resulted in sustained expression of PhoP-dependent mRNAs in vivo. This feedback mechanism may curtail futile ATP consumption because ADP not only stimulates PhoQ’s phosphatase activity but also inhibits ATP binding necessary for the kinase reaction. PMID:22325356

  2. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Angelica sinensis Essential Oil Against Three Colletotrichum Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical fungicides are an important component in disease management for most crops. As part of a program to discover natural product-based fungicides, several sensitive assay systems have been developed for the evaluation of naturally occurring antifungal agents. In this study, we focused on the di...

  3. Simpler is better: fewer nontarget insects trapped with a 4-component chemical lure versus a chemically more complex food-type bait for Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As baits, fermented food products are generally attractive to many types of insects, making it difficult to sort through nontarget insects to monitor a pest species of interest. We test the hypothesis that a chemically simpler and more defined attractant developed for a target insect is more specifi...

  4. Antioxidant activities of extracts and main components of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Fu, Kuang; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Yung-Husan; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Kong, Yu; Liu, Wei; Gu, Cheng-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves, as well as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions and the four main compounds separated from the ethanol extract, i.e. cajaninstilbene acid (3-hydroxy-4-prenylmethoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), pinostrobin, vitexin and orientin, were examined by a DPPH radical-scavenging assay and a beta-carotene-linoleic acid test. In the DPPH system, the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was superior to that of the aqueous extracts, with IC(50) values were 242.01 and 404.91 microg/mL, respectively. Among the four fractions, the ethyl acetate one showed the highest scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 194.98 microg/mL. Cajaninstilbene acid (302.12 microg/mL) and orientin (316.21 microg/mL) showed more efficient radical-scavenging abilities than pinostrobin and vitexin. In the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test, the inhibition ratio (%) of the ethyl acetate fraction (94.13%+/-3.41%) was found to be the highest, being almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (93.89%+/-1.45%) at 4 mg/mL. Pinostrobin (>500 microg/mL) and vitexin (>500 microg/mL) showed insignificant antioxidant activities compared with cajaninstilbene (321.53 microg/mL) and orientin (444.61 microg/mL). In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract showed greater activity than the main compounds in both systems, such results might be attributed to the synergistic effects of the components. The antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were concentration-dependent. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the pigeonpea leaf extracts may be valuable natural antioxidant sources and are potentially applicable in both medicine and the healthy food industry. PMID:19305357

  5. Detection of abnormal cardiac activity using principal component analysis--a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Greisas, Ariel; Zafrir, Zohar; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Electrogram-guided ablation has been recently developed for allowing better detection and localization of abnormal atrial activity that may be the source of arrhythmogeneity. Nevertheless, no clear indication for the benefit of using electrograms guided ablation over empirical ablation was established thus far, and there is a clear need of improving the localization of cardiac arrhythmogenic targets for ablation. In this paper, we propose a new approach for detection and localization of irregular cardiac activity during ablation procedures that is based on dimension reduction algorithms and principal component analysis (PCA). Using an 8×8 electrode array, our method produces manifolds that allow easy visualization and detection of possible arrhythmogenic ablation targets characterized by irregular conduction. We employ mathematical modeling and computer simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach for two well established arrhythmogenic sources for irregular conduction--spiral waves and patchy fibrosis. Our results show that the PCA method can differentiate between focal ectopic activity and spiral wave activity, as these two types of activity produce substantially different manifold shapes. Moreover, the technique allows the detection of spiral wave cores and their general meandering and drifting pattern. Fibrotic patches larger than 2 mm(2) could also be visualized using the PCA method, both for quiescent atrial tissue and for tissue exhibiting spiral wave activity. We envision that this method, contingent to further numerical and experimental validation studies in more complex, realistic geometrical configurations and with clinical data, can improve existing atrial ablation mapping capabilities, thus increasing success rates and optimizing arrhythmia management. PMID:25073163

  6. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. PROCESS EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes selected process evaluation studies supporting the development of an atmospheric-pressure, fluidized-bed, chemically active gasification process, using a regenerative limestone sulfur sorbent to produce low- to intermediate-Btu fuel gas. Limestone sorbent sel...

  7. Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding

  8. Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure “per se” but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different body’s components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 2200 (1016 males) adolescents (14.7 ±1.2 years). Weight, height, skinfold thickness, bioimpedance and PA (accelerometry) were measured. Indices of fat mass (body mass index, % fat mass, sum of skinfolds) and muscular component (assessed as fat-free mass) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat-free mass and fat mass when possible. Results Vigorous PA was positively associated with height (p < 0.05) in males, whilst, vigorous PA, moderate-vigorous PA and average PA were negatively associated with all the indices of fat mass (all p < 0.01) in both genders, except for average PA in relation with body mass index in females. Regarding muscular components, vigorous PA showed positive associations with fat-free mass and muscle mass (all p < 0.05) in both genders. Average PA was positively associated with fat-free mass (both p < 0.05) in males and females. Conclusion The present study suggests that PA, especially vigorous PA, is negatively associated with indices of fat mass and positively associated with markers of muscle mass, after adjusting for several confounders (including indices of fat mass and muscle mass when possible). Future studies should focus not only on the classical relationship between PA and fat mass, but also on PA and

  9. Interaction of the two components of leukocidin from Staphylococcus aureus with human polymorphonuclear leukocyte membranes: sequential binding and subsequent activation.

    PubMed Central

    Colin, D A; Mazurier, I; Sire, S; Finck-Barbançon, V

    1994-01-01

    The sequential interaction between the two components S and F of leukocidin from Staphylococcus aureus and the membrane of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils has been investigated in the presence of 1 mM Ca2+. With 125I-labeled components, it has been shown that binding of the F component occurred only after binding of the S component. The kinetic constants of binding of both components were not statistically different (Kd, approximately 5 nM; Bm, approximately 35,000 molecules per cell), and both Hill coefficients were 1. The application of increasing concentrations of leukocidin provoked a dose-dependent secretion of the granule content, as determined by hexosaminidase and lysozyme activity measurements. Furthermore, the separate perfusion of S and F components on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils deposited on a filter induced secretion of the granules content only when the perfusion of the S component preceded that of the F component. We conclude, therefore, that (i) S-component binding is a prerequisite for F-component binding and for subsequent activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and (ii) there is a specific binding site for the S component in the plasma membrane. PMID:8039887

  10. Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An experiment using methyle methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride (PMSF) to specifically modify the cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilism respectively is demonstrated. The covalent modification of these enzymes and subsequent rescue of papain shows the beginning biochemist that proteins…

  11. Genipin as a novel chemical activator of EBV lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Ryu, Eunhyun; Moon, Aree; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Jung, Yong Woo; Park, Gyu Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. EBV causes several human cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma. Antiviral agents can be categorized as virucides, antiviral chemotherapeutic agents, and immunomodulators. Most antiviral agents affect actively replicating viruses, but not their latent forms. Novel antiviral agents must be active on both the replicating and the latent forms of the virus. Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen flowering plant belonging to the Rubiaceae family and is most commonly found growing wild in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan, Myanmar, and India. Genipin is an aglycone derived from an iridoid glycoside called geniposide, which is present in large quantities in the fruit of G. jasminoides. In this study, genipin was evaluated for its role as an antitumor and antiviral agent that produces inhibitory effects against EBV and EBV associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). In SNU719 cells, one of EBVaGCs, genipin caused significant cytotoxicity (70 μM), induced methylation on EBV C promoter and tumor suppressor gene BCL7A, arrested cell-cycle progress (S phases), upregulated EBV latent/lytic genes in a dose-dependent manner, stimulated EBV progeny production, activated EBV F promoter for EBV lytic activation, and suppressed EBV infection. These results indicated that genipin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and EBVaGC. PMID:25626372

  12. Incorporating Nondrug Social & Recreational Activities in Outpatient Chemical Dependency Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…

  13. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-14

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed tomore » OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions

  14. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-06

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH andmore » O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical

  15. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging

  16. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-01

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed to OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical

  17. Push for new materials, chemicals from biomass sparks active R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper discusses how a resurgence of interest in the production of new materials, chemicals, and fuels from biomass resources such as wood, cellulose, lignin, starch, and chitin is sparking active R and D efforts in these areas. Biobased materials and chemicals currently under development include composites of conventional plastics with lignocellulosics (chemicals from wood and other plant sources); lignocellulosic nonwoven mates that can be pressed into rigid shapes to form doors, walls, and even auto body parts; phenolic chemicals produced from wood waste and bark; membranes made from chitosan (a substance derived from crustacean shells); and biodegradable plastics containing starch.

  18. Comparison of essential oil components and in vitro anticancer activity in wild and cultivated Salvia verbenaca.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of our research were to study the chemical composition and the in vitro anticancer effect of the essential oil of Salvia verbenaca growing in natural sites in comparison with those of cultivated (Sc) plants. The oil from wild (Sw) S. verbenaca presented hexadecanoic acid (23.1%) as the main constituent, while the oil from Sc plants contained high quantities of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (9.7%), scarce in the natural oil (0.7%). The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the essential oils from Sw and Sc S. verbenaca were evaluated in the human melanoma cell line M14, testing cell vitality, cell membrane integrity, genomic DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. Both the essential oils were able to inhibit the growth of the cancer cells examined inducing also apoptotic cell death, but the essential oil from cultivated samples exhibited the major effects. PMID:25537231

  19. Thorough Chemical Decontamination with the MEDOC Process : Batch Treatment of Dismantled Pieces or Loop Treatment of Large Components Such as the BR3 Steam Generator and Pressurizer

    SciTech Connect

    Ponnet, M.; Klein, M.; Massaut, V.; Davain, H.; Aleton, G.

    2003-02-25

    The dismantling of the BR3-PWR reactor leads to the production of large masses of contaminated metallic pieces, including structural materials, primary pipings, tanks and heat exchangers. One of our main objectives is to demonstrate that we can minimize the volume of radioactive waste in an economical way, by the use of alternative waste routes, such as the clearance of materials after thorough decontamination. The SCKoCEN uses its own developed chemical decontamination process, so-called MEDOC (Metal Decontamination by Oxidation with Cerium), based on the use of cerium IV as strong oxidant in sulphuric acid with continuous regeneration using ozone. An industrial installation has been designed and constructed in close collaboration with Framatome-ANP (France). This installation started operation in September 1999 for the treatment of the metallic pieces arising from the dismantling of the BR3 reactor. Since then, more than 25 tons of contaminated material including primary pipes have been treated batchwise with success. 75 % of material could be directly cleared after treatment (Activity lower than 0.1 Bq/g for 60Co) and the other 25% free released after melting activity. The SCKoCEN performed in April 2002 the closed loop decontamination of the BR3 Steam Generator by connection of the MEDOC plant after few adaptations. The decontamination was done within 30 cycles in 3 weeks with consecutive steps like decontamination steps (injection of the solution into the SG) and regeneration steps with ozone. In total, 60 hours of decontamination at 70 C and 130 hours of regeneration were needed to reach the objectives. The tube bundle (600 m2) was attacked and about 10 {micro}m representing more than 41 kg of stainless steel and 2.06 GBq of 60Co was dissolved into the solution. The residual contamination measurements made directly into the water box are still going on, however it seems that the objective to reach the free release criteria after melting is achieved. The next

  20. Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-12-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

  1. Defective active silicon uptake affects some components of rice resistance to brown spot.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Mielli, Mateus V B; Ma, Jian F; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Rice is known to accumulate high amounts of silicon (Si) in plant tissue, which helps to decrease the intensity of many economically important rice diseases. Among these diseases, brown spot, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most devastating because it negatively affects yield and grain quality. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of active root Si uptake in rice for controlling brown spot development. Some components of host resistance were evaluated in a rice mutant, low silicon 1 (lsi1), defective in active Si uptake, and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara). Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae after growing for 35 days in a hydroponic culture amended with 0 or 2 mMol Si. The components of host resistance evaluated were incubation period (IP), relative infection efficiency (RIE), area under brown spot progress curve (AUBSPC), final lesion size (FLS), rate of lesion expansion (r), and area under lesion expansion progress curve (AULEPC). Si content from both Oochikara and lsi1 in the +Si treatment increased in leaf tissue by 219 and 178%, respectively, over the nonamended controls. Plants from Oochikara had 112% more Si in leaf tissue than plants from lsi1. The IP of brown spot from Oochikara increased approximately 6 h in the presence of Si and the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were significantly reduced by 65, 75, 33, 36, and 35%, respectively. In the presence of Si, the IP increased 3 h for lsi1 but the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were reduced by only 40, 50, 12, 21, and 12%, respectively. The correlation between Si leaf content and IP was significantly positive but Si content was negatively correlated with RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts showed that Oochikara and lsi1 supplied with Si were significantly different from those not supplied with Si for all components of resistance evaluated. This result showed that a reduced Si content in tissues of plants from lsi1 dramatically affected

  2. Antimicrobial activity and chemical investigation of Brazilian Drosera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dalva Trevisan; Andrei, César Cornélio; Saridakis, Halha Ostrensky; Faria, Terezinha de Jesus; Vinhato, Elisângela; Carvalho, Kátia Eliane; Daniel, Juliana Feijó Souza; Machado, Sílvio Luiz; Saridakis, Dennis Panayotis; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2004-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three different extracts (hexanic, ethyl acetate, methanol) obtained from Brazilian Drosera species (D. communis, D. montana var. montana, D. brevifolia, D. villosa var. graomogolensis, D. villosa var. villosa, Drosera sp. 1, and Drosera sp. 2 ) were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC23212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC11229), Salmonella choleraesuis (ATCC10708), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883), and Candida albicans (a human isolate). Better antimicrobial activity was observed with D. communis and D. montana var. montana ethyl acetate extracts. Phytochemical analyses from D. communis, D. montana var. montana and D. brevifolia yielded 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin); long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons were isolated from D. communis and from D. villosa var. villosa, a mixture of long chain aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids, was isolated from D. communis and 3b-O-acetylaleuritolic acid from D. villosa var. villosa. PMID:15654434

  3. Hangman Catalysis for Photo- and Photoelectro- Chemical Activation of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nocera, Daniel

    2014-04-15

    The focus of this DOE program is solar fuels – specifically the chemistry for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) from water and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to water These three reactions are at the heart of renewable energy conversion. The bond-making and bond-breaking chemistry that underpins these transformations is not well understood. We are developing insight into such chemistry by creating a series of ligand constructs that poise an acid-base functionality over a redox active metal platform. These “hangman” ligands utilize the acid-base functionality to form a secondary coordination sphere that can assist proton movement and facilitate substrate assembly and activation within the molecular cleft. The grant period funding cycle focused on synthesis and reactivity of hangman porphyrins and corroles for HER, OER and ORR.

  4. Early Components of the Complement Classical Activation Pathway in Human Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Katherine E.; Wu, Yee Ling; Yang, Yan; Spencer, Charles H.; Hauptmann, Georges; Hebert, Lee A.; Atkinson, John P.; Yu, C. Yung

    2016-01-01

    The complement system consists of effector proteins, regulators, and receptors that participate in host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system, via the classical pathway (CP), has long been recognized in immune complex-mediated tissue injury, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Paradoxically, a complete deficiency of an early component of the CP, as evidenced by homozygous genetic deficiencies reported in human, are strongly associated with the risk of developing SLE or a lupus-like disease. Similarly, isotype deficiency attributable to a gene copy-number (GCN) variation and/or the presence of autoantibodies directed against a CP component or a regulatory protein that result in an acquired deficiency are relatively common in SLE patients. Applying accurate assay methodologies with rigorous data validations, low GCNs of total C4, and heterozygous and homozygous deficiencies of C4A have been shown as medium to large effect size risk factors, while high copy numbers of total C4 or C4A as prevalent protective factors, of European and East-Asian SLE. Here, we summarize the current knowledge related to genetic deficiency and insufficiency, and acquired protein deficiencies for C1q, C1r, C1s, C4A/C4B, and C2 in disease pathogenesis and prognosis of SLE, and, briefly, for other systemic autoimmune diseases. As the complement system is increasingly found to be associated with autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated diseases, it has become an attractive therapeutic target. We highlight the recent developments and offer a balanced perspective concerning future investigations and therapeutic applications with a focus on early components of the CP in human systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:26913032

  5. Chemical composition and antidiabetic activity of Opuntia Milpa Alta extracts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Zheng, Chengjian; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan

    2010-12-01

    Three new compounds, 1-3, and 20 known compounds were isolated from the AcOEt and BuOH extract of edible Opuntia Milpa Alta. The petroleum ether extract was examined by GC and MS. A total of 26 compounds were identified, representing 95.6% of the total extract, phytosterol (36.03%) being the most abundant component, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (18.57%) represented the second largest group, followed by phytol (12.28%), palmitic acid, palmitate (13.54%), vitamin E (4.51%), and other compounds (7.47%). The effects of various extracts from edible Opuntia Milpa Alta (petroleum ether extract, AcOEt extract, BuOH extract, aqueous extract, H₂O parts) and the positive control (received dimethylbiguanide) were tested on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results indicated that all the treatment groups could significantly decrease blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice compared to the model control group (P<0.01), except the aqueous extract group (P<0.05). Especially, the petroleum ether extract group and the positive control group showed remarkable decrease of blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results indicate that the petroleum ether extract is the major hypoglycemic part in edible Opuntia Milpa Alta, which may be developed to a potential natural hypoglycemic functional ingredient. PMID:21161999

  6. Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gokulakrishnan, J; Kuppusamy, Elumalai; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Appavu, Anandan; Kaliyamoorthi, Krishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin) chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×45 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of compounds and directly

  7. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production. PMID:27275253

  8. Effect of chemicals on fungal alpha-amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Ali, F S; Abdel-Moneim, A A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 8 growth regulators at concentrations of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm on the activity of fungal (Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris) alpha-amylase was studied. Indol acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 2% and 7% at 1,000 ppm. The other 6 growth regulators, indol butyric acid (IBA), gibberellic acid, cumarin, cycocel (CCC), atonik-G and kylar, did not inhibit but stimulated alpha-amylase activity (0 to 9%) at 1,000 ppm. All growth regulators studied inhibited alpha-amylase activity at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm concentration except kylar. The effect of organic acids and formaldehyde at 0.01, 0.005, and 0.001 M was studied. Acetic acid stimulated alpha-amylase at all concentrations, but formic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid and citric acid inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 91, 100, 100 and 79%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.01 M, while by 31, 100, 15 and 20%, respectively, at 0.005 M. Formaldehyde induced 7, 3 and 2% inhibition at 0.01, 0.005 and 0.001 M, respectively. At 0.01 M either sorbitol or fructose inhibited alpha-amylase by 8%, Maltose 7%, sucrose 6%, phenol, glucose and galactose each by 5%, ethanol, glycerol, arabinose and sodium benzoate each by 4%, isopropanol and mannitol 1%, but methanol and ammonium citrate dibasic did not inhibit alpha-amylase. The results indicate that CuCl2, SnCl2, AgNO3 and Fe2(SO4)3 were the strongest inhibitors, followed by Cd(C2H3O2), HgCl2, Na2-EDTA, Na2HPO4, and CaCl2 in decreasing order. NaCl, NaBr and Mn SO4 did not inhibit alpha-amylase at concentrations from 10 mM to 0.01 mM. PMID:2515680

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of antioxidant activity: A chemometric approach using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoni, Dorina; Sârbu, Costel

    2014-01-01

    A novel chemometric approach is described for evaluating the radical scavenging activity of biogenic amine related compounds by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHrad ) procedure and principal component analysis (PCA) tool. By a comprehensive chemometric investigation of variations in the radical scavenging profiles provided by the full-range UV-Vis spectra for different test duration and different relative concentrations (different molar ratio - [AH]/[DPPHrad ]) of the investigated compounds, new antioxidant activity evaluation parameters were proposed. The new proposed parameters (PC1, mPC1, maxPC1) are in good agreement with the reference DPPHrad results (% RSA and IC50 derived from the reference DPPHrad test), obtained for the investigated amines and reference antioxidants. Much more, the PCA profiles are better patterns for the comprehensive characterization of radical scavenging activity of compounds, allowing visualization of complex information by a simple graphical representation and underlying the (dis)similarity of compounds related both to the reaction kinetics and compounds concentration.

  11. In Vitro Synergistic Antioxidant Activity and Identification of Antioxidant Components from Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia lactiflora

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Zhaoxi; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Many traditionally used herbs demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the mechanism underlying this synergism is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antioxidant activity of Astragalus membranaceus (AME) and Paeonia Lactiflora (PL), and identify the potential antioxidant components by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical spiking test followed by a high performance liquid chromatography separation combined with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (DPPH-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Eight AME-PL combined extracts (E1–E8) were prepared based on bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among them, E1 exhibited the strongest synergistic effect in scavenging DPPH radicals and reducing ferric ions (P<0.05). Moreover, E1 presented strong cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in MRC-5 cells by suppressing the decrease of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities. A strong correlation between the increment of total phenolic/flavonoid and synergistic antioxidant activity, especially between the increment of total flavonoid and the increase in ferric reducing power was observed. Finally, seven antioxidant substances were identified in E1 as oxypaeoniflora, catechin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, fomononetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 9,10-dimethoxy-pterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin and 2′-dihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethyl-isoflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:24816851

  12. Proton pumping ATPase mediated fungicidal activity of two essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rimple; Shreaz, Sheikh; Khan, Neelofar; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Basir, Seemi F; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman A

    2012-10-01

    This work evaluates the antifungal activity of two essential oil components against 28 clinical isolates (17 sensitive, 11 resistant) and 3 standard laboratory strains of Candida. Growth of the organisms was significantly effected in both solid and liquid media at different test compound concentrations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Isoeugenol (compound 1) against 31 strains of Candida ranged 100-250 μg/ml and those of o -methoxy cinnamaldehyde (compound 2) ranged 200-500 μg/ml, respectively. Insight studies to mechanism suggested that these compounds exert antifungal activity by targeting H(+)-ATPase located in the membranes of pathogenic Candida species. At their respective MIC(90) average inhibition of H(+)-efflux for standard, clinical and resistant isolates caused by compound 1 and compound 2 was 70%, 74%, 82% and 42%, 42% and 43%. Respective inhibition of H(+)-efflux by fluconazole (5 μg/ml) was 94%, 92% and 10%. Inhibition of H(+)-ATPase leads to intracellular acidification and cell death. SEM analysis of Candida cells showed cell membrane breakage and alterations in morphology. Haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. PMID:22143929

  13. Climbing on the cage lid, a regular component of locomotor activity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Büttner, D

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain base values of climbing behaviour in mice maintained under standardized conditions in Makrolon-cages. Therefore three adult male mice each of the inbred strains BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J were kept separately and two C57BL/6J females as a group in Makrolon-cages type III. In addition, the same BALB/c mice were later kept in a cage with an eightfold floor area. Behavioural observations were carried out by video technique using a light-sensitive camera and a time-lapse recorder. Locomotor activity on the cage floor and climbing on the top of the cage were measured over a period of 48 h for each animal. The duration of locomotion on the ground ranged from 24-65 min/day, climbing between 49-122 (males) and 159 min/day (females) respectively. Climbing showed a more pronounced daily periodicity than locomotion, especially in the case of the BALB/cJ strain, where the average duration of climbing was about 28 min/h during the first hour after light off. In the mouse, climbing is obviously a regular component of activity, which deserves not only attention in the discussion concerning the needs of laboratory animals, but also in measurements of locomotor activity. PMID:1814462

  14. Large enhancement of photocatalytic activity by chemical etching of TiO2 crystallized glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ihara, Rie; Terakado, Nobuaki; Fujiwara, Takumi; Kato, Hideki; Kakihana, Masato

    2014-10-01

    The authors aim to report the largest enhancement of photocatalytic activity by chemical etching in anatase-type TiO2 crystallized glass. Optimization of several conditions for crystallization behavior and chemical etching to realize the nano-structured ceramics (NSC) has been performed in the crystallized glass. NSC-fabrication by chemical etching in the crystallized glass is one of the most effective solutions to provide bulk materials with high specific surface area. We have found that the best condition for the NSC fabrication as a novel bulk photocatalyst in our glass system, and have obtained 16 times higher catalytic activity than that of non-etched one.

  15. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ~ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ~ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  16. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real tim