Lammert, Marilyn; Dolan, Mary M.
Describes two dimensions of Gestalt therapy that can enhance clinical practice--orientation to the present and active-experimental style--and examines them in relation to some traditional principles of practice. Gestalt theory offers a method of discovery that is a combination of phenomenology and behaviorism. (JAC)
Galante, Emanuela; Gazzi, Lidia; Caffarra, Sendy
The goal of the present review was to present a critical description of psychological research and practice in neurorehabilitation with regard to the efficacy of treatments proposed in the clinical and neuropsychological field. PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane databases were searched by using the keywords "psychological intervention" and one of the following neurological diseases: "stroke", "TBI", "Parkinson", "ALS", "multiple sclerosis", "dementia". Randomized and pseudo-randomized trials, reviews and single case studies were included. We identified 134 papers: 54 concerning dementia, 24 stroke, 20 multiple sclerosis, 16 Parkinson, 13 TBI and 7 ALS. Most of these papers concern the evaluation of the effectiveness of psychological treatments in chronic or progressive neurological diseases. However, they are often characterized by methodological limitations, such as a small sample size, absence of a follow-up study or a control group. Further, high quality studies could help better understand treatment effects. There was some evidence for effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural and cognitive therapies, often applied both in clinical and neuropsychological interventions. Evidence coming from individualized treatment and single case studies are also described. In line with the data collected, we summarize some evidence available for psychological testing and treatment and argue that a multidisciplinary approach and a multidimensional evaluation should be adopted. According to this position, both randomized trials and single-case studies could be taken into account. Finally, it is proposed that in order to establish the efficacy of a given treatment, both standardized and individualized measures are to be used.
Sallis, Robert; Franklin, Barry; Joy, Liz; Ross, Robert; Sabgir, David; Stone, James
The time has come for healthcare systems to take an active role in the promotion of physical activity (PA). The connection between PA and health has been clearly established and exercise should be viewed as a cost effective medication that is universally prescribed as a first line treatment for virtually every chronic disease. While there are potential risks associated with exercise, these can be minimized with a proper approach and are far outweighed by the benefits. Key to promoting PA in the clinical setting is the use of a PA Vital Sign in which every patient's exercise habits are assessed and recorded in their medical record. Those not meeting the recommended 150min per week of moderate intensity PA should be encouraged to increase their PA levels with a proper exercise prescription. We can improve compliance by assessing our patient's barriers to being more active and employing new and evolving technology like accelerometers and smart phones applications, along with various websites and programs that have proven efficacy.
DuHamel, Martha B; Hirnle, Constance; Karvonen, Colleen; Sayre, Cindy; Wyant, Sheryl; Colobong Smith, Nancy; Keener, Sheila; Barrett, Shannon; Whitney, Joanne D
In a 14-week medical-surgical nursing review course, two teaching strategies are used to promote active learning and assess the transfer of knowledge to nursing practice. Practice tests and clinical examples provide opportunities for participants to engage in self-assessment and reflective learning and enhance their nursing knowledge, skills, and practice. These strategies also contribute to program evaluation and are adaptable to a variety of course formats, including traditional classroom, web conference, and online self-study.
Margolin, David A.; Beck, David E.
A multispecialty clinic practice is a common practice arrangement for colorectal surgeons. This type of practice has a variety of features, both positive and negative. The authors explore location, practice patterns, lifestyles, compensation, and academic opportunities associated with a multispecialty clinic practice. This information can assist younger surgeons in choosing a practice opportunity and guide experienced surgeons through their career progression. PMID:22654568
Carter, A O; Battista, R N; Hodge, M J; Lewis, S; Basinski, A; Davis, D
The organizing committee of a workshop on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) surveyed invited organizations on their attitudes and activities related to five topics to be covered during the workshop sessions: organizational roles, priority setting, guidelines implementation, guidelines evaluation and development of a network of those active in the CPG field. Organizational roles: The national specialty societies were felt to have the largest role to play; the smallest roles were assigned to consumers, who were seen to have a role mainly in priority setting, and to industry and government, both of which were seen to have primarily a funding role. Many barriers to collaboration were identified, the solutions to all of which appeared to be better communication, establishment of common principles and clear role definitions. Priority setting: There was considerable agreement on the criteria that should be used to set priorities for CPG activities: the burden of disease on population health, the state of scientific knowledge, the cost of treatment and the economic burden of disease on society were seen as important factors, whereas the costs of guidelines development and practitioner interest in guidelines development were seen as less important. Organizations were unable to give much information on how they set priorities. Guidelines implementation: Most of the organizations surveyed did not actively try to ensure the implementation of guidelines, although a considerable minority devoted resources to implementation. The 38% of organizations that implemented guidelines actively listed a wide variety of activities, including training, use of local opinion leaders, information technology, local consensus processes and counter detailing. Guidelines evaluation: Formal evaluation of guidelines was undertaken by fewer than 13% of the responding organizations. All the evaluations incorporated assessments before and after guideline implementation, and some used primary patient
Hill, K J; Romich, B A
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) evidence-based practice requires the collection and analysis of performance data. This article presents the development, evaluation, and application of automated performance monitoring tools for use in clinical practice. Language activity monitoring (LAM) is the systematic data collection of the actual language activity of an individual who relies on AAC. Work completed to date includes the development and evaluation of the language activity monitor function, which now is commercially available in three forms: (1) a standard feature built into modern high performance AAC systems, (2) an external add-on package for use with older AAC devices based on synthetic speech, and (3) software that allows the personal computer to serve as an LAM in the clinical environment. The LAM records the time and content of language events (the generation of one or more letters or words). A logging protocol suitable for clinical application has been in use since late 1998. The logged data is uploaded periodically to a computer for editing, analysis, and the generation of a summary measure report. The applications of this work in the areas of clinical service delivery are presented.
Frank, Laura L
Thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B1. Its biologically active form, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), is a cofactor in macronutrient metabolism. In addition to its coenzyme roles, TPP plays a role in nerve structure and function as well as brain metabolism. Signs and symptoms of thiamin deficiency (TD) include lactic acidosis, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, and ocular changes (eg, nystagmus). More advanced symptoms include confabulation and memory loss and/or psychosis, resulting in Wernicke's encephalopathy and/or Wernicke's Korsakoff syndrome, respectively. The nutrition support clinician should be aware of patients who may be at risk for TD. Risk factors include those patients with malnutrition due to 1 or more nutrition-related etiologies: decreased nutrient intake, increased nutrient losses, or impaired nutrient absorption. Clinical scenarios such as unexplained heart failure or lactic acidosis, renal failure with dialysis, alcoholism, starvation, hyperemesis gravidarum, or bariatric surgery may increase the risk for TD. Patients who are critically ill and require nutrition support may also be at risk for TD, especially those who are given intravenous dextrose void of thiamin repletion. Furthermore, understanding thiamin's role as a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes, some inborn errors of metabolism, and neurodegenerative diseases warrants further research. This tutorial describes the absorption, digestion, and metabolism of thiamin. Issues pertaining to thiamin in clinical practice will be described, and evidence-based practice suggestions for the prevention and treatment of TD will be discussed.
Alarcão, Violeta; Ribeiro, Sofia; Almeida, Joana; Giami, Alain
Few studies explore the clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexuality, despite their role in the sexual-health socialization process. This study focuses on Portuguese sexologists engaged in clinical practice. It aims to characterize sexologists' sex education and training and their clinical practices, including diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This research followed the methodology of an European survey on sexology as a profession (Euro-Sexo). From the 91 respondents who completed questionnaires, 51 (56%) were active in clinical practice. Results indicate that the Portuguese clinical sexologist is significantly older, predominantly male, has had training in sexology, performs more scientific research, and is more engaged in teaching activities when compared to nonclinical working sexologists. This article describes the main sexual problems presented by patients to Portuguese clinical sexologists and highlights differences in the professional groups and approaches toward treating these problems by medical doctors and nonmedical professionals. Results reinforce the idea that there are intra-European differences in the educational background of sexologists and reveal important variations in Portuguese sexologists' education, training, and clinical practice. The representations and practices of the sexologists in Portugal, as in other European countries, are embedded in cultural scenarios and sexual cultures, with implications for the clinical practice.
Sánchez-Gonzaléz, Miguel; Herreros, Benjamín
Bioethics has grown exponentially in recent decades. Its most important schools include principlism, casuistry, virtue ethics and the ethics of care. These schools are not exclusive. Within bioethics, clinical ethics addresses the inherent clinical practice ethical problems, problems which are many and very varied. Bioethics training is essential for clinicians to address these bioethics' problems. But even the professionals are trained, there are problems that cannot be solved individually and require advisory groups in clinical ethics: clinical ethics committees. These committees are also responsible for education in bioethics in health institutions. Clinical bioethics is a practical discipline, oriented to address specific problems, so its development is necessary to improve the decision making in such complex problems, inevitable problems in healthcare.
Holland, Patricia E.
Clinical supervision remained grounded in empirical inquiry as late as Morris Cogan's writings on the subject in 1973. With the acknowledgment of Thomas Kuhn's (1962) paradigm shift, educational theory and practice developed interpretive methodologies. An interpretive reflection on Cogan's rationale offers insights into the current, matured…
Maristany, Cleofé Pérez-Portabella; Segurola Gurruchaga, Hegoi
Water is an essential foundation for life, having both a regulatory and structural function. The former results from active and passive participation in all metabolic reactions, and its role in conserving and maintaining body temperature. Structurally speaking it is the major contributer to tissue mass, accounting for 60% of the basis of blood plasma, intracellular and intersticial fluid. Water is also part of the primary structures of life such as genetic material or proteins. Therefore, it is necessary that the nurse makes an early assessment of patients water needs to detect if there are signs of electrolyte imbalance. Dehydration can be a very serious problem, especially in children and the elderly. Dehydrations treatment with oral rehydration solution decreases the risk of developing hydration disorders, but even so, it is recommended to follow preventive measures to reduce the incidence and severity of dehydration. The key to having a proper hydration is prevention. Artificial nutrition encompasses the need for precise calculation of water needs in enteral nutrition as parenteral, so the nurse should be part of this process and use the tools for calculating the patient's requirements. All this helps to ensure an optimal nutritional status in patients at risk. Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. On the subject of artificial nutrition and hydration, there isn't yet any unanimous agreement regarding hydration as a basic care. It is necessary to take decisions in consensus with the health team, always thinking of the best interests of the patient.
Arango, Jaime; Chuck, Tina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Foltz, Bridget; Gorman, Colleen; Hinrichs, Heidi; McHale, Susan; Merchant, Kunal; Shapley, Stephanie; Wild, Gretchen
Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses, and reporting of clinical trials. The goal of GCP is to ensure the protection of the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of clinical trial participants and to ensure the credibility and accuracy of data and reported results. In the United States, trial sponsors generally require investigators to complete GCP training prior to participating in each clinical trial to foster GCP and as a method to meet regulatory expectations (ie, sponsor’s responsibility to select qualified investigators per 21 CFR 312.50 and 312.53(a) for drugs and biologics and 21 CFR 812.40 and 812.43(a) for medical devices). This training requirement is often extended to investigative site staff, as deemed relevant by the sponsor, institution, or investigator. Those who participate in multiple clinical trials are often required by sponsors to complete repeated GCP training, which is unnecessarily burdensome. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative convened a multidisciplinary project team involving partners from academia, industry, other researchers and research staff, and government to develop recommendations for streamlining current GCP training practices. Recommendations drafted by the project team, including the minimum key training elements, frequency, format, and evidence of training completion, were presented to a broad group of experts to foster discussion of the current issues and to seek consensus on proposed solutions. PMID:27390628
Much more is known about attitudes toward mental illness and social stigma, the viscious cycle of its consequences and how to fight the social stigma in public, but much less is known about how to combat the stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. Stigma theories have not been enough to understand the feelings and experience of people with mental illness. Conceptual framework that understands stigma as consisting of difficulties of knowledge (ignorance or misinformation), problems of attitudes (prejudice), and problems of behaviour (discrimination) have not o been enough to understand stigma dynamics in the patient therapist interaction. Understanding the psychodynamic aspects of internalized stereotype of mental illness in the patient- therapist relationship may improve our competency to deal with stigma and self stigma in clinical practice.
Vleugels, A M
Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements that are intended to support medical decision making in well-defined clinical situations. Essentially, their object is to reduce the variability in medical practice, to improve quality, and to make appropriated control of the financial resources possible. Internationally, ever more organisations, associations, and institutions are concerned with the development of guidelines in many different areas of care. Making implicit knowledge explicit is one of the associated advantages of guidelines: they have a potential utility in training, in process evaluation, and in the reevaluation of outcome studies. In liability issues, their existence has a double effect: they can be used to justify medical behaviour, and they constitute a generally accepted reference point. A derivative problem is the legal liability of the compilers of the guidelines. The principle of the guideline approach can be challenged academically: science cannot give a definition of optimal care with absolute certainty. What is called objectivity often rests on methodologically disputable analyses; also the opinion of opinion leaders is not always a guarantee for scientific soundness. Moreover, patients are not all identical: biological variability, situational factors, patient expectations, and other elements play a role in this differentiation. Clinicians are often hesitant with respect to clinical guidelines: they are afraid of cookbook medicine and curtailment of their professional autonomy. Patients fear reduction of individualization of care and the use of guidelines as a rationing instrument. The effects of the introduction of clinical practice guidelines on medical practice, on the results and on the cost of care vary but are generally considered to be favourable. The choice of appropriate strategies in development, dissemination, and implementation turns out to be of critical importance. The article ends with concrete
In recent years the ability of neuroscience to identify and intervene in mental functions has progressed immensely, which raises several anthropologic and ethical questions. Meanwhile neuroethics arose as a new interdisciplinary field for critical analysis of neuroscientific actions and ethical reflection on the increasing knowledge of the human brain, with regard to society and politics. This article provides a survey of neuroethical implications for clinical practice.
Sinagra, Gianfranco; Anzini, Marco; Pereira, Naveen L; Bussani, Rossana; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Bartunek, Jozef; Merlo, Marco
Myocarditis is a polymorphic disease characterized by great variability in clinical presentation and evolution. Patients presenting with severe left ventricular dysfunction and life-threatening arrhythmias represent a demanding challenge for the clinician. Modern techniques of cardiovascular imaging and the exhaustive molecular evaluation of the myocardium with endomyocardial biopsy have provided valuable insight into the pathophysiology of this disease, and several clinical registries have unraveled the disease's long-term evolution and prognosis. However, uncertainties persist in crucial practical issues in the management of patients. This article critically reviews current information for evidence-based management, offering a rational and practical approach to patients with myocarditis. For this review, we searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for articles published from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2015, using the following terms: myocarditis, inflammatory cardiomyopathy, and endomyocardial biopsy. Articles were selected for inclusion if they represented primary data or were review articles published in high-impact journals. In particular, a risk-oriented approach is proposed. The different patterns of presentation of myocarditis are classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk syndromes according to the most recent evidence on prognosis, clinical findings, and both invasive and noninvasive testing, and appropriate management strategies are proposed for each risk class.
Biswas, M; Davies, J S
Hyponatraemia is defined as a serum sodium concentration below 135 mmol/l. It causes major diagnostic and management problems in practice. Hyponatraemic disorders are divided into euvolaemic, hypervolaemic and hypovolaemic. In the evaluation of the hyponatraemic patient, history taking should focus on identifying the potential cause, duration and symptomatology. Clinical examination should include assessment of volume status. Acute hyponatraemia of less than 48 h duration requires prompt correction. Treatment may involve hypertonic saline, isotonic saline and appropriate hormone replacement therapy depending on the aetiology. Chronic hyponatraemia should be treated with caution because of the risk of central pontine myelinolysis. PMID:17551067
Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Bulsara, Caroline; Nobre, Debbie; Hill, Anne-Marie
Objective This study evaluates whether a community of practice (CoP) could conduct a falls prevention clinical audit and identify gaps in falls prevention practice requiring action.Methods Cross-sectional falls prevention clinical audits were conducted in 13 residential aged care (RAC) sites of a not-for-profit organisation providing care to a total of 779 residents. The audits were led by an operationalised CoP assisted by site clinical staff. A CoP is a group of people with a shared interest who get together to innovate for change. The CoP was made up of self-nominated staff representing all RAC sites and comprised of staff from various disciplines with a shared interest in falls prevention.Results All 13 (100%) sites completed the audit. CoP conduct of the audit met identified criteria for an effective clinical audit. The priorities for improvement were identified as increasing the proportion of residents receiving vitamin D supplementation (mean 41.5%, s.d. 23.7) and development of mandatory falls prevention education for staff and a falls prevention policy, as neither was in place at any site. CoP actions undertaken included a letter to visiting GPs requesting support for vitamin D prescription, surveys of care staff and residents to inform falls education development, defining falls and writing a falls prevention policy.Conclusion A CoP was able to effectively conduct an evidence-based falls prevention activity audit and identify gaps in practice. CoP members were well positioned, as site staff, to overcome barriers and facilitate action in falls prevention practice.What is known about the topic? Audit and feedback is an effective way of measuring clinical quality and safety. CoPs have been established in healthcare using workplace staff to address clinical problems but little is known about their ability to audit and influence practice change.What does this paper add? This study contributes to the body of knowledge on CoPs in healthcare by evaluating the
Wasfy, Meagan M; Baggish, Aaron L
There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice.
Asheervath, J.; Blevins, D.R.
Written in outline format, this reference will help nurses further their understanding of advanced nursing procedures. Information is provided on the physiological, psychological, environmental, and safety considerations of nursing activities associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Special consideration is given to the areas of pediatric nursing, nursing assessment, and selected radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures for each system. Contents: Clinical Introduction. Clinical Nursing Practice: Focus on Basics. Focus on Cardiovascular Function. Focus on Respiratory Function. Focus on Gastrointestinal Function. Focus on Renal and Genito-Urological Function. Focus on Neuro-Skeletal and Muscular Function. Appendices.
Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Dwyer, Edward M; Eberly, Shirley; Francis, Charles; Gillespie, John A; Goldstein, Robert E; Greenberg, Henry; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald J; Klein, Helmut; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Marcus, Frank I; Moss, Arthur J; Oakes, David; Ryan, Daniel H; Bloch Thomsen, Poul E; Zareba, Wojciech
Cardiac-related clinical practice guidelines have become an integral part of the practice of cardiology. Unfortunately, these guidelines are often long, complex, and difficult for practicing cardiologists to use. Guidelines should be condensed and their format upgraded, so that the key messages are easier to comprehend and can be applied more readily by those involved in patient care. After presenting the historical background and describing the guideline structure, we make several recommendations to make clinical practice guidelines more user-friendly for clinical cardiologists. Our most important recommendations are that the clinical cardiology guidelines should focus exclusively on (1) class I recommendations with established benefits that are supported by randomized clinical trials and (2) class III recommendations for diagnostic or therapeutic approaches in which quality studies show no benefit or possible harm. Class II recommendations are not evidence based but reflect expert opinions related to published clinical studies, with potential for personal bias by members of the guideline committee. Class II recommendations should be published separately as "Expert Consensus Statements" or "Task Force Committee Opinions," so that both majority and minority expert opinions can be presented in a less dogmatic form than the way these recommendations currently appear in clinical practice guidelines.
Egan, Tony; Jaye, Chrystal
The social organization of clinical learning is under-theorized in the sociological literature on the social organization of health care. Professional scopes of practice and jurisdictions are formally defined by professional principles and standards and reflected in legislation; however, these are mediated through the day-to-day clinical activities of social groupings of clinical teams. The activities of health service providers typically occur within communities of clinical practice. These are also major sites for clinical curriculum delivery, where clinical students learn not only clinical skills but also how to be health professionals. In this article, we apply Wenger's model of social learning within organizations to curriculum delivery within a health service setting. Here, social participation is the basis of learning. We suggest that it offers a powerful framework for recognizing and explaining paradox and incongruence in clinical teaching and learning, and also for recognizing opportunities, and devising means, to add value to students' learning experiences.
Nakajima, Ayako; Inoue, Eisuke; Shidara, Kumi; Hoshi, Daisuke; Sato, Eri; Seto, Yohei; Tanaka, Eiichi; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Momohara, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Hisashi
We aimed to clarify the degree of improvement in disease control following early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in daily clinical practice in 2006 compared to that in 2001. Using a large observational Japanese RA cohort (IORRA), we analyzed changes in clinical parameters, including disease activity assessed by the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) and physical disability assessed by the Japanese version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ), which occurred within 2 years of cohort inception. All patients had enrolled in the IORRA cohort within 1 year of RA onset, in either 2001 (2001-cohort) or 2006 (2006-cohort). For both cohorts, changes in clinical features over 2 years were compared by Fisher's exact test or the Wilcoxon test. The 2001-cohort included 71 patients and the 2006-cohort included 56 patients. Over the 2-year period for each cohort, DAS28 significantly decreased from 3.9 to 3.5 in the 2001-cohort (p < 0.001) and from 4.1 to 3.1 in the 2006-cohort (p < 0.0001), and J-HAQ significantly decreased from 0.62 to 0.49 (p < 0.02) in the 2001-cohort and from 0.71 to 0.41 (p < 0.001) in the 2006-cohort. Greater improvement in disease activity over 2 years occurred in the 2006-cohort than in the 2001-cohort (p < 0.05). Better disease control was obtained following changes in RA treatment strategy that occurred in Japan between 2001 and 2006.
Aphasia is a central language impairment with word finding and comprehension deficit and paraphasias. The highlights of the essential language tests and the classification based on a scorable assessment are presented. The clinical syndromes of Broca's, global, Wernicke, conduction, anomic and transcortical aphasias are detailed with definition, localization, and prognosis. Modality specific disorders associated with aphasic syndromes are discussed. The management of the aphasic patient, consisting of informed support and coordination of available services, is often the responsibility of the family physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286589
Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge.
Black, Dennis M; Rosen, Clifford J
Key Clinical Points Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Fractures and osteoporosis are common, particularly among older women, and hip fractures can be devastating. Treatment is generally recommended in postmenopausal women who have a bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or less, a history of spine or hip fracture, or a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score indicating increased fracture risk. Bisphosphonates (generic) and denosumab reduce the risk of hip, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures; bisphosphonates are commonly used as first-line treatment in women who do not have contraindications. Teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been reported with treatment but are rare. The benefit-to-risk ratio for osteoporosis treatment is strongly positive for most women with osteoporosis. Because benefits are retained after discontinuation of alendronate or zoledronic acid, drug holidays after 5 years of alendronate therapy or 3 years of zoledronic acid therapy may be considered for patients at lower risk for fracture.
Quinn, Lori; Trubey, Rob; Gobat, Nina; Dawes, Helen; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Jones, Carys; Townson, Julia; Drew, Cheney; Kelson, Mark; Poile, Vincent; Rosser, Anne; Hood, Kerenza
Background and Purpose: We studied the development and delivery of a 14-week complex physical activity intervention for people with Huntington disease, where detailed information about the intervention was fully embedded in the trial design process. Methods: Intervention Development: The intervention was developed through a series of focus groups. The findings from the focus groups informed the development of a logic model for the physical activity intervention that was broadly consistent with the framework of self-determination theory. Intervention Delivery: Key components underpinning the delivery of the intervention were implemented including a defined coach training program and intervention fidelity assessment methods. Training of coaches (physical therapists, occupational therapists, research nurses, and exercise trainers) was delivered via group and 1:1 training sessions using a detailed coach's manual, and with ongoing support via video calls, and e-mail communication as needed. Detailed documentation was provided to determine costs of intervention development and coach training. Results: Intervention delivery coaches at 8 sites across the United Kingdom participated in the face-to-face training. Self-report checklists completed by each of the coaches indicated that all components of the intervention were delivered in accordance with the protocol. Mean (standard deviation) intervention fidelity scores (n = 15), as measured using a purpose-developed rating scale, was 11 (2.4) (out of 16 possible points). Coaches' perceptions of intervention fidelity were similarly high. The total cost of developing the intervention and providing training was £30,773 ($47,042 USD). Discussion and Conclusions: An important consideration in promoting translation of clinical research into practice is the ability to convey the detailed components of how the intervention was delivered to facilitate replication if the results are favorable. This report presents an illustrative
Fogelman, I. )
The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.
Rovelli, Francesca; Mercuri, Santo Raffaele; Naldi, Luigi
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches in areas rich in sebaceous glands. It is one of the most frequent skin disorders and may be socially embarrassing. Fungi of the genus Malassezia, lipid-dependent, ubiquitous skin residents, play a pathogenic role. Topical antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole) are the mainstay of treatment, and if used intermittently they can maintain remission. The vehicle itself may also play a relevant role. Improvements in diagnostic criteria, severity measures and outcome variables are needed to better design clinical trials and inform clinical practice.
Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I
The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214
Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C
The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making.
Clinical research implies advancing current knowledge about health care by continually developing and testing new ideas about diseases, products, procedures, and strategies. Although this trait is inherent in human nature, it needs to be encouraged, nurtured, groomed, and channelized by creating a suitable atmosphere for it, providing the necessary resources, inculcating the necessary conceptual and manual skills, and rewarding the efforts and achievements suitably. Language, logic, statistics, and psychology play an important role in acquiring and developing research capability. To be socially relevant and economically viable, clinical research will need to partner with patients and their doctors in identifying what their goals of health care are, what they value, and what they are willing to "buy" in terms of goods and services. Besides, clinical research will need to bring on one platform the sponsors, the researchers, the patients, the payers, and the regulators to ensure that they do not work at cross purposes, that the cost of developing health care measures is scaled down through innovative approaches such as large simple trials, sequential trials, early marketing conditional on post-marketing surveillance, and so on. All these will be possible if day-to-day practice is slowly and systemically transformed into the largest laboratory of clinical research, which it ought to be, by forming networks of research-oriented practices, and popularizing the use of data collection and analysis tools such as Epi Info which are in the public domain.
Wright, Adam; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Wasserman, Joe; Bunce, Arwen; Stanescu, Ana; St Hilaire, Daniel; Panzenhagen, Morgan; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F
Objective To describe the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support (CDS) at leading sites. Materials and methods We conducted ethnographic observations at seven diverse sites with a history of excellence in CDS using the Rapid Assessment Process and analyzed the data using a series of card sorts, informed by Linstone's Multiple Perspectives Model. Results We identified 18 activities and grouped them into four areas. Area 1: Fostering relationships across the organization, with activities (a) training and support, (b) visibility/presence on the floor, (c) liaising between people, (d) administration and leadership, (e) project management, (f) cheerleading/buy-in/sponsorship, (g) preparing for CDS implementation. Area 2: Assembling the system with activities (a) providing technical support, (b) CDS content development, (c) purchasing products from vendors (d) knowledge management, (e) system integration. Area 3: Using CDS to achieve the organization's goals with activities (a) reporting, (b) requirements-gathering/specifications, (c) monitoring CDS, (d) linking CDS to goals, (e) managing data. Area 4: Participation in external policy and standards activities (this area consists of only a single activity). We also identified a set of recommendations associated with these 18 activities. Discussion All 18 activities we identified were performed at all sites, although the way they were organized into roles differed substantially. We consider these activities critical to the success of a CDS program. Conclusions A series of activities are performed by sites strong in CDS, and sites adopting CDS should ensure they incorporate these activities into their efforts. PMID:23999670
Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.
Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064
de Oliveira, Reinaldo Ayer; Jorge Filho, Isac
To think about ethics means to go into the Bioethics universe. If it is understood that medical ethics deals with doctors within an organized society under legal purposes, consensus and ethics in the exercise of medicine it is observed that Bioethics came up due to the need to debate and decide on the ethic questions related mainly to research and scientific advances as well as conquests concerning human rights and social-cultural development: it is the critical expression of our interest in conveniently using the development of medical art and science. Within Medicine, clinical Bioethics arouse as a possibility of thinking and discussing the practice of medicine in the different social institutions which deal with health and with professionals in health area.
Fuertes de Vega, I; Iranzo-Fernández, P; Mascaró-Galy, J M
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease in which autoantibodies are directed against components of the basement membrane. Most of these antibodies belong to the immunoglobulin G class and bind principally to 2 hemidesmosomal proteins: the 180-kD antigen (BP180) and the 230-kD antigen (BP230). It is the most common blistering disease in the adult population in developed countries, with an estimated incidence in Spain of 0.2 to 3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The disease primarily affects older people, although it can also occur in young people and even in children. In recent years, advances in clinical practice have led to a better understanding and improved management of this disorder. These advances include new diagnostic techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BP180 and new drugs for the treatment of BP, with diverse therapeutic targets. There is, however, still no international consensus on guidelines for the management of BP. This article is an updated review of the scientific literature on the treatment of BP. It focuses primarily on evidence-based recommendations and is written from a practical standpoint based on experience in the routine management of this disease.
Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides
Abstract Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF). We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000–May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis. Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008–1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168–0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies. Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients. PMID:28121951
Gardner, Greg; Sexton, Patrick; Guyer, M. Susan; Willeford, K. Sean; Levy, Linda S.; Barnum, Mary G.; Fincher, A. Louise
Objective: To present the principles of adult learning and mentoring to help clinical instructors better educate athletic training students (ATSs) during their clinical experiences, with the end result being a better prepared, competent entry-level practitioner. Background: The principles of adult learning must be applied to ATS clinical education…
Hargrove, Patricia; Griffer, Mona; Lund, Bonnie
Purpose: This article provides information about clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to facilitate their application to the practice of speech-language pathology. CPGs are sets of recommendations based on evidence, including expert clinical opinion, that have been developed by a panel of reviewers. In this article, CPGs are defined and their…
Ajjawi, Rola; Rees, Charlotte; Monrouxe, Lynn V.
Purpose: This paper aims to explore how opportunities for learning clinical skills are negotiated within bedside teaching encounters (BTEs). Bedside teaching, within the medical workplace, is considered essential for helping students develop their clinical skills. Design/methodology/approach: An audio and/or video observational study examining…
Chapman, Scott A.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Moon, Jean Y.; Undeberg, Megan R.; Orzoff, Jordan H.
The profession of pharmacy is facing a shifting health system context that holds both opportunity and risk. If the profession of pharmacy is to advance, pharmacists must be recognized as a consistent member of the health care team in all clinical settings, contributing at the fullest extent of licensure and education. One part of achieving this broad goal is to implement a new way of defining and assessing pharmacy practice skills, such as entrustable professional activities (EPA). Assessment of professional tasks and practice activities with EPAs has been successfully implemented in medical education for assessing trainee preparation for practice. This EPA model is being applied to pharmacy education to develop an assessment framework across the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) curriculum. The APPE course directors, practice faculty members, and the Office of Experiential Education collaboratively defined a set of universal EPAs critical for pharmacists in any practice setting and would be assessed in all practice experience types. PMID:27293224
Dadge, Jean; Casey, Dawn
Students who entered training as of September 2007 are required to have a 'sign-off mentor' in their final clinical placement to register with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The sign-off mentor status is mandatory for confirming that, on completion of the final clinical placement, the student has met all the requirements of the pre-registration clinical assessment criteria and can register as a qualified nurse. This article describes the role of the clinical teacher in preparing and supporting mentors in one area of Wales.
Rudd, M David
This review discusses suicide warning signs in clinical practice and has three simple goals: 1) to help practitioners differentiate in a clinically meaningful fashion between warning signs and risk factors for suicide; 2) to articulate the link among warning signs for suicide, hopelessness, and intent to die; and 3) to assist practitioners in applying warning signs in day-to-day clinical practice, doing so in a concrete and effective manner.
Rubenstein, H.; Levitt, C.
All residents of McGill University's Department of Family Medicine were surveyed by mail about their family practice clinic experience. Residents were generally satisfied with their training site and their supervision, but noted problems with volume and diversity of patients, learning certain procedures, and knowledge of community resources. They did not want more family medicine clinic time. PMID:8219838
Bania, Kent; Cummings, John, Ed.
The 88 activity guides in this document are intended to supplement the initial or organized instruction of the agricultural teacher at the secondary educational level. Some of the activities require one student to complete, others may need two or more students working in a team. Some activities also require followup checking within a few days to…
Wright, J; Smith, M L; Jackson, D R
This paper describes the early development of clinical governance in an acute NHS Trust. Three Trust-wide workshops and 17 individual departmental workshops were held between 1998-1999. The discussions in these workshops were used to define the key founding principles of clinical governance and the operational structure. The philosophy behind clinical governance, to improve quality of services, was recognised as being part of mainstream trust business, not an optional add-on. The authors found that teamwork and multidisciplinary collaboration are essential components of future quality improvement. Effective leadership skills need to be supported and developed, with responsibilities shared between a core group within each department rather than one individual. Contributions should be recognised and rewarded. Collaboration with primary care and involvement of patients are prerequisites. Specific objectives should be agreed by each department and used to monitor progress. More effective use of existing resources (staff, time, IT and training) can be made.
Braswell, H R; Williamson, J W
The application of a protocol for the initial assessment of medical care outcomes of geriatric depression management in four multispecialty group practice clinics is described. The clinical findings of this study are limited, but the protocol for the assessment of depression outcomes was found to be feasible, practical and acceptable in all four clinics. The success of the study has positive implications both for improving management of depressed clinic patients and for adapting this quality assurance approach to other health conditions and care settings. PMID:507262
Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Sosa-Rosado, José Manuel; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis Arturo
The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in hypertension. This is the first in a series of review articles, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Of all clinical practice guidelines, three were selected and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument was used to assess each guide. The guidelines obtained the lowest score in the domain of applicability (mean 43.8%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 81.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the applicability domain (European guideline) and the highest of all scores was found in two domains: scope and purpose, and clarity of presentation (Canadian guideline). Assessing the quality of the clinical practice guidelines analyzed, the Canadian is one with the best scores obtained by applying the AGREE II instrument, and it is advised to be used without modifications.
Genetics should now be part of everyday clinical epilepsy practice. Good data exist to provide empiric risks based on epilepsy syndrome diagnosis. Investigation of the molecular basis of some epilepsies is now a practical clinical task and is of clear value to the patient and family. In some cases, specific therapeutic decisions can now be made based on genetic findings, and this scenario of precision therapy is likely to increase in the coming years. PMID:26316866
Mainstream psychotherapy has made huge strides in treating symptoms and disorders, but it has largely overlooked happiness as a therapeutic goal despite frequently hearing from clients, "Doctor, I want to be happy." This issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session describes a number of positive interventions for specific clinical problems, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, loss, grief, and relationship distress. Although the name may suggest it, positive interventions do not imply that rest of psychotherapies are negative. Neither are negatives denied nor minimized. Distinct from self-help recipes proffering instant changes, positive psychology interventions refer to systematic approaches to overcome challenges by using clients' strengths and assets. A hybrid psychotherapy-coaching model and strength-based assessment can ask a client "What is right with you?" All articles are supplemented with rich case illustrations.
Despotović, Nebojsa; Zdravković, Mihajlo
Multiple arterial disease is presented by coexistence of ischaemic heart disease, carotid disease and peripheral obliterate arterial disease. Atherosclerosis is the main factor for onset of the disease. Among 150 patients with clinical manifestations of obliterate disease of at least two aforementioned arterial systems, we examined by many noninvasive and invasive procedures the existence and degree of obliterate arterial disease of coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries of the lower extremities. The results revealed the statistically significant correlation among: ischaemic heart disease and carotid disease (r = 0.939; p < 0.01); ischaemic heart disease and peripheral arterial disease (r = 0.834; p < 0.05); ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and carotid disease (r = 0.986; p < 0.01). The results pointed out that whenever clinical manifestations of obliterate disease of peripheral arteries are present, there is also need for routine examination of existent coronary artery disease.
Botulinum toxin, the most potent biological toxin, has become a powerful therapeutic tool for a growing number of clinical applications. This review draws attention to new findings about the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and briefly reviews some of its most frequent uses, focusing on evidence based data. Double blind, placebo controlled studies, as well as open label clinical trials, provide evidence that, when appropriate targets and doses are selected, botulinum toxin temporarily ameliorates disorders associated with excessive muscle contraction or autonomic dysfunction. When injected not more often than every three months, the risk of blocking antibodies is slight. Long term experience with this agent suggests that it is an effective and safe treatment not only for approved indications but also for an increasing number of off-label indications. PMID:15201348
Papademetriou, Marianna; Popov, Violeta
Cost-effective therapies to address the growing epidemic of obesity are a leading priority in modern medicine. Intragastric balloons (IGBs) are one such option, with increased effectiveness compared with pharmacotherapy and lifestyle and a lower rate of adverse events than bariatric surgery. IGBs are endoscopically placed or swallowed space-occupying devices in the stomach. Three IGB systems were approved in 2015 to 2016 by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States, with more devices nearing approval. This paper reviews the adverse events and efficacy of IGBs, and practice setup, management of common complications, and dietary advice for patients.
Dietz, Christine A.
Discusses the need to train clinical practitioners in social work to address ongoing issues of oppression. Describes a second-year Master's in Social Work clinical practice sequence taught from feminist, poststructuralist, postmodern, and social constructionist perspectives, where students learn to assess the impacts of oppression, discover…
Tomaszek, Sandra; Wigle, Dennis A.; Keshavjee, Shaf; Fischer, Stefan
Thymomas are the most common tumors of the mediastinum. The introduction of multimodality treatment strategies, as well as novel approaches to the diagnosis of these tumors, has led to changes in the clinical management of thymomas. Here we review the literature for current clinical practice in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of thymomas. PMID:19463649
Morin, Richard L.; Berquist, Thomas H.; Rueger, Wolfgang
We have begun a project to implement an Electronic (Filmless) Radiology Practice (ERP) at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville. This project is integrated with the implementation of a project (Automated Clinical Practice--ACP) to eliminate circulation and archival of the current paper Medical Record. The ERP will result in elimination of screen/film radiography and the transmittal of film throughout the institution by the end of 1996. In conjunction with the ACP, paper and film will not circulate within the clinic by the end of this year.
Hankard, R; Colomb, V; Piloquet, H; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) occurs when energy and protein intake do not meet requirements. It has a functional and structural impact and increases both morbidity and mortality of a given disease. The Nutrition Committee of the French Pediatric Society recommends weighing and measuring any child when hospitalized or seen in consultation. The body mass index (BMI) must be calculated and analyzed according to references any time growth kinetics cannot be analyzed. Any child with a BMI below the third centile or -2 standard deviations for age and sex needs to be examined looking for clinical signs of malnutrition and signs orienting toward an etiology and requires having his BMI and height dynamics plotted on a chart. PEM warrants drawing up a nutritional strategy along with the overall care plan. A target weight needs to be determined as well as the quantitative and qualitative nutritional care including its implementation. This plan must be evaluated afterwards in order to adapt the nutritional therapy.
No consensus exists as to who should be tested for thrombophilia, mainly due to the lack of good quality clinical outcome data in relationship to presence or absence of a given thrombophilia. Testing may be considered if (a) finding a thrombophilia predicts recurrent thrombosis and, thus, influences length of anticoagulation treatment decisions; (b) identifying a thrombophilia has implications on management of asymptomatic family members who are carriers of the detected thrombophilia; (c) a patient wishes to better understand why a thrombotic event occurred. Testing may be helpful in patients with venous thromboembolism at intermediate risk of recurrence in whom the finding of a strong thrombophilia can be one of the arguments for long-term anticoagulation--the "risk-of-recurrence-triangle" may be a useful aid in this decision process. Patients whose venous thromboembolism was provoked by a major transient risk factor should not be tested for thrombophilia. Thrombophilia tests should only be ordered by health care professionals who can provide the "4P": (a) appropriately select which patient to test, (b) provide pre-test counseling, (c) properly interpret the test results, and (d) provide education and advice to the patient. If testing is embarked on in patients with venous thromboembolism, it is advisable to be done at the time of decision making whether to stop or continue anticoagulation, i.e. typically after 3 months of anticoagulant therapy. Thrombophilia testing is best not done at the time of an acute thrombotic event and while a patient is on an anticoagulant.
Lackner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F; Skliris, Dimitris; Wood, Guilherme; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Neuper, Christa; Gruzelier, John H
The present study was carried out to examine the efficacy of alpha/theta neurofeedback (NF) with a new visual paradigm in a cohort of alcohol use disordered (AUD) patients (n = 25) treated in an Austrian therapeutic community center. The experimental study design focused on changes in absolute and relative resting EEG band power as well as in clinical variables, including depression (Beck Depresion Inventory [BDI-V]), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI], coping (Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness [FKV-lis]), psychotherapy motivation (Therapy Motivation Questionnaire [FPTM-23]), sense of coherence (Sense of Coherence Scale [SOC-13]), posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory [PPR]), and alcohol cravings (Alcohol Craving Questionnaire [ACQ]). For measuring training effects, participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: an experimental group (EG, n = 13) and a control group (CG, n = 12). Patients in EG received 12 sessions of visual NF training over a period of 6 weeks to enhance alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) frequency band power in addition to the standard treatment program of the rehabilitation center. Participants in CG received no additional NF intervention. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed a change by trend in absolute alpha and theta power in the EG. Even though no MANCOVA effects were found in the clinical scales, AUD patients reported increasing control of their brain activity during the course of NF. However, changes in several clinical scales (BDI-V, BSI, FKV-lis, PPR) from pre- to posttest were observed only in the EG contrary to the CG. The findings of this pilot study provide first evidence for the practicality and effectiveness of visual short-term NF as an additive intervention in the therapeutic community.
Fernandez, Jorge Muriel; Cenador, Maria Begoña García; Manuel López Millan, J; Méndez, Juan Antonio Juanes; Ledesma, María José Sánchez
The increasing relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in medical care is indisputable. This evidence makes it necessary to start studies that analyse the scope these new forms of access to information and understanding of medicine have on the professional activity of the physician, on the attitude and on the knowledge of patients or, on the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this study is to explore some of these aspects in a group of physicians whose clinical activity is related to one of the greatest social impact health problems which is the treatment of chronic pain. Starting with the completion of a questionnaire, in the study group it is observed that the interaction between social structure, increase of information flows and ICTs generate transformations in social practices and behaviour of the actors of the health system. Internet is confirmed as an information space on the subject, but is shown as an underutilized space of interaction between the doctor and his patient.
Benson, M D
With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety.
Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon
Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959
Chan, Tracey E
Recent research and ethical analysis have forced a clinical and ethical reappraisal of the utility of placebos in medical practice. The main concern of ethics and law is that using placebos in health care involves deception, which is antithetical to patient autonomy and trust in the physician-patient relationship. This article reviews the various, more nuanced scientific conceptions of the placebo effect, and evaluates the ethical and legal objections to deploying placebos in clinical practice. It argues that the placebo effect may be legitimately accommodated on the basis that it does not engage the requirement for material or quasi-fiduciary disclosures of information, and may also be justified by therapeutic privilege. In addition, this reconceptualisation of the placebo effect offers a new justification for therapeutic privilege in these contexts. Notwithstanding this, using the placebo effect in clinical practice raises regulatory issues that will require special regulatory supervision.
Langone, Luis; Vanetta, Marcos; Vazquez, Marcelo; Rotger, Viviana; Olivera, Juan Manuel
In the curricula of the Biomedical Engineering career of the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología of the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argenitna, there are the Assisted Professional Practices. Within this framework, the students have the possibility of performing practices in the clinic Sanatorio 9 de Julio. One of the objectives of these practices is to apply the concepts, methods and procedures studied along the career in the field work under real work conditions. From the point of view of the host institution, the objective is to improve the performance of the different services and areas applying the tools of Biomedical Engineering. The present work shows an example of such practices where an equipment preliminary analysis was made, its use and maintenance corresponding to the surgical unit of the clinic.
Cooper, Rory A.
Background Wheelchair prescription is complex with thousands of choices and options. Theoretically, a higher quality or innovative wheelchair that is appropriately matched to the user and their unique needs will increase participation. It is well accepted that there is an alarmingly high incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome, and rotator cuff injuries among manual wheelchair users. Development Since the initial conceptualization, the SMARTWheel was intended to better understand the physiological and physical effects of wheelchair propulsion on the body. Initially, little was known about wheelchair propulsion and the SMARTWheel transformed the nascent field of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics. Impact Although still an important area of clinical research, the SMARTWheel has been critical to the study of the relationship between the type of wheelchair, set-up, activity, technique, anatomy, and physiology and repetitive strain injury. There has been growing evidence that the wheelchair-user interaction explains a substantial portion of the risk of developing a degenerative injury and on community participation. A noteworthy contribution of this work was the release of the clinical practice guideline, entitled, Preservation of Upper Limb Function Following Spinal Cord Injury in 2005. Discussion The SMARTWheel has been used by other scientists in areas that were not originally envisioned to be applications. It has been used to support the design of tools for developing a trail mapping rating and description system. It has also supported the design of accessible pedestrian walkways standards, accessible playground surfaces, and to evaluate carpets for wheelchair accessibility. It is likely that there are more new areas of exploration to emerge. This article describes the evolution of the SMARTWheel as new technologies became available and its applications in the field of wheelchair biomechanics and clinical service delivery. PMID:19658010
Cooper, Rory A
Wheelchair prescription is complex with thousands of choices and options. Theoretically, a higher quality or innovative wheelchair that is appropriately matched to the user and their unique needs will increase participation. It is well accepted that there is an alarmingly high incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome, and rotator cuff injuries among manual wheelchair users. Since the initial conceptualization, the SMART(Wheel) was intended to better understand the physiological and physical effects of wheelchair propulsion on the body. Initially, little was known about wheelchair propulsion and the SMART(Wheel) transformed the nascent field of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics. Although still an important area of clinical research, the SMART(Wheel) has been critical to the study of the relationship between the type of wheelchair, set-up, activity, technique, anatomy, and physiology and repetitive strain injury. There has been growing evidence that the wheelchair-user interaction explains a substantial portion of the risk of developing a degenerative injury and on community participation. A noteworthy contribution of this work was the release of the clinical practice guideline, entitled, Preservation of Upper Limb Function Following Spinal Cord Injury in 2005. The SMART(Wheel) has been used by other scientists in areas that were not originally envisioned to be applications. It has been used to support the design of tools for developing a trail mapping rating and description system. It has also supported the design of accessible pedestrian walkways standards, accessible playground surfaces, and to evaluate carpets for wheelchair accessibility. It is likely that there are more new areas of exploration to emerge. This article describes the evolution of the SMART(Wheel) as new technologies became available and its applications in the field of wheelchair biomechanics and clinical service delivery.
Tai, E Shyong; Chia, Boon Lock; Bastian, Amber Carla; Chua, Terrance; Ho, Sally Chih Wei; Koh, Teck Siew; Low, Lip Ping; Tey, Jeannie S; Poh, Kian Keong; Tan, Chee Eng; Ting, Peter; Tham, Tat Yean; Toh, Sue-Anne; van Dam, Rob M
The Ministry of Health (MOH) has updated the Clinical Practice Guidelines on Lipids to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for lipids. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH Clinical Practice Guidelines on Lipids, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html.
Saraga, Michael; Fuks, Abraham; Boudreau, J Donald
George Engel's (1913-1999) biopsychosocial model, one of the most significant proposals for the renewal of medicine in the latter half of the 20th century, has been understood primarily as a multi-factorial approach to the etiology of disease and as a call to re-humanize clinical practice. This common reading of Engel's model misses the central aspect of his proposal, that the biopsychosocial model is an epistemology for clinical work. By stating the simple fact that the clinician is not dealing directly with a body, but first, and inevitably, with a person, Engel challenged the epistemology implicit in the classical clinical method-a method predicated on the possibility of direct access to the body. Framed in epistemological terms, the issue at stake is not the need to complement medical science with humane virtues, but rather to acknowledge that the object of clinical practice is not the body but the patient.
Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes
Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484
Cha, Christine B; DiVasto, Katherine A
Mental illness is a prevalent and extraordinarily complex phenomenon. Psychologists have developed distinct approaches toward understanding and treating mental illness, rooted in divergent epistemology. This introduction to the Special Issue on Clinical Psychological Science and Practice provides a brief overview of the scientist-practitioner gap, and explores one step (of many) toward bridging this divide. Seven compelling case illustrations featured in this Special Issue apply empirical findings to case formulation, treatment selection, and assessment across complex and varied clinical presentations. This issue thereby demonstrates the feasibility of integrating research and clinical expertise in mental healthcare.
Kamhi, Alan G.
Purpose: In this article, I question how practitioners can balance the certainty and confidence that they can help their patients with the uncertainty that makes them continually question their beliefs and assumptions. Method: I compare the mechanisms of science and models of clinical practice that may help practitioners achieve the right balance…
Landin, Cecelia W
Evidence based practice (EBP) can be incorporated into the curriculum of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) Programs. Current components of curriculum can include EBP in pre-analytic, analytic, and post-analytic topics. Discussion of EBP topics in the classroom using practices assessed through the Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Initiative (LMBP) of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will give students a clear understanding of EBP and how it is used in the clinical laboratory for improved health care quality. Student involvement in Quality Improvement projects to improve laboratory performance and patient outcomes can be developed through capstone projects. Examples of clinical projects and application of EBP into the MLS curriculum are discussed.
Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Valdivia-Ibarra, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Manzano, Mario; Medina-Beltrán, Gustavo Rodrigo; Cordero-Guillén, Miguel Angel; Baca-Zúñiga, José; Cruz-Avelar, Agles; Aguilar-Salas, Ismael; Avalos-Mejía, Annia Marisol
The process of prescribing a medication is complex and includes: deciding whether it is indicated, choosing the best option, determining the dose and the appropriate management scheme to the physiological condition of the patient, and monitoring effectiveness and toxicity. We have to inform patients about the expected side effects and indications for requesting a consultation. Specific clinical questions were designed based on the acronym PICOST. The search was made in the specific websites of clinical practice guidelines, was limited to the population of older adults, in English or Spanish. We used 10 related clinical practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews and five meta-analyses. Finally, we made a search of original articles or clinical reviews for specific topics. The development and validation of clinical practice guidelines for "rational drug prescriptions in the elderly" is intended to promote an improvement in the quality of prescription through the prevention and detection of inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and, as a result of this, a decrease in the adverse events by drugs, deterioration of health of patients and expenditure of resources.
Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Leier, Carl V; Geleris, Paraschos; Boudoulas, Harisios
Accumulation of medical knowledge related to diagnosis and management over the last 5-6 decades has altered the course of diseases, improved clinical outcomes and increased survival. Thus, it has become difficult for the practicing physician to evaluate the long-term effects of a particular therapy on survival of an individual patient. Further, the approach by each physician to an individual patient with the same disease is not always uniform. In an attempt to assist physicians in applying newly acquired knowledge to patients, clinical practice guidelines were introduced by various scientific societies. Guidelines assist in facilitating the translation of new research discoveries into clinical practice; however, despite the improvements over the years, there are still several issues related to guidelines that often appear ‘lost in translation'. Guidelines are based on the results of randomized clinical trials, other nonrandomized studies, and expert opinion (i.e. the opinion of most members of the guideline committees). The merits and limitations of randomized clinical trials, guideline committees, and presentation of guidelines will be discussed. In addition, proposals to improve guidelines will be presented.
Halldorsdottir (1990) investigated students’ perspective of a caring student- teacher encounter. Students described a caring teacher as being professionally...Nursing. Gaut, D. (1986). Evaluating caring nursing competencies in nursing practice. Topics in Clinical Nursing. 8(2), 77-83. Halldorsdottir , S. (1990
Molloy, Síle F; Henley, Patricia
This article describes the processes and procedures involved in planning, conducting and reporting monitoring activities for large Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products (CTIMPs), focusing on those conducted in resource-limited settings.
Colloca, Luana; Miller, Franklin G.
Negative expectations deriving from the clinical encounter can produce negative outcomes, known as nocebo effects. Specifically, research on the nocebo effect indicates that information disclosure about potential side effects can itself contribute to producing adverse effects. Neurobiological processes play a role in the nocebo effect and this paper provides a selective review of mechanistic research on the nocebo effect. Comparatively little attention has been directed to clinical studies and their implications for daily clinical practice. The nocebo response is influenced by the content and the way information is presented to patients in clinical trials in both the placebo as well as active treatment conditions. Nocebo effect adversely influences quality of life and therapy adherence, emphasizing the need for minimizing these responses to the extent possible. Evidence further indicates that the informed consent process in clinical trials may induce nocebo effects. This paper concludes with ethical directions for future patient-oriented research and routine practice. PMID:21862825
Ezzelle, J.; Rodriguez-Chavez, I. R.; Darden, J. M.; Stirewalt, M.; Kunwar, N.; Hitchcock, R.; Walter, T.; D’Souza, M. P.
A set of Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) standards that embraces both the research and clinical aspects of GLP were developed utilizing a variety of collected regulatory and guidance material. We describe eleven core elements that constitute the GCLP standards with the objective of filling a gap for laboratory guidance, based on IND sponsor requirements, for conducting laboratory testing using specimens from human clinical trials. These GCLP standards provide guidance on implementing GLP requirements that are critical for laboratory operations, such as performance of protocol-mandated safety assays, peripheral blood mononuclear cell processing and immunological or endpoint assays from biological interventions on IND-registered clinical trials. The expectation is that compliance with the GCLP standards, monitored annually by external audits, will allow research and development laboratories to maintain data integrity and to provide immunogenicity, safety, and product efficacy data that is repeatable, reliable, auditable and that can be easily reconstructed in a research setting. PMID:18037599
Witmer, William K; Lebovitz, Peter J
Photography has been accepted for decades as a standard means for documenting dermatologic conditions and as an adjunct to their treatment, in both medical practice and research. The emergence of low-cost easy-to-use digital imaging systems has made good-quality photography more accessible to practitioners, while providing improved functionality in the clinical environment. Primary concerns are controlling lighting and positioning to provide a clear record of the patients skin condition and maintaining consistency over time to assure meaningful comparison of clinical end points.
Petitpierre, Stéphanie; Aubert, Vincent; Leimgruber, Annette; Spertini, François; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre
Autoantibodies are frequently determined in unclear clinical situations and in the context of an inflammatory syndrome. The aim of this article is not to review all autoantibodies in details, but to discuss those used in clinical practice by describing their methods of detection and interpretation. Thus we will focus on antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are typically associated with connective tissue diseases, as well as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), which are useful in the diagnosis of ANCA-associated vasculitides. Due to its high sensitivity indirect immunofluorescence is used as a screening test; when positive, ELISA is performed to search for antibodies more specifically associated with certain auto-immune diseases.
Asai, Atsushi; Kadooka, Yasuhiro
A placebo is a substance or intervention believed to be inactive, but is administered by the healthcare professional as if it was an active medication. Unlike standard treatments, clinical use of placebo usually involves deception and is therefore ethically problematic. Our attitudes toward the clinical use of placebo, which inevitably includes deception or withholding information, have a tremendous effect on our practice regarding truth-telling and informed consent. A casual attitude towards it weakens the current practice based on shared decision-making and mutual trust between patients and healthcare professionals. Issues concerning the clinical use of placebo are thus intimately related to patient-provider relationships, the public's trust in medicine, and medical education. A review of recent survey studies suggests that the clinical use of placebo appears to be fairly well accepted among healthcare professionals and is common in clinical settings in various countries. However, we think that an ethical discussion is urgently needed because of its controversial nature. If judged to be ethically wrong, the practice should end. In the present paper, we discuss the ethicality of the clinical use of placebo with deception and argue against it, concluding that it is unethical and should be banned. We will show that most arguments in favor of the clinical use of placebo can be refuted and are therefore incorrect or weak. These arguments will be presented and examined individually. Finally, we will briefly consider issues relevant to the clinical use of placebo without deception.
Goracci, Arianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Iovieno, Nadia; di Volo, Silvia; Benbow, Jim; Bolognesi, Simone; Fagiolini, Andrea
This case report describes the clinical course of a young woman suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) associated with obesity. It illustrates the efficacy of different medications in the treatment of BED and related conditions and is followed by the comments and clinical observations of 2 practicing psychiatrists. The issues described in this paper have important clinical implications and are topical, given that BED is now recognized as a specific disorder in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition classification system, but neither the US Food and Drug Administration nor any other regulatory agency has yet approved a drug for treatment of this disease, despite its very prevalent and disabling nature. Growing evidence from the fields of psychopathology and neurobiology, including preclinical and clinical studies, converges to support the idea that "overeating" has much in common with other behavioral addictions, and substance abuse treatment agents may show promise for the treatment of BED.
Stewart, William C; Adams, Michelle P; Stewart, Jeanette A; Nelson, Lindsay A
The purpose was to evaluate faith-based studies within the medical literature to determine whether there are ways to help physicians understand how religion affects patients’ lives and diseases. We reviewed articles that assessed the influence of religious practices on medicine as a primary or secondary variable in clinical practice. This review evaluated 49 articles and found that religious faith is important to many patients, particularly those with serious disease, and patients depend on it as a positive coping mechanism. The findings of this review can suggest that patients frequently practice religion and interact with God about their disease state. This spiritual interaction may benefit the patient by providing comfort, increasing knowledge about their disease, greater treatment adherence, and quality of life. The results of prayer on specific disease states appear inconsistent with cardiovascular disease but stronger in other disease states.
Informed consent is the core aspect of the patient-physician relationship. Since its beginnings, clinical bioethics was opposed to the authoritarian paternalism characteristic of medicine since the 19th century. The informed consent was developed to provide patients with sufficient information to allow autonomous decisions when faced with medical diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives. In spite of bioethics effort to perfect informed consent, the discipline has been unable to avoid informed consent from becoming an impersonal and administrative procedure. Even though the major goal of this procedure is to provide sufficient information to allow patients an objective weighting of benefits and risks of medical practice, the uncertainties of medicine make full disclosure unattainable. Collecting more information finally leads to indecision and ultimate trust in medical advice. The clinical encounter is fundamentally a fiduciary relationship, and bioethics ought to accept that its main objective is to strengthen the trust bond that is essential to the clinical encounter. This goal may become incompatible with the quest for unlimited autonomy. Patients often will only require information as long as they distrust that medical institutions and their professionals are considering their interests and needs. The main proposal of this article is to temper bioethics insistence on autonomy, and accept that patients essentially seek to be protected and cared for. Informed consent ought to relent its efforts at full autonomy to the benefit of trustworthiness in medicine, and trust in clinical practice.
Kirk, Timothy W
Understanding, shared meaning, and mutual trust lie at the heart of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. This article introduces the concept of clinical intimacy by applying the interpersonal process model of intimacy to the nurse-patient relationship. The distinction between complementary and reciprocal behaviours, and between intimate interactions and intimate relationships, addresses background concerns about the appropriateness of intimacy in nursing relationships. The mutual construction of meaning in the interactive process between nurses and patients is seen to lie at the heart of clinical intimacy as a hermeneutic enterprise. Intimacy is distinguished from empathy based on intentionality and the status and location of meaning. Reasons for continued investigation into clinical intimacy as an explanatory model for nursing as a hermeneutic practice are presented.
Practice is often described as applied science, but real life is far too complex and interactive to be handled by analytical scientific methods. The limitations of usefulness of scientific method in clinical practice result from many factors. The complexity of the large number of ill-defined variables at many levels of the problem. Scientific method focuses on one variable at a time across a hundred identical animals to extract a single, generalizable 'proof' or piece of 'truth'. Clinical practice deals with a hundred variables at one time within one animal from among a clientele of non-identical animals in order to optimize a mix of outcomes intended to satisfy that particular animal's current needs and desires. Interdependence among the variables. Most factors in the illness, the disease, the patient and the setting are interdependent, and cannot be sufficiently isolated to allow their separate study. Practice as a human transaction involving at least two people is too complex to be analysed one factor at a time when the interaction stimulates unpredictable responses. Ambiguous data. Words have many usages. People not only assign different interpretations to the same words, they assign different 'meanings', especially according to the threat or hope they may imply. The perceptual data gleaned from physical examination may be difficult to specify exactly or to confirm objectively. The accuracy and precision of investigational data and their reporting can be low, and are frequently unknown. Differing goals between science and practice. Science strives for exact points of propositional knowledge, verifiable by logical argument using objective data and repetition of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The first two articles in the series were about the definition of quality in healthcare, the quality approach, the importance of quality assurance, the advantages of quality management systems and the basic concepts and necessity of evidence based medicine. In the third article the importance and basic steps of clinical audit are summarised. Clinical audit is an integral part of quality assurance and quality improvement in healthcare, that is the responsibility of any practitioner involved in medical practice. Clinical audit principally measures the clinical practice against clinical guidelines, protocols and other professional standards, and sometimes induces changes to ensure that all patients receive care according to principles of the best practice. The clinical audit can be defined also as a quality improvement process that seeks to identify areas for service improvement, develop and carry out plans and actions to improve medical activity and then by re-audit to ensure that these changes have an effect. Therefore, its aims are both to stimulate quality improvement interventions and to assess their impact in order to develop clinical effectiveness. At the end of the article key points of quality assurance and improvement in medical practice are summarised.
The expectation of obstetrics is a perfect outcome. Obstetrics malpractice can cause morbidity and mortality that may engender litigation. Globally, increasing trend to litigation in obstetrics practice has resulted in high indemnity cost to the obstetrician with consequent frustration and overall danger to the future of obstetrics practice. The objective was to review litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice, highlighting medical ethics, federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO’s) ethical responsibility guideline on women's sexual and reproductive health and right; examine the relationship between medical ethics and medical laws; X-ray medical negligence and litigable obstetrics malpractices; and make recommendation towards the improvement of obstetrics practices to avert misconduct that would lead to litigation. Review involves a literature search on the internet in relevant journals, textbooks, and monographs. Knowledge and application of medical ethics are important to the obstetricians to avert medical negligence that will lead to litigation. A medical negligence can occur in any of the three triads of medicare viz: Diagnosis, advice/counseling, and treatment. Lawsuits in obstetrics generally center on errors of omission or commission especially in relation to the failure to perform caesarean section or to perform the operation early enough. Fear of litigation, high indemnity cost, and long working hours are among the main reasons given by obstetricians for ceasing obstetrics practice. Increasing global trend in litigation with high indemnity cost to the obstetrician is likely to jeopardize the future of obstetrics care especially in countries without medical insurance coverage for health practitioners. Litigation in obstetrics can be prevented through the Obstetrician's mindfulness of its possibility; acquainting themselves of the medical laws and guidelines related to their practice; ensuring adequate communication with, and consent of
Wright, Adam; Phansalkar, Shobha; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Jenders, Robert A.; Bobb, Anne M.; Halamka, John D.; Kuperman, Gilad; Payne, Thomas H.; Teasdale, S.; Vaida, A. J.; Bates, D. W.
Background Evidence demonstrates that clinical decision support (CDS) is a powerful tool for improving healthcare quality and ensuring patient safety. However, implementing and maintaining effective decision support interventions presents multiple technical and organizational challenges. Purpose To identify best practices for CDS, using the domain of preventive care reminders as an example. Methods We assembled a panel of experts in CDS and held a series of facilitated online and inperson discussions. We analyzed the results of these discussions using a grounded theory method to elicit themes and best practices. Results Eight best practice themes were identified as important: deliver CDS in the most appropriate ways, develop effective governance structures, consider use of incentives, be aware of workflow, keep content current, monitor and evaluate impact, maintain high quality data, and consider sharing content. Keys themes within each of these areas were also described. Conclusion Successful implementation of CDS requires consideration of both technical and socio-technical factors. The themes identified in this study provide guidance on crucial factors that need consideration when CDS is implemented across healthcare settings. These best practice themes may be useful for developers, implementers, and users of decision support. PMID:21991299
Tinto, Halidou; Noor, Ramadhani A; Wanga, Charles L; Valea, Innocent; Mbaye, Maimouna Ndour; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ravinetto, Raffaella M
A Good Clinical Practices (GCPs) course, based on the combination of theoretical modules with a practical training in real-life conditions, was held in 2010 in Burkina Faso. It was attended by 15 trainees from nine African, Asian, and Latin American countries. There were some discrepancies between the average good results at the end of the theoretical phase and the GCP application during the first days of the practical phase, underlying the difficulties of translating theoretical knowledge into good practices. Most of the findings were not unexpected and reflected the challenges commonly faced by clinical investigators in resource-poor contexts (i.e., the high workload at peripheral health facilities, the need to conciliate routine clinical activities with clinical research, and the risk of creating a double standard among patients attending the same health facility [free care for recruited patients versus user fees for non-recruited patients with the same medical condition]). Even if limited in number and time, these observations suggest that a theoretical training alone may not be sufficient to prepare trainees for the challenges of medical research in real-life settings. Conversely, when a practical phase immediately follows a theoretical one, trainees can immediately experience what the research methodology implicates in terms of work organization and relationship with recruited and non-recruited patients. This initial experience shows the complexity of translating GCP into practice and suggests the need to rethink the current conception of GCP training.
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed.
Plaza, Vicente; Bellido-Casado, Jesús; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Rodrigo, Gustavo
The Clinical Practice Guidelines on asthma have contributed towards unifying concepts and reaching a consensus on performances between different professional groups. However, they have failed in the overall improvement in the management of asthma, the final objective that they are meant to achieve. Today, almost 20 years after they appeared, the majority of asthmatic patients are still inadequately controlled, partly due to lack of follow up by doctors and the rest of health care staff who have to look after them. This lack of follow up of these recommendations is probably associated with a lack of well structured planning in their circulation and implementation. Also, although the recommendations of these guidelines agree in what is essential, they differ in other aspects, which in turn could be determining factors in clinical practice. The purpose of this article has been to establish the main differences in the recommendations that the principal clinical practice guidelines on the disease propose on the diagnosis, classification and treatment of asthma. To do this we have compared, The British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2007, The Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention/Global Initiative for Asthma 2006 (GINA), the National Prevention program for Education on Asthma (Programa Nacional de Prevención para la Educación del Asma) (NAEPP), the Spanish Guide for the Management of Asthma (Guía Española para el Manejo del Asma 2003) (GEMA) and the ALAT y SEPAR guides, Latin-America and Spain. Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Asthma Exacerbation (América Latina y España. Recomendaciones para la Prevención y el Tratamiento de la Exacerbación Asmática 2008) (ALERTA).
Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis.
This article lists the integral elements of the Sherlock Holmes method, which is based on the intelligent collection of information through detailed observation, careful listening and thorough examination. The information thus obtained is analyzed to develop the main and alternative hypotheses, which are shaped during the deductive process until the key leading to the solution is revealed. The Holmes investigative method applied to clinical practice highlights the advisability of having physicians reason through and seek out the causes of the disease with the data obtained from acute observation, a detailed review of the medical history and careful physical examination.
Jamison, Robert N.; Edwards, Robert R.
There is much evidence to suggest that psychological and social issues are predictive of pain severity, emotional distress, work disability, and response to medical treatments among persons with chronic pain. Psychologists can play an important role in the identification of psychological and social dysfunction and in matching personal characteristics to effective interventions as part of a multidisciplinary approach to pain management, leading to a greater likelihood of treatment success. The assessment of different domains using semi-structured clinical interviews and standardized self-report measures permits identification of somatosensory, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and social issues in order to facilitate treatment planning. We briefly describe measures to assess constructs related to pain and intervention strategies for the behavioral treatment of chronic pain and discuss related psychiatric and substance abuse issues. Finally, we offer a future look at the role of integrating pain management in clinical practice in the psychological assessment and treatment for persons with chronic pain. PMID:22383018
Bugaj, T J; Nikendei, C
Today, skills laboratories or "skills labs", i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills. In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I) the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II) an outline of the underlying idea and (III) an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV) the training method's effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V) the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI) the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training.
Bugaj, T. J.; Nikendei, C.
Today, skills laboratories or “skills labs”, i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills. In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I) the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II) an outline of the underlying idea and (III) an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV) the training method’s effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V) the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI) the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training. PMID:27579363
In this essay, I provide a description of the discipline of ethics using the philosophies of Aristotle and the American pragmatist John Dewey. Specifically, I argue that ethics is an active undertaking that is ambiguous and pluralistic. I then normatively prescribe the way in which clinical ethicists ought to approach their work in medicine. Rather than endeavouring to become, or behaving as if they are, experts, clinical ethicists must be humble. They must practise ethics. That is, they must admit ethics is the study and pursuit of the good life but that this study and pursuit occurs imperfectly in the face of problematic situations.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical or other practical demonstration. 21.44... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.44 Clinical or other practical demonstration. In the discretion of the... the Regular Corps may be required to perform successfully a clinical or other practical...
... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clinical or other practical demonstration. 21.44... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.44 Clinical or other practical demonstration. In the discretion of the... the Regular Corps may be required to perform successfully a clinical or other practical...
Bown, Stephen G.
Many individuals in the field are frustrated by the slow progress getting PDT established in mainstream clinical practice. The five key reasons are: 1. Lack of adequate evidence of safety and efficacy and optimization of dosimetry. These are fundamental. The number of randomized controlled studies is still small. For some cancer applications, it is difficult to get patients to agree to be randomised, so different approaches must be taken. Anecdotal results are not acceptable to sceptics and regulators. 2. The regulatory processes. The rules get more complex every day, but there is no choice, they must be met. The full bureaucratic strength of the pharmaceutical industry is needed to address these issues. 3. Conservatism of the medical profession. Established physicians are reluctant to change practice, especially if it means referring patients to different specialists. 4. Lack of education. It is amazing how few physicians have even heard of PDT and many that have, are sceptical. The profile of PDT to both the medical profession and the general public needs to be raised dramatically. Patient demand works wonders! 5. Money. Major investment is required to run clinical trials. Pharmaceutical companies may see PDT as a threat (eg reduced market for chemotherapy agents). Licensed photosensitisers are expensive. Why not reduce the price initially, to get the technique established and stimulate demand? PDT has the potential for enormous cost savings for health service providers. With appropriate motivation and resources these problems can be addressed. Possible routes forward will be suggested.
Nijs, Jo; Roussel, Nathalie; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; De Kooning, Margot; Ickmans, Kelly; Struyf, Filip; Meeus, Mira; Lundberg, Mari
Severe exacerbation of symptoms following physical activity is characteristic for chronic-fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM). These exacerbations make it understandable for people with CFS and FM to develop fear of performing body movement or physical activity and consequently avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. The aims of this article were to review what measures are available for measuring fear of movement and avoidance behaviour, the prevalence fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity and the therapeutic options with fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in patients with CFS and FM. The review revealed that fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity is highly prevalent in both the CFS and FM population, and it is related to various clinical characteristics of CFS and FM, including symptom severity and self-reported quality of life and disability. It appears to be crucial for treatment (success) to identify CFS and FM patients displaying fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Individually tailored cognitive behavioural therapy plus exercise training, depending on the patient's classification as avoiding or persisting, appears to be the most promising strategy for treating fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in patients with CFS and FM.
With the advent of the human genome project, we have never known so much about the uniqueness of individuals. Personalized medicine is poised to use this genetic and genomic information along with the impact of environment and clinical presentation to provide healthcare from an individual perspective. This offers the opportunity to improve our ability to diagnose and predict disease, provide earlier intervention, identify new treatment regimens, and address the safety and efficacy of drug use. The impact of personalized medicine to our current model of healthcare delivery is tremendous, and although strides have been made, there are still challenges and barriers to overcome before personalized medicine can be fully implemented. Advanced practice nurses may not be fully aware of the personalized medicine initiative or may not be well versed on genetic and genomic content, which is a key concept of personalized medicine. The role of advanced practice nurses is an integral part of the healthcare system, and as such, they are poised to be key providers and contributors to personalized medicine. The personalized medicine initiative is discussed along with examples of genetic and genomic information that lend to our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, as well as the role and responsibilities of advanced practice nurses. Resources for personalized medicine and genetic and genomic content are provided.
Loncarić-Katušin, Mirjana; Milošević, Milan; Žilić, Antonio; Mišković, Petar; Majerić-Kogler, Višnja; Žunić, Josip
The aim of the study was to show the role of tools in the evaluation of chronic pain (CP) in general practitioner (GP) everyday clinical practice. The study was done by analyzing electronic database of the first visits of 1090 CP patients referred to the Pain Clinic of the Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia, by their GPs. All patient records were analyzed according to the cause of CP, strongest pain a week before the examination, quality of sleep, and the Patients' Global Impression of Change scale. All statistical analyses were done using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 126.96.36.199 (www.spss.com). CP predominantly occurs in older age group. Patients with musculoskeletal pain accounted for the highest percentage (n = 316; 29%), followed by those with neuropathic pain (n = 253; 23.20%) and those with low back pain (n = 225; 20.60%). The mean pain intensity rating scale score was 8.3 ± 1.8 a week before the examination and the mean quality of sleep score was 6.8 ± 1.9. Moderate and severe sleep quality disorder was significantly present in patients over 65 years of age (p = 0.007), patients with musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain, back pain, and those having rated Patients' Global Impression of Change scale as worsening (p = 0.001). The severity of pain and poor quality of sleep are the leading causes of deterioration of the Patients' Global Impression of Change scale in patients suffering from musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. In order to treat CP comprehensively, it is important for GPs to evaluate the outcomes of clinical treatment using tools for CP assessment.
Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Lawatia, Zainab; Al-Abri, Rashid; Bhargava, Kamlesh
Objectives: A perception exists that clinicians in Oman are reluctant to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). This pilot study was undertaken to study the feasibility of using EBP pathways at the point of care in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. The ultimate aim was to facilitate EBP with the probability of developing a new system for implementing research findings/translational research at the clinical point of care. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective questionnaire pilot survey of clinicians at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, a tertiary care medical centre, was undertaken. Respondents included 135 physicians and surgeons with between 3 months and 25 years of clinical experience and included personnel ranging from interns to senior consultants, in areas ranging from primary care to specialist care. Results: Of those polled, 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85–95%) either strongly agreed or agreed that evidence-based practice protocols (EBPP) could help in decision making. A total of 87.4% of participants (95% CI 81.8–93%) either strongly agreed or agreed that EBPPs can improve clinical outcomes; 91.8% of participants (95% CI 87.2–96.4%) would use and apply EBPP in day-to-day care if they were available at the point of care and embedded in the hospital information system. Conclusions: The perception that clinicians at SQUH are reluctant to adopt EBP is incorrect. The introduction of EBP pathways is very feasible at the primary care level. Institutional support for embedding EBP in hospital information systems is needed as well as further outcome research to assess the improvement in quality of care. PMID:22548137
Drawing on the evidence base on the core clinical skills and competencies required by newly qualified nurses, this comprehensive text provides useful learning outcomes, activities to encourage reflection, and top tips to expand readers' knowledge and practice.
Cabrera López, F
Aflibercept is a new anti-vegf drug that, unlike ranibizumab and bevacizumab blocks both vegf-A and placental growth factor. Moreover, it binds with much greater strength and affinity to human VEGF-A165 than other endogenous vegf receptors, conferring it with a more extended effect and allowing a lower frequency of intravitreal injections. This facilitates the adoption of fixed treatment regimens other than monthly or individual regimens such as "treat and extend". Aflibercept is indicated for the treatment of neovascular (exudative) age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), visual alteration due to macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and visual alteration due to diabetic macular edema (DME). The present article reviews the management of aflibercept in routine clinical practice, based on the specifications of its new core data sheet, which includes all the therapeutic indications in which its use has been approved and evaluating the distinct alternatives and treatment regimens after the initial loading doses.
Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J
The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Tinnitus. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 13 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the impact of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers.
Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D
Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research. PMID:26304986
Beaton, John; Dienhart, Anna; Schmidt, Jonathan; Turner, Jean
This clinical practice pattern survey had two unique aspects. It was a national survey of American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) members in Canada that included all AAMFT membership categories, including student, affiliate, associate, clinical, and supervisor. It compared practice pattern data for clinical members from Canada…
An evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional ethics committee members from eastern India regarding ethics committee functioning and pharmacovigilance activities conducted during clinical trials: A pilot study
Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Banerjee, Koyel; Sikdar, Shreya; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar
Purpose of study: The vital responsibility of Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) members is to ensure the safety of the subjects participating in clinical trials. Hence, it is essential for IEC members to be aware of the common pharmacovigilance strategies followed during clinical trials. However, the information about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of IEC members regarding the pharmacovigilance activities followed during clinical trials is scarce worldwide, especially in India. Hence, this cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of IEC members of 10 hospitals of Kolkata, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered, validated questionnaire was conducted among 10 hospitals (five government and five corporate hospitals) in Kolkata conducting active clinical research and having functional Ethics Committees (ECs) in the month of September-November, 2012. An IEC approval was taken for this study. Two reminders were given to all EC members through telephone/e-mail for completion and returning of the forms. The filled in forms were returned to their respective Member Secretaries, from whom authors' collected the forms. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software and MS-Excel 2007. Categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of the 100 distributed questionnaires, 40 were returned of which 10 were not filled properly. Overall awareness regarding different pharmacovigilance terminologies and activities among EC members from nonmedical background (71.43%) was found to be more than that of the medical members (68.75%), though the figure was not statistically significant. Majority of the members (75%) felt that EC should decide compensation in case of a serious adverse event. Conclusion: The present study signifies that there is a low level of awareness in IEC members of Kolkata regarding pharmacovigilance
Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.
Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane
Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.
Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M. Tom; McCormick, John K.
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292
Mahoney, Megan R; Fogler, Jess; Weber, Shannon; Goldschmidt, Ronald H
An estimated one fourth of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not aware they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV has the potential to ensure optimal outcomes for infected persons and to limit the spread of the virus. Important barriers to testing among physicians include insufficient time, reimbursement issues, and lack of patient acceptance. Current HIV testing guidelines address many of these barriers by making the testing process more streamlined and less stigmatizing. The opt-out consent process has been shown to improve test acceptance. Formal pretest counseling and written consent are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nevertheless, pretest discussions provide an opportunity to give information about HIV, address fears of discrimination, and identify ongoing high-risk activities. With increased HIV screening in the primary care setting, more persons with HIV could be identified earlier, receive timely and appropriate care, and get treatment to prevent clinical progression and transmission.
Mohide, E Ann; Coker, Esther
Organizational interventions are being suggested to increase the rate of quality research dissemination and uptake. This article describes how one tertiary institution is using an evidence-based nursing (EBN) committee as an organizational strategy to shift its nursing culture toward clinical scholarship. A number of approaches and activities that have stimulated the movement toward evidence-based practice (EBP) are examined: organizational commitment to EBP, strategic positioning of the EBN committee within nursing's administrative structure, articulation of a mission, conceptualization of a model for EBN practice, learning on the job, selection and adoption of an evidence-based model for implementing change, marketing for a change in culture toward clinical scholarship, and other selected examples of projects undertaken by the committee. Action-oriented principles associated with committee experiences are related to the approaches and activities.
van Dam, B A F M; Oosterkamp, B C M; den Boer, J C L; Bruers, J J M
Support is an important factor in the implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Data from 5 studies from 1998 through 2013 offer insight into the support for clinical practice guidelines among dentists, orthodontists, dental hygienists and denturists in the Netherlands. In these, attitudes, opinions, knowledge and behaviour were seen as indicators of support. Dentists have an increasingly positive attitude towards clinical practice guidelines. The majority is aware of and uses at least 1 of the guidelines available to them and are in favour of the development of clinical practice guidelines. Orthodontists and dental hygienists have available few such guidelines, but the majority of both groups favour their development. Among denturists, who also have little experience with clinical practice guidelines, there are fewer supporters for their development. All in all, among caregivers in oral healthcare in the Netherlands, support for the use and development of clinical practice guidelines is growing.
Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.
There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094
Young, Jessica; Jaye, Chrystal; Egan, Tony; Williamson, Martyn; Askerud, Anna; Radue, Peter; Penese, Maree
Burgeoning numbers of patients with long-term conditions requiring complex care have placed pressures on healthcare systems around the world. In New Zealand, complex patients are increasingly being managed within the community. The Community of Clinical Practice concept identifies the network of carers around an individual patient whose central participants share a common purpose of increasing that patient's well-being. We conducted a focused ethnography of nine communities of clinical practice in one general practice setting using participant observation and interviews, and examined the patients' medical records. Data were analysed using a template organising style. Communities of clinical practice were interprofessional and included informal supports, services and non-professionals. These communities of clinical practice mediate practice, utilising informal networks to cut across boundaries, bureaucracy, mandated clinical pathways and professional jurisdictions to achieve optimum patient-centred care. Communities of clinical practice's repertoires are characterised by care and are driven by the moral imperative to care. They do 'whatever it takes', although there is a cost to this form of care. Well-functioning communities of clinical practice use patient's well-being as a guiding light and, by sharing a vision of care through trusting and respectful relationships, avoid fragmentation of care. The Community of Clinical Practice (CoCP) model is particularly useful in accounting for the 'messiness' of community-based care.
Tsoumani, Maria E; Tselepis, Alexandros D
Thrombosis is the formation of potentially deadly blood clots in the artery (arterial thrombosis) or vein (venous thrombosis). Since thrombosis is one of the main causes of death worldwide, the development of antithrombotic agents is a global medical priority. They are subdivided into antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents inhibit clot formation by preventing platelet activation and aggregation, while anticoagulants primarily inhibit the coagulation cascade and fibrin formation. Therapeutics within each category differs with respect to the mechanism of action, time to onset, duration of effect and route of administration. In this review, we critically discuss their main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics as well as recent advances in daily clinical practice.
... drugs, devices, and biologics; as well as inspections of clinical investigators, IRBs, and research... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....
Matsui, Takemi; Yoshida, Yuto; Kagawa, Masayuki; Kubota, Masayuki; Kurita, Akira
We developed a practicable, non-contact, autonomic activation monitoring system using microwave radars without imposing any stress on monitored individuals. Recently, the rapid increase in the aging population has raised concerns in developed countries. Thus, hospitals and care facilities will need to perform long-term health monitoring of elderly patients. The system allows monitoring of geriatric autonomic dysfunctions caused by chronic diseases, such as diabetes or myocardial infarction (MI), while measuring vital signs in non-contact way. The system measures heart rate variability (HRV) of elderly people in bed using dual, 24-GHz, compact microwave radars attached beneath the bed mattress. HRV parameters (LF, HF, and LF/HF) were determined from the cardiac peak-to-peak intervals, which were detected by radars using the maximum entropy method. We tested the system on 15 elderly people with and without diabetes or MI (72-99 years old) from 7:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. at a special nursing home in Tokyo. LF/HF obtained by the system correlated significantly (R = 0.89; p < 0.01) with those obtained by Holter electrocardiography (ECG). Diabetic subjects showed significantly lower LF (radar) than non-diabetic (119.8 ± 57.8 for diabetic, 405.9 ± 112.6 for non-diabetic, p < 0.01). HF (radar) of post-MI subjects was significantly lower than that of non-MI (219.7 ± 131.7 for post-MI and 580.0 ± 654.6 for non-MI, p < 0.05). Previous studies using conventional ECG reveal that diabetic neuropathy decreases LF, and also MI causes parasympathetic attenuation which leads to HF reduction. Our study showed that average SDNN of post-MI patients is smaller than 50 ms which is known to have high mortality. The non-contact autonomic activation monitoring system allows a long-term health management especially during sleeping hours for elderly people at healthcare facilities.
Hunter, Jerry L.; Snyder, Frank
At Toledo Hospital, family practice residents have assumed responsibility for the normal obstetrics clinic. Specialty consultations are provided by the hospital's obstetrics residency program. A medical audit of the clinic indicates that the family practice residents obtained consultations and made referrals at the appropriate times. (JMD)
Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Pathological narcissism is associated with significant interpersonal problems, which are unlikely to be acknowledged by narcissistic patients as clinical issues. Although a substantial clinical and theoretical literature deals with narcissism, a succinct overview of core narcissistic interpersonal problems is lacking, particularly in terms of their presentation in clinical settings. This article provides a descriptive overview of the major types of interpersonal problems associated with pathological narcissism: dominance, vindictiveness, and intrusiveness. We outline how these problems can manifest in patients' relations with others and in treatment situations. Clinical vignettes are provided to highlight the presentation of narcissistic interpersonal dysfunction in various types of clinical encounters, and to facilitate discussion of treatment implications.
Chida, Natasha M.; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Wright, Scott M.; Melia, Michael T.
Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas describes clinical excellence through the following domains: diagnostic acumen, professionalism and humanism, communication and interpersonal skills, skillful negotiation of the healthcare system, knowledge, taking a scholarly approach to clinical practice, and having passion for clinical medicine. This work references examples of infectious disease (ID) clinical excellence across Christmas' domains and, in doing so, both examines how the definition of clinical excellence applies to ID practice and highlights the importance of ID physicians. Emphasizing such aspirational standards may not only inspire trainees and practicing physicians to pursue their own fulfilling clinical ID careers, it may also encourage health systems to fully value outstanding ID physicians who labor tirelessly to provide patients with exceptional care. PMID:27419186
De Deyn, P P; D'Hooge, R
The main current application of placebo is in clinical research. The term placebo effect refers to diverse non-specific, desired or non-desired effects of substances or procedures and interactions between patient and therapist. Unpredictability of the placebo effect necessitates placebo-controlled designs for most trials. Therapeutic and diagnostic use of placebo is ethically acceptable only in few well-defined cases. While "therapeutic" application of placebo almost invariably implies deception, this is not the case for its use in research. Conflicts may exist between the therapist's Hippocratic and scientific obligations. The authors provide examples in neuropsychiatry, illustrating that objective scientific data and well-considered guidelines may solve the ethical dilemma. Placebo control might even be considered an ethical obligation but some provisos should be kept in mind: (a) no adequate therapy for the disease should exist and/or (presumed) active therapy should have serious side-effects; (b) placebo treatment should not last too long; (c) placebo treatment should not inflict unacceptable risks, and (d) the experimental subject should be adequately informed and informed consent given. PMID:8798935
Despas, Noémie; Larock, Anne-Sophie; Jacqmin, Hugues; Douxfils, Jonathan; Chatelain, Bernard; Chatelain, Marc; Mullier, François
Traditional anticoagulant agents such as unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), fondaparinux, danaparoid and bivalirudine are used in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. However, these agents have limitations: their constraining parenteral route of administration and the need for regular coagulation monitoring for HNF. The LMWHs, with their more predictable anticoagulant response, don't require a systematic monitoring. The usefulness of LMWHs monitoring in several clinical situations such as pregnancy, obesity and renal insufficiency is a matter of debate. Indeed, there is no agreement between French and American recommendations on this question. Others aspects are also controversial: the measure of trough anti-Xa activity during pregnancy and the optimal monitoring of LMWHs for patients with antithrombin deficiency (hepatic disease, new-borns). Different tests are available to ensure the monitoring of these drugs, we will see in this review their principle, their advantages and inconvenients. The management of heparin induced thrombocytopenia also needs parenteral anticoagulants: danaparoïd, bivalirudine or argatroban. The modalities of their monitoring are relatively unknown and are presented. Furthermore, platelet monitoring is capital. This article aims to provide guidance about laboratory testing of classic parenteral anticoagulants.
Carneiro, António Vaz
The role of science in clinical practice is nowadays fundamental. The constant publication of studies and clinical trials provides evidence of good quality that can be used by the clinician as a basis for medical decision-making, even in a context of uncertainty and risk. Valid and relevant information can help solve the problems of clinical knowledge in practice. The main question is then how practicing clinicians can learn about the innovations and acquire the recent information that can help them to change their practice for the better. The volume of medical literature is enormous and constantly growing, and it is difficult to manage. The increasing availability of secondary data sources for daily patient care provides practical and rapid access to all this information, enabling improvements in the quality of care. In this paper we present and discuss a set of modern and high-quality instruments to obtain useful information for clinical practice.
Kim, Sollip; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chae, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Ji, Misuk; Kim, In-Suk; Wee, Kyung-A; Lee, Woochang; Song, Sang Hoon; Woo, Hye In
Pharmacogenetic testing for clinical applications is steadily increasing. Correct and adequate use of pharmacogenetic tests is important to reduce unnecessary medical costs and adverse patient outcomes. This document contains recommended pharmacogenetic testing guidelines for clinical application, interpretation, and result reporting through a literature review and evidence-based expert opinions for the clinical pharmacogenetic testing covered by public medical insurance in Korea. This document aims to improve the utility of pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical settings. PMID:28029011
Kim, Sollip; Yun, Yeo Min; Chae, Hyo Jin; Cho, Hyun Jung; Ji, Misuk; Kim, In Suk; Wee, Kyung A; Lee, Woochang; Song, Sang Hoon; Woo, Hye In; Lee, Soo Youn; Chun, Sail
Pharmacogenetic testing for clinical applications is steadily increasing. Correct and adequate use of pharmacogenetic tests is important to reduce unnecessary medical costs and adverse patient outcomes. This document contains recommended pharmacogenetic testing guidelines for clinical application, interpretation, and result reporting through a literature review and evidence-based expert opinions for the clinical pharmacogenetic testing covered by public medical insurance in Korea. This document aims to improve the utility of pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical settings.
Ip, Barry; Cavanna, Annlouise; Corbett, Beverley
This paper examines the recent development of a computer-assisted learning program--in Practice--at the School of Health Science, in the University of Wales Swansea. The project, which began in 2001, was developed in close collaboration with The Meningitis Trust, the aim being to produce a software package to increase nursing students' knowledge…
Hands, Robin; Rong, Yuhang
The Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut is committed to the intentionality of interweaving course work and practice in its 5-year teacher preparation program, the Integrated Bachelor's and Master's program. It offers a wide range of field experiences to teacher candidates. Teacher candidates enter the program at the beginning…
Price, Adrienne; Price, Bob
This article explores practical ways of role modelling practice with students on clinical placements. Students are frequently assigned to a senior practitioner for periods of observation, which involves shadowing the practitioner in practice. Learning opportunities are not necessarily seized because a strategy is not in place to enhance learning. The article provides guidance on how to proceed effectively with role modelling.
Muldoon, Becky T; Mai, Vinh Q; Burch, Henry B
Over the last century, much has been learned about the pathogenesis, manifestations, and management of Graves' disease leading to the establishment of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. The joint clinical practice guidelines from the American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists give recommendations on both the diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism. A survey of clinicians performed that same year, however, revealed that current practices diverge from these recently published guidelines in multiple areas. These differences will need to be assessed serially to determine the impact of the guidelines on future clinical practice and perhaps vice versa.
Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam
The numbers of district nurse clinics are continuing to grow in primary care and they provide timely and more cost effective intervention for patients. The clinics provide exciting opportunities for district nurses but also carry an increased risk of exposure to liability. This article discusses some of the key areas of accountability underpinning the duty of care of district nurses working in nurse-led clinics.
Novak, Joy Rainbow
While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…
Farmer, Adam D; Albu-Soda, Ahmed; Aziz, Qasim
The diverse array of end organ innervations of the vagus nerve, coupled with increased basic science evidence, has led to vagus nerve stimulation becoming a management option in a number of clinical disorders. This review discusses methods of electrically stimulating the vagus nerve and its current and potential clinical uses.
Schmidt, Jennifer A
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring skin disorder that has no cure.Current clinical research has implicated Malassezia yeast in the etiology. Using a clear, concise clinical picture and a thorough patient history, even the novice NP can formulate an effective treatment plan.
The purpose of this research is to enlight the actual nursing act of the student in order to search for what makes sense in his (her) self nursing becoming and to reinterpret what is said regarding what is done. Up till, researchs were focused on declarative intentions; instead here, we go beyond using an innovative approach based on the clinical activity research method applied to the nursing education field.
Lanza, Gaetano A; Camici, Paolo G; Galiuto, Leonarda; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Pizzi, Carmine; Di Monaco, Antonio; Sestito, Alfonso; Novo, Salvatore; Piscione, Federico; Tritto, Isabella; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Bugiardini, Raffaele; Crea, Filippo; Marzilli, Mario
A growing amount of data is increasingly showing the relevance of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD) in several clinical contexts. This article reviews techniques and clinical investigations of the main noninvasive and invasive methods proposed to study coronary microcirculation and to identify CMVD in the presence of normal coronary arteries, also trying to provide indications for their application in clinical practice.
Anderson, Sandra D.
Indirect challenges act to provoke bronchoconstriction by causing the release of endogenous mediators and are used to identify airway hyper-responsiveness. This paper reviews the historical development of challenges, with exercise, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) of dry air, wet hypertonic saline, and with dry powder mannitol, that preceded their use in clinical practice. The first challenge developed for clinical use was exercise. Physicians were keen for a standardized test to identify exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and to assess the effect of drugs such as disodium cromoglycate. EVH with dry air became a surrogate for exercise to increase ventilation to very high levels. A simple test was developed with EVH and used to identify EIA in defence force recruits and later in elite athletes. The research findings with different conditions of inspired air led to the conclusion that loss of water by evaporation from the airway surface was the stimulus to EIA. The proposal that water loss caused a transient increase in osmolarity led to the development of the hypertonic saline challenge. The wet aerosol challenge with 4.5% saline, provided a known osmotic stimulus, to which most asthmatics were sensitive. To simplify the osmotic challenge, a dry powder of mannitol was specially prepared and encapsulated. The test pack with different doses and an inhaler provided a common operating procedure that could be used at the point of care. All these challenge tests have a high specificity to identify currently active asthma. All have been used to assess the benefit of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Over the 50 years, the methods for testing became safer, less complex, and less expensive and all used forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to measure the response. Thus, they became practical to use routinely and were recommended in guidelines for use in clinical practice. PMID:26908255
Ogawa, Hisao; Kojima, Sunao
"Evidence-based medicine (EBM)" implies effective and high quality practice for patients based on well-grounded medical science. The success of clinical trials in Japan is essential to build original evidence specific for Japanese patients. Based on this concept, we have performed several large-scale clinical trials to provide EBM, including the Japanese Antiplatelets Myocardial Infarction Study [JAMIS; clinical improvement in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with antiplatelet therapy], the Japanese beta-Blockers and Calcium Antagonists Myocardial Infarction (JBCMI; comparison of the effects of beta-blockers and calcium antagonists on cardiovascular events in post-AMI patients), a multicenter study for aggressive lipid-lowering strategy by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in patients with AMI (MUSASHI; effects of statin therapy on cardiovascular events in patients with AMI), and the Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis with Aspirin for Diabetes (JPAD trial; efficacy of low-dose aspirin therapy for primary prevention of atherosclerotic events in type 2 diabetic patients). The results of these prospective studies were directly linked with clinical practice. We have acquired the know-how of large-scale clinical trials; an important point is to have passion for "buildup evidence specific for the Japanese" and to recruit subjects for enrollment after explaining the significance of "clinical trials for the Japanese".
Matumoto, Silvia; Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Kawata, Lauren Suemi; Mishima, Silvana Martins; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa
This study aims to present the re-signification process of the meanings of nurses' clinical practice in primary care from the perspective of extended clinic and permanent education. An intervention research was carried out with the approval of an ethics committee. Nine nurses participated in reflection groups from September to December 2008 in Ribeirão Preto-SP-Brazil. The redefinition process of the meanings proposed by the institutional analysis was mapped. The results point out that the nurses perceive differences in clinical work, by acknowledging the sense of user-centered clinical practice; daily limits and tensions and the need for support from managers and the team to deal with users' problems and situations. They identify the necessity to open space in the schedule to do that. It was concluded that nurses' clinical practice is being consolidated, and that collective analysis processes permit learning and the reconstruction of practices.
Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Takasugi, Jun; Nakayama, Takeo
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate Japanese physical therapists’ attitudes of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. [Subjects and Methods] In 2014, a cross-sectional postal mail survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Of 2,982 physical therapists belonging to the Chiba Prefecture Physical Therapist Association, 1,000 were randomly selected. The questionnaire comprised 42 items pertaining to the attitudes of and behavior toward evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. It was investigated to reveal the relationship between clinical practice guidelines/evidence-based practice and therapist characteristics. [Results] The response rate was 39.6%, and 384 questionnaires were available. The main results were as follows: 83.3% participants agreed to the importance of evidence-based practice, 77.1% agree to that evidence-based practice supports clinical decision of physical therapists, and about 11% agreed to have been educated about evidence-based practice. Then, 29.2% used, 54.9% agreed to the importance of, and 13.3% agreed to the utility of clinical practice guidelines. An important factor related mostly to a positive attitude, knowledge and behavior of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines was participating in research activities. [Conclusion] Many of physical therapists do not use and understand the importance of clinical practice guidelines. Participating in research activities may partially contribute to improving these conditions. PMID:28265139
Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Takasugi, Jun; Nakayama, Takeo
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate Japanese physical therapists' attitudes of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. [Subjects and Methods] In 2014, a cross-sectional postal mail survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Of 2,982 physical therapists belonging to the Chiba Prefecture Physical Therapist Association, 1,000 were randomly selected. The questionnaire comprised 42 items pertaining to the attitudes of and behavior toward evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines. It was investigated to reveal the relationship between clinical practice guidelines/evidence-based practice and therapist characteristics. [Results] The response rate was 39.6%, and 384 questionnaires were available. The main results were as follows: 83.3% participants agreed to the importance of evidence-based practice, 77.1% agree to that evidence-based practice supports clinical decision of physical therapists, and about 11% agreed to have been educated about evidence-based practice. Then, 29.2% used, 54.9% agreed to the importance of, and 13.3% agreed to the utility of clinical practice guidelines. An important factor related mostly to a positive attitude, knowledge and behavior of evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines was participating in research activities. [Conclusion] Many of physical therapists do not use and understand the importance of clinical practice guidelines. Participating in research activities may partially contribute to improving these conditions.
Wenz, Frederik; Sedlmayer, Felix; Herskind, Carsten; Welzel, Grit; Sperk, Elena; Neumaier, Christian; Gauter-Fleckenstein, Benjamin; Vaidya, Jayant S.; Sütterlin, Marc
Summary Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been under clinical investigation for more than 15 years. There are several technical approaches that are clinically established, e.g. brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), or external-beam radiotherapy. The understanding of the underlying biology, optimal technical procedures, patient selection criteria, and imaging changes during follow-up has increased enormously. After completion of several phase III trials using brachytherapy or IORT, APBI is currently increasingly used either in phase IV studies, registries, or in selected patients outside of clinical studies. Consensus statements about suitable patients are available from several international and national societies like ASTRO, ESTRO, and DEGRO. One may expect that 15-25% of patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery may qualify for APBI, i.e. patients with small invasive ductal breast cancer without clinical lymph node involvement. PMID:26600760
Gupta, Sabrina S; Aroni, Rosalie; Teede, Helena
Research indicates that there are worryingly low levels of physical activity among South Asians compared with Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared perceptions, barriers, and enablers of physical activity in these groups. We used a qualitative design, conducting in-depth, semistructured iterative interviews in Victoria with 57 South Asian and Anglo-Australian participants with either type 2 diabetes or CVD. While both groups exhibited knowledge of the value of physical activity in health maintenance and disease management, they wished for more specific and culturally tailored advice from clinicians about the type, duration, and intensity of physical activity required. Physical activity identities were tied to ethnic identities, with members of each group aspiring to meet the norms of their culture regarding engagement with physical activity as specific exercise or as incidental exercise. Individual personal exercise was deemed important by Anglo-Australians whereas South Asians preferred family-based physical activity.
Brites, Maria José; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Dellow, James; Rainey, Colin; Jorge, Ana; Santos, Sílvio Correia; Rees, Angela; Auwärter, Andreas; Catalão, Daniel; Balica, Magda; Camilleri, Anthony F.
In keeping with the overarching RadioActive101 (RA101) spirit and ethos, this report is the product of collaborative and joined-up thinking from within the European consortium spread across five countries. As such, it is not simply a single voice reporting on the experiences and knowledge gained during the project. Rather it is a range of…
Keiffer, Melanie R
Clinical practice guidelines augment clinician decision making. Researchers cite a lack of knowledge of guideline existence, complexity of guidelines, staff attitude, lack of training, time and resource constraints as reasons for nonadherence. This project sought to understand factors that promote or prevent guideline implementation at the point of care. Respondents' viewed clinical practice guidelines as valid tools necessary to standardize patient care and exhibited proficiency in synthesis and integration of guidelines into clinical decisions and treatment plans. Efficient and effective guidelines impact patient safety and quality by increasing the consistency of behavior and replacing idiosyncratic behaviors with best practices.
Wing, Rena R.
Look AHEAD was a randomized clinical trial designed to examine the long-term health effects of weight loss in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary result was that the incidence of cardiovascular events over a median follow up of 9.6 years was not reduced in the intensive lifestyle group relative to the control group. This finding is discussed, with emphasis on its implications for design of clinical trials and clinical treatment of obese people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24853636
Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.
This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…
Background There is a scarcity of research published on clinical scholarship. Much of the conceptualisation has been conducted in the academy. Nurse academics espouse that the practice of nursing must be built within a framework of clinical scholarship. A key concept of clinical scholarship emerging from discussions in the literature is that it is an essential component of enabling evidence–based nursing and the development of best practice standards to provide for the needs of patients/clients. However, there is no comprehensive definition of clinical scholarship from the practicing nurses. The aim of this study was to contribute to this definitional discussion on the nature of clinical scholarship in nursing. Methods Naturalistic inquiry informed the method. Using an interpretative approach 18 practicing nurses from Australia, Canada and England were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and the text coded for emerging themes. The themes were sorted into categories and the components of clinical scholarship described by the participants compared to the scholarship framework of Boyer [JHEOE 7:5-18, 2010]. Results Clinical scholarship is difficult to conceptualise. Two of the essential elements of clinical scholarship are vision and passion. The other components of clinical scholarship were building and disseminating nursing knowledge, sharing knowledge, linking academic research to practice and doing practice-based research. Conclusion Academic scholarship dominated the discourse in nursing. However, in order for nursing to develop and to impact on health care, clinical scholarship needs to be explored and theorised. Nurse educators, hospital-based researchers and health organisations need to work together with academics to achieve this goal. Frameworks of scholarship conceptualised by nurse academics are reflected in the findings of this study with their emphasis on reading and doing research and translating it
Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M
The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Baltimore District Office,...
Hepler, Charles D.
Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)
Trepanier, Lauren A
This article describes clinical examples in which pharmacokinetic parameters can be used to optimize veterinary patient care. Specific applications include extrapolating drug dosages, optimizing therapy with therapeutic drug monitoring, interpreting pharmacokinetic information provided by drug labels and pharmaceutical companies, and adjusting drug dosages in patients with hepatic or renal failure.
Barone, Joseph; And Others
A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141
Scott, Ian A; Glasziou, Paul P
Published research evidence does not automatically diffuse into clinical practice but requires active processes of translation that start with clinicians' awareness of the science and end with patient adherence to the recommended care. Many barriers thwart the uptake of valid and clinically important research into practice, with cognitive, motivational and sociological factors on the part of health professionals being among the most important. Encouraging clinicians to question the level of scientific certainty underpinning clinical practice and to actively seek evidence that may better inform clinical decisions is a priority for improving health care effectiveness. Although there are effective strategies for improving translation of research into practice, implementing them requires agreement between and buy-in from professional and managerial stakeholders.
Baker, P; Needleman, I
A sizeable proportion of patients in clinical practice will have some form of periodontal disease and most of these patients can be well managed in primary care. Unfortunately, dento-legal claims regarding inappropriate periodontal care are increasing rapidly and are now one of the most common reasons for litigation in dentistry. In this paper we will look at aspects of contemporary management of periodontal disease in clinical practice and offer guidance for examination, management and referral.
Peters, Kathleen; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; McInnes, Susan
As a practice-based discipline a key component of undergraduate nurse education is clinical practice experience. The quality of clinical experiences has a significant impact on the students' ability to function competently post graduation. The relationship between higher education institutions (HEIs) and health service placement providers impacts upon the quality of clinical placements. In Australia, the growth of primary care nursing and the shortage of acute clinical places has prompted HEIs to explore the placement of students in general practice. Given the increasing attention being paid to non-traditional clinical placements, it is timely to explore how universities are establishing relationships and models of clinical placement. This paper uses qualitative research methods to explore the perspectives of 12 Australian general practice nurses who have experience in facilitating undergraduate clinical placements about the relationships between HEIs and nurses. Findings are presented in the following three themes: (1) Appropriate preparation for placement: They don't know what primary health really means, (2) Seeking greater consultation in the organisation of clinical placements: they've got to do it one way for everyone, and (3) Uncertainty and lack of support: I had no contact with the university. Clinical placements in general practice can be an innovative strategy providing non-traditional, yet high quality, teaching and learning experiences for undergraduate nursing students. To optimise the quality of these placements, however, it is essential that HEIs provide appropriate support to the practice nurses mentoring these students.
Wing, R R
Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) was a randomized clinical trial designed to examine the long-term health effects of weight loss in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary result was that the incidence of cardiovascular events over a median follow-up of 9.6 years was not reduced in the Intensive Lifestyle Group relative to the control group. This finding is discussed, with emphasis on its implications for design of trials and clinical treatment of obese persons with type 2 diabetes.
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered. PMID:26889060
Zhang, Y; Liu, X J
Digital medical technologies or computer aided medical procedures, refer to imaging, 3D reconstruction, virtual design, 3D printing, navigation guided surgery and robotic assisted surgery techniques. These techniques are integrated into conventional surgical procedures to create new clinical protocols that are known as "digital surgical techniques". Conventional health care is characterized by subjective experiences, while digital medical technologies bring quantifiable information, transferable data, repeatable methods and predictable outcomes into clinical practices. Being integrated into clinical practice, digital techniques facilitate surgical care by improving outcomes and reducing risks. Digital techniques are becoming increasingly popular in trauma surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, imaging and anatomic sciences. Robotic assisted surgery is also evolving and being applied in general surgery, cardiovascular surgery and orthopedic surgery. Rapid development of digital medical technologies is changing healthcare and clinical practices. It is therefore important for all clinicians to purposefully adapt to these technologies and improve their clinical outcomes.
Jamison, Jennifer R
The chiropractic profession is increasingly expressing the sentiment that chiropractic clinical intervention should rest upon a scientific foundation. Before ‘scientific research’ can become meaningful in chiropractic clinical practice, it is necessary that field practitioners be conversant with research terminology. If chiropractic clinical practice is to achieve credibility as a scientific mode of health care and if the benefits of a ‘scientific’ practice model are to enhance patient care, then future chiropractic practitioners must be familiar with a currently accredited scientific frame of reference. A survey of final year chiropractic students at Phillip Institute of Technology found that respondents appreciation of the strength of diverse clinical research methodologies and their ranking of criteria for ascertaining a cause-effect association bears some similarity (RHO = 0.97 and 0.98 respectively, p < 0.05) to that of the ‘scientific’ clinical community.
In addition to usual medical care it is often critical to consider the patient's inner world in order to sensitively differentiate between harmful and helpful suggestive elements. The respective abilities in terms of hypnotic communication can be easily learned. Confident, empathic attention and a calm, understanding and figurative language narrowing the focus on positive emotions and positive change, which have been shown to improve the patient's chances of healing, are of particular importance. Proper clinical hypnosis goes one step further: it makes explicit use of suggestions, trance, and trance phenomena. The major clinical indications for hypnosis include psychosomatic disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, depression, and pain syndromes. Hypnosis can also be employed as an adjunct for surgical therapy.
Casanova, J M; Sanmartín, V; Martí, R M; Morales, J L; Soler, J; Purroy, F; Pujol, R
The acquisition of competences (the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a job to a professional level) is considered a fundamental part of medical training. Dermatology competences should include, in addition to effective clinical interviewing and detailed descriptions of skin lesions, appropriate management (diagnosis, differentiation, and treatment) of common skin disorders and tumors. Such competences can only be acquired during hospital clerkships. As a way of certifying these competences, we propose evaluating the different components as follows: knowledge, via clinical examinations or critical incident discussions; communication and certain instrumental skills, via structured workplace observation and scoring using a set of indicators; and attitudes, via joint evaluation by staff familiar with the student.
Klein, Harvey G; Spahn, Donat R; Carson, Jeffrey L
Every year, about 75 million units of blood are collected worldwide. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is one of the few treatments that adequately restore tissue oxygenation when oxygen demand exceeds supply. Although the respiratory function of blood has been studied intensively, the trigger for RBC transfusion remains controversial, and doctors rely primarily on clinical experience. Laboratory assays that indicate failing tissue oxygenation would be ideal to guide the need for transfusion, but none has proved easy, reproducible, and sensitive to regional tissue hypoxia. The clinical importance of the RBCs storage lesion (ie, the time-dependent metabolic, biochemical, and molecular changes that stored blood cells undergo) is poorly understood. RBCs can be filtered, washed, frozen, or irradiated for specific indications. Donor screening and testing have dramatically reduced infectious risks in the developed world, but infection remains a major hazard in developing countries, where 13 million units of blood are not tested for HIV or hepatitis viruses. Pathogen inactivation techniques are in clinical trials for RBCs, but none is available for use. Despite serious immunological and non-immunological complications, RBC transfusion holds a therapeutic index that exceeds that of many common medications.
Hamric, Ann B.
Describes attitude sets characterized as ethics as intuition, ethics as foreign language, and ethics as irrelevant to practice among nurses and physicians and the consequences they engender. Addresses strategies to bridge the gap between ethics knowledge and clinical practice, including interdisciplinary ethics education. (JOW)
Joffe, Victoria; Pring, T.
Background: Children with phonological problems are a significant proportion of many therapists' caseloads. However, little is known about current clinical practice with these children or whether research on the effects of therapy have influenced this practice. Aims: To investigate the methods of assessment and remediation used by therapists…
This report presents a subset of data collected from the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) Practice Research Network project conducted in 2002. A sample of 47 clinical members of AAMFT who indicated they practiced in a rural community provided descriptive information on demographic characteristics, training, clinical…
Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Christakis, Marie K; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C
Objective The objective of this study was to establish an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the primary management of obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This clinical practice guideline addresses 4 existing gaps: (1) historic poor use of evidence, (2) timing of referral to multidisciplinary care, (3) Indications and timing of operative nerve repair and (4) distribution of expertise. Setting The guideline is intended for all healthcare providers treating infants and children, and all specialists treating upper extremity injuries. Participants The evidence interpretation and recommendation consensus team (Canadian OBPI Working Group) was composed of clinicians representing each of Canada's 10 multidisciplinary centres. Outcome measures An electronic modified Delphi approach was used for consensus, with agreement criteria defined a priori. Quality indicators for referral to a multidisciplinary centre were established by consensus. An original meta-analysis of primary nerve repair and review of Canadian epidemiology and burden were previously completed. Results 7 recommendations address clinical gaps and guide identification, referral, treatment and outcome assessment: (1) physically examine for OBPI in newborns with arm asymmetry or risk factors; (2) refer newborns with OBPI to a multidisciplinary centre by 1 month; (3) provide pregnancy/birth history and physical examination findings at birth; (4) multidisciplinary centres should include a therapist and peripheral nerve surgeon experienced with OBPI; (5) physical therapy should be advised by a multidisciplinary team; (6) microsurgical nerve repair is indicated in root avulsion and other OBPI meeting centre operative criteria; (7) the common data set includes the Narakas classification, limb length, Active Movement Scale (AMS) and Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure (BPOM) 2 years after birth/surgery. Conclusions The process established a new network of opinion leaders and researchers for further
Purpose: In this article, the author comments on aspects of Kamhi's (2014) article, which caused the author to think more deeply about definitions of language, theories of learning, and how these two core components of intervention prepare clinical scientists as they search the literature for new knowledge. Interprofessional collaborative…
Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation.
Prior, Patsy; Wilkinson, Jill; Neville, Stephen
The role of practice nurses is a specific feature of the modernisation agenda of the New Zealand health service. Increasing importance is being placed on service improvement through effective decision making and enhanced clinical performance. To contribute to the development of primary health care it is crucial that nurses have the skills to appropriately implement research based and other evidence in practice. This study involved 55 West Auckland practice nurses working in the general practice setting. The aim of the study was to describe nurses' perceptions of their use of evidence-based practice, attitudes toward evidence-based practice and perceptions of their knowledge/skills associated with evidence-based practice. An additional aim was to determine the effect of educational preparation on practice, attitudes and knowledge/skills toward evidence-based practice. A descriptive survey design was selected for this study. The results demonstrated that nurses' attitudes toward evidence-based practice, knowledge and skills relevant to the implementation of evidence-based practice and the educational preparation of the nurses were important factors influencing the effective utilisation and application of research results in practice. Educational interventions are identified as an integral aspect of implementing evidence-based practice and enhancing practice nurses' knowledge and skill relevant to the use of evidence in practice. Further research is needed to assess the contextual factors which can inhibit or promote achievement of evidence-based practice by practice nurses.
Charon, R; Banks, J T; Connelly, J E; Hawkins, A H; Hunter, K M; Jones, A H; Montello, M; Poirer, S
Introduced to U.S. medical schools in 1972, the field of literature and medicine contributes methods and texts that help physicians develop skills in the human dimensions of medical practice. Five broad goals are met by including the study of literature in medical education: 1) Literary accounts of illness can teach physicians concrete and powerful lessons about the lives of sick people; 2) great works of fiction about medicine enable physicians to recognize the power and implications of what they do; 3) through the study of narrative, the physician can better understand patients' stories of sickness and his or her own personal stake in medical practice; 4) literary study contributes to physicians' expertise in narrative ethics; and 5) literary theory offers new perspectives on the work and the genres of medicine. Particular texts and methods have been found to be well suited to the fulfillment of each of these goals. Chosen from the traditional literary canon and from among the works of contemporary and culturally diverse writers, novels, short stories, poetry, and drama can convey both the concrete particularity and the metaphorical richness of the predicaments of sick people and the challenges and rewards offered to their physicians. In more than 20 years of teaching literature to medical students and physicians, practitioners of literature and medicine have clarified its conceptual frameworks and have identified the means by which its studies strengthen the human competencies of doctoring, which are a central feature of the art of medicine.
Checklists are common tools used in many industries. Unfortunately, their adoption in the field of medicine has been limited to equipment operations or part of specific algorithms. Yet they have tremendous potential to improve patient outcomes by democratizing knowledge and helping ensure that all patients receive evidence-based best practices and safe high-quality care. Checklist adoption has been slowed by a variety of factors, including provider resistance, delays in knowledge dissemination and integration, limited methodology to guide development and maintenance, and lack of effective technical strategies to make them available and easy to use. In this article, we explore some of the principles and possible strategies to further develop and encourage the implementation of checklists into medical practice. We describe different types of checklists using examples and explore the benefits they offer to improve care. We suggest methods to create checklists and offer suggestions for how we might apply them, using some examples from our own experience, and finally, offer some possible directions for future research. PMID:20064195
Aronson, Jeffrey K
1 This is a manifesto for UK clinical pharmacology. 2 A clinical pharmacologist is a medically qualified practitioner who teaches, does research, frames policy, and gives information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implements that knowledge in clinical practice. Those without medical qualifications who practise some aspect of clinical pharmacology could be described as, say, ‘applied pharmacologists’. 3 Clinical pharmacology is operationally defined as a translational discipline in terms of the basic tools of human pharmacology (e.g. receptor pharmacology) and applied pharmacology (e.g. pharmacokinetics) and how they are used in drug discovery and development and in solving practical therapeutic problems in individuals and populations. 4 Clinical pharmacologists are employed by universities, health-care services, private organizations (such as drug companies), and regulatory agencies. They are • mentors and teachers, teaching laboratory science, clinical science, and all aspects of practical drug therapy as underpinned by the science of pharmacology; they write and edit didactic and reference texts; • researchers, covering research described by the operational definition; • clinicians, practising general medicine, clinical toxicology, other medical specialties, and general practice; • policy makers, framing local, national, and international medicines policy, including formularies, licensing of medicines and prescribing policies. 5 The future of clinical pharmacology depends on the expansion and maintenance of a central core of practitioners (employed by universities or health-care services), training clinical pharmacologists to practise in universities, health-care services, private organizations, and regulatory agencies, and training other clinicians in the principles and practice of clinical pharmacology. PMID:20642541
Korbel, Lindsey; George, Mathew; Kitzmiller, Joseph
Clinicians and patients continue to convey interest in personalized medicine. The objective of personalized medicine is to improve healthcare by tailoring disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies for individuals based on their unique clinical history and genetic composition. This article offers an overview of pharmacogenomics, discusses caveats specific to pharmacogenomics in pediatric populations, provides evidence-based recommendations for pediatric clinicians, and offers insight regarding the future role of pharmacogenomics testing in pediatric medicine. Reviews of the current literature and thoughtful discussions are presented regarding the pharmacogenomics of antidepressants, codeine and oncologic, asthma, and immunomodulatory pharmacotherapies.
The article analyses the significance of the concept of "obsession" in nineteenth-century alienism. From a clinical point of view, Esquirol's description was completed by other authors (Jules Falret, Legrand du Saulle). In the area of psychopathological studies, French alienism, with Morel's emotional delirium or Janet's psychasthenia, defended the emotional theory, as opposed to the intellectual disorder proposed by German doctors. Lastly, the importance of the cultural framework is stressed in the appearance of obsessive symptoms and their interpretation. Along these lines, the article discusses the relationship of religious scruples to melancholy or the appearance of diagnostic categories subject to fin de siècle codes and mentalities.
Taylor, Stephen; Jayasuriya, Ashini; Smit, Erasmus
Genotypic resistance testing is now a standard of care in HIV management. Although there are clear, published guidelines to recommend the appropriate use of these tests, clinicians and scientists still struggle to determine the optimal use of resistance tests given the finite budgets and time constraints under which they work. In this article we discuss some 'real-life' clinical situations and aim to provide a useful insight into when and where genotypic resistance testing can be optimally applied in the management of HIV-positive adults.
Almería, S; López-Gatius, F
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers.
This paper discusses error type their possible consequences and the doctors who make them. There is no single, all-encompassing typology of medical errors. They are frequently multifactorial in origin and use from the mental processes of individuals; from defects in perception, thinking reasoning planning and interpretation and from failures of team-working omissions and poorly executed actions. They also arise from inadequately designed and operated healthcare systems or procedures. The paper considers error-truth relatedness, the approach of UK courts to medical errors, the learning opportunities which flow from error recognition and the need for personal and professional self awareness of clinical fallibilities. PMID:12389767
Kamhi, Alan G.
Purpose: This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Method: Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions,…
Rutledge, Dana N; Skelton, Katie
A 1-year program for select clinical nurse experts led to increased comfort in using evidence-based practice strategies. Nurses identified specific barriers and facilitators for evidence-based practice efforts, accomplished individual goals, and saw changes in their practice roles. Results from the program and its evaluation are that staff can benefit from such an effort (4-day course with specific follow-up activities).
Bell, Sue Ellen; Hulbert, James R
Translating social justice into clinical nurse specialist (CNS) practice involves not only facilitating equitable access to healthcare resources but also changing the definition of health from individual centric to population based. Clinical nurse specialists working within hospitals or healthcare systems generally have not explored the ethical conflicts between demand and available healthcare resources. Application of social justice to CNS practice requires microallocation decisions in direct patient care and macroallocation decisions in the distribution of all societal goods that alleviate health disparities. This article reviews the meaning, history, and current basis for the application of the principle of social justice to CNS practice.
Villiger, B; Monnat, A
The complexity of the new antidoping regulations of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Federations (IF) and the National Olympic Committees (NOC) rises a lot of problems in handling the prescriptions of medication in athletes in the daily practice. In addition, several countries have passed antidoping laws which makes the prescription and the delivery of doping agens illegal. This may have severe consequences for the prescribing doctors. It is therefore the goal of the article to inform the practitioning doctors about the new antidoping regulations and their impact on prescribing or delivering potential doping agens to athletes. It will focus on the new dopinglists, the different doping control systems, the problems with the pharmacological treatment of certain diseases as asthma and the necessary reports which have to be sent to the NOC's or the IF's after prescribing certain medications or methods.
Aims of radiation oncology are cure from malignant diseases and - at the same time preservation of anatomy (e.g. female breast, uterus, prostate) and organ functions (e.g. brain, eye, voice, sphincter ani). At present, methods and results of clinical radiotherapy (RT) are based on experiences with natural history and radiobiology of malignant tumors in properly defined situations as well as on technical developments since World War II in geometrical and biological treatment planning in teletherapy and brachytherapy. Radiobiological research revealed tolerance limits of healthy tissues to be respected, effective total treatment doses of high cure probability depending on histology and tumor volume, and - more recently - altered fractionation schemes to be adapted to specific growth fractions and intrinsic radiosensitivities of clonogenic tumor cells. In addition, Biological Response Modifiers (BRM), such as cis-platinum, oxygen and hyperthermia may steepen cell survival curves of hypoxic tumor cells, others - such as tetrachiordekaoxid (TCDO) - may enhance repair of normal tissues. Computer assisted techniques in geometrical RT-planning based on individual healthy and pathologic anatomy (CT, MRT) provide high precision RT for well defined brain lesions by using dedicated linear accelerators (Stereotaxy). CT-based individual tissue compensators help with homogenization of distorted dose distributions in magna field irradiation for malignant lymphomas and with total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, e.g. for leukemia. RT with fast neutrons, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), RT with protons and heavy ions need to be tested in randomized trials before implementation into clinical routine.
Manski, Charles F.; Tetenov, Aleksey
Medical research has evolved conventions for choosing sample size in randomized clinical trials that rest on the theory of hypothesis testing. Bayesian statisticians have argued that trials should be designed to maximize subjective expected utility in settings of clinical interest. This perspective is compelling given a credible prior distribution on treatment response, but there is rarely consensus on what the subjective prior beliefs should be. We use Wald’s frequentist statistical decision theory to study design of trials under ambiguity. We show that ε-optimal rules exist when trials have large enough sample size. An ε-optimal rule has expected welfare within ε of the welfare of the best treatment in every state of nature. Equivalently, it has maximum regret no larger than ε. We consider trials that draw predetermined numbers of subjects at random within groups stratified by covariates and treatments. We report exact results for the special case of two treatments and binary outcomes. We give simple sufficient conditions on sample sizes that ensure existence of ε-optimal treatment rules when there are multiple treatments and outcomes are bounded. These conditions are obtained by application of Hoeffding large deviations inequalities to evaluate the performance of empirical success rules. PMID:27601679
Cline, John C
Detoxification is a vital cellular task that, if lacking, can lead to early morbidity and mortality. The process of detoxification involves the mobilization, biotransformation, and elimination of toxicants of exogenous and endogenous origin. This article discusses the phase I and phase II detoxification and biotransformation pathways and promotes using food to support these highly complex processes. The author identifies the comprehensive elimination diet as a useful therapeutic tool for clinicians and patients to use to achieve detoxification. Using this diet, the patient removes the most common allergenic foods and beverages from the diet and replaces them with nonallergenic choices for a period of 4 wk, gradually adding back the eliminated foods and observing their effects. Another effective clinical tool that the author discusses is the detox-focused core food plan, which identifies the variety of foods required to supply key nutrients that can maximize the effectiveness of detoxification. Finally, the author provides a case study in which these tools were used to help a patient suffering from major, debilitating illnesses that resulted from exposure to malathion, including severe vomiting and diarrhea, headaches, night sweats, severe arthralgias and myalgias, episcleritis, and shortness of breath. The article details the interventions used and the clinical results (ie, successful resolution of most issues after 3 mo).
Tarver, William J.
Vitamin D and its metabolites have clinical significance because they play a critical function in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Although not all of the pathologic mechanisms have been adequately described, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, as measured by low levels of 25-OH vitamin D, are associated with a variety of clinical conditions including osteoporosis, falls and fractures in the elderly, decreased immune function, bone pain, and possibly colon cancer and cardiovascular health.2 Apart from inadequate dietary intake, patients may present with low levels of vitamin D if they receive inadequate sunlight. The astronaut population is potentially vulnerable to low levels of vitamin D for several reasons. Firstly, they may train for long periods in Star City, Russia, which by virtue of its northern latitude receives less sunlight in winter months. Secondly, astronauts are deprived of sunlight while aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In addition, ISS crew members are exposed to microgravity for prolonged durations and are likely to develop low bone mineral density despite the use of countermeasures. Therefore, closely monitoring and maintaining adequate vitamin D levels is important for the astronaut corps.
Zagaynova, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhov, Andrey; Terentjeva, Anna; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kuznetzova, Irina A.; Streltzova, Olga; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Myakov, Alex
Clinical studies using OCT involved 2000 patients in various fields of medicine such as gastroenterology, urology, laryngology, gynecology, dermatology, stomatology, etc. Layered high-contrast images were typical for benign epithelial conditions. OCT distinguish in mucosae: epithelium, connective tissue layer, and smooth-muscle layer. Various benign processes occurring in mucosa manifest in OCT images as changes in the epithelial height, scattering properties and the course of the basement membrane. Lack of the layered structural pattern is the main criterion for dysplastic / malignant images. In clinic: OCT data may be critical for choosing a tissue site for excisional biopsy, OCT can detect tumor borders and their linear dimensions, OCT can be used to plan a resection line in operations and to control adequacy of resection, to monitor whether reparative processes are timely and adequate. OCT sensitivity of the uterine cervix, urinary bladder and larynx is 82, 98, 77%, respectively, specificity - 78, 71, 96%, diagnostic accuracy - 81, 85, 87% with significantly good agreement index of clinicians kappa - 0.65, 0.79, 0.83 (confidence intervals: 0.57-0.73; 0.71-0.88; 0.74-0.91). Error in detection of high grade dysplasia and microinvasive cancer is 21.4% in average. Additional modification of OCT (cross-polarisation OCT, OCM), development of the procedure (biotissue compression, application of chemical agents) can improve the specificity and sensitivity of traditional modality.
Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J
Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.
Dean Deyle, Gail
This clinical perspective presents an overview of current and potential uses for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in musculoskeletal practice. Clinical practice guidelines and current evidence for improved outcomes will help providers determine the situations when an MRI is indicated. The advanced competency standard of examination used by physical therapists will be helpful to prevent overuse of musculoskeletal imaging, reduce diagnostic errors, and provide the appropriate clinical context to pathology revealed on MRI. Physical therapists are diagnostically accurate and appropriately conservative in their use of MRI consistent with evidence-based principles of diagnosis and screening. PMID:22851878
Forrest, John B; Dell, Jeffrey R
Primary care physicians, urologists, and gynecologists have the opportunity to detect interstitial cystitis (IC) in its early stages in symptomatic patients and provide effective treatment before the disease progresses. In this article, we present guidelines for clinical practice management and coding for reimbursement for the care of patients with IC. Important issues in the management of IC are presented, including appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding for office visits and procedures associated with diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Excellent IC care can be integrated into a successful clinical practice with appropriate clinical management and coding for reimbursement.
While more and more psychologists criticize managed care companies, most must depend upon them in order to maintain their practices. In this study, psychologists were surveyed and asked to identify activities in their own independent practice that fall outside of the purview of managed care. A total of 180 specific activities were identified that…
Balla, John I; Heneghan, Carl; Glasziou, Paul; Thompson, Matthew; Balla, Margaret E
Rationale and aim The rapidly changing knowledge base of clinical practice highlights the need to keep abreast of knowledge changes that are most relevant for the practitioner. We aimed to develop a model for reflection on clinical practice that identified the key elements of medical knowledge needed for good medical practice. Method The dual theory of cognition, an integration of intuitive and analytic processes, provided the framework for the study. The design looked at the congruence between the clinical thinking process and the dual theory. A one-year study was conducted in general practice clinics in Oxfordshire, UK. Thirty-five general practitioners participated in 20-minute interviews to discuss how they worked through recently seen clinical cases. Over a one-year period 72 cases were recorded from 35 interviews. These were categorized according to emerging themes, which were manually coded and substantiated with verbatim quotations. Results There was a close fit between the dual theory and participants' clinical thinking processes. This included instant problem framing, consistent with automatic intuitive thinking, focusing on the risk and urgency of the case. Salient features accounting for these choices were recognizable. There was a second reflective phase, leading to the review of initial judgements. Conclusions The proposed model highlights the critical steps in decision making. This allows regular recalibration of knowledge that is most critical at each of these steps. In line with good practice, the model also links the crucial knowledge used in decision making, to value judgments made in relation to the patient.
Gao, Mei; Rejaei, Damoon; Liu, Hong
After nearly half a century on the market, ketamine still occupies a unique corner in the medical armamentarium of anesthesiologists or clinicians treating pain. Over the last two decades, much research has been conducted highlighting the drug's mechanisms of action, specifically those of its enantiomers. Nowadays, ketamine is also being utilized for pediatric pain control in emergency department, with its anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects being revealed in acute and chronic pain management. Recently, new insights have been gained on ketamine's potential anti-depressive and antisuicidal effects. This article provides an overview of the drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics while also discussing the potential benefits and risks of ketamine administration in various clinical settings. PMID:27018176
Kar, Nilamadhab; Barreto, Socorro; Chandavarkar, Rahul
Clozapine is effective in treatment resistant schizophrenia; however, it is underutilised probably because of its side effects. The side effects are also the potential reasons for clozapine discontinuation. A mandatory requirement for its use is regular monitoring of white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count. However there are many side effects that need monitoring in clinical practice considering their seriousness. This article tries to summarise the clinical concerns surrounding the serious side effects of clozapine some of which are associated with fatalities and presents a comprehensive way to monitor patients on clozapine in clinical practice. It emphasizes the need to broaden the monitoring beyond the mandatory investigations. This may help in improving the safety in clinical practice and increasing clinician confidence for greater and appropriate use of this effective intervention. PMID:27776383
Briko, N I
This article defines clinical epidemiology and describes its goal and objectives. The author claims that clinical epidemiology is a section of epidemiology which underlies the development of evidence-based standards for diagnostics, treatment and prevention and helps to select the appropriate algorithm for each clinical case. The study provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine. Epidemiological research is shown to be methodological basis of clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine with randomized controlled trials being the "gold standard" for obtaining reliable data. The key stages in the history of clinical epidemiology are discussed and further development of clinical epidemiology and the integration of courses on clinical epidemiology in education is outlined for progress in medical research and health care practice.
Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle
Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.
Fukui, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uto, Hirofumi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Sakaida, Isao; Shibuya, Akitaka; Seike, Masataka; Nagoshi, Sumiko; Segawa, Makoto; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Michitaka, Kojiro; Murawaki, Toshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru
The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis in 2015. Eighty-three clinical questions were selected, and a literature search was performed for the clinical questions with use of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases for the period between 1983 and June 2012. Manual searching of the latest important literature was added until August 2015. The guidelines were developed with use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This digest version in English introduces selected clinical questions and statements related to the management of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Branched-chain amino acids relieve hypoalbuminemia and hepatic encephalopathy and improve quality of life. Nucleoside analogues and peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus related liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C related compensated liver cirrhosis, respectively, although the latter therapy may be replaced by direct-acting antivirals. For liver cirrhosis caused by primary biliary cirrhosis and active autoimmune hepatitis, urosodeoxycholic acid and steroid are recommended, respectively. The most adequate modalities for the management of variceal bleeding are the endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices and the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration following endoscopic obturation with cyanoacrylate for gastric varices. Beta-blockers are useful for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is a useful add-on therapy in careful diuretic therapy for ascites. Albumin infusion is useful for the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory disturbance and renal failure. In addition to disaccharides, the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin is useful for the management of encephalopathy. Anticoagulation therapy is proposed for
Hain, Debra; Haras, Mary S
A rapidly evolving healthcare environment demands sound research evidence to inform clinical practice and improve patient outcomes. Over the past several decades, nurses have generated new knowledge by conducting research studies, but it takes time for this evidence to be implemented in practice. As nurses strive to be leaders and active participants in healthcare redesign, it is essential that they possess the requisite knowledge and skills to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP). Professional nursing organizations can make substantial contributions to the move healthcare quality forward by providing EBP workshops similar to those conducted by the American Nephrology Nurses'Association.
Fisher, S I; Nandedkar, M A; Williams, B H; Abbondanzo, S L
We studied a series of 60 telepathology cases sent in consultation to the Department of Hematopathology from January 1, 1995, through July 31, 2000. Cases from the United States and the world representing academic, private, military, and federal sectors were reviewed. Ninety percent of patients were adults (54 of 60), and male patients outnumbered female patients 2 to 1. Ages were from 1 to 79 years (mean, 42 years). Forty-three cases were lymph nodes (72%), 14 were bone marrow or peripheral blood (23%), and 3 were from other sites (5%). Twenty-seven of the consultant diagnoses were benign (27 of 60). Twenty-nine were malignant (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and "other malignancy" groups), and 4 were nondiagnostic. Glass slide/paraffin tissue blocks were available in only 35 (58%) of 60 cases. The concordance rate for diagnostic telehematopathology cases with subsequent glass slide/paraffin block follow-up was 91% (29 of 32 cases). The discordance rate was 9% (3 of 32). This finding shows a high degree of diagnostic accuracy for consultative telehematopathology. Of 118 images analyzed, 58 were considered very good/good (49%), 32 were poor/very poor (27%), and 28 were fair (24%). Poor images had suboptimal resolution, color, or technical quality of transmission, and most poor images were low-power images. Additional case problems included insufficient immunoperoxidase stain availability, selection, and labeling; transmitted field selection; specimen preparation and staining; presence or absence of accompanying clinical data; and availability of ancillary studies such as flow cytometric, cytogenetic, and molecular data. From this analysis, the following recommendations are offered. To optimize telehematopathology consultation, include any additional information that have a significant influence on the final consultant diagnosis. Include any pertinent clinical information, laboratory data, special stains, immunoperoxidase stains, and molecular data. Select
Scheen, A J; Crielaard, J M
The present closing article summarizes some guidelines for the good practice of physical activities in order to develop and maintain cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility. Advice is given regarding the recommended quantity and quality of exercise in term of intensity, duration and frequency of training with the aim to optimize the risk/benefit ratio for health, in both aerobic endurance and resistance exercises. The crucial role of an appropriate warm-up and cool-down period, which would include flexibility exercises, is also emphasized. Finally, some practical examples illustrate this vademecum of physical activities.
The whole spectrum of medicine consists of complex non-linear systems that are balanced and interact with each other. How non-linearity confers stability on a system and explains variation and uncertainty in clinical medicine is discussed. A major theme is that a small alteration in initial conditions may have a major effect on the end result. In the context of non-linearity, it is argued that 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) as it exists today can only ever be relevant to a small fraction of the domain of medicine, that the 'art of medicine' consists of an intuitive 'tuning in' to these complex systems and as such is not so much an art as an expression of non-linear science. The main cause of iatrogenic disease is interpreted as a failure to understand the complexity of the systems being treated. Case study examples are given and analysed in non-linear terms. It is concluded that good medicine concerns individualized treatment of an individual patient whose body functions are governed by non-linear processes. EBM as it exists today paints with a broad and limited brush, but it does promise a fresh new direction. In this context, we need to expand the spectrum of scientific medicine to include non-linearity, and to look upon the 'art of medicine' as a historical (but unstated) legacy in this domain.
Reyna, Valerie F.; Fagerlin, Angela; Lipkus, Isaac; Peters, Ellen
Background Low numeracy is pervasive and constrains informed patient choice, reduces medication compliance, limits access to treatments, impairs risk communication, and affects medical outcomes; therefore, it is incumbent upon providers to minimize its adverse effects. Purpose We provide an overview of research on health numeracy and discuss its implications in clinical contexts. Conclusions Low numeracy cannot be reliably inferred on the basis of patients’ education, intelligence, or other observable characteristics. Objective and subjective assessments of numeracy are available in short forms and could be used to tailor health communication. Low scorers on these assessments are subject to cognitive biases, irrelevant cues (e.g., mood), and sharper temporal discounting. Because prevention of the leading causes of death (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular disease) depends on taking action now to prevent serious consequences later, those low in numeracy are likely to require more explanation of risk to engage in prevention behaviors. Visual displays can be used to make numerical relations more transparent, and different types of displays have different effects (e.g., greater risk avoidance). Ironically, superior quantitative processing seems to be achieved by focusing on qualitative gist and affective meaning, which has important implications for empowering patients to take advantage of the evidence in evidence-based medicine. PMID:18677452
Bisht, Veena; Voort, Judith VanDer
Renal candidiasis is an increasingly common condition affecting predominantly premature infants receiving neonatal intensive care or term infants with urogenital tract anomalies. Multiple risk factors are usually present. Although rare, some infants develop an obstructive uropathy due to fungal balls, and this requires prompt detection and intervention to preserve kidney function. The management of obstructive renal bezoars is challenging and not well summarised in the past. This is mainly due to scarce literature confined to case reports or case series only. This review clarifies various definitions used in relation to renal candidiasis and identifies infants particularly at risk of obstruction. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and the role of imaging are discussed. A summary of the recent literature is provided to outline the range of existing treatment options available with published drug dosages and mode of delivery used. No single approach is successful in all cases and clinicians need to be aware of the different options available: apart from adequate urinary drainage and use of systemic +/- local antifungal agents, additional treatment with fibrinolytic agents and/or endoscopic or open surgical removal may be required. A new simplified algorithm for use in management is proposed. We hope this review will help clinicians in their management of patients presenting with this complex and challenging diagnosis.
Littlewood, S J; Kandasamy, S; Huang, G
Maintaining teeth in their corrected positions following orthodontic treatment can be extremely challenging. Teeth have a tendency to move back towards the original malocclusion as a result of periodontal, gingival, occlusal and growth related factors. However, tooth movement can also occur as a result of normal age changes. Because orthodontics is unable to predict which patients are at risk of relapse, those which will remain stable and the extent of relapse that will occur in the long-term, clinicians need to treat all patients as if they have a high potential to relapse. To reduce this risk, long term retention is advocated. This can be a significant commitment for patients, and so retention and the potential for relapse must form a key part of the informed consent process prior to orthodontic treatment. It is vital that patients are made fully aware of their responsibilities in committing to wear retainers as prescribed in order to reduce the chance of relapse. If patients are unable or unwilling to comply as prescribed, they must be prepared to accept that there will be tooth positional changes following treatment. There is currently insufficient high quality evidence regarding the best type of retention or retention regimen, and so each clinician's approach will be affected by their personal, clinical experience and expertise, and guided by their patients' expectations and circumstances.
Pauroso, S.; Di Leo, N.; Fulle, I.; Di Segni, M.; Alessi, S.; Maggini, E.
Introduction Varicoceles are abnormal dilatations of the pampiniform venous plexus. They are classified as primary or secondary, depending on their cause, and staged clinically on the basis of their extension and on the presence or the absence of spontaneous or induced reversal of blood flow. Materials and methods We examined 95 patients (age range: 3–77 years) using Color Doppler ultrasound with settings optimized for the study of slow flow. All patients found to have varicoceles underwent ultrasonographic assessment of the kidneys and retroperitoneum. Findings were classified with a simplified version of the Sarteschi system. Results 41 (43.1%) of the patients were found to have varicoceles, which were classified as grade 1 in 11 cases, grade 2 in 13, grade 3 in 10, and grade 4 in 7 according to the simplified Sarteschi classification. Discussion Our results are with those reported in the literature. They confirm that varicoceles are a frequent finding and ultrasonography is currently the best imaging technique for its diagnosis and also for the post-surgery follow-up. PMID:23396816
Herrett, Emily; Gallagher, Arlene M; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet; Mathur, Rohini; van Staa, Tjeerd; Smeeth, Liam
The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is an ongoing primary care database of anonymised medical records from general practitioners, with coverage of over 11.3 million patients from 674 practices in the UK. With 4.4 million active (alive, currently registered) patients meeting quality criteria, approximately 6.9% of the UK population are included and patients are broadly representative of the UK general population in terms of age, sex and ethnicity. General practitioners are the gatekeepers of primary care and specialist referrals in the UK. The CPRD primary care database is therefore a rich source of health data for research, including data on demographics, symptoms, tests, diagnoses, therapies, health-related behaviours and referrals to secondary care. For over half of patients, linkage with datasets from secondary care, disease-specific cohorts and mortality records enhance the range of data available for research. The CPRD is very widely used internationally for epidemiological research and has been used to produce over 1000 research studies, published in peer-reviewed journals across a broad range of health outcomes. However, researchers must be aware of the complexity of routinely collected electronic health records, including ways to manage variable completeness, misclassification and development of disease definitions for research. PMID:26050254
CHEN, JONATHAN H; GOLDSTEIN, MARY K; ASCH, STEVEN M; ALTMAN, RUSS B
Automatically data-mining clinical practice patterns from electronic health records (EHR) can enable prediction of future practices as a form of clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to determine the stability of learned clinical practice patterns over time and what implication this has when using varying longitudinal historical data sources towards predicting future decisions. We trained an association rule engine for clinical orders (e.g., labs, imaging, medications) using structured inpatient data from a tertiary academic hospital. Comparing top order associations per admission diagnosis from training data in 2009 vs. 2012, we find practice variability from unstable diagnoses with rank biased overlap (RBO)<0.35 (e.g., pneumonia) to stable admissions for planned procedures (e.g., chemotherapy, surgery) with comparatively high RBO>0.6. Predicting admission orders for future (2013) patients with associations trained on recent (2012) vs. older (2009) data improved accuracy evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) 0.89 to 0.92, precision at ten (positive predictive value of the top ten predictions against actual orders) 30% to 37%, and weighted recall (sensitivity) at ten 2.4% to 13%, (P<10−10). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than only using recent (2012) data. Secular trends in practice patterns likely explain why smaller but more recent training data is more accurate at predicting future practices. PMID:26776186
Couillard, Annabelle; Muir, Jean François; Veale, Daniel
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is now considered as a systemic disease originating in the lungs. The natural history of this disease reveals numerous extrapulmonary manifestations and co-morbidity factors that complicate the evolution of COPD. Recent publications have documented these systemic manifestations and co-morbidities and clarified somewhat the role of muscle dysfunction, nutritional anomalies, endocrine dysfunction, anaemia, osteoporosis and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders as well as lung cancer and psychological elements in this complex disease. Importantly, recent studies have shown that effort intolerance, exertional desaturation, loss of autonomy and reduced physical activity, loss of muscle mass and quadriceps strength as well as dyspnoea and impaired quality of life can be considered as independent predictive factors for survival in COPD. Use of these data may advance understanding of mechanisms; improve evaluation and thereby patient management in COPD.
Sieber, Cornel C
Frailty has emerged as a true geriatric syndrome with increasing interest for both basic scientist as well as clinicians. The conceptual frame of a decreased resistance to internal and external stressors shows - when speaking of physical frailty - substantial overlaps to primary sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass. Consensus for the definition of frailty and sarcopenia is rapidly increasing and ease the path for a common understanding of these syndromes with high impact on functionality, independence and thereby quality of life of older adults. Ageing per se has long been thought to be unalterable and being the major cause for most chronic diseases and frailty. Significant increases in the understanding of cellular senescence now challenge this. Interventions may delay age-related conditions and thus compressing late-life morbidity with positive consequences for public health. Besides pharmacological interventions, lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity can optimize the biology of ageing and extend healthy life span.
Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H; Patel, Tejal; Lee, Linda
Pharmacists have developed innovative practices in various settings as singular providers or as members of multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary teams. Examples include pharmacists practicing in heart failure, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia clinics. There is a paucity of literature describing pharmacists in interdisciplinary memory clinics and specifically pharmacists practicing in interdisciplinary, primary care-based memory clinics. New practice models should be disseminated to guide others in the development of similar models given the complexity of this population. Patients with dementia are more difficult to manage because of cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms, the common presence of multiple comorbidities, and related polypharmacy and caregiver issues. These challenges require expertise in neurodegenerative disorders and geriatrics. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of clinical pharmacists providing care to patients with cognitive complaints in a primary care-based, interdisciplinary memory clinic, with a focus on how the pharmacist practices and is integrated in this collaborative care setting. Patients are assessed using an interdisciplinary approach, with team consensus for assessment and planning of care. Pharmacists' activities include assessment of (1) appropriateness of medications based on frailty, (2) medications that can impair cognition and/or function, (3) medication adherence and management skills, and (4) vascular risk factor control. Pharmacists provide education regarding medications and diseases, ensure appropriate transitions in care, and conduct home visits. Pharmacist participation in this clinic represents a novel opportunity to advance pharmacy practice in primary care, interdisciplinary models. Work is ongoing to describe outcomes attributable to pharmacist participation in this clinic.
Pierson, W E
The early recognition and appropriate management of EIB can allow children and adolescents to fully participate in physical activities and sports. The diagnosis by history of chest congestion, coughing, and decreasing performance with exercise is helpful but is aided by a more systematic questionnaire that can detect otherwise "normal" people with EIB. The diagnosis is documented by performance of an exercise challenge test such as a treadmill or cycloergometer to verify bronchospasm induced by exercise. The management can be accomplished by nonpharmacologic means such as an early vigorous warmup, the use of a mask for rebreathing warmed air, and participation in a physical training program to increase anaerobic fitness. Pharmacologic management includes the appropriate use of cromolyn sodium, beta adrenergic agonists, theophylline, ipratroprium bromide, and calcium channel blocking agents. In addition the antihistamine, terfenadine, can also be utilized to effectively block exercise-induced bronchospasm. These pharmacologic agents can be utilized in both national and international competition when approved by the appropriate national governing body and/or the US Olympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee.
Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard
Introduction Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science focuses on bridging the gap between research and practice. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) published recommendations for increasing physical activity based on scientific review and consensus. Little research on the D&I of these recommendations has been conducted in under-represented populations at high risk for inactivity and chronic disease. Methods Partnering with one rural community (beta site), the University of New Mexico Prevention Research Center studied the translation of CPSTF recommendations to practice. Strategies for increasing physical activity were selected, implemented, and analyzed in 2009 to 2013. Participant observations; content analysis of meeting minutes, field notes, and other documents; and in-depth interviews were conducted over the 5-year period to identify factors important for carrying out the CPSTF recommendations for physical activity in a rural New Mexico community. Results Included among the implementation outcomes were new sidewalks and trails, a community-wide campaign, social support of walking, and park improvements. The following factors were identified as important to the implementation process: an active community-academic partnership; multiple partners; culturally appropriate strategies; and approaches that fit local context and place characteristics (topography, land ownership, population clusters, existing roadways). Conclusions This study illustrates how evidence can be translated to practice and identifies key factors in that process. The successful beta model provides a practical blueprint for D&I in rural, under-represented populations. This model is currently being disseminated (scaled up) to other rural New Mexico communities. PMID:28215385
Morrow, Angela M; Quine, Susan; Heaton, Maria D; Craig, Jonathan C
The rising prevalence of children with chronic conditions has made quality of life an increasingly important outcome measure in paediatric practice. The discrepancy between doctors' and patients' perceptions of quality of life makes formal assessment necessary. In this paper we use a case scenario to answer commonly asked questions. What is quality of life and who can assess it? Why assess quality of life in the clinical setting? Is it feasible to measure in routine clinical practice? How is quality of life formally assessed? We provide a basic outline of the language and methods of quality of life assessment and use the case scenario to discuss the process of choosing an appropriate instrument. We conclude that quality of life assessment in clinical practice is feasible and provides benefits for both patients and doctors. The benefits include better informed doctors, improved patient doctor communication and a means to effectively monitor quality of life as a treatment outcome.
Among medical researchers and clinicians the dominant view is that it is unethical to deceive patients by prescribing a placebo. This opinion is formalized in a recent policy issued by the American Medical Association (AMA [Chicago, IL]). Although placebos can be shown to be always safe, often effective, and sometimes necessary, doctors are now effectively prohibited from using them in clinical practice. I argue that the deceptive administration of placebos is not subject to the same moral objections that face other forms of deception in clinical practice and medical research. Although deception is normally objectionable on the grounds that it limits autonomy and breaches trust, these grounds do not apply to placebos when they are prescribed within appropriate ethical limits. Patients have reason to prefer that doctors can prescribe placebos in ethically responsible ways. Hence, the AMA has an obligation to endorse and to promote the responsible use of deceptive placebos in clinical practice.
Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Godoy-Palomino, Armando; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis
The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in atrial fibrillation. This is the second in a series of articles of review, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Among all clinical practice guidelines, we selected the American, Canadian and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines. We used the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument for the assessment. In general, the guidelines obtained the lowest score in the applicability domain (mean 36.1%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 93.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the editorial independence domain (Canadian guideline) and the highest of all scores in the applicability domain (NICE guideline). Regarding global quality, the NICE guideline obtained the AGREE II instrument best scores, followed by the American guideline, both recommended for use without modifications.
Dickson, Geri L; Flynn, Linda
In this article, we describe the depth of knowledge and skill nurses used in making decisions regarding the safe processes and practices of medication administration. Using grounded theory, we identified the essence of medication safety by nurses as the theme of clinical reasoning. Nurses used two medication safety processes within the clinical reasoning theme-maintaining medication safety and managing the environment-together with six categories of patient-focused medication safety practices in the first process and four categories of environmental-focused safety practices within the second process. These processes and practices present an emerging model of safe medication administration developed from the narratives of 50 medical-surgical nurses. This model provides researchers with the basis for the development of systemic policies for safer medication administration for patients. Health care professional educators might also find the results useful in developing curricula focused on patient safety as the foundation of quality care.
Areethamsirikul, N; Masih-Khan, E; Chu, C-M; Jimenez-Zepeda, V; Reece, D E; Trudel, S; Kukreti, V; Tiedemann, R; Chen, C
Cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (CyBorD) is a highly active three-drug induction regimen for untreated transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients. Although CyBorD has been evaluated only in the phase 2 setting in a limited number of patients, its high efficacy and ease of administration have led to its widespread use. Given that clinical trial efficacy can overestimate real-life effectiveness, we reviewed our institutional experience with 109 newly diagnosed patients who were treated with CyBorD in a non-clinical trial setting. After a median of four cycles, overall response rate (ORR) and very good partial response rate or better (⩾VGPR) were 95 and 66%, respectively, comparable to phase 2 studies of CyBorD and other three/four-drug induction regimens. All patients subsequently underwent successful stem cell collection and upgraded responses to ORR 98% and ⩾VGPR 79% post transplant. At a median follow-up of 19.8 months after diagnosis, the 2-year OS probability was 95.3% (95%CI: 89-98). The presence of concurrent plasmacytoma at diagnosis was the only prognostic factor predicting poorer survival (HR=5.56; 95%CI: 0.92-33.74; P=0.03). CyBorD was well-tolerated, with no severe peripheral neuropathy and minimal hematologic toxicity. Therefore, CyBorD is a convenient, well-tolerated, highly effective induction regimen in preparation for autologous SCT in real-life clinical practice.
Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo
Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care.
Santillan-Doherty, Patricio; Cabral-Castañeda, Antonio; Soto-Ramírez, Luis
The present paper deals with the basic aspects, influences and elements that constitute Informed Consent seeing it as a process and not only as an administrative format. Both the patient-physician relationship, as well as the research subject-investigator relationship, should be seen in the same manner, in spite of recognizing specific objectives for each one. For this reason, Informed Consent should not be different regarding both clinical as well as research activities. The patient-physician relationship presents a disbalance of power within the relationship in favor of the physician; this adds to the moral considerations that take place within both participants. Informed Consent should be defined in a broad sense as all those actions that promote a process of communication and dialogue which facilitates a person in order to make decisions with respect of an action, practice or product that have an impact on his/her body, intimacy or other vital spaces. Informed Consent has influences that originate in basic bioethical principles (autonomy, beneficience, non-maleficence, justice), professional and international declarations (Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Helsinki), as well as legal considerations pertinent to each country. In our country legality emmanates from the General Health Law which, unfortunately, only contemplates Informed Consent as part of the relation established in clinical research. However, the Official Medican Norm on the Clinical Record establishes the conditions where Informed Consent must be obtained during clinical as well as research activities. Primary components of Informed Consent (revelation, capacity to understand and voluntariness), can be better understood when divided into several elements: information, voluntariness, risks and benefits, confidentiality, return of information, utility of the process and management of fragility. Informed Consent should be legally instrumented in an explicit written manner (administrative formats
A tentative classification was derived by identifying specific beliefs and practice behaviors that discriminate among six theoretical orientations. From a sample of 199 practicing social workers from 133 mental health, family service, and medical centers, two dimensions were formed: active-interactional versus reflective individual and the…
Powell, Thomas W
The emergence of clinical phonetics and linguistics as an area of scientific inquiry gives rise to the need for guidelines that define ethical and responsible conduct. The diverse membership of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA) and the readership of this journal are uniquely suited to consider ethical issues from diverse perspectives. Accordingly, this paper introduces a multi-tiered six-factor model for ethical practices to stimulate discussion of ethical issues.
Spurr, Shelley; Bally, Jill; Ogenchuk, Marcella; Peternelj-Taylor, Cindy
This article presents a proposed holistic Framework for Exploring Adolescent Wellness specific to the discipline of nursing. Conceptualized as a practical adolescent wellness assessment tool, the framework attends to the physical, spiritual, psychological and social dimensions of adolescent health. Through the discussion of a reconstructed case study the framework's application to nursing practice is illustrated. Nurses are distinctly positioned to promote adolescent wellness. This approach facilitates the exploration of the multiple influences on the health of adolescents, across a variety of clinical practice specialties and settings, by nurses of varying experiences.
Mentz, Robert J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Berdan, Lisa G; Rorick, Tyrus; O'Brien, Emily C; Ibarra, Jenny C; Curtis, Lesley H; Peterson, Eric D
Randomized, clinical trials are commonly regarded as the highest level of evidence to support clinical decisions. Good Clinical Practice guidelines have been constructed to provide an ethical and scientific quality standard for trials that involve human subjects in a manner aligned with the Declaration of Helsinki. Originally designed to provide a unified standard of trial data to support submission to regulatory authorities, the principles may also be applied to other studies of human subjects. Although the application of Good Clinical Practice principles generally led to improvements in the quality and consistency of trial operations, these principles have also contributed to increasing trial complexity and costs. Alternatively, the growing availability of electronic health record data has facilitated the possibility for streamlined pragmatic clinical trials. The central tenets of Good Clinical Practice and pragmatic clinical trials represent potential tensions in trial design (stringent quality and highly efficient operations). In the present article, we highlight potential areas of discordance between Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the principles of pragmatic clinical trials and suggest strategies to streamline study conduct in an ethical manner to optimally perform clinical trials in the electronic age.
Llorca, Guy; Letrilliart, Laurent
Background Wikis may give clinician communities the opportunity to build knowledge relevant to their practice. The only previous study reviewing a set of health-related wikis, without specification of purpose or audience, globally showed a poor reliability. Objective Our aim was to review medical wiki websites dedicated to clinical practices. Methods We used Google in ten languages, PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, and Web of Science to identify websites. The review included wiki sites, accessible and operating, having a topic relevant for clinical medicine, targeting physicians or medical students. Wikis were described according to their purposes, platform, management, information framework, contributions, content, and activity. Purposes were classified as “encyclopedic” or “non-encyclopedic”. The information framework quality was assessed based on the Health On the Net (HONcode) principles for collaborative websites, with additional criteria related to users’ transparency and editorial policy. From a sample of five articles per wikis, we assessed the readability using the Flesch test and compared articles according to the wikis’ main purpose. Annual editorial activities were estimated using the Google engine. Results Among 25 wikis included, 11 aimed at building an encyclopedia, five a textbook, three lessons, two oncology protocols, one a single article, and three at reporting clinical cases. Sixteen wikis were specialized with specific themes or disciplines. Fifteen wikis were using MediaWiki software as-is, three were hosted by online wiki farms, and seven were purpose-built. Except for one MediaWiki-based site, only purpose-built platforms managed detailed user disclosures. The owners were ten organizations, six individuals, four private companies, two universities, two scientific societies, and one unknown. Among 21 open communities, 10 required users’ credentials to give editing rights. The median information framework quality score was 6 out of 16
Keeling, Aoife N.; Reekers, Jim A.; Lee, Michael J.
The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical environment in which interventional radiology (IR) is practiced throughout Europe. A survey, comprising 12 questions on IR clinical practice, was sent to 1800 CIRSE members. Members were asked to return one survey per department. Two hundred seventy-four departments returned completed questionnaires, 22% from the United Kingdom (n = 60), 11% from Germany (n = 30), 8% from Austria (n = 23), and the remainder spread over Europe. Experts, with more than 10 years of IR experience, comprised 74% of the survey group. Almost one-third of the radiologists dedicated more than 80% of their clinical sessions to IR alone (27%; n = 75), with two-thirds practicing in a university teaching hospital setting (66%; n = 179). Few institutions have dedicated IR inpatient hospital beds (17%; n = 46), however, to compensate, day case beds are available (31%), IR admitting rights are in place (64% overall, 86% for in-patients, and 89% for day cases), and elective IR admissions can be made through other clinicians (87%). IR outpatient clinics are run at 26% of departments, with an average of two sessions per week. Dedicated nurses staff the majority of IR suites (82%), but clinical junior doctors are lacking (46%). Hospital management's refusing access to beds was the most commonly cited reason for not developing a clinical IR service (41%). In conclusion, there is marked variation across European centers in the current practice of IR. Half do not have dedicated junior doctors and only a small minority have inpatient hospital beds. If IR is to be maintained as a dedicated clinical specialty, these issues need to be addressed urgently.
Peters, D; Davies, P; Pietroni, P
BACKGROUND. A musculoskeletal clinic, staffed by a general practitioner trained in osteopathy, medical acupuncture and intralesional injections, was set up in an inner London general practice in 1987. AIM. A retrospective study was undertaken of one year's referrals to the clinic in 1989-90 to determine how general practitioners were using the clinic in terms of problems referred; consultation patterns of patients attending the clinic and 12 months after initially being seen; and how access to the clinic influenced referrals to relevant hospital departments. METHOD. Day sheets were studied which recorded information on demographic characteristics of patients referred to the clinic and their problems, diagnoses made, duration of symptoms, number and range of treatments given, and recurrence of problems. Use of secondary referral sources was also examined. RESULTS. During the study year 154 of 3264 practice patients were referred to the musculoskeletal clinic, and attended a mean of 3.5 times each. Of all the attenders 64% were women and 52% were 30-54 years old. Eighty one patients (53%) presented with neck, back or sciatic pain. A specific traumatic, inflammatory or other pathological process could be ascribed to only 19% of patients. Regarding treatment, 88% of patients received osteopathic manual treatment or acupuncture, or a combination of these treatments and 4% received intralesional injections. Nine patients from the clinic (6%) were referred to an orthopaedic specialist during the year, two with acute back pain. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists by the practice as a whole were not significantly lower than the national average, although the practice made fewer referrals to physiotherapy and rheumatology departments than national figures would have predicted. Seventeen patients (11%) returned to the clinic with a recurrence of their main complaint within a year of their initial appointment; second courses of treatment were usually brief. CONCLUSION. The
Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Muth, Rodney
This paper discusses two important elements in the preparation of K-12 school leaders: (1) role transformation through clinical practice during administrator preparation programs; and (2) reconceptualization of traditional internship experiences to enhance role transformation. Data analyzed for this study originally were collected in doctoral…
Depeursinge, Adrien; Fischer, Benedikt; Müller, Henning; Deserno, Thomas M
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been proposed as key technology for computer-aided diagnostics (CAD). This paper reviews the state of the art and future challenges in CBIR for CAD applied to clinical practice. We define applicability to clinical practice by having recently demonstrated the CBIR system on one of the CAD demonstration workshops held at international conferences, such as SPIE Medical Imaging, CARS, SIIM, RSNA, and IEEE ISBI. From 2009 to 2011, the programs of CADdemo@CARS and the CAD Demonstration Workshop at SPIE Medical Imaging were sought for the key word “retrieval” in the title. The systems identified were analyzed and compared according to the hierarchy of gaps for CBIR systems. In total, 70 software demonstrations were analyzed. 5 systems were identified meeting the criterions. The fields of application are (i) bone age assessment, (ii) bone fractures, (iii) interstitial lung diseases, and (iv) mammography. Bridging the particular gaps of semantics, feature extraction, feature structure, and evaluation have been addressed most frequently. In specific application domains, CBIR technology is available for clinical practice. While system development has mainly focused on bridging content and feature gaps, performance and usability have become increasingly important. The evaluation must be based on a larger set of reference data, and workflow integration must be achieved before CBIR-CAD is really established in clinical practice. PMID:21892374
Gottschalk, Shelby; Hake, Megan M.; Cook-Benjamin, Lorie
The purpose of the study was to determine if offering a virtual clinical-based practice would affect teacher candidates' level of confidence in teaching diverse students. During 2012-2014, data were collected using a pre- and post-Likert scale questionnaire. A paired two sample t-test was utilized to determine if there was a significant difference…
DeJarnette, Nancy K.; Sudeck, Maria
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to monitor pre-service teacher candidates' progression and implementation of the learning community philosophy along with classroom management strategies. The study took place during their final semester of clinical practice. Data were collected from self-reports, surveys, university supervisor…
Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E
Several spontaneous telemedicine services using WhatsApp Messenger have started in South Africa raising issues of confidentiality, data security and storage, record keeping and reporting. This study reviewed the literature on WhatsApp in clinical practice, to determine how it is used, and users' satisfaction.
Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.
Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…
Depeursinge, Adrien; Fischer, Benedikt; Müller, Henning; Deserno, Thomas M
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been proposed as key technology for computer-aided diagnostics (CAD). This paper reviews the state of the art and future challenges in CBIR for CAD applied to clinical practice.We define applicability to clinical practice by having recently demonstrated the CBIR system on one of the CAD demonstration workshops held at international conferences, such as SPIE Medical Imaging, CARS, SIIM, RSNA, and IEEE ISBI. From 2009 to 2011, the programs of CADdemo@CARS and the CAD Demonstration Workshop at SPIE Medical Imaging were sought for the key word "retrieval" in the title. The systems identified were analyzed and compared according to the hierarchy of gaps for CBIR systems.In total, 70 software demonstrations were analyzed. 5 systems were identified meeting the criterions. The fields of application are (i) bone age assessment, (ii) bone fractures, (iii) interstitial lung diseases, and (iv) mammography. Bridging the particular gaps of semantics, feature extraction, feature structure, and evaluation have been addressed most frequently.In specific application domains, CBIR technology is available for clinical practice. While system development has mainly focused on bridging content and feature gaps, performance and usability have become increasingly important. The evaluation must be based on a larger set of reference data, and workflow integration must be achieved before CBIR-CAD is really established in clinical practice.
Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram
Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple…
Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie
The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and
Spasovski, Goce; Vanholder, Raymond; Allolio, Bruno; Annane, Djillali; Ball, Steve; Bichet, Daniel; Decaux, Guy; Fenske, Wiebke; Hoorn, Ewout J; Hoorn, Ewout; Ichai, Carole; Joannidis, Michael; Soupart, Alain; Zietse, Robert; Haller, Maria; van der Veer, Sabine; Van Biesen, Wim; Nagler, Evi
Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. Hyponatraemia is present in 15-20% of emergency admissions to hospital and occurs in up to 20% of critically ill patients. Symptomatology may vary from subtle to severe or even life threatening. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. Against this background, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology and the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association, represented by European Renal Best Practice have developed a Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia.
Somerfield, Mark R; Einhaus, Kaitlin; Hagerty, Karen L; Brouwers, Melissa C; Seidenfeld, Jerome; Lyman, Gary H
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) published its first clinical practice guideline, which focused on the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors, in 1994. Since then, ASCO has published 24 additional guidelines or technology assessments on a range of topics and is developing 11 additional guidelines. Guidelines are among ASCO's most valued products, according to membership surveys and data from the JCO.org Web site. However, the same data from ASCO members have highlighted a number of limitations to the guideline program. These relate to the timelines of guideline updates, difficulties locating guidelines and related products, and challenges to implementing ASCO guidelines in everyday clinical practice. This article outlines the concrete steps that the ASCO Health Services Committee (HSC) is taking to address these limitations, including the institution of a more aggressive guideline updating schedule, a transition from narrative to systematic literature reviews to support the practice recommendations, a new Board of Directors-approved policy to permit endorsement of other groups' guidelines, and a robust Clinical Tools and Resources program that offers a range of guideline dissemination and implementation aids. Additional work is underway to establish stronger and deeper collaborations with practicing oncologists to expand their role in the review, field testing, and implementation of guideline clinical tools and resources. Finally, the HSC is discussing evaluation of the guidelines program to maximize the impact of ASCO clinical practice guidelines on clinical decision making and, ultimately, the quality of cancer care.
Alves, Luísa; Correia, Ana Sofia A.; Miguel, Rita; Alegria, Paulo; Bugalho, Paulo
Investigation in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the commonest cause of dementia, has been very active in recent years and it may be difficult for the clinician to keep up with all the innovations and to be aware of the implications they have in clinical practice. The authors, thus, reviewed recent literature on the theme in order to provide the clinician with an updated overview, intended to support decision-making on aspects of diagnosis and management. This article begins to focus on the concept of AD and on its pathogenesis. Afterward, epidemiology and non-genetic risk factors are approached. Genetics, including genetic risk factors and guidelines for genetic testing, are mentioned next. Recommendations for diagnosis of AD, including recently proposed criteria, are then reviewed. Data on the variants of AD is presented. First approach to the patient is dealt with next, followed by neuropsychological evaluation. Biomarkers, namely magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography, FDG PET, PiB PET, CSF tau, and Aβ analysis, as well as available data on their diagnostic accuracy, are also discussed. Factors predicting rate of disease progression are briefly mentioned. Finally, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including established and emerging drugs, are addressed. PMID:22529838
Ferguson, Alison; Armstrong, Elizabeth
Background: Research into the practices of speech-language therapists in clinical sessions is beginning to identify the way communication in clinical interactions both facilitates and potentially impedes the achievement of therapy goals. Aims: This target article aims to raise the issues that arise from critical reflections on the communication of…
Murawski, Matthew; Villa, Kristin R; Dole, Ernest J; Ives, Timothy J; Tinker, Dale; Colucci, Vincent J; Perdiew, Jeffrey
PURPOSE The results of a survey assessing the practice settings, clinical activities, and reimbursement experiences of pharmacists with advanced-practice designations are reported. METHODS A questionnaire was sent to all certified Pharmacist Clinicians in New Mexico and all Clinical Pharmacist Practitioners in North Carolina (a total of 189 pharmacists at the time of the survey in late 2008) to elicit information on practice settings, billing and reimbursement methods, collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM) protocols, and other issues. RESULTS Of the 189 targeted pharmacists, 64 (34%) responded to the survey. On average, the reported interval from pharmacist licensure to certification as an advanced practitioner was 11 years. The majority of survey participants were practicing in community or institutional settings, most often hospital clinics or physician offices. About two thirds of the respondents indicated that their employer handled the billing of their services using standard evaluation and management codes, with estimated total monthly billings averaging $6500. At the time of the survey, about 80% of the respondents were engaged in a CDTM protocol. The survey results suggest that pharmacists with advanced-practice designations are perceived favorably by patients and physicians and their services are in high demand, but more than one third of respondents indicated a need to justify their advanced-practice positions to administrators. CONCLUSION Pharmacists with advanced-practice designations are providing clinical services in various settings under collaborative practice arrangements that include prescribing privileges. Despite growing patient and physician acceptance, reimbursement challenges continue to be a barrier to wider use of CDTM programs.
Spasovski, Goce; Vanholder, Raymond; Allolio, Bruno; Annane, Djillali; Ball, Steve; Bichet, Daniel; Decaux, Guy; Fenske, Wiebke; Hoorn, Ewout J; Ichai, Carole; Joannidis, Michael; Soupart, Alain; Zietse, Robert; Haller, Maria; van der Veer, Sabine; Van Biesen, Wim; Nagler, Evi
Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting with a range of conditions. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in widely different conditions and the fact that hyponatraemia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution- and speciality-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. To obtain a common and holistic view, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) and the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA), represented by European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), have developed the Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia. In addition to a rigorous approach to methodology and evaluation, we were keen to ensure that the document focused on patient-important outcomes and included utility for clinicians involved in everyday practice.
Spasovski, Goce; Vanholder, Raymond; Allolio, Bruno; Annane, Djillali; Ball, Steve; Bichet, Daniel; Decaux, Guy; Fenske, Wiebke; Hoorn, Ewout J; Ichai, Carole; Joannidis, Michael; Soupart, Alain; Zietse, Robert; Haller, Maria; van der Veer, Sabine; Van Biesen, Wim; Nagler, Evi
Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting with a range of conditions. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in widely different conditions and the fact that hyponatraemia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution- and speciality-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. To obtain a common and holistic view, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) and the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA), represented by European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), have developed the Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia. In addition to a rigorous approach to methodology and evaluation, we were keen to ensure that the document focused on patient-important outcomes and included utility for clinicians involved in everyday practice.
Coltell, Oscar; Arregui, María; Fabregat, Antonio; Portolés, Olga
The aim of our work is to describe essential aspects of Medical Informatics, Bioinformatics and Biomedical Informatics, that are used in biomedical research and clinical practice. These disciplines have emerged from the need to find new scientific and technical approaches to manage, store, analyze and report data generated in clinical practice and molecular biology and other medical specialties. It can be also useful to integrate research information generated in different areas of health care. Moreover, these disciplines are interdisciplinary and integrative, two key features not shared by other areas of medical knowledge. Finally, when Bioinformatics and Biomedical Informatics approach to medical investigation and practice are applied, a new discipline, called Clinical Bioinformatics, emerges. The latter requires a specific training program to create a new professional profile. We have not been able to find a specific training program in Clinical Bioinformatics in Spain.
Currently, the NGSP value for HbA1c is widely used as the global standard. In Japan, the JDS value was replaced with the NGSP value in clinical practice on April 1, 2012. From April 2013, the NGSP value will also be used in health examinations. In April 2014, the HbA1c value will be consolidated into the NGSP value. Since the JDS did not finalize the timeline for the replacement until the last moment, clinical laboratories and manufacturers were left behind with little time for preparation; however, introduction of the NGSP value caused little confusion in clinical practice. It is speculated that the reason for the lack of confusion was either because dissemination of the NGSP replacement among clinicians, patients, and co-medicals was effective, or JDS and NGSP values were listed side by side in current clinical practice. Real confusion might occur when consolidation of the NGSP value becomes effective in April 2014. The final goal of international standardization of the HbAlc value will be achieved by enabling the measurement of HbA1c, which will be traced back to SI units in the future.
Practical clinical trials (PCTs) are randomized experiments under typical practice conditions with the aim of testing the "real-life" benefits and risks of therapeutic interventions. Influential PCTs have been conducted in cardiology, oncology, and internal medicine. Psychotropic medications are widely and increasingly used in medical practice. This review examines recent progress in conducting PCTs in psychopharmacology. The January 2000 to October 2014 MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications of PCTs with at least 100 subjects per treatment arm. Most PCTs in psychiatry evaluated mental health services or psychosocial interventions rather than specific pharmacotherapies. Of 157 PCTs in psychiatry, 30 (19%) were in psychopharmacology, with a median of 2 publications per year and no increase during the period of observation. Sample size ranged from 200 to 18,154; only 11 studies randomized 500 patients or more. Psychopharmacology PCTs were equally likely to be funded by industry as by public agencies. There were 10 PCTs of antidepressants, for a total of 4206 patients (in comparison with at least 46 PCTs of antihypertensive medications, for a total of 208,014 patients). Some psychopharmacology PCTs used suicidal behavior, treatment discontinuation, or mortality as primary outcome and produced effectiveness and safety data that have influenced both practice guidelines and regulatory decisions. Practical clinical trials can constitute an important source of information for clinicians, patients, regulators, and policy makers but have been relatively underused in psychopharmacology. Electronic medical records and integrated practice research networks offer promising platforms for a more efficient conduct of PCTs.
Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram
Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple measurements for the analysis of semi-spontaneous oral text production by speakers with aphasia. Specifically, the measurements are related to the production of verbs and nouns, and the realization of different sentence types. The proposed measurements should be clinically relevant, easily applicable, and linguistically meaningful. The measurements have been applied to oral descriptions of the 'Cookie Theft' picture by eight monolingual Norwegian speakers, four with an anomic type of aphasia and four without any type of language impairment. Despite individual differences in both the clinical and the non-clinical group, most of the measurements seem to distinguish between speakers with and without aphasia.
Labrador, Francisco Javier; Estupiñá, Francisco José; García Vera, María Paz
With the aim of describing the usual clinical context as opposed to the academic or research context, the characteristics of patients and psychological treatments applied in a sample of 856 patients from the Clinic of Psychology of the Complutense University is analyzed. The disorders that require attention, the characteristics of the therapists and their interventions are identified. Out of the total patients, 24.3% withdrew from treatment; 68.3% of the patients who started treatment completed it with therapeutic success. 83% of patients were assessed in 4 sessions or fewer (median=4). 75.3% of patients who finished the treatment received 18 or fewer treatment sessions (median=11). The generalization of the results and their implications for professional clinical practice and for training clinical psychologists are discussed.
Price, A; Price, B
Problem-based learning has established a strong reputation within education programs delivered to a wide variety of healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, most accounts of problem-based learning relate to classroom settings, where issues of patient safety and competing demands upon time are not a primary concern. The authors explore ways in which problem-based learning may be utilized within clinical practice to enhance the professional development of nurses. A framework for thinking about problems and professional responses is outlined, and illustrations are drawn from the maternal-child health practice setting.
Clark Callister, Lynn
With cultural diversity increasing, what do the childbearing women in your practice look like? Beliefs about the central role of motherhood and the use of fertility rites in the life of a woman vary. Although individual differences exist because of the uniqueness of each woman, there are wonderfully rich cultural traditions and practices that influence what a woman believes and enacts. What constitutes a satisfying birth experience varies from woman to woman. Perinatal nurses can find many satisfying clinical experiences by being creative, flexible, and resilient in their approach to providing care.
Rajavi, Zhale; Safi, Sare; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Azarmina, Mohsen; Moradian, Siamak; Entezari, Morteza; Nourinia, Ramin; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Shirvani, Armin; Shahraz, Saeid; Ramezani, Alireza; Dehghan, Mohammad Hossein; Shahsavari, Mohsen; Soheilian, Masoud; Nikkhah, Homayoun; Ziaei, Hossein; Behboudi, Hasan; Farrahi, Fereydoun; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Parvaresh, Mohammad Mehdi; Fesharaki, Hamid; Abrishami, Majid; Shoeibi, Nasser; Rahimi, Mansour; Javadzadeh, Alireza; Karkhaneh, Reza; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Manaviat, Masoud Reza; Maleki, Alireza; Kheiri, Bahareh; Golbafian, Faegheh
Purpose: To customize clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Iranian population. Methods: Three DR CPGs (The Royal College of Ophthalmologists 2013, American Academy of Ophthalmology [Preferred Practice Pattern 2012], and Australian Diabetes Society 2008) were selected from the literature using the AGREE tool. Clinical questions were designed and summarized into four tables by the customization team. The components of the clinical questions along with pertinent recommendations extracted from the above-mentioned CPGs; details of the supporting articles and their levels of evidence; clinical recommendations considering clinical benefits, cost and side effects; and revised recommendations based on customization capability (applicability, acceptability, external validity) were recorded in 4 tables, respectively. Customized recommendations were sent to the faculty members of all universities across the country to score the recommendations from 1 to 9. Results: Agreed recommendations were accepted as the final recommendations while the non-agreed ones were approved after revision. Eventually, 29 customized recommendations under three major categories consisting of screening, diagnosis and treatment of DR were developed along with their sources and levels of evidence. Conclusion: This customized CPGs for management of DR can be used to standardize the referral pathway, diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27994809
Although a considerable number of mostly quantitative surveys have investigated the frequency and circumstances of the use of placebo interventions in clinical practice, it remains rather unclear what role placebo interventions really have outside clinical and laboratory research and why they are used. In this article I discuss two aspects which have to be taken into account when future research aims to provide further insights: (1) the different perspectives of patients, providers and scientists when it comes to decide whether a treatment is a placebo or not and (2) the fact that applying placebos intentionally is not only an ethical but also a professional problem.
Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi
Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044
Williams, Marjory; Avolio, Alice E; Ott, Karen M; Miltner, Rebecca S
The Office of Nursing Services of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) piloted implementation of the clinical nurse leader (CNL) into the care delivery model and established a strategic goal in 2011 to implement the CNL role across the VA health care system. The VA Office of Nursing Services CNL Implementation and Evaluation (CNL I&E) Service was created as one mechanism to facilitate that goal in response to a need identified by facility nurse executives for consultative support for CNL practice integration. This article discusses strategies employed by the CNL I&E consultative team to help facility-level nursing leadership integrate CNLs into practice. Measures of success include steady growth in CNL practice capacity as well as positive feedback from nurse executives about the value of consultative engagement. Future steps to better integrate CNL practice into the VA include consolidation of lessons learned, collaboration to strengthen the evidence base for CNL practice, and further exploration of the transformational potential of CNL practice across the care continuum.
Hung, Joseph C.
The regulatory framework for radioactive drugs, in particular those used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, has been gradually established since the release of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act in 1997. Various guidances specially tailored to accommodate special properties of PET drugs have been issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in order to ensure this valuable technology (i.e., PET molecular imaging) will continue to be available to patients and yet the safety and efficacy of PET drugs are well regulated so that public health will be protected. This article presents several key elements of this regulatory framework for PET drugs. New regulatory avenues proposed by the FDA to facilitate the research and development process to bring more new PET drugs to clinical practice, as well as to foster the opportunity of using “orphan” PET drugs in clinical practice are also discussed in this paper. PMID:24312157
Goh, S Y; Ang, S B; Bee, Y M; Chen, Y T; Gardner, D S; Ho, E T; Adaikan, K; Lee, Y C; Lee, C H; Lim, F S; Lim, H B; Lim, S C; Seow, J; Soh, A W; Sum, C F; Tai, E S; Thai, A C; Wong, T Y; Yap, F
The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.
Lim, Leslie; Chan, Hong Ngee; Chew, Peng Hoe; Chua, Sze Ming; Ho, Carolyn; Kwek, Seow Khee Daniel; Lee, Tih Shih; Loh, Patricia; Lum, Alvin; Tan, Yong Hui Colin; Wan, Yi Min; Woo, Matthew; Yap, Hwa Ling
The Ministry of Health (MOH) has developed the clinical practice guidelines on Anxiety Disorders to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on anxiety disorders, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.
Endodontic procedures are challenging and technically demanding. In the UK standards of treatment have been shown to have fallen short of acceptable guidelines, laying many dentists open to litigation on questions of clinical negligence by patients who understand and know what should be considered as current best practice in this area. Failure to communicate with patients about the procedure and not obtaining consent for treatment is a key area of complaint, as is inadequate record keeping. When treatment is undertaken within the framework of accepted guidelines it would be very difficult for a patient to open a claim for clinical negligence should a failure occur. This article looks at potential dento-legal problems in endodontics and how, through compliance with best practice, they may be avoided.
Goh, Su Yen; Ang, Seng Bin; Bee, Yong Mong; Chen, Richard YT; Gardner, Daphne; Ho, Emily; Adaikan, Kala; Lee, Alvin; Lee, Chung Horn; Lim, Fong Seng; Lim, Hwee Boon; Lim, Su Chi; Seow, Julie; Soh, Abel Wah Ek; Sum, Chee Fang; Tai, E Shyong; Thai, Ah Chuan; Wong, Tien Yin; Yap, Fabian
The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:25017409
Drake, Matthew T.; Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep
Bisphosphonates are primary agents in the current pharmacological arsenal against osteoclast-mediated bone loss due to osteoporosis, Paget disease of bone, malignancies metastatic to bone, multiple myeloma, and hypercalcemia of malignancy. In addition to currently approved uses, bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for prevention and treatment of a variety of other skeletal conditions, such as low bone density and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the recent recognition that bisphosphonate use is associated with pathologic conditions including osteonecrosis of the jaw has sharpened the level of scrutiny of the current widespread use of bisphosphonate therapy. Using the key words bisphosphonate and clinical practice in a PubMed literature search from January 1, 1998, to May 1, 2008, we review current understanding of the mechanisms by which bisphosphonates exert their effects on osteoclasts, discuss the role of bisphosphonates in clinical practice, and highlight some areas of concern associated with bisphosphonate use. PMID:18775204
Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne
Purpose: This article provides both a tutorial and a clinical example of how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can conduct evidence-based practice (EBP) when working with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs). It is a companion paper to the narrative review of 134 intervention studies for children who have an SSD (Baker & McLeod, 2011).…
Cassells, J M; Redman, B K
Various types of teaching and learning strategies can be effectively employed to assist students' professional development in ethical decision-making skills. To be prepared to act as a moral agent in clinical practice, a terminal goal upon completion of the baccalaureate program is the student's ability to develop and consistently use a systematic approach/framework when confronted by an ethical dilemma. Eleven skill steps not necessarily exclusive or in sequence were outlined as selected activities that can be considered for the ethical decision process. Specific ethical issues that are germane and applicable to many patient care situations were investigated and identified as frequently occurring in clinical practice. Course work about these issues prior to completion of their nursing programs may be beneficial in preparing students with basic knowledge and skill about them as they enter or return to clinical practice.
Haas, Curtis E; Eckel, Stephen; Arif, Sally; Beringer, Paul M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Lardieri, Allison B; Lobo, Bob L; Mercer, Jessica M; Moye, Pamela; Orlando, Patricia L; Wargo, Kurt
This commentary from the 2010 Task Force on Acute Care Practice Model of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy was developed to compare and contrast the "unit-based" and "service-based" orientation of the clinical pharmacist within an acute care pharmacy practice model and to offer an informed opinion concerning which should be preferred. The clinical pharmacy practice model must facilitate patient-centered care and therefore must position the pharmacist to be an active member of the interprofessional team focused on providing high-quality pharmaceutical care to the patient. Although both models may have advantages and disadvantages, the most important distinction pertains to the patient care role of the clinical pharmacist. The unit-based pharmacist is often in a position of reacting to an established order or decision and frequently is focused on task-oriented clinical services. By definition, the service-based clinical pharmacist functions as a member of the interprofessional team. As a team member, the pharmacist proactively contributes to the decision-making process and the development of patient-centered care plans. The service-based orientation of the pharmacist is consistent with both the practice vision embraced by ACCP and its definition of clinical pharmacy. The task force strongly recommends that institutions pursue a service-based pharmacy practice model to optimally deploy their clinical pharmacists. Those who elect to adopt this recommendation will face challenges in overcoming several resource, technologic, regulatory, and accreditation barriers. However, such challenges must be confronted if clinical pharmacists are to contribute fully to achieving optimal patient outcomes.
Keshavjee, K; Holbrook, AM; Lau, E; Esporlas-Jewer, I; Troyan, S
The COMPETE III Vascular Disease Tracker (C3VT) is a personalized, Web-based, clinical decision support tool that provides patients and physicians access to a patient’s 16 individual vascular risk markers, specific advice for each marker and links to best practices in vascular disease management. It utilizes the chronic care model1 so that physicians can better manage patients with chronic diseases. Over 1100 patients have been enrolled into the COMPETE III study to date.
Schams, Kristin A; Kuennen, Jackie K
This article reports an innovative teaching strategy consisting of learning units whereby students come to postconference sessions prepared to share evidence-based practice (EBP) information associated with upcoming laboratory concepts, discover relationships among laboratory concepts and current nursing practice, and associate personal clinical experiences with the practice environment. This strategy, named "Building Blocks," represents one method to transform nursing education into a more active process, and also has the potential to prepare graduates who can function in a dynamic health care environment incorporating EBP.
Romero Ruiz, Adolfo; Parrado Borrego, Gema; Rodríguez González, José; Caparrós Miranda, Isabel S; Vargas Lirio, M Isabel; Ortiz Fernández, Primitiva
There is currently around one million people receiving oral anticoagulants in Spain. The drug most used is acenocoumarol, which requires coagulation monitoring to ensure that the patient is within its normal therapeutic range. Patients usually start this treatment in a hospital clinic and, when they are stabilised, they are referred to primary care, where they are followed-up by their community nurses. The usual practice is that nurses are responsible for changes in the dose when the patients are outside the range. This practice is not performed by hospital nurses, despite having sufficient experience and knowledge to adequately manage these types of patients. An Advanced Nursing Practice model has been introduced into the Haematology management unit of the Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga. This involves various aspects of attention and care of patients on anticoagulant therapy, and includes adjusting the doses of their treatment following a catalogue of therapeutic and diagnostic ranges.
Merighi, Joseph R; Schatell, Dorian R; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Witten, Beth; Mehrotra, Rajnish
There is variable emphasis on dialysis-specific training among US nephrology fellowship programs. Our study objective was to determine the association between nephrology training experience and subsequent clinical practice. We conducted a national survey of clinical nephrologists using a fax-back survey distributed between March 8, 2010 and April 30, 2010 (N = 629). The survey assessed the time distribution of clinical practice, self-assessment of preparedness to provide care for dialysis patients at the time of certification examination, distribution of dialysis modality among patients, and nephrologists' choice of dialysis modality for themselves if their kidneys failed. While respondents spent 28% of their time caring for dialysis patients, 38% recalled not feeling very well prepared to care for dialysis patients when taking the nephrology certification examination. Sixteen percent obtained additional dialysis training after fellowship completion. Only 8% of US dialysis patients use home dialysis; physicians very well prepared to care for dialysis patients at the time of certification or who obtained additional dialysis training were significantly more likely to provide care to home peritoneal dialysis patients. Even though 92% of US dialysis patients receive thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis, only 6% of nephrologists selected this for themselves; selection of therapy for self was associated with dialysis modalities used by their patients. Nephrology training programs need to ensure that all trainees are very well prepared to care for dialysis patients, as this is central to nephrology practice. Utilization of dialysis therapies other than standard hemodialysis is dependent, in part, on training experience.
Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Lavielle, Pilar; Bedolla, Miguel; Squires, Allison
The objective of this study was to describe the cultural domain of ethical behaviours in clinical practice as defined by health care providers in Mexico. Structured interviews were carried out with 500 health professionals employed at the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The Smith Salience Index was used to evaluate the relevance of concepts gathered from the free listings of the interviewees. Cluster analysis and factor analysis facilitated construction of the conceptual categories, which the authors refer to as ‘dimensions of ethical practice’. Six dimensions emerged from the analysis to define the qualities that comprise ethical clinical practice for Mexican health care providers: overall quality of clinical performance; working conditions that favour quality of care; use of ethical considerations as prerequisites for any health care intervention; values favouring teamwork in the health professional–patient relationship; patient satisfaction scores; and communication between health care providers and patients. The findings suggest that improved working conditions and management practices that promote the values identified by the study’s participants would help to improve quality of care. PMID:18849364
Numerous policy bodies have identified the clinical nurse leader (CNL) as an innovative new role for meeting higher health care quality standards. Although there is growing evidence of improved care environment and patient safety and quality outcomes after redesigning care delivery microsystems to integrate CNL practice, significant variation in CNL implementation has been noted across reports, making it difficult to causally link CNL practice to reported outcomes. This variability reflects the overall absence in the literature of a well-defined CNL theoretical framework to help guide standardized application in practice. To address this knowledge gap, an interpretive synthesis with a grounded theory analysis of CNL narratives was conducted to develop a theoretical model for CNL practice. The model clarifies CNL practice domains and proposes mechanisms by which CNL-integrated care delivery microsystems improve health care quality. The model highlights the need for a systematic approach to CNL implementation including a well-thought out strategy for care delivery redesign; a consistent, competency-based CNL workflow; and sustained macro-to-micro system leadership support. CNL practice can be considered an effective approach to organizing nursing care that maximizes the scope of nursing to influence the ways care is delivered by all professions within a clinical microsystem.
Rayburn, William F; Strunk, Albert L; Petterson, Stephen M
Retirement of obstetrician-gynecologists is becoming a matter of increasing concern in light of an expected shortage of practicing physicians. Determining a retirement age is often complex. We address what constitutes a usual retirement age range from general clinical practice for an obstetrician-gynecologist, compare this with practitioners in other specialties, and suggest factors of importance to obstetrician-gynecologists before retirement. Although the proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists ≥55 years old is similar to other specialists, obstetrician-gynecologists retire at younger ages than male or female physicians in other specialties. A customary age range of retirement from obstetrician-gynecologist practice would be 59-69 years (median, 64 years). Women, who constitute a growing proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists in practice, retire earlier than men. The large cohort of "baby boomer" physicians who are approaching retirement (approximately 15,000 obstetrician-gynecologists) deserves tracking while an investigation of integrated women's health care delivery models is conducted. Relevant considerations would include strategies to extend the work longevity of those who are considering early retirement or desiring part-time employment. Likewise volunteer work in underserved community clinics or teaching medical students and residents offers continuing personal satisfaction for many retirees and preservation of self-esteem and medical knowledge.
Ravanipour, Maryam; Bahreini, Masoud; Ravanipour, Masoumeh
Background: Peer learning is an educational process wherein someone of the same age or level of experience level interacts with other students interested in the same topic. There is limited evidence specifically focusing on the practical use of peer learning in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of peer learning in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted. Focus groups were used to find the students’ experiences about peerlearning. Twenty-eight baccalaureate nursing students at Bushehr University of Medical Sciences were selected purposively, and were arranged in four groups of seven students each. The focus group interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview schedule. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis identified four themes: Paradoxical dualism, peer exploitation, first learning efficacy, and socialization practice. Gained advantages and perceived disadvantages created paradoxical dualism, and peer exploitation resulted from peer selection and peer training. Conclusion: Nursing students reported general satisfaction concerning peer learning due to much more in-depth learning with little stress than conventional learning methods. Peer learning is a useful method for nursing students for practicing educational leadership and learning the clinical skills before they get a job. PMID:26097860
When clients and health care providers differ in their understanding of what is right or wrong, an ethical dilemma may arise. Such dilemmas occur in everyday clinical practice. Health care providers have the professional responsibility to analyze these dilemmas. A clinical case study of an ethical dilemma that occurred in a cross-cultural context is examined. The language of the client and provider differed, and no interpreter service was available. Given these conditions, the provider's ethical dilemma was whether, and if so how, to give safe, satisfying care that respected the needs of a client with limited English proficiency. Measuring the morality of the provider's decisions and actions using Rawls' ethical theory of social justice finds deficits. A 10-step Bioethical Decision-Making Model by Thompson is used to demonstrate one method for analyzing the moral dimension of a clinical scenario focusing on the decisions and actions taken by a midwife. Scrutinizing ethically challenging clinical encounters will result in better understanding of the moral dimensions of practice.
Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ohara, Hirotaka; Kamisawa, Terumi; Sakagami, Junichi; Sata, Naohiro; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Hirota, Morihisa; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Hisato; Lee, Lingaku; Fujiyama, Takashi; Hijioka, Masayuki; Ueda, Keijiro; Tachibana, Yuichi; Sogame, Yoshio; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Kato, Ryusuke; Kataoka, Keisho; Shiratori, Keiko; Sugiyama, Masanori; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Tando, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru
Chronic pancreatitis is considered to be an irreversible progressive chronic inflammatory disease. The etiology and pathology of chronic pancreatitis are complex; therefore, it is important to correctly understand the stage and pathology and provide appropriate treatment accordingly. The newly revised Clinical Practice Guidelines of Chronic Pancreatitis 2015 consist of four chapters, i.e., diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis, and includes a total of 65 clinical questions. These guidelines have aimed at providing certain directions and clinically practical contents for the management of chronic pancreatitis, preferentially adopting clinically useful articles. These revised guidelines also refer to early chronic pancreatitis based on the Criteria for the Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis 2009. They include such items as health insurance coverage of high-titer lipase preparations and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, new antidiabetic drugs, and the definition of and treatment approach to pancreatic pseudocyst. The accuracy of these guidelines has been improved by examining and adopting new evidence obtained after the publication of the first edition.
Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer
Rapid advancements in diagnostic technologies coupled with growth in testing options and choices mandate the development of evidence-based testing algorithms linked to the care paths of the major chronic diseases and health challenges encountered most frequently. As care paths are evaluated, patient/consumers become partners in healthcare delivery. Clinical laboratory scientists find themselves firmly embedded in both quality improvement and clinical research with an urgent need to translate clinical laboratory information into knowledge required by practitioners and patient/consumers alike. To implement this patient-centered care approach in clinical laboratory science, practitioners must understand their roles in (1) protecting patient/consumer autonomy in the healthcare informed consent process and (2) assuring patient/consumer privacy and confidentiality while blending quality improvement study findings with protected health information. A literature review, describing the current ethical environment, supports a consultative role for clinical laboratory scientists in the clinical decision-making process and suggests guidance for policy and practice regarding the principle of autonomy and its associated operational characteristics: informed consent and privacy.
Otte, Andreas; Maier-Lenz, Herbert; Dierckx, Rudi A
Clinical research trials (both academic and industry sponsored) are increasingly playing a role in various medical disciplines, including younger fields of clinical trial interest, such as nuclear medicine research. Knowledge for and compliance with good clinical practice (GCP) is essential for anyone involved. In this review article, key aspects of GCP and the responsibilities of investigators, monitors and sponsors are described. In addition, a comprehensive overview of the historical background on the development of GCP from the US Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 over the Nuremberg Code, the Kefauver-Harris Amendments and the Declaration of Helsinki until now is given. Knowledge of the historical background may help understand the developments in GCP.
Garbett, Nichola C; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Chaires, Jonathan B
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of blood plasma are part of an emerging area of the clinical application of DSC to biofluid analysis. DSC analysis of plasma from healthy individuals and patients with various diseases has revealed changes in the thermal profiles of the major plasma proteins associated with the clinical status of the patient. The sensitivity of DSC to the concentration of proteins, their interactions with other proteins or ligands, or their covalent modification underlies the potential utility of DSC analysis. A growing body of literature has demonstrated the versatility and performance of clinical DSC analysis across a range of biofluids and in a number of disease settings. The principles, practice and challenges of DSC analysis of plasma are described in this article.
Elalamy, Ismail; Gkalea, Vasiliki; Gerotziafas, Grigorios; Ketatni, Hela; Hatmi, Mohamed
Platelets play a pivotal role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis. Functional testing of platelet response has been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances of light transmission aggregometry and development of more useful devices have demonstrated the clinical utility to enlarge platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of residual platelet response seems, with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events. Still a debate, it represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and the basic scientist. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia diagnosis is also difficult and a functional assay is now available for an easier and rapid method to rule out such a life-threatening situation. This review article will describe the available methods of measuring platelet response and will discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.
Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B
The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615
Borders, L Dianne
Across the helping professions, we have arrived at a point where it is possible to create statements of best practices in supervision that are based on available empirical research; credentialing, ethical, and legal guidelines; and consensus opinion. Best practices are different from, but certainly complementary to, statements of supervision competencies. In this paper, I highlight the differences between competencies and best practices, and then describe the development and content of one comprehensive statement, the Best Practices in Clinical Supervision created for the field of counseling and counselor education. I then illustrate the applicability of the Best Practices across disciplines and countries through a comparison and contrast with several other existing documents. I conclude with a brief look at the development of supervisor expertise, which requires not only declarative knowledge (competencies) and procedural knowledge (statements of best practices), but also reflective knowledge. The latter is composed of insights built over years of supervision education, experience, and self-reflection regarding necessary adaptions and improvisations that inform an individualized approach to supervision practice.
Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António
Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.
Practical clinical trials (PCT) are randomized experiments under typical practice conditions with the aim of testing the “real life” benefits and risks of therapeutic interventions. Influential PCTs have been conducted in cardiology, oncology, and internal medicine. Psychotropic medications are widely and increasingly used in medical practice. This review examines recent progress in conducting PCTs in psychopharmacology. The January 2000 – October 2014 MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications of PCTs with at least 100 subjects per treatment arm. Most PCTs in psychiatry evaluated mental health services or psychosocial interventions rather than specific pharmacotherapies. Of 157 PCTs in psychiatry, 30 (19%) were in psychopharmacology, with a median of 2 publications per year and no increase over the period of observation. Sample size ranged from 200 to 18,154; only 11 studies randomized 500 patients or more. Psychopharmacology PCTs were equally likely to be funded by industry as by public agencies. There were 10 PCTs of antidepressants, for a total of 4,206 patients (in comparison with at least 46 PCT of antihypertensive medications, for a total of 208,014 patients). Some psychopharmacology PCTs used suicidal behavior, treatment discontinuation, or mortality as primary outcome, and produced effectiveness and safety data that have influenced both practice guidelines and regulatory decisions. PCTs can constitute an important source of information for clinicians, patients, regulators, and policy makers, but have been relatively underutilized in psychopharmacology. Electronic medical records and integrated practice research networks offer promising platforms for a more efficient conduct of PCTs. PMID:25679131
Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Iwasiw, Carroll L; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Laschinger, Heather K S; Weston, Wayne
The purpose of this study was to use a cross-sectional survey design, with an integrated theoretical perspective, to examine clinical teachers' (n = 64) and nursing students' (n = 352) empowerment, teachers' and students' perceptions of teachers' use of empowering teaching behaviors, students' perceptions of nurses' practice behaviors, and students' confidence for practice in acute care settings. In this study, teachers and students were moderately empowered. Teachers reported using a high level of empowering teaching behaviors, which corresponded with students' perceptions of teachers' use of such behaviors. Teachers' empowerment predicted 21% of their use of empowering teaching behaviors. Students reported nurses as using a high level of professional practice behaviors. Students felt confident for professional nursing practice. The findings have implications for practice contexts related to empowering teaching-learning environments and self-efficacy.
This paper reports on one of the key findings from a recent ethnographic study (Roberts, D., 2007. Friendships and the community of students: peer learning amongst a group of pre-registration student nurses. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Salford, UK) and aims to highlight the importance of friendships for student nurses in clinical practice. An interpretive ethnographic approach was taken in order to reveal the student experience during their pre registration programme. Data was collected using ethnographic interviewing (Sorrell, J.M., Redmond, G.M., 1995. Interviews in qualitative nursing research: differing approaches for ethnographic and phenomenological studies. Journal of Advanced Nursing 21, 1117-1122.) and participant observation. Within this paper I argue that student nurses exist on the edge of the community of practice (of the qualified staff) and therefore form their own parallel community where students are all seen as being in the same boat. In particular students use the friendships they develop in clinical practice to enable them to learn; developing an 'ask anything' culture where all students are perceived as valuable sources of knowledge. Furthermore, it appears that knowledge is contextually bound and not therefore linked to seniority, or length of time served on the course.
Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit
Seaby, Eleanor G; Pengelly, Reuben J; Ennis, Sarah
Next-generation sequencing has catapulted healthcare into a revolutionary genomics era. One such technology, whole-exome sequencing, which targets the protein-coding regions of the genome, has proven success in identifying new causal mutations for diseases of previously unknown etiology. With a successful diagnostic rate approaching 25% for rare disease in recent studies, its clinical utility is becoming increasingly popular. However, the interpretation of whole-exome sequencing data requires expertise in genomic informatics and clinical medicine to ensure the accurate and safe reporting of findings back to the bedside. This is challenged by vast amounts of sequencing data harbouring approximately 25 000 variants per sequenced individual. Computational strategies and fastidious filtering frameworks are thus required to extricate candidate variants in a sea of common polymorphisms. Once prioritized, identified variants require intensive scrutiny at a biological level, and require judicious assessment alongside the clinical phenotype. In the final step, all evidence is collated and documented alongside pathogenicity guidelines to produce an exome report that returns to the clinic. This review provides a practical guide for clinicians and genomic informaticians on the clinical application of whole-exome sequencing. We address sequencing capture and methodology, quality control parameters at different stages of sequencing analysis and propose an exome data filtering strategy that includes primary filtering (for the removal of probable benign variants) and secondary filtering for the prioritization of remaining candidates.
Jallad, N S
The discipline of Clinical Pharmacology serves many purposes and plays a critical role in therapeutic education, especially in a medical school. An effective program bridges the gap between basic pharmacology and clinical practice. A clinical pharmacology program must provide the student with the necessary information to employ the basic pharmacology knowledge gained in formatting a successful therapeutic plan. The program is built around the student and brings together the best to be offered in 2 or more disciplines; it requires diverse disciplines to work together in a variety of departments and centers which cut across disciplinary lines. In order to facilitate this interaction, the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Miami embarked on establishing a Ph.D. program with an emphasis on Clinical Pharmacology utilizing an already established unique program referred to as "Interdepartmental Graduate Studies". To enter the structured Ph.D. program the students must be among the fellowship awardees of the Interdepartment Graduate Studies Program, which is administered by social committees with specific roles, directions and guidelines. The students follow the general requirements of the Ph.D. degree set forth by the graduate school. Students attend formal classes tailored to their program of interest based on the committee's recommendations in the respective departments involved. The significance of this program is that it can be tailored to fit individual areas of interest leading to a well-developed researcher who is neither overspecialized nor undereducated and able to make rational decisions in an age of multiple therapies.
Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Cimadevilla, José M; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Fernández-Pérez, Javier
INTRODUCTION. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) licensed in Spain in February 2011 as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization. Clinical trials with ESL have demonstrated acceptable efficacy and safety. AIM. To evaluate the results of ESL in our epilepsy unit during its first year of clinical experience with this AED. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We included all patients who started treatment with ESL at our epilepsy unit from March 2011 to May 2012. We collected the following variables: gender, aetiology of epilepsy, epileptogenic area, reason for switch to ESL, clinical response after initiation of ESL, adverse effects of ESL, refractoriness criteria and treatment discontinuation. A bivariate factor-to-factor correlation study was carried out to establish associations between the independent variables and the clinical response. RESULTS. We recruited 105 patients (51.4% male). 20,7% of patients remained seizure-free and 58.4% showed > 50% improvement after introduction of ESL. At 6 months, 18.1% had experienced some type of side effect, with cognitive disorders being the most common, and 11.5% had discontinued treatment. Combination with lacosamide proved to be significantly less effective in the control of seizures. Combination of ESL with the rest of sodium channel inhibitors was similar in efficacy to others combinations. CONCLUSIONS. ESL is a well-tolerated and effective AED when is used as adjunctive treatment with most of other AED in clinical practice.
De Spiegeleer, Anton; Petrovic, Mirko; Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Van Den Noortgate, Nele
Sarcopenia - or the loss of muscle mass, strength and function with ageing - represents an important health issue of the twenty-first century because of its devastating effects in addition to an increased prevalence of aged people. The devastating health effects of sarcopenia are multiple: an increased falls risk, a decreased physical ability and quality of life and an independent increase of all-cause mortality. Although the ultimate remedy for sarcopenia yet has to be found, some interventions have proven their merit and might be of practical use in clinical practice, especially for geriatricians, who deal most with sarcopenia. This review intends to summarize the current therapeutic interventions, their proposed mechanism of action as well as their clinical value. The results of our review highlight the importance of exercise (50% resistance training, 50% endurance training), nutrition (25-30 g proteins with essential amino acids every meal and long-chain ω-3 fatty acids) and limitation of alcohol and smoking. In addition, studies also suggest a place for vitamin D (aim serum levels >30 ng/L), testosterone (aim serum levels >300 ng/dL) and creatine (15-20 g/d for five days, thereafter 3-5 g/d). In conclusion, although more studies are needed to elucidate the exact effectiveness and safety of many sarcopenia interventions, the current evidence already provides clinically useful information, which might benefit the patient with (pre-)sarcopenia.
Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Tilg, Herbert; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Kump, Patrizia; Satokari, Reetta; Sokol, Harry; Arkkila, Perttu; Pintus, Cristina; Hart, Ailsa; Segal, Jonathan; Aloi, Marina; Masucci, Luca; Molinaro, Antonio; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Lopez-Sanroman, Antonio; Link, Alexander; de Groot, Pieter; de Vos, Willem M; Högenauer, Christoph; Malfertheiner, Peter; Mattila, Eero; Milosavljević, Tomica; Nieuwdorp, Max; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Simren, Magnus; Gasbarrini, Antonio
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance. In view of this, an evidence-based recommendation is needed to drive the practical implementation of FMT. In this European Consensus Conference, 28 experts from 10 countries collaborated, in separate working groups and through an evidence-based process, to provide statements on the following key issues: FMT indications; donor selection; preparation of faecal material; clinical management and faecal delivery and basic requirements for implementing an FMT centre. Statements developed by each working group were evaluated and voted by all members, first through an electronic Delphi process, and then in a plenary consensus conference. The recommendations were released according to best available evidence, in order to act as guidance for physicians who plan to implement FMT, aiming at supporting the broad availability of the procedure, discussing other issues relevant to FMT and promoting future clinical research in the area of gut microbiota manipulation. This consensus report strongly recommends the implementation of FMT centres for the treatment of C. difficile infection as well as traces the guidelines of technicality, regulatory, administrative and laboratory requirements.
Takeuchi, Hideki; Saeki, Toshiaki; Aiba, Keisuke; Tamura, Kazuo; Aogi, Kenjiro; Eguchi, Kenji; Okita, Kenji; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Ryuhei; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Hirofumi; Boku, Narikazu; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Okawa, Yutaka; Onozawa, Yusuke; Sasaki, Hidenori; Shima, Yasuo; Shimoyama, Naohito; Takeda, Masayuki; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Akifumi; Ikeda, Tadashi; Hirata, Koichi
The purpose of this article is to disseminate the standard of antiemetic therapy for Japanese clinical oncologists. On the basis of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument, which reflects evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, a working group of the Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) reviewed clinical practice guidelines for antiemesis and performed a systematic review of evidence-based domestic practice guidelines for antiemetic therapy in Japan. In addition, because health-insurance systems in Japan are different from those in other countries, a consensus was reached regarding standard treatments for chemotherapy that induce nausea and vomiting. Current evidence was collected by use of MEDLINE, from materials from meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and from European Society of Medical Oncology/Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer guidelines for antiemesis. Initially, 21 clinical questions (CQ) were selected on the basis of CQs from other guidelines. Patients treated with highly emetic agents should receive a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. For patients with moderate emetic risk, 5HT3 receptor antagonists and dexamethasone were recommended, whereas for those receiving chemotherapy with low emetic risk dexamethasone only is recommended. Patients receiving high-emetic-risk radiation therapy should also receive a 5HT3 receptor antagonist. In this paper the 2010 JSCO clinical practice guidelines for antiemesis are presented in English; they reveal high concordance of Japanese medical circumstances with other antiemetic guidelines that are similarly based on evidence.
van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar
Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice.
Wong, Kathleen M.; Cloninger, C. Robert
Effective clinical practice depends on tools that facilitate nonstigmatizing personality assessment, rapid development of a therapeutic alliance, and the guided development of self-awareness so that people learn how to live well. As an expert in psychological medicine, the psychiatrist is uniquely qualified to develop a holistic treatment approach addressing the needs of the person's body, thoughts, and psyche for the promotion of health and well-being. Personality assessment can be integrated into psychiatric practice in a way that is practical and that has many benefits for the psychiatrist and his or her patients. Personal reflection on one's temperament and character profile promotes understanding without judging or blaming. The dialogue between psychiatrist and patient about personality promotes the rapid development of a therapeutic alliance based on mutual respect, positive regard, and shared goals. The expertise and empathy of the psychiatrist in knowing more about the person's strengths and vulnerabilities beyond even the person's own awareness builds respect, trust, and hope. In this way, the assessment of personality promotes recovery of well-being and reduces disease and stigma. Likewise, the psychiatrist is more effective and satisfied with practice, standing ready with expertise, patience, and compassion to assist patients to work and develop at their own chosen pace. PMID:26029006
Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Torres-Arreola, Laura Laura
The need to use clinical practice guidelines (CPG) arises from the health conditions and problems that public health institutions in the country face. CPG are informative documents that help improve the quality of care processes and patient safety; having among its objectives, to reduce the variability of medical practice. The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social designed a strategic plan for the dissemination, implementation, monitoring and control of CPG to establish an applicable model in the medical units in the three levels of care at the Instituto. This paper summarizes some of the strategies of the plan that were made with the knowledge and experience of clinicians and managers, with which they intend to promote the adoption of the key recommendations of the guidelines, to promote a sense of belonging for health personnel, and to encourage changes in organizational culture.
Mason, David G; Shotton, Hannah; Wilkinson, Kathleen A; Gough, Michael J; Alleway, Robert; Freeth, Heather; Mason, Marisa
Objectives To survey clinical practice and opinions of consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children to inform the needs for training, commissioning and management of children's surgery in the UK. Design The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) hosted an online survey to gather data on current clinical practice of UK consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children. Setting The questionnaire was circulated to all hospitals and to Anaesthetic and Surgical Royal Colleges, and relevant specialist societies covering the UK and the Channel Islands and was mainly completed by consultants in District General Hospitals. Participants 555 surgeons and 1561 anaesthetists completed the questionnaire. Results 32.6% of surgeons and 43.5% of anaesthetists considered that there were deficiencies in their hospital's facilities that potentially compromised delivery of a safe children's surgical service. Almost 10% of all consultants considered that their postgraduate training was insufficient for current paediatric practice and 20% felt that recent Continued Professional Development failed to maintain paediatric expertise. 45.4% of surgeons and 39.2% of anaesthetists considered that the current specialty curriculum should have a larger paediatric component. Consultants in non-specialist paediatric centres were prepared to care for younger children admitted for surgery as emergencies than those admitted electively. Many of the surgeons and anaesthetists had <4 h/week in paediatric practice. Only 55.3% of surgeons and 42.8% of anaesthetists participated in any form of regular multidisciplinary review of children undergoing surgery. Conclusions There are significant obstacles to consultant surgeons and anaesthetists providing a competent surgical service for children. Postgraduate curricula must meet the needs of trainees who will be expected to include children in their caseload as consultants. Trusts must ensure appropriate
Jhaveri, Shailesh; Upashani, Tejas; Bhadauria, Jitendra; Patel, Kamlesh
Background Various osteoporosis guidelines are available for practice. Aim To understand the current clinical practice scenario from the perspective of Indian orthopaedicians, especially about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, approach to diagnosis and management and patient compliance patterns to long term treatment. Materials and Methods A pre-validated structured questionnaire containing questions (mostly objective, some open-ended) catering to various objectives of the study was circulated amongst orthopaedic surgeons across India by means of post/courier, after giving a brief overview of the study telephonically. Data was extracted from the completed questionnaires, and analysed using Microsoft Excel software. Results The questionnaire was filled by a total of 84 orthopaedicians throughout India. The prevalence of osteoporosis in India according to the orthopaedic surgeons was 38.4% and there was a female preponderance. Most of the respondents felt out of every 100 osteoporosis patients in India, less than 20 patients are actually diagnosed and treated for osteoporosis. The most common initial presenting feature of established osteoporosis cases was general symptoms. Most respondents preferred Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the initial investigation for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in a patient presenting with typical features. While most respondents preferred once-a-month oral over intravenous (IV) bisphosphonates, they agreed that IV administration had advantages such as lower gastrointestinal side effects and improved compliance. The average duration of therapy of oral bisphosphonates was the longest (27.04 months) among the other anti- osteoporosis therapies that they used. On an average, the patient compliance rate in osteoporosis management was around 64%. IV Zoledronic acid (ZA) and intranasal calcitonin were infrequently used than other anti- osteoporosis therapies. While concerns about cost and availability deterred more frequent
Harris, P D; Barnes, R
The noble gases have always been an enigma. Discovered late in the history of chemistry and in seemingly small quantities in our atmosphere, they are some of the most unreactive elements known. However, despite being extremely inert, the noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon) have found diverse and ever expanding applications in medicine. Of all of them, the gases that have found the greatest number of uses in the field of anaesthesia and related specialties are helium and xenon. This review focuses on the history of the discovery of both gases, their unique physicochemical properties and describes their uses in clinical practice with particular emphasis on those applicable to anaesthesia.
Sarver, D K
As is evident from the foregoing discussion, hepatitis A and hepatitis B are not static, passé disease. Knowledge concerning these illnesses continues to expand at a fantastic rate--all of it of extreme practical clinical significance. Most interesting is the elucidation of the etiology of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the increase this knowledge is hoped to produce on the utilization of hepatitis B vaccine. Also extremely important is the development of recombinant DNA vaccine, which will permit total circumvention of the question of AIDS and safety of the hepatitis B vaccine.
Ahn, Woo-Young; Busemeyer, Jerome R
Computational modeling and associated methods have greatly advanced our understanding of cognition and neurobiology underlying complex behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Yet, no computational methods have been successfully translated into clinical settings. This review discusses three major methodological and practical challenges (A. precise characterization of latent neurocognitive processes, B. developing optimal assays, C. developing large-scale longitudinal studies and generating predictions from multi-modal data) and potential promises and tools that have been developed in various fields including mathematical psychology, computational neuroscience, computer science, and statistics. We conclude by highlighting a strong need to communicate and collaborate across multiple disciplines.
Moore, Sally; Anderson, John; Cox, Susanne
There is a lack of research on the use of smartphone apps among nurses in the UK, but the number of healthcare-related apps is increasing and it is likely that nurses will want to include them in practice. It will, therefore, be necessary to assess their effectiveness, appropriateness and efficacy to ensure they enhance patient care. This article looks at the literature on the subject and suggests some issues managers should consider before allowing the use of apps in their clinical areas. It also invites readers to take part in a survey on the use of apps in nursing.
Calderón Montero, A
Diabetes mellitus has an enormous health and social impact and its incidence is rising exponentially in the industrialized world as a result of unhealthy lifestyles. In the last few years, research in this field has increased, leading to the development of new drugs and new indications. Consequently, numerous updates of clinical practice guidelines for diabetes have been published in the last 12 months, which provide health professionals with an up-to-date view of therapeutic possibilities. The present article reviews the guidelines with the greatest scientific impact and discusses areas of agreement and disagreement among these documents.
Ohaeri, J U
The supernatural fears associated with the experience of isolated sleep paralysis in the culture of developing countries is sometimes associated with the evolution of somatic symptoms of psychological origin in patients predisposed to neurotic illness. Patients rarely spontaneously volunteer these fears and doctors pay them scant attention. Illustrative case histories that demonstrate the dynamics of the clinical presentation, as well as the treatment approach, are highlighted. It is hoped that doctors in general medical practice and in psychological medicine in developing countries where belief in supernatural causation of illness is rife will consider these factors in order to provide more effective treatment.
Aggarwal, Neil Krishan
This paper considers revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation from the perspective of clinical practice. First, the paper explores the theoretical development of the Cultural Formulation. Next, a case presentation demonstrates challenges in its actual implementation. Finally, the paper recommends a set of questions for the clinician on barriers to care and countertransference. The development of a standardized, user-friendly format can increase the Cultural Formulation’s utilization among all psychiatrists beyond those specializing in cultural psychiatry. PMID:22418398
Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shin, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Seth R; Coggins, Robyn; Gagnon, Lisa; Hackell, Jesse M; Hoelting, David; Hunter, Lisa L; Kummer, Ann W; Payne, Spencer C; Poe, Dennis S; Veling, Maria; Vila, Peter M; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion." To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 18 recommendations developed emphasize diagnostic accuracy, identification of children who are most susceptible to developmental sequelae from otitis media with effusion, and education of clinicians and patients regarding the favorable natural history of most otitis media with effusion and the lack of efficacy for medical therapy (eg, steroids, antihistamines, decongestants). An updated guideline is needed due to new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group.
How mental illnesses are defined has significant ramifications, given the substantial social and individual repercussions of these conditions. Using actor-network theory, I analyze how mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in their work. Drawing on observations of a neuropsychological laboratory and interviews with 27 professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, psychologists), I investigate how the DSM is used in research, clinical, and institutional work. In research, the DSM influences study design and exclusion/inclusion criteria. In the clinic, the DSM influences how disorders are conceptualized and diagnosed. Institutionally, the DSM aligns the patient-professional encounter to insurance and pharmaceutical interests. I conclude that the DSM operates as multiple, context-specific taxonomies that pervasively influence professional practices, such that all possible actions must orient to DSM criteria, with professionals both a source and an object of institutionalized gaze.
Balbis, S; Roatta, S; Guiot, C
In clinical practice, blood velocity estimations from Doppler examination of curved vascular segments are normally different from those of nearby straight segments. The observed "accelerations," sometimes considered as a sort of stochastic disturbances, can actually be related to very specific physical effects due to vessel curvature (i.e., the development of nonaxial velocity [NAV] components) and the spreading of the axial velocity direction in the Doppler sample volume with respect to the insonation axis. The relevant phenomena and their dependence on the radius of curvature of the vessels and on the insonation angle are investigated with a beam-vessel geometry as close as possible to clinical setting, with the simplifying assumptions of steady flow, mild vessel curvature, uniform ultrasonic beam and complete vessel insonation. The insonation angles that minimize the errors are provided on the basis of the study results.
Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Brook, Itzhak; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Kramper, Maggie; Orlandi, Richard R; Palmer, James N; Patel, Zara M; Peters, Anju; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis" as a supplement to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 developed recommendations address diagnostic accuracy for adult rhinosinusitis, the appropriate use of ancillary tests to confirm diagnosis and guide management (including radiography, nasal endoscopy, computed tomography, and testing for allergy and immune function), and the judicious use of systemic and topical therapy. Emphasis was also placed on identifying multiple chronic conditions that would modify management of rhinosinusitis, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, immunocompromised state, and ciliary dyskinesia. An updated guideline is needed as a result of new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group.
Hager, Keri; St Hill, Catherine; Prunuske, Jacob; Swanoski, Michael; Anderson, Grant; Lutfiyya, May Nawal
This article describes an interprofessional collaborative research practice fellowship designed to foster the research skills of clinical faculty. The year-long fellowship was grounded in big data analysis and the triangle of informatics--knowledge, information, and data. Fellows were selected to include diverse perspectives, training, and knowledge but had limited experience in team science or being a member of an interprofessional research team. The underlying philosophy of the fellowship was experiential learning. Protected time and formal mentorship were necessary factors for developing the interprofessional research practice and the skills to participate in an interprofessional research team. We believe that this innovative interprofessional faculty research fellowship is a viable option for supporting scholarly activity and research collaboration. The findings could inform interprofessional clinical practice and be implemented for patient care. Engagement in interprofessional collaborative research and incorporation of the perspectives, knowledge and expertise of multiple professions, is a model to de silo knowledge creation.
Walker, Susanna T; Sevdalis, Nick; McKay, Anthony; Lambden, Simon; Gautama, Sanjay; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Vincent, Charles
Simulation-based training for healthcare providers is well established as a viable, efficacious training tool, particularly for the training of non-technical team-working skills. These skills are known to be critical to effective teamwork, and important in the prevention of error and adverse events in hospitals. However, simulation suites are costly to develop and releasing staff to attend training is often difficult. These factors may restrict access to simulation training. We discuss our experiences of 'in situ' simulation for unannounced cardiac arrest training when the training is taken to the clinical environment. This has the benefit of decreasing required resources, increasing realism and affordability, and widening multidisciplinary team participation, thus enabling assessment and training of non-technical team-working skills in real clinical teams. While there are practical considerations of delivering training in the clinical environment, we feel there are many potential benefits compared with other forms of simulation training. We are able to tailor the training to the needs of the location, enabling staff to see a scenario that is relevant to their practice. This is particularly useful for staff who have less exposure to cardiac arrest events, such as radiology staff. We also describe the important benefit of risk assessment for a clinical environment. During our simulations we have identified a number of issues that, had they occurred during a real resuscitation attempt, may have led to patient harm or patient death. For these reasons we feel in situ simulation should be considered by every hospital as part of a patient safety initiative.
Singh, Shamsher; Bajorek., Beata
Objective: To identify how ‘elderly’ patients are defined and considered within Australian clinical guidelines for the use of pharmacotherapy. Method: Guidelines pertaining to the use of pharmacotherapy, focusing on conditions described in National Health Priority Areas, were identified using databases (Medline, Google Scholar) and organisation websites (Department of Health and Ageing, National Heart Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council). Guidelines were reviewed and qualitatively analysed to identify any references or definitions of ‘elderly’ persons. Results: Among the 20 guidelines reviewed, 3 defined ‘elderly’ by chronological age (i.e., years since birth) while the remaining 17 guidelines did not define ‘elderly’ in any way. All 20 guidelines used the term ‘elderly’, whilst some guidelines provided age (chronological)-based dosage recommendations suggesting an ageist or generalist approach in their representation of ‘elderly’, for which rationale was seldom provided. Thematic analysis of the statements revealed five key themes regarding how ‘elderly’ was considered within the guidelines, broadly describing ‘elderly’ persons as being frail and with altered pharmacology. Some guidelines also highlighted the limited evidence base to direct clinical decision-making. A continuum of perceptions of ageing also emerged out of the identified themes. Conclusion: Clinical practice guidelines currently do not adequately define ‘elderly’ persons and provide limited guidance on how to apply treatment recommendations to older persons. The representation of ‘elderly’ in guidelines needs to be less based on chronological age or generic definitions focusing more on establishing a direct link between an individual patient’s characteristics and the pharmacology of their prescribed medication. Clinical guidelines that do not offer any practical descriptions of the features of ageing that are specifically related to the
Li, Gang; Wu, Yuan-Yi; Fu, Wei-Jun; Jia, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Bing-Hong; Xu, Yong-De; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Shi, Jian-Guo; Tan, Hai-Song; Qian, Ye-Yong; Shi, Bin-Yi; Zhang, Chao-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Xiong
Background: In order to improve the clinical treatment level of urinary system injury, it is necessary to build up an animal model of urinary system wound, which is not only analogous to real clinical practice, but also simple and practical. Methods: We have developed the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator based on the first and the second producer. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge was selected by gradient powder loading experiments. The firearm fragment injuries were made to the bulbous urethra of 10 New Zealand male rabbits. One week preoperatively and 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, all the animals underwent urethroscopy and urethrography. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, two animals were randomly selected and killed, and the urethra was cut off for pathological examination. Results: The shooting distance of the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator is 2 cm. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge is 1 g of nitrocotton. All rabbits survived the procedures and stayed alive until they were killed. Injuries were limited to bulbous urethra and distal urethra. Round damaged areas, 1–1.5 cm in length, on the ventral wall were observed. Ureteroscopy results showed that canal diameter gradually shrank by over 50% in 9 rabbits. The rate of success was 90%. Urethrography result noted that a 1–1.3 cm stricture was formed at the bulbous urethra. Histology results of injured stricture urethra showed that fibrous connective tissue hyperplasia and hyaline degeneration caused further stricture in the canal. Conclusions: The third generation of firearm fragment wound generator imitates the bullet firing process and is more accurate and repeatable. The corresponding rabbit model of traumatic complex urethral stricture simulates the real complex clinical conditions. This animal model provides a standardized platform for clinical researches on treating traumatic injuries to the urinary system. PMID:25836614
Watts, Nelson B
Osteoporosis is a serious health concern affecting millions of Americans, with many patients going undiagnosed and untreated. Fractures due to osteoporosis and fracture-related complications are the most clinically relevant and costly consequences of this disorder. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®), released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2008, is a major achievement in helping determine which patients may be candidates for pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis. This Web-based algorithm, which has been incorporated into some dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) reporting software, calculates the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture (clinical vertebral, hip, forearm, or humerus) and the 10-year probability of hip fracture in men and women based on easily obtained clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck (optional). The National Osteoporosis Foundation updated its U.S. guidelines in February 2008 to incorporate FRAX and recommends that all postmenopausal women and men aged ≥50 years with a hip or vertebral fracture, a T-score ≤-2.5 at the femoral neck or spine (excluding secondary causes), or low bone mass (T-score between -1.0 and -2.5) and a 10-year probability of hip fracture ≥3% or of major osteoporosis-related fracture ≥20% (based on FRAX) should be considered candidates for drug therapy. Despite its demonstrated clinical utility, FRAX has limitations and should not be used in all situations. Acceptance and clinical use of FRAX may help identify men and women at increased risk for osteoporotic fracture, but implementing the tool into clinical practice may be a challenge for busy physicians.
Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.
Low functional literacy and low health literacy continue to be under-recognized and are associated with poorer patient health outcomes. Health literacy is a dynamic state influenced by how well a healthcare system delivers information and services that match patients’ abilities, needs and preferences. Oncology care poses considerable health literacy demands on patients who are expected to process high stakes information about complex multidisciplinary treatment over lengths of time. Much of the information provided to patients in clinical care and research is beyond their literacy levels. In this paper, we provide an overview of currently available guidelines and resources to improve how the needs of patients with diverse literacy skills are met by cancer care providers and clinics. We present recommendations for health literacy assessment in clinical practice and ways to enhance the usability of health information and services by improving written materials and verbal communication, incorporating multimedia and culturally appropriate approaches, and promoting health literacy in cancer care settings. The paper also includes a list of additional resources that can be used to develop and implement health literacy initiatives in cancer care clinics. PMID:20464884
Cerciello, Simone; Rossi, Silvio; Visonà, Enrico; Corona, Katia; Oliva, Francesco
Summary Background Vibration therapy (VT) has been proposed as an option to improve physical performance and reduce the negative effects of ageing on bone, muscles and tendons. Several discrepancies exist on the type of applications, frequency and magnitude. These differences reflex on the contradictory clinical results in literature. Aim of the present study is to carry on an exhaustive review to focus on technical options on the market, clinical applications in orthopaedic practice and expected outcomes. Methods a literature review using the key words “vibration therapy” and “whole-body vibration” and “orthopaedics” was performed. After checking the available abstracts 71 full text articles were evaluated. Results fifty-one articles focused on the effects of VT on muscles and tendons reporting ways of action and clinical outcomes. In a similar way 20 studies focused on the influence of VT on bone tissue with regard on ways of action and clinical trials. Conclusions VT provides anabolic mechanical signals to bone and musculo-tendinous system. The best effects seem to be achieved with devices that deliver low-intensity stimuli at high frequencies providing linear horizontal displacement. PMID:27331044
Lucena, Ma Isabel; García-Cortés, Miren; Cueto, Raquel; Lopez-Duran, Jl; Andrade, Raúl J
Currently, pharmaceutical preparations are serious contributors to liver disease, with hepatotoxicity ranking as the most frequent cause for acute liver failure and post-marketing regulatory decisions. The diagnostic approach of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is still rudimentary and inaccurate because of the lack of reliable markers for use in general clinical practice. To incriminate any given drug in an episode of liver dysfunction is a step-by-step process that requires a high degree of suspicion, compatible chronology, awareness of the drug's hepatotoxic potential, the exclusion of alternative causes of liver damage, and the ability to detect the presence of subtle data that favour a toxic aetiology. Clinical and laboratory data may also be assessed with algorithms or clinical scales, which may add consistency to the clinical judgment by translating the suspicion into a quantitative score. The CIOMS/RUCAM instrument is considered at present the best method for assessing causality in DILI, although it could be improved through the use of large database of bona fide DILI cases for validation criteria.
Estrada, Joshua M.; Soldin, Danielle; Buckey, Timothy M.; Soldin, Offie P.
Serum thyrotropin (TSH) is considered the single most sensitive and specific measure of thyroid function in the general population owing to its negative logarithmic association with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine concentrations. It is therefore often the test of choice for screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of primary hypothyroidism. Serum TSH concentrations can be analyzed quantitatively using third-generation immunoassays, whereas its bioactivity can be measured by TSH activity assays in cell culture. Theoretically, if serum TSH concentrations are directly related to TSH activity, the two tests should yield comparable results. However, on occasion, the results are discordant, with serum concentrations being higher than TSH biological activity. This review focuses on the dissociation between the clinical state and serum TSH concentrations and addresses clinically important aspects of TSH analysis. PMID:24073798
Curro, Frederick A; Robbins, Dennis A; Millenson, Michael L; Fox, Chester H; Naftolin, Frederick
Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) can function as a platform for delivery of patient-centered care consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Patient-centered (centric) clinical studies encourage the patient to be an integral part of study design and outcome. The patient's electronic health record contributes to the shared national health care data set. PBRNs integrate health care data in real time at the point of care and reflect the full context of the person's health. PBRNs designed under the principles of good clinical practice (GCP) validate studies related to comparative effectiveness research and drug development. PBRNs can generate large amounts of data from known patient histories so that side effects can be assessed in their totality. The larger and more diverse number of patients recruited suggests that point-of-care-data, where both provider and patient participate in the treatment, may be more robust in that side effects, drug-drug interactions and number of concomitant medications used may be identified earlier in the development process. The GCP PBRN concept affords continuous patient information for both care and research purposes. These all contribute to an ethical approach for the pharmaceutical industry to generate clinical research data for regulatory submission and to contribute to a HIPAA-compliant national database that could contribute to improved health care delivery and pharmacovigilance.
Woo, Savio L-Y
Biomechanics is a field that has a very long history. It was described in ancient Chinese and Greek literature as early as 400-500 BC. The foundation of biomechanics, however, was laid during a period between the 1500's to 1700's by renowned personalities, da Vinci, Galileo, Borelli, Hooke, Newton, and so (Fung, Y.C., Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, 2nd Ed. Springer Verlag, Chapter 1, 1993). Beginning in the 1950's, Muybridge, Steindler, Inman, Lissner, and Hirsch performed the pioneering work on musculoskeletal biomechanics and the foundation of orthopaedic biomechanics was formed. For the following two decades, the field has blossomed and significant contributions in the biomechanics of bone, articular cartilage, soft tissues, upper and lower extremities, spine and so on has been made. More sophisticated equipment, coupled with mathematical modeling and better engineering design, has enabled us to make great strides. Bioengineers, in collaboration with orthopaedic surgeons, have translated many laboratory discoveries into clinical practice, leading to improved patient treatment and outcome. In the past 30 years, my colleagues and I have focused our research on the biomechanics of musculoskeletal soft tissues, ligaments and tendons, in particular. Therefore, in this lecture, the function of knee ligaments, the associated homeostatic responses secondary to immobilization and exercise, and healing of the ligaments will be reviewed. Examples of scientific findings that help to guide the surgical management of injury to ligaments will be given. New ideas on functional tissue engineering to improve the healing of knee ligaments and tendons will be presented. We have learned that tendons and ligaments are indeed complex biological tissues. To fully understand their behavior, healing and remodelling processes, this author advocates major efforts be made to bring molecular biologists, morphologists, biochemists, bioengineers, physical therapists and
It has been well established that appropriate physical activity and exercise play an important role in promotion of health and fitness, prevention of disease and treatment and rehabilitation of health conditions. However, practice based on scientific evidence, in respect of the role and effectiveness of exercise interventions in prevention and treatment of diseases, has only been promoted and implemented in the fields of clinical exercise physiology, public health and medicine in recent years. This brief review provides an introduction of the concept of "Exercise is Medicine", the development and evidence-based practice in Clinical Exercise Physiology, and the role and training of Clinical Exercise Physiologist in the health care system of some other countries.
Fenton, Mary V.; Brykczynski, Karen A.
A comparison of results of two studies regarding the actual practice of clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners revealed a shared core of advanced practice competencies as well as distinct differences between practice roles. (JOW)
Capper, David; Berghoff, Anna-Sophie; von Deimling, Andreas; Preusser, Matthias
Activating mutations of the serine threonine kinase v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B1 (BRAF), most commonly of the V600E type, are found in a wide range of human neoplasms including primary and secondary brain tumors. Therapeutic BRAF inhibitors have shown clinically meaningful activity, particularly in metastatic BRAF V600E mutated melanoma including patients with brain metastases. Therefore, in current neuropathological practice BRAF testing is of clinical importance in tissue samples of melanoma brain metastases in order to identify cases amenable to therapy with BRAF inhibitors. BRAF mutation testing may also add additional information for differential diagnosis of primary brain tumors in selected situations, e.g., for differentiation of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (BRAF V600E mutation in 65%) from glioblastoma (BRAF V600E mutation in < 5%). The BRAF mutation status can be tested with DNA-based methods and immunohistochemistry using a V600E mutation-specific antibody. In summary, at this point BRAF V600E testing is clinically indicated in relatively few cases of the daily clinical neuropathology practice, but has important predictive implications for patients with melanoma brain metastases. Depending on the results of additional clinical studies, determination of BRAF mutation status may become clinically relevant also for primary brain tumors such as glioblastoma in the future.
Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This package includes a clinical practice guideline, quick reference guide for clinicians, and patient's guide to predicting and preventing pressure ulcers in adults. The clinical practice guideline includes the following: overview of the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers; clinical practice guideline (introduction, risk assessment tools…
... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices and activities. 1469.8 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.8 Conservation practices and activities. (a) Conservation practice and...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices and activities. 1469.8 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.8 Conservation practices and activities. (a) Conservation practice and...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices and activities. 1469.8 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.8 Conservation practices and activities. (a) Conservation practice and...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices and activities. 1469.8 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.8 Conservation practices and activities. (a) Conservation practice and...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices and activities. 1469.8 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.8 Conservation practices and activities. (a) Conservation practice and...
Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo
In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724
Gånemo, Agneta; Svensson, Åke; Svedman, Cecilia; Grönberg, Britt-Marie; Johansson, Ann-Charlotte Öhman; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik
Simple, validated eczema severity scores are required for the evaluation of interventions. The Rajka & Langeland (R&L) scale is based on 3 domains (extent, course, and intensity); however, its validity is not yet confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality aspects of the R&L scale in clinical practice. In the first part of the study, experts and consumers judged the content validity of the scale. The second part of the study was performed with 87 children during a 4-month eczema school. Construct validity, internal consistency, sensitivity to change, time consumption and health-related quality of life variables were investigated. The content of the R&L scale was considered valid by 45 panellists. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was very good. Divergent construct validity was adequate, while convergent construct validity and internal consistency were inadequate. The R&L scale was able to define a significant improvement in eczema during the eczema school. The time required for completing the R&L assessment was significantly shorter than for objective Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). The R&L scale is a simple, fast, valid, reliable and sensitive tool for scoring of atopic dermatitis in everyday clinical practice.
Lovecchio, Catherine P; DiMattio, Mary Jane K; Hudacek, Sharon
The necessity to help baccalaureate nursing students transition to clinical practice in a health care environment governed by change has compelled nurse educators to investigate alternative clinical instruction models that nurture academic-practice partnerships and facilitate student clinical learning. This article describes an academic-practice partnership in a community hospital using the Clinical Liaison Nurse (CLN) model as a link between students and clinical faculty and reports results of a quasi-experimental study that compared perceptions of the clinical learning environment between students participating in the CLN model (experimental group) and those in a traditional, instructor-led clinical model (control group). Students assigned to the CLN model had statistically significantly higher individualization, satisfaction, and task orientation scores on the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory. The findings provide evidence that academic-practice partnerships can be successful in community hospital settings and enhance students' perceptions in the clinical learning environment.
Mosca, M.; Tani, C.; Aringer, M.; Bombardieri, S.; Boumpas, D.; Cervera, R.; Doria, A.; Jayne, D.; Khamashta, M. A.; Kuhn, A.; Gordon, C.; Petri, M.; Schneider, M.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Smolen, J. S.; Talarico, R.; Tincani, A.; Ward, M. M.; Werth, V. P.; Carmona, L.
The assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in routine clinical practice is mainly based on the experience of the treating physician. This carries the risk of unwanted variability. Variability may have an impact on the quality of care offered to SLE patients, thereby affecting outcomes. Recommendations represent systematically developed statements to help practitioners in reducing variability. However, major difficulties arise in the application of recommendations into clinical practice. In this respect, the use of quality indicators may raise the awareness among rheumatologists regarding potential deficiencies in services and improve the quality of health care. The aim of this study was to develop a set of quality indicators (QI) for SLE by translating into QIs the recently developed EULAR Recommendations for monitoring SLE patients in routine clinical practice and observational studies. Eleven QIs have been developed referring to the use of validated activity and damage indices in routine clinical practice, general evaluation of drug toxicity, evaluation of comorbidities, eye evaluation, laboratory assessment, evaluation of the presence of chronic viral infections, documentation of vaccination and of antibody testing at baseline. A disease specific set of quality assessment tools should help physicians deliver high quality of care across populations. Routine updates will be needed. PMID:21224016
Coombs, Maureen A; Moorse, Sue E
This paper proposes that the current use of physical assessment skills within critical care nursing practice is part of a on-going nursing role development process. A review of the critical care nursing role highlights how nurses in this setting have always been responsive to patient management needs. In exploring one recent nursing role development, the critical care outreach nurse, it is suggested that enhanced assessment skills enable these practitioners to safely and competently assess critically ill patients out of the intensive care environment. The use of patient case studies in this paper, demonstrate how the theory of a more intensive physical assessment knowledge base can be applied in the everyday practice of an critical care outreach nurse. Through such systematic patient review, patient management plans can be agreed and ward based practitioners can be supported in the on-going treatment of sick ward patients. The use of the cases presented also highlights the complexity of the outreach nurse's practice in addressing clinical management and team management issues.
Pitts, N B; Drummond, J; Guggenberger, R; Ferrillo, P; Johnston, S
This article outlines the subjects presented and discussed at the December 2012 IADR Dental Materials Innovation Workshop held at King's College London. Incorporating new materials and techniques into clinical practice was considered from 4 perspectives: (1) Accelerating the "research to regulatory approval" process was presented with current developments in the United States, with the National Institutes of Health/Food and Drug Administration process as a working example; (2) intellectual property and regulatory requirements were discussed across the well-established US and EU frameworks, as well as the more recently developed procedures across Brazil, Russia, India, and China; (3) the challenges and opportunities of incorporating innovations into dental education were considered with reference to the future needs of both students and faculty; and (4) the key but difficult and unpredictable step of translating such innovations into routine dental practice was then explored. Constructive and far-ranging discussion among the broadly based Workshop participants (from dental research, education, practice, and industry, as well as environmental organizations and the World Health Organization) mapped out key issues for the future. The focus was on facilitating the more timely adoption of improvements in both materials and techniques to improve patient health and health systems, while minimizing environmental impact.
Caudle, Kelly E; Klein, Teri E; Hoffman, James M; Muller, Daniel J; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F; Schwab, Matthias; Agundez, Jose A G; Freimuth, Robert R; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F; Crews, Kristine R; Scott, Stuart A; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J; Tyndale, Rachel F; Stein, C Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V; Williams, Marc S; Johnson, Samuel G
The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koshiba, Masahiro
The Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine has been running its own Medical Safety Committee, and holding a symposium on medical safety during the annual meeting every year. The activities based on a team approach to medicine play a critical role in the development of medical safety culture and the driving forward of medical safety in clinical practice. The best medical practice involves cooperation among information-sharing medical staff from a variety of professions, providing medical care based on medical safety, which patients hope for. It is hoped that the present symposium on medical safety can help drive medical safety into the future.
Plüddemann, Annette; Wallace, Emma; Bankhead, Clare; Keogh, Claire; Van der Windt, Danielle; Lasserson, Daniel; Galvin, Rose; Moschetti, Ivan; Kearley, Karen; O’Brien, Kirsty; Sanders, Sharon; Mallett, Susan; Malanda, Uriell; Thompson, Matthew; Fahey, Tom; Stevens, Richard
Background The publication of clinical prediction rules (CPRs) studies has risen significantly. It is unclear if this reflects increasing usage of these tools in clinical practice or how this may vary across clinical areas. Aim To review clinical guidelines in selected areas and survey GPs in order to explore CPR usefulness in the opinion of experts and use at the point of care. Design and setting A review of clinical guidelines and survey of UK GPs. Method Clinical guidelines in eight clinical domains with published CPRs were reviewed for recommendations to use CPRs including primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and stroke, diabetes mellitus, fracture risk assessment in osteoporosis, lower limb fractures, breast cancer, depression, and acute infections in childhood. An online survey of 401 UK GPs was also conducted. Results Guideline review: Of 7637 records screened by title and/or abstract, 243 clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. CPRs were most commonly recommended in guidelines regarding primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (67%) and depression (67%). There was little consensus across various clinical guidelines as to which CPR to use preferentially. Survey: Of 401 responders to the GP survey, most were aware of and applied named CPRs in the clinical areas of cardiovascular disease and depression. The commonest reasons for using CPRs were to guide management and conform to local policy requirements. Conclusion GPs use CPRs to guide management but also to comply with local policy requirements. Future research could focus on which clinical areas clinicians would most benefit from CPRs and promoting the use of robust, externally validated CPRs. PMID:24686888
The prognosis and treatment outcome for primary brain tumors have remained unchanged despite advances in anticancer drug discovery and development. In clinical trials, the majority of promising experimental agents for brain tumors have had limited impact on survival or time to recurrence. These disappointing results are partially explained by the inadequacy of effective drug delivery to the CNS. The impediments posed by the various specialized physiological barriers and active efflux mechanisms lead to drug failure because of inability to reach the desired target at a sufficient concentration. This perspective reviews the leading strategies that aim to improve drug delivery to brain tumors and their likelihood to change clinical practice. The English literature was searched for defined search items. Strategies that use systemic delivery and those that use local delivery are critically reviewed. In addition, challenges posed for drug delivery by combined treatment with anti-angiogenic therapy are outlined. To impact clinical practice and to achieve more than just a limited local control, new drugs and delivery systems must adhere to basic clinical expectations. These include, in addition to an antitumor effect, a verified favorable adverse effects profile, easy introduction into clinical practice, feasibility of repeated or continuous administration, and compatibility of the drug or delivery system with any tumor size and brain location. PMID:23502426
Grant, Andrew; Moshyk, Andriy; Diab, Hassan; Caron, Philippe; de Lorenzi, Fabien; Bisson, Guy; Menard, Line; Lefebvre, Richard; Gauthier, Patricia; Grondin, Richard; Desautels, Michel
A patient oriented hospital information system (ARIANE) was inaugurated at the Sherbrooke University hospital (CHUS) in 1990 and a clinical data warehouse (CDW) completed 2004. The CDW is updated from ARIANE every 24h and includes ICD discharge diagnosis data, visit DRG and SNOMED encoding. The data is encrypted on storage. Data is accessed according to institutional approval. To facilitate data access two levels of tool have been made accessible using a web-browser. The first level consists of a 'dashboard' that has a defined design and enables a set of pre-determined dynamic queries about a patient population. This level can be operated with minimal training. The second level uses a convivial database query tool, which requires some prior training. Two prototype dashboards have been designed and evaluated for acceptability. The first for the emergency department enables analysis of patient occupancy. The second for the biochemistry department enables quality assurance evaluation. In most cases worldwide the clinical data warehouse is only beginning to be exploited, often impeded by lack of connection between different enterprise databases. Our CDW is expected rapidly to create a culture change so that clinical practice can be continuously evaluated using compiled data readily available from the electronic health record/hospital information system.
Trujillo-Martín, María M; Rúa-Figueroa Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Ruíz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Pego-Reigosa, José María; Sabio Sánchez, José Mario; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex rheumatic multisystemic disease of autoimmune origin with significant potential morbidity and mortality. It is one of the most common autoimmune diseases with an estimated prevalence of 20-150 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The clinical spectrum of SLE is wide and variable both in clinical manifestations and severity. This prompted the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality to promote and fund the development of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the clinical care of SLE patients within the Programme of CPG in the National Health System which coordinates GuiaSalud. This CPG is is intended as the reference tool in the Spanish National Health System in order to support the comprehensive clinical management of people with SLE by all health professionals involved, regardless of specialty and level of care, helping to standardize and improve the quality of clinical decisions in our context in order to improve the health outcomes of the people affected. The purpose of this document is to present and discuss the rationale of the recommendations on the general management of SLE, specifically, clinical follow-up, general therapeutic approach, healthy lifestyles, photoprotection, and training programmes for patients. These recommendations are based on the best available scientific evidence, on discussion and the consensus of expert groups.
Hajjaj, FM; Salek, MS; Basra, MKA; Finlay, AY
Summary This article reviews an aspect of daily clinical practice which is of critical importance in virtually every clinical consultation, but which is seldom formally considered. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making profoundly affect medical decisions. These influences include patient-related factors such as socioeconomic status, quality of life and patient's expectations and wishes, physician-related factors such as personal characteristics and interaction with their professional community, and features of clinical practice such as private versus public practice as well as local management policies. This review brings together the different strands of knowledge concerning non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making. This aspect of decision-making may be the biggest obstacle to the reality of practising evidence-based medicine. It needs to be understood in order to develop clinical strategies that will facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine. PMID:20436026
Wolpert Barraza, Enrique
In Mexico there is no legislation as to when a physician should retire from active practice as it is the case in other countries. The Mexican Social Security for instance, in its global working contract between the authorities and the employees, for the period 2009-2011 clearly stated that after 30 years of service for men and 27 for women the employee may retire but the physician can still work in another institution or in private practice for as long as he or she wants. In this article, the experience of distinguished Mexican surgeons who had written in the past in relation to this topic is acknowledged. A brief description of the retirement of physicians in Spain where the National Health System retire physicians from practice at age 65 and in some cases at age 70 is discussed. The author analyzes what happens in other activities of human mankind such as in the arts, painting, architecture, music, physics and philosophy, where there are plenty of outstanding examples of men and women doing their best work well over the age of 65. The names of some distinguished Mexican physicians past presidents of the Academy of Medicine are mentioned, all of them legends in the field of medicine who worked or continue to work many, many years after the age of 65. The author recognizes the process of accreditation and certification of medical specialists in Mexico that is carried out by the 47 specialty councils that have the recognition of the National Committee for Medical Specialties: CONACEM. Finally he offers his personal thoughts about what a physician may do when he or she is thinking of retiring and urges them not to throw away their personal experiences of many years in medical practice but instead to utilize the social networks such as Twitter or Facebook in order to continue to provide their expertise to young physicians who may benefit greatly.
Hudson, Peter; Quinn, Karen; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Aranda, Sanchia
Background Support for family carers is a core function of palliative care. Family meetings are commonly recommended as a useful way for health care professionals to convey information, discuss goals of care and plan care strategies with patients and family carers. Yet it seems there is insufficient research to demonstrate the utlility of family meetings or the best way to conduct them. This study sought to develop multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines for conducting family meetings in the specialist palliative care setting based on available evidence and consensus based expert opinion. Methods The guidelines were developed via the following methods: (1) A literature review; (2) Conceptual framework; (3) Refinement of the guidelines based on feedback from an expert panel and focus groups with multidisciplinary specialists from three palliative care units and three major teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Results The literature review revealed that no comprehensive exploration of the conduct and utility of family meetings in the specialist palliative care setting has occurred. Preliminary clinical guidelines were developed by the research team, based on relevant literature and a conceptual framework informed by: single session therapy, principles of therapeutic communication and models of coping and family consultation. A multidisciplinary expert panel refined the content of the guidelines and the applicability of the guidelines was then assessed via two focus groups of multidisciplinary palliative care specialists. The complete version of the guidelines is presented. Conclusion Family meetings provide an opportunity to enhance the quality of care provided to palliative care patients and their family carers. The clinical guidelines developed from this study offer a framework for preparing, conducting and evaluating family meetings. Future research and clinical implications are outlined. PMID:18710576
Haasenritter, Jörg; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Bösner, Stefan
Background The Marburg Heart Score (MHS) is a simple, valid, and robust clinical decision rule assisting GPs in ruling out coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients presenting with chest pain. Aim To investigate whether using the rule adds to the GP’s clinical judgement. Design and setting A comparative diagnostic accuracy study was conducted using data from 832 consecutive patients with chest pain in general practice. Method Three diagnostic strategies were defined using the MHS: diagnosis based solely on the MHS; using the MHS as a triage test; and GP’s clinical judgement aided by the MHS. Their accuracy was compared with the GPs’ unaided clinical judgement. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the GPs’ unaided clinical judgement was 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.4 to 89.9) and 61.0% (95% CI = 56.7 to 65.2), respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of the MHS was higher (difference 8.5%, 95% CI = −2.4 to 19.6) and the specificity was similar (difference −0.4%, 95% CI = −5.3 to 4.5); the sensitivity of the triage was similar (difference −1.5%, 95% CI = −9.8 to 7.0) and the specificity was higher (difference 11.6%, 95% CI = 7.8 to 15.4); and both the sensitivity and specificity of the aided clinical judgement were higher (difference 8.0%, 95% CI = −6.9 to 23.0 and 5.8%, 95% CI = −1.6 to 13.2, respectively). Conclusion Using the Marburg Heart Score for initial triage can improve the clinical diagnosis of CHD in general practice. PMID:26500322
Background Randomised controlled clinical (drug) trials supply high quality evidence for therapeutic strategies in primary care. Until now, experience with drug trials in German general practice has been sparse. In 2007/2008, the authors conducted an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, randomised controlled pilot trial (HWI-01) to assess the clinical equivalence of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Here, we report the feasibility of this trial in German general practices and the implementation of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) standards as defined by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) in mainly inexperienced general practices. Methods This report is based on the experience of the HWI-01 study conducted in 29 German general practices. Feasibility was defined by 1) successful practice recruitment, 2) sufficient patient recruitment, 3) complete and accurate data collection and 4) appropriate protection of patient safety. Results The final practice recruitment rate was 18%. In these practices, 79 of 195 screened UTI patients were enrolled. Recruitment differed strongly between practices (range 0-12, mean 2.8 patients per practice) and was below the recruitment goal of approximately 100 patients. As anticipated, practice nurses became the key figures in the screening und recruitment of patients. Clinical trial demands, in particular for completing symptom questionnaires, documentation of source data and reporting of adverse events, did not agree well with GPs' documentation habits and required support from study nurses. In many cases, GPs and practice staff seemed to be overwhelmed by the amount of information and regulations. No sudden unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) were observed during the trial. Conclusions To enable drug trials in general practice, it is necessary to adapt the setup of clinical research infrastructure to the needs of GPs and their practice
Bakhaty, Ahmed A; Mofrad, Mohammad R K
The last few decades have seen great advances in the understanding of heart valves, and consequently, in the development of novel treatment modalities and surgical procedures for valves afflicted by disease. This is due in part to the profound advancements in computing technology and noninvasive medical imaging techniques that have made it possible to numerically model the complex heart valve systems characterized by distinct features at different length scales and various interacting processes. In this article, we highlight the importance of explicitly coupling these multiple scales and diverse processes to accurately simulate the true behavior of the heart valves, in health and disease. We examine some of the computational modeling studies that have a direct consequence on clinical practice.
Sampogna, Gaia; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; De Rosa, Corrado; Albert, Umberto; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Fiorillo, Andrea
The discovery of benzodiazepines has represented a milestone in the history of pharmacological treatments and in relation to the management of anxiety, sleep and other psychiatric disorders. After several decades, these agents still represent one of the largest and most widely prescribed groups of medications, not only in the psychiatric clinical practice, but also in the whole medical field. Over the last decade, however, multiple concerns have been raised on the risks related to the prescription of benzodiazepines, for their addictive potential and for cognitive side-effects. Therefore, benzodiazepines are today considered as a double-edge sword, which should be carefully handled and preferentially prescribed by specialists (or at least under their supervision), after an adequate training. Unfortunately, this is not the case in many situations, and the need to improve training on benzodiazepines management has been recently emphasized.
Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers.
The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness, and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide. PMID:27507957
Minsker, Stanislav; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Cheng, Guang
Individualized treatment rules (ITRs) tailor treatments according to individual patient characteristics. They can significantly improve patient care and are thus becoming increasingly popular. The data collected during randomized clinical trials are often used to estimate the optimal ITRs. However, these trials are generally expensive to run, and, moreover, they are not designed to efficiently estimate ITRs. In this article, we propose a cost-effective estimation method from an active learning perspective. In particular, our method recruits only the “most informative” patients (in terms of learning the optimal ITRs) from an ongoing clinical trial. Simulation studies and real-data examples show that our active clinical trial method significantly improves on competing methods. We derive risk bounds and show that they support these observed empirical advantages. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:28018014
Guo, Jia; Cheng, Chuang; Yan, Weiping; Xu, Guanghui; Feng, Jinzhou; Wang, Tianzhu; Chen, Cindy Si; Qin, Xinyue
Background High quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) can provide clinicians with explicit recommendations on how to manage health conditions and bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Unfortunately, the quality of CPGs for multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate the methodological quality of CPGs on MS using the AGREE II instrument. Methods According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we searched four databases and two websites related to CPGs, including the Cochrane library, PubMed, EMBASE, DynaMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC), and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM). The searches were performed on September 20th 2013. All CPGs on MS were evaluated by the AGREE II instrument. The software used for analysis was SPSS 17.0. Results A total of 27 CPGs on MS met inclusion criteria. The overall agreement among reviews was good or substantial (ICC was above 0.70). The mean scores for each of all six domains were presented as follows: scope and purpose (mean ± SD: 59.05±16.13), stakeholder involvement (mean ± SD: 29.53±17.67), rigor of development (mean ± SD: 31.52±21.50), clarity of presentation (mean ± SD: 60.39±13.73), applicability (mean ± SD: 27.08±17.66), editorial independence (mean ± SD: 28.70±22.03). Conclusions The methodological quality of CPGs for MS was acceptable for scope, purpose and clarity of presentation. The developers of CPGs need to pay more attention to editorial independence, applicability, rigor of development and stakeholder involvement during the development process. The AGREE II instrument should be adopted by guideline developers. PMID:25302678
Garcia-Dorado, David; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Inserte, Javier
Even when reperfusion therapy is applied as early as possible, survival and quality of life are compromised in a considerable number of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Some cell death following transient coronary occlusion occurs during reperfusion, due to poor handling of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria system, calpain activation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial failure, all promoted by rapid normalization of intracellular pH. Various clinical trials have shown that infarct size can be limited by nonpharmacological strategies--such as ischemic postconditioning and remote ischemic conditioning--or by drugs--such as cyclosporine, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, beta-blockers, or stimulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate synthesis. However, some clinical studies have yielded negative results, largely due to a lack of consistent preclinical data or a poor design, especially delayed administration. Large-scale clinical trials are therefore necessary, particularly those with primary clinical variables and combined therapies that consider age, sex, and comorbidities, to convert protection against reperfusion injury into a standard treatment for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.
Tant, L; Reygaerts, T; Badot, V; Soyfoo, M S; Margaux, J
" Spondyloarthritis" consists of a group of several diseases sharing clinical, radiological and genetic similarities. Ankylosing spondylitis is the main representative of this group and is characterized by a predominant axial involvement. The presence of radiographic sacroiliitis is essential for the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis according to the modified New York criteria. Because the occurence of radiographic sacroiliitis takes 8 to 11 years, the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis is often delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging can depict sacroiliac joint inflammation before the appearance of radiographic damage thereby defining the concept of " non-radiographic axial spondylo-arthritis". This entity was defined by the axial spondyloarthritis classification criteria published by the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS). Some factors, such as elevated levels of C-reactive protein at baseline, have been identified as predictors of radiographic sacroiliitis progression, leading to a definite diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. These two entities show similar clinical expression (clinical features and activity levels), suggesting continuity between the two diseases. Non-radiographic forms most often affect women and patients with recent symptoms, and are therefore considered as a pre-radiographic status. If the use of magnetic resonance imaging is necessary for the identification of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis according to the ASAS criteria, the presumptive diagnosis is mainly based on complaints of inflammatory back pain. The presence of other typical clinical features, such as HLA B27 positivity and/or radiographic sacroiliitis increases the diagnostic probability and indicates the need for referral to a specialist.
Vijayananthan, A; Nawawi, O
Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses and reporting of clinical trials. It also serves to protect the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial subjects. It is very important to understand the background of the formation of the ICH-GCP guidelines as this, in itself, explains the reasons and the need for doing so. In this paper, we address the historical background and the events that led up to the formation of these guidelines. Today, the ICH-GCP guidelines are used in clinical trials throughout the globe with the main aim of protecting and preserving human rights. PMID:21614316
Engelhard, Chalee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju
Due to current scrutiny of physical therapy (PT) clinical education, clinical education models require revisions with close examination of current practice, including best practices in clinical instructor (CI) education. Unfortunately, depth of research currently available to support these revisions is minimal, particularly in areas of research that investigate maintaining recently taught skills in CI training and students' perceived CI effectiveness following training. This study's purpose was to explore these areas. CIs (n=21) were assigned to either a control or treatment group. Treatment group-CIs completed an online module prior to supervising a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) student during a 9-week clinical rotation and then participated in data collection activities following the rotation. Data from control group-CIs established a baseline. Data from students' assessments of their CIs' performances yielded qualitative themes demonstrating differentiated learning environments and module-taught best practices for treatment group-students. Quantitative findings did not make a distinction between the two student groups. Lastly, treatment group-CIs maintained best practices after an inactive period. This study suggests CIs were able to maintain best practices using just-in-time education, distributed clinical practice, and reflection. By continuing examination of online CI education, PT clinical education can move toward new models through evidence-based CI best practices.
Root resorption is a pathological process involving loss of hard dental tissues. It may occur as a consequence of dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, and bleaching, and occasionally it accompanies periodontal disease. Although the mechanism of resorption process is examined in detail, its etiology is not fully understood. Wide open apical foramen is more difficult to manage and the root canal may often overfill. In this report we present two cases of root resorption and describe means for its clinical management. We conclude that useful measure of a success or failure in managing root resorption is the persistence of the resorption process. It is a clear sign of an active ongoing inflammatory process and shows the clinical need for retreatment. PMID:27648314
The scope of this essay is to introduce and explain the methodology underlying the Lanza Foundation Protocol for the analysis of clinical cases. The essay is divided in three parts. Part one examines the Protocol's methodology within the whole evolutionary framework of argumentation in bioethics. Particular attention is given to the most significant methodologies developed in European bioethics. Part two describes the system of argumentation which serves as a frame for both approaches, namely, the normative and the hermeneutical. Finally, the third part presents in an analytic fashion the operations which define the Protocol itself. The Protocol is the result of an interdisciplinary effort and it provides a detailed grid for analyzing and tackling the ethical components of clinical cases. The Protocol is primarily directed toward Ethics Committees in their consulting activity, yet it has been proven of considerable importance at an educational level also, particular in continuing education programs for health care professionals.
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Vaydia, Vinay; Ho, Danny; Scharf, Barbara; Seagull, Jake
Healthcare information systems (HIS) play a vital role in quality of care and the organization's daily operations. Consequently, increasing numbers of clinicians have been involved in HIS implementation, particularly for clinical information systems (CIS). Implementation of these systems is a major organizational investment, and its outcomes must be assessed. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians and frontline informaticians with a practical guide to assess these outcomes, focusing on outcome variables, assessment methods, and timing of assessment. Based on in-depth literature reviews and their empirical experiences, the authors identified 3 frequently used outcomes: user satisfaction, clinical outcomes, and financial impact. These outcomes have been assessed employing various methods, including randomized controlled trials, pre- and post-test studies, time and motion studies, surveys, and user testing. The timing for outcomes assessments varied depending on several factors, such as learning curves or patients conditions. In conclusion, outcomes assessment is essential for the success of healthcare information technology, and the CIS implementation team members must be prepared to conduct and/or facilitate these studies.
Kühl, H P; Hanrath, P
The development of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) almost 20 years ago has tremendously widened the diagnostic potential of cardiac ultrasound and has, without doubt, strongly improved our pathophysiological understanding of many cardiovascular diseases such as aortic dissection, mitral valve disease or ischemic stroke. Especially the introduction of multiplane transducers that allow imaging of the cardiac structures from various scan plane orientations has yielded a level of diagnostic accuracy that is seldom attained by other imaging modalities. The outstanding image quality as well as the high temporal and spatial resolution provided by TEE renders the method especially suited to visualize small and rapidly moving structures, such as left atrial thrombus formation and valvular vegetations. In addition, TEE is exceptional in its capability to scan the heart from perspectives that cannot be easily attained by any other modality, thus enhancing its diagnostic yield. In the last few years the clinical application of TEE has been extended from a pure diagnostic tool to an indispensable monitoring adjunct for percutaneous interventional procedures as well as for the intra- and peri-operative monitoring in the operating theatre and on the intensive care unit. In the surroundings of emerging sophisticated technologies to image the heart and the great vessels within the thorax such as multi-slice computed tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging TEE asserts a firm place in the diagnostic armamentarium for the cardiologist. This review will focus the impact of TEE in daily clinical practice and on possible future applications of the technique.
Tarquini, Daniela; Pucci, Eugenio; Gasparini, Maddalena; Zullo, Silvia; Tiraboschi, Pietro; Bonito, Virginio; Defanti, Carlo Alberto
In 2011, the so-called Dubois criteria introduced the use of biomarkers in research (in particular, brain amyloid positron emission tomography imaging and the cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau/fosfo-tau and beta-amyloid 1-42) for the early or preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Even so, we are looking at an increased use of these markers in clinical practice. In the 1960s, Alzheimer's disease was considered a rare form of presenile dementia, but gradually it has been recognized as the prevalent form of old-age dementia. As a consequence, what was once regarded as an inevitable outcome of old age is now recognized as a true disease. Several factors contributed to this paradigm shift, in particular a longer lifespan, new techniques of in vivo study of the central nervous system, and the pressure exerted by the pharmaceutical industry and patient groups. The current lack of disease-modifying therapies and the high incidence of mild cognitive impairment, which is a risk factor for dementia, raise a series of clinical ethical problems ranging from how diagnosis is communicated to how resources are used. This article offers a conceptual scheme through which these issues can be addressed.
Dendrou, Calliope A; McVean, Gil; Fugger, Lars
Neuroinflammation is emerging as a central process in many neurological conditions, either as a causative factor or as a secondary response to nervous system insult. Understanding the causes and consequences of neuroinflammation could, therefore, provide insight that is needed to improve therapeutic interventions across many diseases. However, the complexity of the pathways involved necessitates the use of high-throughput approaches to extensively interrogate the process, and appropriate strategies to translate the data generated into clinical benefit. Use of 'big data' aims to generate, integrate and analyse large, heterogeneous datasets to provide in-depth insights into complex processes, and has the potential to unravel the complexities of neuroinflammation. Limitations in data analysis approaches currently prevent the full potential of big data being reached, but some aspects of big data are already yielding results. The implementation of 'omics' analyses in particular is becoming routine practice in biomedical research, and neuroimaging is producing large sets of complex data. In this Review, we evaluate the impact of the drive to collect and analyse big data on our understanding of neuroinflammation in disease. We describe the breadth of big data that are leading to an evolution in our understanding of this field, exemplify how these data are beginning to be of use in a clinical setting, and consider possible future directions.
Bajwa, Sj; Kulshrestha, A
The introduction of newer more selective α(-2) adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine has made a revolution in the field of anesthesia owing to its varied application. The aim of the current review is to highlight the various clinical and pharmacological aspects of dexmedetomidine in daily routine practice of anesthesiology and intensive care besides its potential role in other clinical specialties. This review of dexmedetomidine was carried out after searching the medical literature in Pubmed, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles using keywords anesthesia, dexmedetomidine, neurosurgery, pediatric surgery, regional dexmedetomidine, anesthesia, regional, neurosurgery, and pediatric surgery. Dexmedetomidine has made its application from a novel sedating agent in the intensive care unit to its use as an adjuvant in various regional anesthetic techniques because of its "cooperative sedation" without any respiratory depression. It has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile suitable to be used in the perioperative period to reduce the requirements of opioids and anesthetic drugs. There are few side-effects of dexmedetomidine, which should always be kept in mind before choosing the patients for its use. The various side-effects associated with dexmedetomidine include, but are not limited to hypotension, bradycardia, worsening of heart block, dry mouth, and nausea. However, large scale randomized controlled trials are still needed to establish various effects of dexmedetomidine and to clearly define its safety profile.
Castro-Torres, Yaniel; Carmona-Puerta, Raimundo; Katholi, Richard E
Malignant cardiac arrhythmias which result in sudden cardiac death may be present in individuals apparently healthy or be associated with other medical conditions. The way to predict their appearance represents a challenge for the medical community due to the tragic outcomes in most cases. In the last two decades some ventricular repolarization (VR) markers have been found to be useful to predict malignant cardiac arrhythmias in several clinical conditions. The corrected QT, QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend, Tpeak-Tend dispersion and Tp-e/QT have been studied and implemented in clinical practice for this purpose. These markers are obtained from 12 lead surface electrocardiogram. In this review we discuss how these markers have demonstrated to be effective to predict malignant arrhythmias in medical conditions such as long and short QT syndromes, Brugada syndrome, early repolarization syndrome, acute myocardial ischemia, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and highly trained athletes. Also the main pathophysiological mechanisms that explain the arrhythmogenic predisposition in these diseases and the basis for the VR markers are discussed. However, the same results have not been found in all conditions. Further studies are needed to reach a global consensus in order to incorporate these VR parameters in risk stratification of these patients. PMID:26301231
Russolillo, Anna; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Tufano, Antonella; Prisco, Domenico; Di Minno, Giovanni
Because of its high recurrence rate, active secondary prevention is mandatory once an episode of stroke has occurred. In non-cardioembolic stroke, in addition to lifestyle changes and to targeted treatments, current guidelines recommend aspirin, clopidogrel or aspirin+extended-release dipyridamole. In cardioembolic stroke (due to atrial fibrillation or flutter [AF]), vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are recommended in most of patients. A favorable risk/benefit ratio of these treatments has been demonstrated also in elderly patients. However, registry data emphasize that such interventions are often under-used, especially in AF patients. A poor knowledge of current guidelines may play a role in hampering their application in clinical practice. The risk of major bleeding associated with antithrombotic drugs, their inherent limitations, such as socio-demographic (age >80 years, living alone) and clinical (previous or recent bleeding, trauma, cancer, dementia) features, may account for the gap between current guidelines for stroke/TIA prevention and clinical practice. The objective of the present report is to evaluate the gap between current recommendations/guidelines for stroke/TIA prevention and clinical practice (registry findings). In our opinion new antithrombotic drugs and detailed educational programs (especially devoted to general practitioners and to some medical specialists), concerning efficacy, safety and limitations of these strategies, are needed to better manage stroke epidemics in the third millennium.
Lobos, J M; Royo-Bordonada, M A; Brotons, C; Alvarez-Sala, L; Armario, P; Maiques, A; Mauricio, D; Sans, S; Villar, F; Lizcano, A; Gil-Núñez, A; de Alvaro, F; Conthe, P; Luengo, E; del Río, A; Rico, O; de Santiago, A; Vargas, M A; Martíonez, M; Lizarbe, V
We present the Spanish adaptation made by the CEIPC of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (CVD) in Clinical Practice 2008. This guide recommends the SCORE model for risk evaluation. The aim is to prevent premature mortality and morbidity due to CVD through the management of its related risk factors in clinical practice. The guide focuses on primary prevention and emphasizes the role of the nurses and primary care medical doctors in promoting a healthy life style, based on increasing physical activity, change dietary habits, and non smoking. The therapeutic goal is to achieve a Blood Pressure < 140/90 mmHg, but among patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or definite CVD, the objective is <130/80 mmHg. Serum cholesterol should be < 200 mg/dl and cLDL<130 mg/dl, although among patients with CVD or diabetes, the objective is <100 mg/dl (80 mg/dl if feasible in very high-risk patients). Patients with type 2 diabetes and those with metabolic syndrome must lose weight and increase their physical activity, and drugs must be administered whenever applicable, to reach body mass index (BMI) guided and waist circumference objectives. In diabetic type 2 patients, the objective is glycated haemoglobin <7%. Allowing people to know the guides and developing implementation programs, identifying barriers and seeking solutions for them, are priorities for the CEIPC in order to transfer the recommendations established into the daily clinical practice.
Coomber, Ross S; Sodergren, Mikael H; Clark, James; Teare, Julian; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara
To review natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) applications in clinical practice and assess the evidence base for each application as reported in the literature. An electronic literature search was performed. Inclusion criteria were publications relating to NOTES applications in humans. For each type of operation the highest level of evidence available for clinical NOTES publications was evaluated. Morbidity and short-term operative outcomes were compared with gold standard published evidence where available. Finally, registered trials recruiting patients for NOTES applications were identified. Human NOTES publications with the highest level of evidence in each application are identified. There were no RCTs in the literature to date. The strongest evidence came in the form of large, multi-centre trials with 300-500 patients. The results are encouraging, comparable with gold standard techniques on morbidity and mortality. While short-term operative outcomes were also similar when compared to the gold standard techniques, other than improved cosmesis little else can definitely be concluded as a clear benefit of a NOTES procedure. The most common procedures are cholecystectomy, appendicectomy and peritoneoscopy mainly performed via transvaginal access. It is evident that morbidity appears to be higher when the transgastric route is used. The safety profile of hybrid NOTES transvaginal procedures is beginning to be confirmed as is evident from the large number of procedures presented in this review. A number of authors have presented work on pure NOTES procedures but the results are inconsistent and thus the vast majority of NOTES procedures worldwide are performed in a hybrid fashion with a variable amount of laparoscopy. This review of the clinical applications of NOTES summarises the growing evidence behind this surgical discipline and highlights NOTES procedures with an acceptable safety profile.
Ebbels, Susan H
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are increasingly required to read, interpret and create evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions. This requires a good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different intervention study designs. This paper aims to take readers through a range of designs commonly used in speech-language pathology, working from those with the least to most experimental control, with a particular focus on how the more robust designs avoid some of the limitations of weaker designs. It then discusses the factors other than research design which need to be considered when deciding whether or not to implement an intervention in clinical practice. The final section offers some tips and advice on carrying out research in clinical practice, with the hope that more SLPs will become actively involved in creating intervention research.
Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul
Clinical handover is a high risk scenario involving the transfer of information, responsibility and accountability for patient care. Many strategies have been proposed to improve clinical handover and reduce risks it can pose to the safety and quality of patient care. The development and implementation of electronic tools provides one mechanism for structuring and streamlining information transfer to support more standardised handover practices. However, clinical judgement remains a valued, fundamental aspect of clinical practice and its communication during handover is open to variation in ways that may compromise patient safety. This research examines these issues based on evidence generated from a user-centred approach involving clinicians in the development and implementation of an electronic clinical handover system. The paper highlights how clinical judgements and communicative practices interact with an electronic clinical handover system, and discusses their potential implications for patient safety as part of a broader clinical handover improvement project.
Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Berdan, Lisa G.; Rorick, Tyrus; O’Brien, Emily C.; Ibarra, Jenny C.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Peterson, Eric D.
Randomized clinical trials are commonly regarded as the highest level of evidence to support clinical decisions. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines have been constructed to provide an ethical and scientific quality standard for trials that involve human subjects in a manner aligned with the Declaration of Helsinki. Originally designed to provide a unified standard of trial data to support submission to regulatory authorities, the principles may also be applied to other studies of human subjects. While the application of GCP principles generally led to improvements in the quality and consistency of trial operations, these principles have also contributed to increasing trial complexity and costs. Alternatively, growing availability of electronic health record data has facilitated the possibility for streamlined pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs). The central tenets of GCP and PCTs represent potential tensions in trial design (stringent quality and highly efficient operations). In the present manuscript, we highlight potential areas of discordance between GCP guidelines and the principles of PCTs and suggest strategies to streamline study conduct in an ethical manner to optimally carry out clinical trials in the electronic age. PMID:26927005
The introduction of OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA) in the treatment of chronic migraine has brought with it a significant change in the management of these patients. Its novel mechanism of action, the fact that it is administered as an injection and the need to repeat treatment and control regimens all suggest the need to modify the therapeutic strategy applied in this clinical situation. This article briefly reviews the main clinical evidence on the effectiveness of OnabotA in chronic migraine based on the clinical trials conducted to date. At the same time it also performs a critical analysis of the application of OnabotA in daily clinical practice. It includes the findings of a survey carried out on Spanish neurologists about their experience in the application of OnabotA in patients with chronic migraine in order to determine the real situation in our milieu. The main conclusions include the need to use suitable doses of OnabotA, together with appropriate injection points, the non-exclusion of patients with very frequent crises, concomitant preventive treatment or medication abuse, waiting up to 15 days in order to be able to observe the clinical effectiveness and not considering OnabotA as ineffective until after having performed 2-3 infiltration regimens.
Thorpy, Michael J; Dauvilliers, Yves
Despite published treatment recommendations and the availability of approved and off-label pharmacologic therapies for narcolepsy, the clinical management of this incurable, chronic neurologic disorder remains challenging. While treatment is generally symptomatically driven, decisions regarding which drug(s) to use need to take into account a variety of factors that may affect adherence, efficacy, and tolerability. Type 1 narcolepsy (predominantly excessive daytime sleepiness with cataplexy) or type 2 narcolepsy (excessive daytime sleepiness without cataplexy) may drive treatment decisions, with consideration given either to a single drug that targets multiple symptoms or to multiple drugs that each treat a specific symptom. Other drug-related characteristics that affect drug choice are dosing regimens, tolerability, and potential drug-drug interactions. Additionally, the patient should be an active participant in treatment decisions, and the main symptomatic complaints, treatment goals, psychosocial setting, and use of lifestyle substances (ie, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and cannabis) need to be discussed with respect to treatment decisions. Although there is a lack of narcolepsy-specific instruments for monitoring therapeutic effects, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness (eg, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test) can be used to provide guidance on whether treatment goals are being met. These considerations are discussed with the objective of providing clinically relevant recommendations for making treatment decisions that can enhance the effective management of patients with narcolepsy.
Fitzgerald, Ruth P
Doctor flight from rural areas is an international phenomenon that places great pressure on primary health care delivery. In New Zealand, the response to these empty doctors' surgeries has been the introduction of nurse-led rural health clinics that have attracted controversy both in the media and from urban-based doctors over whether such nurse-led care is a direct substitution of medical care. This article analyzes the reflections of nurses working in some of these clinics who suggest that their situation is more complex than a direct substitution of labor. Although the nurses indicate some significant pressures moving them closer to the work of doctoring, they actively police this cross-boundary work and labor simultaneously to shore up their nursing identities. My own conclusions support their assertions. I argue that it is the maintenance of a holistic professional habitus that best secures their professional identity as nurses while they undertake the cross-boundary tasks of primary rural health care. There are clear professional benefits and disadvantages for the nurses in these situations, which make the positions highly politicized. These recurring divisions of labor within medical care giving and the elaboration of new types of care worker form an appropriate although neglected topic of study for anthropologists. The study of the social organization of clinical medicine is much enriched by paying closer attention to its interaction with allied health professions and their associated understandings of "good" care.
ten Cate, Olle; Scheele, Fedde
The introduction of competency-based postgraduate medical training, as recently stimulated by national governing bodies in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and other countries, is a major advancement, but at the same time it evokes critical issues of curricular implementation. A source of concern is the translation of general competencies into the practice of clinical teaching. The authors observe confusion around the term competency, which may have adverse effects when a teaching and assessment program is to be designed. This article aims to clarify the competency terminology. To connect the ideas behind a competency framework with the work environment of patient care, the authors propose to analyze the critical activities of professional practice and relate these to predetermined competencies. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) and statements of awarded responsibility (STARs) may bridge a potential gap between the theory of competency-based education and clinical practice. EPAs reflect those activities that together constitute the profession. Carrying out most of these EPAs requires the possession of several competencies. The authors propose not to go to great lengths to assess competencies as such, in the way they are abstractly defined in competency frameworks but, instead, to focus on the observation of concrete critical clinical activities and to infer the presence of multiple competencies from several observed activities. Residents may then be awarded responsibility for EPAs. This can serve to move toward competency-based training, in which a flexible length of training is possible and the outcome of training becomes more important than its length.
Paxton, E Scott; Matzon, Jonas L; Narzikul, Alexa C; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) has recently developed several clinical practice guidelines (CPG) involving upper extremity conditions. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the practice patterns of members of the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) with regard to the CPGs. An e-mail survey was sent to the 340 members of the ASES. The survey contained 40 questions involving the subject matter of the 2 existing AAOS CPGs pertaining specifically to the shoulder: Optimizing the Management of Rotator Cuff Problems and the Treatment of Glenohumeral Joint Arthritis. Overall, 98 responses were obtained, for a response rate of 29%. Only 19 of 47 CPGs were not "inconclusive" and a recommendation was actually made. A majority (more than 50%) of surgeons agreed with 17 (90%) of 19 of these AAOS recommendations. A strong majority (more than 80%) adhered to 13 (68%) of 19 recommendations. There were 4 consensus recommendations, and more than 50% agreed with all of them. Of the 5 moderate recommendations, more than 50% agreed with 4 of them. There were 10 weak recommendations, and more than 50% of surgeons agreed with 9 of them. There was more than 80% agreement on 18 of 28 inconclusive recommendations. Although the AAOS CPGs are not meant to be fixed protocols, they are intended to unify treatment and/or diagnosis of common problems based on the best evidence available. Despite the majority of the AAOS CPG recommendations for rotator cuff problems and glenohumeral arthritis being inconclusive, most surgeons agree with most of the CPG recommendations.
Goetz, David W
The imported Harmonia axyridis ladybug infests homes in northern West Virginia from fall through spring, causing allergic disease. Retrospective single-practice chart reviews were performed: (1) all skin prick tests (1400 included ladybug) in a community allergy practice over 4 years and (2) clinical analysis of 400 randomly chosen patients. The usual adult aeroallergen skin test panel included ladybug and 57 other allergens. Statistics used were contingency table analyses and the kappa-statistic for concordance. Home infestation with ladybugs was most common in rural areas but did not predict ladybug sensitization (kappa = -0.02). Ladybug sensitization and allergy occurred at all ages. Ladybug sensitization occurred with 21% frequency compared with cat at 24% frequency, cockroach at 27% frequency, and dust mites at 40% frequency. Only ladybug showed a significant (p < 0.0001) skin test sensitization decreasing from rural (30%), mixed (21%), to urban (16%) home demographics. Isolated single-positive skin tests constituted 10% of dust mites, 6% of cockroach, 6% of ladybug, and 4% of cat-positive skin tests. Skin test concordance was strongest between the pairs: ladybug-cockroach (kappa = 0.36), cockroach-dust mite (kappa = 0.29), and dust mite-cat (kappa = 0.25). Ladybug is a major allergen in endemic areas, causing rhinoconjunctivitis (8% prevalence), asthma (2% prevalence), and urticaria (1% prevalence). Ladybug skin test sensitization is more common in rural areas and is comparable in frequency and age distribution with cat and cockroach. Cockroach and ladybug have a high degree of skin test concordance. A quality commercial ladybug allergen extract and increased ladybug allergen research are needed.
Marchington, Katie L; Agar, Meera; Davis, Daniel H J; Sikora, Lindsey; Tsang, Tammy W Y
knowledge translation resources to guidelines may improve their practical application and effective monitoring. More delirium guideline evaluation studies are needed to determine their effect on clinical practice. PMID:28283488
Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement of the Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines
Stoffel, Elena M.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Kalady, Matthew F.; Lau, Michelle Wan Yee; Lu, Karen H.; Roach, Nancy; Limburg, Paul J.
Purpose To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. Methods The Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel. Results The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements. Recommendations Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria. PMID:25452455
Spławiński, Jacek; Kuźniar, Jerzy
The quest for effective medicines is very old. In modern times two important tools have been developed to evaluate efficacy of drugs, superiority and non-inferiority types of clinical trials. The former tests the null hypothesis of micro (the difference between a tested drug and comparator) < or = 0 against micro > 0; the latter tests the null hypothesis of micro < or = - delta against, micro > - delta, where delta is the clinical difference from the comparator. In a superiority trial, a new drug is tested against a placebo; in a non-inferiority trial, a new drug is tested against active treatment. In this paper, arguments are presented to show that a superiority trial against a placebo is scientifically sound but ethically unacceptable, whereas a non-inferiority trial against active treatment is ethically sound but scientifically not reliable. Switching from a superiority type of trial with placebo to a non-inferiority trial with an active-control--following the latest revision of Declaration of Helsinki--is in practice switching from the violation of the uncertainty principle to uncertainty of results. Given human and financial resources, it appears an academic question as to which is more unethical: to violate patients' rights or to produce results without scientific value. All presented considerations lead to the conclusion that the use of a superiority trial of design with an active control instead of placebo will satisfy scientific needs, expectation of patients, and the ancient quest for effective medicines. In the era of Good (Clinical, Laboratory, Manufacture) Practice, the attention of those performing clinical trials is focused on the procedure, not always on its essence. However even the excellent performance of a trial which is not worth doing is fruitless.
Objective Few methodological studies address the prioritization of clinical topics for the development of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs). The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for Priority Determination of Topics (PDT) of CPGs. Methods and results Firstly, we developed an instrument for PDT with 41 criteria that were grouped under 10 domains, based on a comprehensive systematic search. Secondly, we performed a survey of stakeholders involved in CPGs development, and end users of guidelines, using the instrument. Thirdly, a pilot testing of the PDT procedure was performed in order to choose 10 guideline topics among 34 proposed projects; using a multi-criteria analysis approach, we validated a mechanism that followed five stages: determination of the composition of groups, item/domain scoring, weights determination, quality of the information used to support judgments, and finally, topic selection. Participants first scored the importance of each domain, after which four different weighting procedures were calculated (including the survey results). The process of weighting was determined by correlating the data between them. We also reported the quality of evidence used for PDT. Finally, we provided a qualitative analysis of the process. The main domains used to support judgement, having higher quality scores and weightings, were feasibility, disease burden, implementation and information needs. Other important domains such as user preferences, adverse events, potential for health promotion, social effects, and economic impact had lower relevance for clinicians. Criteria for prioritization were mainly judged through professional experience, while good quality information was only used in 15% of cases. Conclusion The main advantages of the proposed methodology are supported by the use of a systematic approach to identify, score and weight guideline topics selection, limiting or exposing the influence of personal biases. However, the methodology was
Gost, J; Silvestre, C; Ezpeleta, P; Astier, P; Díaz de Rada, O; Artázcoz, M T
On the basis of existing publications it would seem legitimate to assume that in a clinical test (CT) the difficulties inherent in the process of researcher-participant communication are in practice greater than desired. Similarly, the hypothesis is adopted that difficulties exist in the formal legibility of the documents of Informed Consent. We present the results of a transversal study made of a random sample (n=160) of the CTs approved by the Ethical Committee of Clinical Research (CEIC) of Navarra during the years 1995-1999. The results found were: in 69.7% of the cases the researcher filed the documents corresponding to the CT, the Informed Consent appears signed by the researcher in 56.6% of the CTs, and in more than 83% of the cases the written information shows shortcomings in legibility, which confirms the correctness of the hypothesis and permits the detection of areas where improvements need to be developed.
Thompson, Rose; Drew, Cheney J G; Thomas, Rhys H
There has been an academic "gold rush" with researchers mining the deep seams of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing since 2008. Although undoubtedly a major advance initially for identifying new disease-associated genes for rare monogenetic disorders--more recently, common and complex conditions have been successfully studied using these techniques. With great power comes great responsibility, however, and we must not forget that next generation sequencing produces unique ethical conundrums and validation challenges. We review the progression of published papers using whole-exome sequencing from a clinical and technical viewpoint before then reflecting on the key arguments that need to be fully understood before these tools can become a routine part of clinical practice and we ask what may be the role for the biomedical scientists?
Background Opioid prescribing for chronic pain is common and controversial, but recommended clinical practices are followed inconsistently in many clinical settings. Strategies for increasing adherence to clinical practice guideline recommendations are needed to increase effectiveness and reduce negative consequences of opioid prescribing in chronic pain patients. Methods Here we describe the process and outcomes of a project to operationalize the 2003 VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Opioid Therapy for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain into a computerized decision support system (DSS) to encourage good opioid prescribing practices during primary care visits. We based the DSS on the existing ATHENA-DSS. We used an iterative process of design, testing, and revision of the DSS by a diverse team including guideline authors, medical informatics experts, clinical content experts, and end-users to convert the written clinical practice guideline into a computable algorithm to generate patient-specific recommendations for care based upon existing information in the electronic medical record (EMR), and a set of clinical tools. Results The iterative revision process identified numerous and varied problems with the initially designed system despite diverse expert participation in the design process. The process of operationalizing the guideline identified areas in which the guideline was vague, left decisions to clinical judgment, or required clarification of detail to insure safe clinical implementation. The revisions led to workable solutions to problems, defined the limits of the DSS and its utility in clinical practice, improved integration into clinical workflow, and improved the clarity and accuracy of system recommendations and tools. Conclusions Use of this iterative process led to development of a multifunctional DSS that met the approval of the clinical practice guideline authors, content experts, and clinicians involved in testing. The process and experiences described
Vossel, Keith A; Tartaglia, Maria C; Nygaard, Haakon B; Zeman, Adam Z; Miller, Bruce L
Epileptic activity is frequently associated with Alzheimer's disease; this association has therapeutic implications, because epileptic activity can occur at early disease stages and might contribute to pathogenesis. In clinical practice, seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease can easily go unrecognised because they usually present as non-motor seizures, and can overlap with other symptoms of the disease. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, seizures can hasten cognitive decline, highlighting the clinical relevance of early recognition and treatment. Some evidence indicates that subclinical epileptiform activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease, detected by extended neurophysiological monitoring, can also lead to accelerated cognitive decline. Treatment of clinical seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease with select antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in low doses, is usually well tolerated and efficacious. Moreover, studies in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease suggest that certain classes of AEDs that reduce network hyperexcitability have disease-modifying properties. These AEDs target mechanisms of epileptogenesis involving amyloid β and tau. Clinical trials targeting network hyperexcitability in patients with Alzheimer's disease will identify whether AEDs or related strategies could improve their cognitive symptoms or slow decline.
This month's question addressed something that many of us perhaps still have not formally incorporated into clinical practice, although we all are interested in our patients' health-related quality of life and want our inventions to result in improvements within this area. This view is exemplified by the response from Australia, which is one of several similar, unpublished, replies from the International Panel on this month's question (others came from Germany and Sweden). As mentioned in the introduction, health-related quality of life is becoming increasingly important as an outcome measure in clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions and several new measures have been and are developed. It is interesting and encouraging to hear about the new developments within this area that are being made by neuroscience nurses in different countries and within different subspecialties around the globe. As reported from the International Panel in here, new HRQL measures are currently developed in Canada and the UK focusing on patients with brains injuries and Huntington's disease (HD), respectively. In contrast to most established measures, the Canadian study has primarily been aimed at the positive aspects of life and not merely absence of the negative ones. Steve Smith in the UK has recently started developing a scale for use in clinical management of patients with HD. As far as I have been able to determine, this is the first measure of this kind to be developed for HD. Anyone who would like to know more about Steve's work or take part thereof is encouraged to contact him at this address above. Despite the fact that there already are several HRQL measures available, there is still a need for new instruments reflecting new aspects of health and disease. In addition, tools need to be designed for challenging conditions not readily addressed by existing measures. The replies from Canada and the UK represent these needs. It will be very interesting to eventually take
Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases. PMID:27242710
Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Maloney, Michael; Beredjiklian, Pedro K
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) recently developed several clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) involving upper-extremity conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adherence to these CPGs by members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH). An e-mail containing a brief study description and access to the survey was sent to ASSH current and candidate members. The survey contained questions involving the existing upper-extremity AAOS CPGs: diagnosis and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, treatment of distal radius fractures, and treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. Overall, 469 responses were obtained, for a response rate of 32%. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the responses. Members of ASSH do not universally adhere to the AAOS CPGs. For patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, 53% of respondents wait the recommended time to change nonoperative treatment after failure of a given modality, and 32% of respondents always order electrodiagnostic testing when considering surgery. Furthermore, 30% of respondents immobilize the wrist postoperatively. In regard to distal radius fractures, 11% of respondents always prescribe vitamin C after treatment, and 49% respondents never do so. However, ASSH members follow some of the recommendations. These include nighttime splinting (98%) and corticosteroid injections (85%) in the nonoperative treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. For distal radius fractures, almost 85% of respondents consider the suggested postreduction criteria when determining operative versus cast treatment. Further study is warranted to understand the reasons for and possible solutions to the inconsistent adherence to the AAOS CPGs.
Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Lopes, Agnaldo José
Chinese medicine practitioners apply the differentiation reasoning for decision-making. The wide scope of Chinese medicine intervention provides coverage of methods and techniques with applications to primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. The rapid evolution of mathematical and computational techniques allowed the implementation of several models for pattern differentiation that were tested for several physiologic systems. Concurrently, it is argued that pattern differentiation might improve the efficacy of either traditional or conventional medical interventions. This article reviewed the influence of pattern differentiation into clinical practice organized by medical field: general pattern differentiation; genitourinary (recurrent cystitis); cardiovascular (coronary heart disease; arterial hypertension; angina pectoris); neurology (stroke); surgery; metabolic (diabetes mellitus); hepatic (cirrhosis); gastrointestinal (chronic superficial gastritis); orthopedic (low back pain; rheumatoid arthritis; cervical spondylosis; elbow arthritis); oncology (gastric mucosal dysplasia; lung cancer); gynecologic and obstetric manifestations (nausea and vomiting). The reviewed studies presented achievements that have contributed to the integration of Chinese medicine and evidence-based medicine in the treatment of many mild and severe diseases. Target diseases considered as major public health problems were also investigated and the results are promising regarding the possibility to treat guided by pattern differentiation.
Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Popovska, Lidija
Bruxism, as an etiological factor for the development of TMD, includes different disorders of the TMJ and the masticatory muscles, exhibiting pain and disruption of the stomatognathic functions. Our goal was to study patients with bruxism and TMD from everyday dental clinical practice, in terms of diagnosis, identification of etiological factors, classification and treatment of these disorders. We treated 120 patients, divided into 2 groups of 60 patients. The first group had disorders of the TMJ, and the second of the masticatory muscles. The groups were divided into subgroups of 20 patients with dislocation of the articular disk with or without reduction and inflammation of TMJ. The second group was organized from patients with myofascial pain, myositis and muscular trismus. Our conservative treatment consisted of patient education, NSAID, myorelaxants, fabrication of prosthetics, repositioning and stabilization splints. The progress of the patients was followed immediately after the delivery of the prosthetics and the splint, after 1, 6 and 12 months. The results showed that in patients with disorders of the TMJ there were visible signs of recovery after 6 months in 68.3% patients, and in 85% after 12 months. In the second group we achieved faster results with the elimination of symptoms. Patients with afflictions of the muscles in 88.3% of cases noticed relief of symptoms even after 6 months and in 98.3% after 12 months. As therapists we concluded that timely treated complications of bruxism and TMD prevent the destruction of the TMJ, masticatory muscles and the entire stomatognatic system.
Shapiro, R S; Borte, M
Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulins (IVIg and SCIg, respectively) are increasingly used in clinical practice, not only as replacement therapy but also for immunomodulation. Physicians have learned that primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are susceptible to recurrent respiratory tract infections even when appropriately treated with immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy. Further investigation will establish whether a combined therapeutic approach including Ig dose optimization will prevent progressive lung disease in PID. The wear-off effects observed with IVIg can be minimized by adjusting the dosing regimen. It is also possible to avoid the cyclic wear-off following transition to SCIg administration. Consideration of benefit versus risk with Ig therapy includes evaluating the potential occurrence of thromboembolic and haemolytic events, which may be more frequent when Ig is administered in high doses and in the presence of pre-existing risk factors. The ability to select an administration method from IVIg, SCIg or hyaluronidase-facilitated SCIg infusions provides patient choice and alternatives if one or other administration route is not suitable for a patient. The evolution in indications, applications, and understanding of Ig therapy described here has reinforced the need for robust methods to prioritize Ig use.
Andreadis, Emmanuel A; Angelopoulos, Epameinondas T; Agaliotis, Gerasimos D; Tsakanikas, Athanasios P; Mousoulis, George P
Automated office blood pressure (AOBP) measurement with the patient resting alone in a quiet examining room can eliminate the white-coat effect associated with conventional readings taken by manual sphygmomanometer. The key to reducing the white-coat response appears to be multiple blood pressure (BP) readings taken in a non-observer office setting, thus eliminating any interaction that could provoke an office-induced increase in BP. Furthermore, AOBP readings have shown a higher correlation with the mean awake ambulatory BP compared with BP readings recorded in routine clinical practice. Although there is a paucity of studies connecting AOBP with organ damage, AOBP values were recently found to be equally associated with left ventricular mass index as those of ambulatory BP. This concludes that in contrast to routine manual office BP, AOBP readings compare favourably with 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in the appraisal of cardiac remodelling and, as such, could be complementary to ambulatory readings in a way similar to home BP measurements.
Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Su-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Su Eun; Chun, Young Myung; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Park, Shi-Nae; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Korean Otologic Society
Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are common infections in children, and their diagnosis and treatment have significant impacts on the health of children and the costs of providing national medical care. In 2009, the Korean Otologic Society organized a committee composed of experts in the field of otolaryngology, pediatrics, and family medicine to develop Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for otitis media in children with the goal of meeting regional medical and social needs in Korea. For this purpose, the committee adapted existing guidelines. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2004 to 2009 using medical search engines including data from Korea. A draft was written after a national questionnaire survey and several public audits, and it was editorially supervised by senior advisors before publication of the final report. These evidence-based guidelines for the management of otitis media in children provide recommendations to primary practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of children younger than 15 yr old with uncomplicated AOM and OME. The guidelines include recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment options, prevention and parent education, medical records, referral, and complementary/alternative medicine for treating pediatric otitis media.
Nieman, Lynnette K.; Biller, Beverly M. K.; Findling, James W.; Murad, M. Hassan; Newell-Price, John; Savage, Martin O.; Tabarin, Antoine
Objective: The objective is to formulate clinical practice guidelines for treating Cushing's syndrome. Participants: Participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The European Society for Endocrinology co-sponsored the guideline. Evidence: The Task Force used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force commissioned three systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. Consensus Process: The Task Force achieved consensus through one group meeting, several conference calls, and numerous e-mail communications. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Conclusions: Treatment of Cushing's syndrome is essential to reduce mortality and associated comorbidities. Effective treatment includes the normalization of cortisol levels or action. It also includes the normalization of comorbidities via directly treating the cause of Cushing's syndrome and by adjunctive treatments (eg, antihypertensives). Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line approach. The choice of second-line treatments, including medication, bilateral adrenalectomy, and radiation therapy (for corticotrope tumors), must be individualized to each patient. PMID:26222757
Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.
Dental practice consists of a series of laboring procedures which demands the use of several types of equipment and materials. Usually patient"s fears brings additional burden to the Dentists. The use of Lasers for treating and diagnosis in Dentistry is quite new comparing to other medical areas. Initially Laser technology was used as an alternative method for treating dental caries in order to substitute the use of the drill. Lately surgical Lasers have shown themselves very useful for treating several pathologies and began to be used as a powerful tool on the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial complex and later on, the era of the use of Laser therapy began. The advent of the diode Lasers made possible the introduction of small units at the dental office and Laser therapy was used to improve healing and later included also caries diagnosis. This paper discuss the use of Laser therapy on Restorative Dentistry, Periodondology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral implantology and other. Clinical and laboratorial experience has demonstrated that Laser therapy does improve the healing of both mineralized and soft tissues, reduces pain and inflammation, and also reduces both cost and length of the dental treatment.
Couillard, A; Veale, D; Muir, J-F
Today it is a recognised fact that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a real systemic disease that is respiratory-based. Recently, the focus has been on the importance of the comorbidities that are associated with COPD, such as all the cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, peripheral muscular dysfunction, depression, anxiety, osteoporosis and anaemia, etc. These comorbidities constitute a new medical and therapeutic challenge with regard to COPD; their high frequency and considerable impact on the quality of life and the prognosis for survival of the patients make them a key element. The aims of this focus are to present the spectrum and prevalence of comorbidities in COPD, to obtain an objective view as to why and how these comorbidities should be systematically assessed and treated in patients, and subsequently to discuss the impact of this new data in clinical practice and in research. This recent data is another positive step in understanding the disease, optimising the diagnosis, and assessing and caring for COPD patients.
A Study to Determine the Impact of the PRIMUS Clinic on Patient Workload in the General Outpatient Clinic, the Emergency Room, the GYN Clinic, the Pediatric Clinic, and the Family Practice Clinic at Martin Army Community Hospital
as obstetrics and pediatrics will be honed to a fine edge. Cherkov further suggests that construction of medical facilities outside of the hospital...ROOM, m THE OB GYN CLINIC, THE PEDIATRIC CLINIC, AND THE FAMILY o 0c C PRACTICE CLINIC AT MARTIN ARMY COMMUNITY HOSPITAL 0 0 m M xz z Baylor...Clinic on patien workload in the Outpatient, Family Practice, and Pediatrics Clinics and The Emergency Room at Martin Army Commnity Hospital. 12. PERSONAL
Olson, Curtis A; Tooman, Tricia R; Alvarado, Carla J
Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge Systems as a conceptual framework. The purpose was to describe how teams produced, obtained, and used knowledge and information to bring about successful change. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to maximize variation between cases. Data were collected through interviews, archival document review, and direct observation. Individual case data were analyzed through a two-phase coding process followed by the cross-case analysis. Project teams varied in size and were multidisciplinary. Each project had more than one champion, only some of whom were physicians. Team members obtained relevant knowledge and information from multiple sources including the scientific literature, experts, external organizations, and their own experience. The success of these projects hinged on the teams' ability to blend scientific evidence, practical knowledge, and clinical data. Practice change was a longitudinal, iterative learning process during which teams continued to acquire, produce, and synthesize relevant knowledge and information and test different strategies until they found a workable solution to their problem. This study adds to our understanding of how teams learn and change, showing that innovation can take the form of an iterative, ongoing process in which bits of K&I are assembled from multiple sources into potential solutions that are then tested. It suggests that existing approaches to assessing the impact of continuing education activities may overlook significant contributions and more attention should be given to the role that practical knowledge plays in the change process in addition to scientific knowledge.
Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.
Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge Systems as a conceptual framework. The purpose was to describe how teams produced, obtained, and used knowledge and information to bring about successful change. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to maximize variation between cases. Data were collected through interviews, archival document review, and direct observation. Individual case data were analyzed through a two-phase coding process followed by the cross-case analysis. Project teams varied in size and were multidisciplinary. Each project had more than one champion, only some of whom were physicians. Team members obtained relevant knowledge and information from multiple sources including the scientific literature, experts, external organizations, and their own experience. The success of these projects hinged on the teams' ability to blend scientific evidence, practical knowledge, and clinical data. Practice change was a longitudinal, iterative learning process during which teams continued to acquire, produce, and synthesize relevant knowledge and information and test different strategies until they found a workable solution to their problem. This study adds to our understanding of how teams learn and change, showing that innovation can take the form of an iterative, ongoing process in which bits of K&I are assembled from multiple sources into potential solutions that are then tested. It suggests that existing approaches to assessing the impact of continuing education activities may overlook significant contributions and more attention should be given to the role that practical knowledge plays in the change process in addition to scientific knowledge. PMID
Bhattacharyya, Neil; Gubbels, Samuel P; Schwartz, Seth R; Edlow, Jonathan A; El-Kashlan, Hussam; Fife, Terry; Holmberg, Janene M; Mahoney, Kathryn; Hollingsworth, Deena B; Roberts, Richard; Seidman, Michael D; Steiner, Robert W Prasaad; Do, Betty Tsai; Voelker, Courtney C J; Waguespack, Richard W; Corrigan, Maureen D
Objective This update of a 2008 guideline from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), defined as a disorder of the inner ear characterized by repeated episodes of positional vertigo. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer advocate added to the update group; new evidence from 2 clinical practice guidelines, 20 systematic reviews, and 27 randomized controlled trials; enhanced emphasis on patient education and shared decision making; a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships; and new and expanded recommendations for the diagnosis and management of BPPV. Purpose The primary purposes of this guideline are to improve the quality of care and outcomes for BPPV by improving the accurate and efficient diagnosis of BPPV, reducing the inappropriate use of vestibular suppressant medications, decreasing the inappropriate use of ancillary testing such as radiographic imaging, and increasing the use of appropriate therapeutic repositioning maneuvers. The guideline is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and manage patients with BPPV, and it applies to any setting in which BPPV would be identified, monitored, or managed. The target patient for the guideline is aged ≥18 years with a suspected or potential diagnosis of BPPV. The primary outcome considered in this guideline is the resolution of the symptoms associated with BPPV. Secondary outcomes considered include an increased rate of accurate diagnoses of BPPV, a more efficient return to regular activities and work, decreased use of inappropriate medications and unnecessary diagnostic tests, reduction in recurrence of BPPV, and reduction in adverse events associated with undiagnosed or untreated BPPV. Other outcomes considered include minimizing costs in the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV, minimizing potentially unnecessary return physician visits, and maximizing
Edgar, J. D.; McMillan, S. A.; Bruce, I. N.; Conlan, S. K.
We have reviewed the medical records of 301/327 consecutive patients in whom anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were detected by the Regional Immunology Laboratory in Northern Ireland between January 1988 and October 1991 (45 months). We have collected data for each patient regarding age, sex, smoking habit, area of residence, and details of any other autoantibody activity. Clinical diagnosis was established, with the number of organ systems involved and the evidence for that involvement (symptomatic, biochemical, radiological, and histological). Diagnoses were divided into four groups according to their recognised vasculitic features and these were related to the pattern of immunofluorescence and maximum ANCA titre detected. The most frequent diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis (18.2% of patients) and the connective tissue disorders as a whole accounted for 27.9% of patients. ANCA were also detected in a wide range of clinical conditions which are not associated with vasculitis and these patients were an important source of 'false-positives'. The positive predictive value (PPV) of ANCA of all patterns and titres for vasculitic conditions was 27%, however, the detection of a classical ANCA pattern at high titre (> or = 1:640) was associated with an increased PPV of 75%. The coexistence of an antinuclear antibody (ANA) reduces the PPV of both classical and perinuclear ANCA, although perinuclear ANCA with antimyeloperoxidase specificity had an improved PPV. We conclude that ANCA testing should not be used as the only screening investigation for vasculitis but should be included in a rational investigative scheme. The interpretation of a positive ANCA result must take into account the presence of other autoantibodies and the full range of non-vasculitic conditions when the clinical situation is not typical of vasculitis. PMID:8545289
Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan
Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice…
Kubatka, Peter; Kruzliak, Peter; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Jelinkova, Sarka; Mladosievicova, Beata
Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors are commonly used drugs in the treatment of dyslipidemias, primarily raised cholesterol. Recently, many epidemiological and preclinical studies pointed to anti-tumor properties of statins, including anti-proliferative activities, apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and metastasis. These processes play an important role in carcinogenesis and, therefore, the role of statins in cancer disease is being seriously discussed among oncologists. Anti-neoplastic properties of statins combined with an acceptable toxicity profile in the majority of individuals support their further development as anti-tumor drugs. The mechanism of action, current preclinical studies and clinical efficacy of statins are reviewed in this paper. Moreover, promising results have been reported regarding the statins' efficacy in some cancer types, especially in esophageal and colorectal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Statins' hepatotoxicity has traditionally represented an obstacle to the prescription of this class of drugs and this issue is also discussed in this review.
Riches, Vivienne C.; Harman, Anthony D.; Keen, Deb; Pennell, Donna; Harley, Jane H.; Walker, Michelle
Background: Active support is being introduced in many residential and respite homes in an effort to improve engagement in meaningful activity of people with intellectual disability. Method: A train-the-trainer approach was used in a large government organisation that supports people with intellectual disability in Australia. Five apprentice…
This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…
Bisard, Walter J.
Describes science activities which have been successful with nonscience majors. Each activity requires students to make observations, record the data gathered, interpret data, and prepare a written report. Subject areas include motion of stars, sunspots, lunar orbits, sunset points, meteor showers, and sun shadows. (JN)
Kegel, Gary; Marshall, Astrid; Barron, O Alton; Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z; Kuhn, Margaret
A survey regarding upper-extremity steroid injection practices was distributed to all active members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) using SurveyMonkey. Response rates for the ASSH and ASES were 26% and 24%, respectively. The potency-adjusted dose of steroid injected for common hand and wrist injections ranged from 0.375 to 133.33 mg and for shoulder injections ranged from 0.375 to 250 mg. These ranges span 356-fold and 667-fold differences, respectively. Potency-adjusted doses differed significantly between steroid types for all injections evaluated in this study. American Society for Surgery of the Hand members gave significantly smaller doses of steroid for the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints than ASES members. Only 9% of respondents based injection practice on a scientific reference. Sixteen percent of ASSH and 31% of ASES respondents reported no specific rationale for their steroid injection practice; 78% of ASSH and 52% of ASES respondents attributed their rationale to some kind of instruction from their mentors or colleagues. Upper-extremity surgeons demonstrate substantial variability in their practice of steroid injections, with up to a 667-fold range in steroid dose. Experienced clinical opinion is the principal rationale for these injection practices; little rationale is based on formal scientific evidence.
Kaldjian, Lauris Christopher
Clinical decision making is a challenging task that requires practical wisdom-the practised ability to help patients choose wisely among available diagnostic and treatment options. But practical wisdom is not a concept one typically hears mentioned in medical training and practice. Instead, emphasis is placed on clinical judgement. The author draws from Aristotle and Aquinas to describe the virtue of practical wisdom and compare it with clinical judgement. From this comparison, the author suggests that a more complete understanding of clinical judgement requires its explicit integration with goals of care and ethical values. Although clinicians may be justified in assuming that goals of care and ethical values are implicit in routine decision making, it remains important for training purposes to encourage habits of clinical judgement that are consciously goal-directed and ethically informed. By connecting clinical judgement to patients' goals and values, clinical decisions are more likely to stay focused on the particular interests of individual patients. To cultivate wise clinical judgement among trainees, educational efforts should aim at the integration of clinical judgement, communication with patients about goals of care, and ethical reasoning. But ultimately, training in wise clinical judgement will take years of practice in the company of experienced clinicians who are able to demonstrate practical wisdom by example. By helping trainees develop clinical judgement that incorporates patients' goals of care and ethical reasoning, we may help lessen the risk that 'clinical judgement' will merely express 'the clinician's judgement.'
Reddy, Sandeep; Herring, Sally; Gray, Allison
Clinical Practice Guidelines are widely used to inform and improve the quality and consistency of clinical practice. Developing and publishing Clinical Practice Guidelines is a complex task involving multiple components. Electronic Content Management Systems are increasingly employed to make this task more manageable. The Content Management System market offers a variety of options for publishing content on the Internet. However, there are limited products that comprehensively address the requirements of publishing Clinical Practice Guidelines. The authors are involved in publishing guidelines for remote clinical practitioners in Australia and present their perspective about identifying an appropriate Content Management System. Several elements essential to addressing their unique editing needs are defined in this article. Unfortunately, customisation is very expensive and laborious: few Content Management System providers can comprehensively meet the needs of Clinical Practice Guidelines publishing. Being pragmatic about the level of functionality a product can offer to support publication is essential.
Sather, Mike R; Raisch, Dennis W; Haakenson, Clair M; Buckelew, Julia M; Feussner, John R
The ever-increasing concern for the welfare of volunteers participating in clinical trials and for the integrity of the data derived from those trials has generated the concept of Good Clinical Practice (GCP). The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program, in anticipation of the need to comply with GCP guidelines, developed a Site Monitoring and Review Team (SMART), which consists of a Good Clinical Practice Monitoring Group and a Good Clinical Practice Review Group. The review group conducted 335 site reviews from fiscal years (FY) 1999 through 2001 to assess and encourage adherence to GCP. Data from reviews were compared for two time periods, a 2-year implementation period (FYs 1999/2000, n=204) and a continuing follow-up period (FY 2001, n=131). Overall, high GCP adherence was exhibited by 11.3% (n=23) of study sites in FY 1999/2000 versus 20.6% (n=27) in FY 2001, average to good adherence was exhibited by 84.3% (n=172) in FY 1999/2000 versus 77.0% (n=101) in FY 2001, and below average adherence was exhibited by 4.4% (n=9) versus 1.5% (n=3) in these two periods. These changes were statistically significant by chi square analysis (p=0.029). Moreover, GCP adherence was assessed within eight GCP focus areas: patient informed consent, protocol adherence, safety monitoring, institutional review board interactions, regulatory document management, patient records in investigator file, drug/device accountability, and general site operations. Median assessment scores for all 62 GCP review elements improved from 0.82 to 0.89 (p<0.001). Median assessment scores for the 14 selected critical GCP items improved from 0.78 to 0.89 (p<0.001). Median scores for five of the eight GCP focus areas improved significantly (p<0.001) between the two time periods. These data suggest that the site-oriented activities of SMART combined with centralized quality assurance activities of the coordinating centers represent an integrated, versatile program to promote and assure GCP adherence
Pavan, Sonia; Rommel, Kathrin; Mateo Marquina, María Elena; Höhn, Sophie; Lanneau, Valérie; Rath, Ana
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for rare diseases (RDs) are scarce, may be difficult to identify through Internet searches and may vary in quality depending on the source and methodology used. In order to contribute to the improvement of the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients, Orphanet (www.orpha.net) has set up a procedure for the selection, quality evaluation and dissemination of CPGs, with the aim to provide easy access to relevant, accurate and specific recommendations for the management of RDs. This article provides an analysis of selected CPGs by medical domain coverage, prevalence of diseases, languages and type of producer, and addresses the variability in CPG quality and availability. CPGs are identified via bibliographic databases, websites of research networks, expert centres or medical societies. They are assessed according to quality criteria derived from the Appraisal of Guidelines, REsearch and Evaluation (AGREE II) Instrument. Only open access CPGs and documents for which permission from the copyright holders has been obtained are disseminated on the Orphanet website. From January 2012 to July 2015, 277 CPGs were disseminated, representing coverage of 1,122 groups of diseases, diseases or subtypes in the Orphanet database. No language restriction is applied, and so far 10 languages are represented, with a predominance of CPGs in English, French and German (92% of all CPGs). A large proportion of diseases with identified CPGs belong to rare oncologic, neurologic, hematologic diseases or developmental anomalies. The Orphanet project on CPG collection, evaluation and dissemination is a continuous process, with regular addition of new guidelines, and updates. CPGs meeting the quality criteria are integrated to the Orphanet database of rare diseases, together with other types of textual information and the appropriate services for patients, researchers and healthcare professionals in 40 countries. PMID:28099516
Developmental pharmacodynamics is the study of age-related maturation of the structure and function of biologic systems and how this affects response to pharmacotherapy. This may manifest as a change in the potency, efficacy, or therapeutic range of a drug. The paucity of studies exploring developmental pharmacodynamics reflects the lack of suitable juvenile animal models and the ethical and practical constraints of conducting studies in children. However, where data from animal models are available, valuable insight has been gained into how response to therapy can change through the course of development. For example, animal neurodevelopmental models have revealed that temporal differences in the maturation of norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmitter systems may explain the lack of efficacy of some antidepressants in children. GABA(A) receptors that switch from an excitatory to inhibitory mode during early development help to explain paradoxical seizures experienced by infants after exposure to benzodiazepines. The increased sensitivity of neonates to morphine may be due to increased postnatal expression of the mu opioid receptor. An age dependency to the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship has also been found in some clinical studies. For example, immunosuppressive effects of ciclosporin (cyclosporine) revealed markedly enhanced sensitivity in infants compared with older children and adults. A study of sotalol in the treatment of children with supraventricular tachycardia showed that neonates exhibited a higher sensitivity towards QTc interval prolongation compared with older children. However, the data are limited and efforts to increase and establish data on developmental pharmacodynamics are necessary to achieve optimal drug therapy in children and to ensure long-term success of pediatric drug development. This requires a dual 'bottom up' (ontogeny knowledge driven) and 'top down' (pediatric pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies) approach.
Cura Della Redazione, A
A research agenda for nurses, to render more visible and active their contribution to the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines is proposed. The areas for development of multicenter research project are the epidemiology of the [non] applicability of the guidelines; a critical appraisal of existing guidelines to identify the missing recommendations relevant for nursing care; the problems orphan of recommendations. Nurses should suggest how uncertainty should be made explicit in the recommendations and promote research on nurses' decision making in protocol based care.
Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie
This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed.
Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C
Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work. The resultant psychological impact of rhinoplasty can also be significant. Furthermore, the health care burden from psychological pressures of nasal deformities/aesthetic shortcomings, surgical infections, surgical pain, side effects from antibiotics, and nasal packing materials must also be considered for these patients. Prior to this guideline, limited literature existed on standard care considerations for pre- and postsurgical management and for standard surgical practice to ensure optimal outcomes for patients undergoing rhinoplasty. The impetus for this guideline is to utilize current evidence-based medicine practices and data to build unanimity regarding the peri- and postoperative strategies to maximize patient safety and to optimize surgical results for patients. Purpose The primary purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians who either perform rhinoplasty or are involved in the care of a rhinoplasty candidate, as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The target audience is any clinician or individual, in any setting, involved in the management of these patients. The target patient population is all patients aged ≥15 years. The guideline is intended to focus on knowledge gaps, practice
Henry, Teresa R; Penn, Lara D; Conerty, Jason R; Wright, Francesca E; Gorman, Gregory; Pack, Brian W
Non-clinical dose formulations (also known as pre-clinical or GLP formulations) play a key role in early drug development. These formulations are used to introduce active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into test organisms for both pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies. Since these studies are ultimately used to support dose and safety ranges in human studies, it is important to understand not only the concentration and PK/PD of the active ingredient but also to generate safety data for likely process impurities and degradation products of the active ingredient. As such, many in the industry have chosen to develop and validate methods which can accurately detect and quantify the active ingredient along with impurities and degradation products. Such methods often provide trendable results which are predictive of stability, thus leading to the name; stability indicating methods. This document provides an overview of best practices for those choosing to include development and validation of such methods as part of their non-clinical drug development program. This document is intended to support teams who are either new to stability indicating method development and validation or who are less familiar with the requirements of validation due to their position within the product development life cycle.
Pajno, Giovanni B; Cox, Linda; Caminiti, Lucia; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe
Today, there is neither an effective nor an active treatment for food allergy. Allergy immunotherapy has been proposed as an attractive strategy to actively treat food allergy. Oral immunotherapy (OIT), also known as oral desensitization, is a method of inducing the body's immune system to tolerate a food that causes an allergic overreaction. It has been studied for the use in treatment of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy to the most common foods, including milk, egg, and peanut. OIT has been able to desensitize subjects to varying degrees. However, many questions remain unanswered, including efficient formulation, optimal dosing, and induction protocol to achieve full tolerance, transition of OIT to clinical practice, and maximal safety profile. This review focuses on the use of OIT as a new and active treatment for food allergy. The possibility of transition of OIT to clinical practice represents, in this field, the next pivotal step with the goal of improving the quality of life of patients with food allergy and their families.
Cox, Linda; Caminiti, Lucia; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe
Today, there is neither an effective nor an active treatment for food allergy. Allergy immunotherapy has been proposed as an attractive strategy to actively treat food allergy. Oral immunotherapy (OIT), also known as oral desensitization, is a method of inducing the body's immune system to tolerate a food that causes an allergic overreaction. It has been studied for the use in treatment of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy to the most common foods, including milk, egg, and peanut. OIT has been able to desensitize subjects to varying degrees. However, many questions remain unanswered, including efficient formulation, optimal dosing, and induction protocol to achieve full tolerance, transition of OIT to clinical practice, and maximal safety profile. This review focuses on the use of OIT as a new and active treatment for food allergy. The possibility of transition of OIT to clinical practice represents, in this field, the next pivotal step with the goal of improving the quality of life of patients with food allergy and their families. PMID:24963452
Kawamoto, Kensaku; Houlihan, Caitlin A; Balas, E Andrew; Lobach, David F
Objective To identify features of clinical decision support systems critical for improving clinical practice. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Literature searches via Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to 2003; and searches of reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. Study selection Studies had to evaluate the ability of decision support systems to improve clinical practice. Data extraction Studies were assessed for statistically and clinically significant improvement in clinical practice and for the presence of 15 decision support system features whose importance had been repeatedly suggested in the literature. Results Seventy studies were included. Decision support systems significantly improved clinical practice in 68% of trials. Univariate analyses revealed that, for five of the system features, interventions possessing the feature were significantly more likely to improve clinical practice than interventions lacking the feature. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified four features as independent predictors of improved clinical practice: automatic provision of decision support as part of clinician workflow (P < 0.00001), provision of recommendations rather than just assessments (P = 0.0187), provision of decision support at the time and location of decision making (P = 0.0263), and computer based decision support (P = 0.0294). Of 32 systems possessing all four features, 30 (94%) significantly improved clinical practice. Furthermore, direct experimental justification was found for providing periodic performance feedback, sharing recommendations with patients, and requesting documentation of reasons for not following recommendations. Conclusions Several features were closely correlated with decision support systems' ability to improve patient care significantly. Clinicians and other stakeholders should implement clinical decision support systems that incorporate these
Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A
Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mandated the system-wide implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in the mid-1990s, arming all facilities with basic resources to facilitate implementation; despite this resource allocation, significant variability still exists across VA facilities in implementation success. Objective This study compares CPG implementation strategy patterns used by high and low performing primary care clinics in the VA. Research Design Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low performance on six CPGs. Subjects One hundred and two employees (management, quality improvement, clinic personnel) involved with guideline implementation at each VAMC primary care clinic. Measures Participants reported specific strategies used by their facility to implement guidelines in 1-hour semi-structured interviews. Facilities were classified as high or low performers based on their guideline adherence scores calculated through independently conducted chart reviews. Findings High performing facilities (HPFs) (a) invested significantly in the implementation of the electronic medical record and locally adapting it to provider needs, (b) invested dedicated resources to guideline-related initiatives, and (c) exhibited a clear direction in their strategy choices. Low performing facilities exhibited (a) earlier stages of development for their electronic medical record, (b) reliance on preexisting resources for guideline implementation, with little local adaptation, and (c) no clear direction in their strategy choices. Conclusion A multifaceted, yet targeted, strategic approach to guideline implementation emphasizing dedicated resources and local adaptation may result in more successful implementation and higher guideline adherence than relying on standardized resources and taxing preexisting channels. PMID:17355583
Khorana, Alok A; Mangu, Pamela B; Berlin, Jordan; Engebretson, Anitra; Hong, Theodore S; Maitra, Anirban; Mohile, Supriya G; Mumber, Matthew; Schulick, Richard; Shapiro, Marc; Urba, Susan; Zeh, Herbert J; Katz, Matthew H G
Purpose To update the Potentially Curable Pancreatic Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published on May 31, 2016. The October 2016 update focuses solely on new evidence that pertains to clinical question 4 of the guideline: What is the appropriate adjuvant regimen for patients with pancreatic cancer who have undergone an R0 or R1 resection of their primary tumor? Methods The recently published results of a randomized phase III study prompted an update of this guideline. The high quality of the reported evidence and the potential for its clinical impact prompted the Expert Panel to revise one of the guideline recommendations. Results The ESPAC-4 study, a multicenter, international, open-label randomized controlled phase III trial of adjuvant combination chemotherapy compared gemcitabine and capecitabine with gemcitabine monotherapy in 730 evaluable patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Median overall survival was improved in the doublet arm to 28.0 months (95% CI, 23.5 to 31.5 months) versus 25.5 months (95% CI, 22.7 to 27.9 months) for gemcitabine alone (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.98; P = .032). Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were similar in both arms, although higher rates of hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea occurred in patients randomly assigned to the doublet arm. Recommendations All patients with resected pancreatic cancer who did not receive preoperative therapy should be offered 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy in the absence of medical or surgical contraindications. The doublet regimen of gemcitabine and capecitabine is preferred in the absence of concerns for toxicity or tolerance; alternatively, monotherapy with gemcitabine or fluorouracil plus folinic acid can be offered. Adjuvant treatment should be initiated within 8 weeks of surgical resection, assuming complete recovery. The remaining recommendations from the original 2016 ASCO guideline are unchanged.
del Cañizo Juan, F
This paper describes the development of a pneumatic ventricular assist device by our group from the first steps to the clinical assay. The device, called BCM, has an input compliant cannula that improves the filling of the device. Results of the clinical assay showed that the BCM device was suitable for clinical use. New developments of our group are also mentioned.
Mutters, Nico T.; Hägele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe
Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control
Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; McGonigal, A; Lopez, R; Daudet, C; Kotwas, I; Bartolomei, F
The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique. Firstly, this article investigates selected trials with the following criteria: study design with controlled, randomized, and open or blind protocol, primary endpoint related to the mental and brain disorders treated and assessed with standardized measurement tools, identifiable EEG neurophysiological targets, underpinned by pathophysiological relevance. Trials were found for: epilepsies, migraine, stroke, chronic insomnia, attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, addictive disorders, psychotic disorders. Secondly, this article investigates the principles of neurofeedback therapy in line with learning theory. Different underlying therapeutic models are presented didactically between two continua: a continuum between implicit and explicit learning and a continuum between the biomedical model (centred on "the disease") and integrative biopsychosocial model of health (centred on "the illness"). The main relevant learning model is to link neurofeedback therapy with the field of cognitive remediation techniques. The methodological specificity of neurofeedback is to be guided by biologically relevant neurophysiological parameters. Guidelines for good clinical practice of EEG NF concerning technical issues of electrophysiology and of learning are suggested. These require validation by
Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is microneurographically recorded from the skin nerve fascicle in the peripheral nerves. It is characterized by the following features: 1) irregular, pulse asynchronous, burst activity with respiratory variation, 2) burst activity followed by vasoconstriction and/or sweating, 3) elicited by mental stress and arousal stimuli, e.g., sound, pain, electric stimulation, 4) burst with longer duration as compared with sympathetic outflow to muscles, and 5) burst activity following sudden inspiratory action. It comprises vasoconstrictor (VC) and sudomotor(SM) activity, as well as vasodilator (VD) activity. VC and SM discharge independently, whereas VD is the same activity with different neurotransmission. The VC and SM are differentiated by effector response, e.g., laser Doppler flowmetry and skin potential changes. SSNA function in thermoregulation in the human body; however it is also elicited by mental stress. SSNA is the lowest at thermoneutral ambient temperature (approximately 27 degrees C), and is enhanced in the pressence of ambient warm and cool air. The burst amplitude is well-correlated to both skin blood flow reduction rate or sweat rate change. The clinical application of SSNA comprises the following: 1) clarification of sweating phenomenon, 2) clarification and diagnosis of anhidrosis, 3) clarification and diagnosis of hyperhidrosis, 4) clarification of thermoregulatory function and diagnosis of thermoregulatory disorder, 5) clarification of pathophysiology and diagnosis of vascular diseases, e.g., Raynaud and Buerger diseases. 6) clarification of the relation between cognitive function and SSNA and 7) determination of pharmacological effect attributable to change in neuroeffector responses.
Talsma, AkkeNeel; McLaughlin, Margaret; Bathish, Melissa; Sirihorachai, Rattima; Kuttner, Rafael
Major efforts have been directed toward the implementation of sustainable quality improvement. To date, progress has been noted using various metrics and performance measures; however, successful implementation has proven challenging. The Quality, Implementation, and Evaluation (QIE) model, derived from Donabedian's structure component, presents a framework for implementation of specific activities. The QIE model consists of Policy, Patient Preparedness, Provider Competency, and Performance and Accountability, to guide specific practice initiatives. The implementation of alcohol-based pre-operative skin prep was evaluated in a sample of 17 hospitals and demonstrated that hospitals actively engaged in the components of the model demonstrated a significantly higher use of alcohol-based skin preparation agent than hospitals that did not engage in QIE model activities. The QIE model presents a powerful and actionable implementation model for mid-level management and clinical leadership. Future studies will further evaluate the impact of the specific components of the QIE model.
Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves
changes in gamete morphology and behavior, the regulatory molecules triggering gamete activation and the intracellular ions and second messengers involved in active metabolic pathways in different species. Recent scientific advances suggest that artificial gamete activation may represent a novel technique to improve human IVF outcomes, but this approach requires caution. Wider implications Although controversial, manipulation of gamete activation represents a promising tool for ameliorating the fertilization rate in assisted reproductive technologies. A better knowledge of mechanisms that transform the quiescent oocyte into a pluripotent cell may also provide new insights for the clinical use of stem cells. PMID:27278231
Fischetti, Barbara A.; Crespi, Tony D.
Survey assesses current practice trends in the clinical supervision of school psychologists. Data indicates that while ten percent of practicing school psychologists were participating in individual and/or group clinical supervision nationwide, respondents were receiving less supervision than recommended by APA or NASP professional standards.…
Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.
Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge…
Fox, M R; Bredenoord, A J
Manometry measures pressure within the oesophageal lumen and sphincters, and provides an assessment of the neuromuscular activity that dictates function in health and disease. It is performed to investigate the cause of functional dysphagia, unexplained "non-cardiac" chest pain, and in the pre-operative work-up of patients referred for anti-reflux surgery. Manometric techniques have improved in a step-wise fashion from a single pressure channel to the development of high-resolution manometry (HRM) with up to 36 pressure sensors. At the same time, advances in computer processing allow pressure data to be presented in real time as a compact, visually intuitive "spatiotemporal plot" of oesophageal pressure activity. HRM recordings reveal the complex functional anatomy of the oesophagus and its sphincters. Spatiotemporal plots provide objective measurements of the forces that move food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach and determine the risk of reflux events. The introduction of commercially available HRM has been followed by rapid uptake of the technique. This review examines the current evidence that supports the move of HRM from the research setting into clinical practice. It is assessed whether a detailed description of pressure activity identifies clinically relevant oesophageal dysfunction that is missed by conventional investigation, increasing diagnostic yield and accuracy. The need for a new classification system for oesophageal motor activity based on HRM recordings is discussed. Looking ahead the potential of this technology to guide more effective medical and surgical treatment of oesophageal disease is considered because, ultimately, it is this that will define the success of HRM in clinical practice.
Ament, Stephanie M C; de Groot, Jeanny J A; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kleijnen, Jos
Objectives To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals’ adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. Design Systematic review. Data sources Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Guidelines International Network (GIN) library. A snowball strategy, in which reference sections of other reviews and of included papers were searched, was used to identify additional papers. Eligibility criteria Studies needed to be focused on sustainability and on professionals’ adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care. Studies had to include at least 2 measurements: 1 before (PRE) or immediately after implementation (EARLY POST) and 1 measurement longer than 1 year after active implementation (LATE POST). Results The search retrieved 4219 items, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving 18 sustainability evaluations. The mean timeframe between the end of active implementation and the sustainability evaluation was 2.6 years (minimum 1.5–maximum 7.0). The studies were heterogeneous with respect to their methodology. Sustainability was considered to be successful if performance in terms of professionals’ adherence was fully maintained in the late postimplementation phase. Long-term sustainability of professionals’ adherence was reported in 7 out of 18 evaluations, adherence was not sustained in 6 evaluations, 4 evaluations showed mixed sustainability results and in 1 evaluation it was unclear whether the professional adherence was sustained. Conclusions (2) Professionals’ adherence to a clinical practice guideline in medical care decreased after more than 1 year after implementation in about half of the cases. (1) Owing to the limited number of studies, the absence of a uniform definition, the high risk of bias, and the mixed results of studies, no firm conclusion about the
Bailes, Barbara K
Abdominoplasty and liposuction guidelines are just two of the guidelines that can be accessed and used to enhance patient care. Guidelines also can be used to increase your knowledge about many other health care topics. The NGC has approved guidelines for managing chronic pain, as well as guidelines on chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Many patients have chronic diseases, and you or your family members also may be affected by chronic disorders. These guidelines provide you with a quick overview of evidence-based treatment protocols. These guidelines are not a panacea for evidence-based practice, but using them is one way that perioperative nurses can enhance their clinical skills. Though not everyone has personal Internet access, most health care facilities do or can make access a reality. Other options include medical or public libraries. Then one simply has to access the NGC web site and join other professionals in improving the quality and timeliness of patient care.
Medicine does not have its own unified body of scientific knowledge. Instead, physicians who are oriented to research make sporadic incursions into the basic sciences such as genetics, biochemistry, immunology, epidemiology, physiology, pharmacology and so on. These latter, taken together, comprise biomedicine which is said to have adopted the positivist epistemology or the Cartesian/Newtonian one that regards the scientist as an uninvolved observer of nature. In effect, medical science has come to rest on a theory of knowledge which links meaning to probability and considers prediction as the scientist's chief task. Like its predecessor, the probability theory of meaning rejects metaphysical speculation and remains connected to observations made, directly or indirectly, by means of the five senses. Despite some brilliant successes touching on relatively uncommon disorders, biomedicine cannot explain most day-to-day clinical activity. An understanding of what transpires between patient and doctor, of its diagnostic potential and therapeutic weight requires hermeneutic, or phenomenological, inquiry which brings about changes in both parties to it. Such a science, as ontological speculation has been called, cannot be deciphered by an epistemology couched in the imagery of physics and chemistry.
Caban, Carolina; Khan, Nubaira; Hasbani, Daphne M; Crino, Peter B
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disorder that results from heterozygous mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. The primary organ systems that are affected include the brain, skin, lung, kidney, and heart, all with variable frequency, penetrance, and severity. Neurological features include epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disability. There are more than 1,500 known pathogenic variants for TSC1 and TSC2, including deletion, nonsense, and missense mutations, and all pathogenic mutations are inactivating, leading to loss of function effects on the encoded proteins TSC1 and TSC2. These proteins form a complex to constitutively inhibit mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, and as a consequence, mTOR signaling is constitutively active within all TSC-associated lesions. The mTOR inhibitors rapamycin (sirolimus) and everolimus have been shown to reduce the size of renal and brain lesions and improve pulmonary function in TSC, and these compounds may also decrease seizure frequency. The clinical application of mTOR inhibitors in TSC has provided one of the first examples of precision medicine in a neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:28053551
Hubli, Michèle; Krassioukov, Andrei V
Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population.
Romero, Damian G; Yanes Cardozo, Licy L
Primary Aldosteronism is the single most common cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with increased target organ injury. The Endocrine Society has recently released the updated Clinical Practice Guideline for Primary Aldosteronism entitled “The Management of Primary Aldosteronism: Case Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline”. We review the updated Clinical Practice Guideline, highlighting the new recommendations and the implications that they may have in clinical practice. The recognition by the Endocrine Society’s Task Force that Primary Aldosteronism is a public health issue and that the population at risk for screening should be significantly expanded will surely have an impact in the clinical practice which hopefully will translate in better detection, diagnosis and treatment of patients with Primary Aldosteronism. PMID:28018978
This qualitative social scientific interview study delves into the ways in which professional vision is constructed in clinical ethics consultation (CEC). The data consist of 11 semi-structured interviews that were conducted with clinical ethics consultants currently working in hospitals in one major urban area in the U.S. The interviews were analyzed with the qualitative research method of critical discourse analysis, with a focus on identifying the cultural structures of knowledge that shape CEC as a professional practice. The discourses were first identified as belonging to two higher discourse categories, order and agency. Order was divided into three lower categories, emotional, managerial, and rational order, and discourses of agency into the lower categories of exploration, technique, deliberation, and distancing. An additional discourse of neutral interaction was identified as a bridging discourse, activated to level tensions emerging out of conflicting goals and agencies embedded in CEC practice. This analysis brings out as its main observation that clinical ethics consultants draw on and shift between potentially ideologically conflicting social positions that can create built-in tensions within the professional domain. The study calls attention to these tensions and suggests for the professional group to discuss the possibility of defining priorities between different kinds of order, identified in this study, that shape the CEC domain.
Chen, Po-Hao; Botzolakis, Emmanuel; Mohan, Suyash; Bryan, R. N.; Cook, Tessa
In radiology, diagnostic errors occur either through the failure of detection or incorrect interpretation. Errors are estimated to occur in 30-35% of all exams and contribute to 40-54% of medical malpractice litigations. In this work, we focus on reducing incorrect interpretation of known imaging features. Existing literature categorizes cognitive bias leading a radiologist to an incorrect diagnosis despite having correctly recognized the abnormal imaging features: anchoring bias, framing effect, availability bias, and premature closure. Computational methods make a unique contribution, as they do not exhibit the same cognitive biases as a human. Bayesian networks formalize the diagnostic process. They modify pre-test diagnostic probabilities using clinical and imaging features, arriving at a post-test probability for each possible diagnosis. To translate Bayesian networks to clinical practice, we implemented an entirely web-based open-source software tool. In this tool, the radiologist first selects a network of choice (e.g. basal ganglia). Then, large, clearly labeled buttons displaying salient imaging features are displayed on the screen serving both as a checklist and for input. As the radiologist inputs the value of an extracted imaging feature, the conditional probabilities of each possible diagnosis are updated. The software presents its level of diagnostic discrimination using a Pareto distribution chart, updated with each additional imaging feature. Active collaboration with the clinical radiologist is a feasible approach to software design and leads to design decisions closely coupling the complex mathematics of conditional probability in Bayesian networks with practice.
Robinson, Kerin; Shepheard, Jennie
The key drivers of change to clinical coding practice are identified and examined, and a major shift is predicted. The traditional purposes of the coding function have been the provision of data for research and epidemiology, in morbidity data reporting and, latterly, for casemix-based funding. It is contended that, as the development of electronic health records progresses, the need for an embedded nomenclature will force major change in clinical coding practice. Clinical coders must become expert in information technology and analysis, change their work practices, and become an integral part of the clinical team.
Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria
Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…
Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla
Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…
Michiels, S.; Ternès, N.; Rotolo, F.
With the genomic revolution and the era of targeted therapy, prognostic and predictive gene signatures are becoming increasingly important in clinical research. They are expected to assist prognosis assessment and therapeutic decision making. Notwithstanding, an evidence-based approach is needed to bring gene signatures from the laboratory to clinical practice. In early breast cancer, multiple prognostic gene signatures are commercially available without having formally reached the highest levels of evidence-based criteria. We discuss specific concepts for developing and validating a prognostic signature and illustrate them with contemporary examples in breast cancer. When a prognostic signature has not been developed for predicting the magnitude of relative treatment benefit through an interaction effect, it may be wishful thinking to test its predictive value. We propose that new gene signatures be built specifically for predicting treatment effects for future patients and outline an approach for this using a cross-validation scheme in a standard phase III trial. Replication in an independent trial remains essential. PMID:27634691
Forand, Nicholas R; Evans, Susan; Haglin, Dean; Fishman, Baruch
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective for a number of disorders, and can be delivered effectively by trainees in controlled settings. However, the effectiveness of trainee therapists in general practice compared to that of more experienced therapists is unknown. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to compare the outcomes of naturalistic CBT delivered by trainee therapists to those of efficacy and effectiveness studies using primarily professional therapists. Patients (N=249) with mood and anxiety disorders were treated by trainees (primarily by interns and postdocs) using nonstandardized nonmanualized CBT at an outpatient clinic in an urban academic medical center. Changes in anxiety and depression were assessed using effect sizes, reliable and clinically significant change, and benchmarked to efficacy and effectiveness studies. Symptoms of anxiety and depression significantly improved from start to end of treatment. Rates of improvement and recovery compared favorably to those achieved in other studies, with the exception of recovery rates in severe depression. Effect sizes were in the medium to large range, but generally lower than those achieved in other studies. Results suggest that CBT can be delivered effectively by trainees in an outpatient setting.
Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C.; Ko, Edmund; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Zini, Armand
Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) has been generally acknowledged as a valuable tool for male fertility evaluation. While its detrimental implications on sperm function were extensively investigated, little is known about the actual indications for performing SDF analysis. This review delivers practice based recommendations on commonly encountered scenarios in the clinic. An illustrative description of the different SDF measurement techniques is presented. SDF testing is recommended in patients with clinical varicocele and borderline to normal semen parameters as it can better select varicocelectomy candidates. High SDF is also linked with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and can influence outcomes of different assisted reproductive techniques. Several studies have shown some benefit in using testicular sperm rather than ejaculated sperm in men with high SDF, oligozoospermia or recurrent in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. Infertile men with evidence of exposure to pollutants can benefit from sperm DNA testing as it can help reinforce the importance of lifestyle modification (e.g., cessation of cigarette smoking, antioxidant therapy), predict fertility and monitor the patient’s response to intervention. PMID:28078226
Krier, Joel B.; Kalia, Sarah S.; Green, Robert C.
The development of massively parallel sequencing (or next-generation sequencing) has facilitated a rapid implementation of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine. Genomic sequencing (GS) is now an essential tool for evaluating rare disorders, identifying therapeutic targets in neoplasms, and screening for prenatal aneuploidy. Emerging applications, such as GS for preconception carrier screening and predisposition screening in healthy individuals, are being explored in research settings and utilized by members of the public eager to incorporate genomic information into their health management. The rapid pace of adoption has created challenges for all stakeholders in clinical GS, from standardizing variant interpretation approaches in clinical molecular laboratories to ensuring that nongeneticist clinicians are prepared for new types of clinical information. Clinical GS faces a pivotal moment, as the vast potential of new quantities and types of data enable further clinical innovation and complicated implementation questions continue to be resolved. PMID:27757064
Krier, Joel B; Kalia, Sarah S; Green, Robert C
The development of massively parallel sequencing (or next-generation sequencing) has facilitated a rapid implementation of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine. Genomic sequencing (GS) is now an essential tool for evaluating rare disorders, identifying therapeutic targets in neoplasms, and screening for prenatal aneuploidy. Emerging applications, such as GS for preconception carrier screening and predisposition screening in healthy individuals, are being explored in research settings and utilized by members of the public eager to incorporate genomic information into their health management. The rapid pace of adoption has created challenges for all stakeholders in clinical GS, from standardizing variant interpretation approaches in clinical molecular laboratories to ensuring that nongeneticist clinicians are prepared for new types of clinical information. Clinical GS faces a pivotal moment, as the vast potential of new quantities and types of data enable further clinical innovation and complicated implementation questions continue to be resolved.
Fervers, Bèatrice; Remy-Stockinger, Magali; Mazeau-Woynar, Valèrie; Otter, Renèe; Liberati, Alessandro; Littlejohns, Peter; Qureshi, Safia; Vlayen, Joan; Characiejus, Dainius; Corbacho, Belèn; Garner, Sarah; Hamza-Mohamed, Farida; Hermosilla, Teresa; Kersten, Sonja; Kulig, Michael; Leshem, Benny; Levine, Nava; Ballini, Luciana; Middelton, Clifford; Mlika-Cabane, Najoua; Paquet, Louise; Podmaniczki, Erzsèbet; Ramaekers, Dirk; Robinson, Eliezer; Sanchez, Emilia; Philip, Thierry
All European countries are facing common challenges for delivering appropriate, evidence-based care to patients with cancer. Despite tangible improvements in diagnosis and treatment, marked differences in cancer survival exist throughout Europe. The reliable translation of new research evidence into consistent patient-oriented strategies is a key endeavour to overcome inequalities in healthcare. Clinical-practice guidelines are important tools for improving quality of care by informing professionals and patients about the most appropriate clinical practice. Guideline programmes in different countries use similar strategies to achieve similar goals. This results in unnecessary duplication of effort and inefficient use of resources. While different initiatives at the international level have attempted to improve the quality of guidelines, less investment has been made to overcome existing fragmentation and duplication of effort in cancer guideline development and research. To provide added value to existing initiatives and foster equitable access to evidence-based cancer care in Europe, CoCanCPG will establish cooperation between cancer guideline programmes. CoCanCPG is an ERA-Net coordinated by the French National Cancer Institute with 17 partners from 11 countries. The CoCanCPG partners will achieve their goal through an ambitious, stepwise approach with a long-term perspective, involving: 1. implementing a common framework for sharing knowledge and skills; 2. developing shared activities for guideline development; 3. assembling a critical mass for pertinent research into guideline methods; 4. implementing an appropriate framework for cooperation. Successful development of joint activities involves learning how to adopt common quality standards and how to share responsibilities, while taking into account the cultural and organisational diversity of the participating organisations. Languages barriers and different organisational settings add a level of complexity to
Woods, Michelle; Murfet, Giuliana
The role of the Australian Nurse Practitioner (NP) is in its infancy and at a crossroads where extensive research demonstrates effective quality care and yet the role remains underrecognised and underutilised. The translation of practice into “value” is critical for the sustainability of NP roles and requires the practitioner to adopt a systematic method of inquiry. Kim's (1999) “Critical Reflective Inquiry” (CRI) method was adapted by two Australian NPs who specialise in diabetes and chronic disease management. Kim highlights the intent of CRI as understanding the meaning of practice, delivering improvements to practice through self-reflection, and the critique of practice that can lead to practice changes and development of new models of care translated to “products” of value. Based on the thematically analysis of 3 years of CRI application, the authors formed 5 headings that represented the NP's practice as Specialised Care Access, Complications and Diagnostics Interventions, Pharmaceutical Treatment, Vulnerable Populations, and Leadership. The utility of CRI demonstrates how NP practice is integral to a continuous cycle of addressing health care services gaps, and the conversion of “products” into “value” and positions the NP to assimilate the role of the practitioner-researcher. PMID:25705517
Kessler, Ronald C.
This paper discusses challenges and prospects for increasing the clinical relevance of psychiatric epidemiological research. The discussion begins with a review of the structural determinants of the fact that current psychiatric epidemiological research has less clinical relevance that epidemiological research in other areas of medicine. The discussion then turns to ways in which the focus of psychiatric epidemiological research might be changed to increase its clinical relevance. A review is then presented of recent innovations in community psychiatric epidemiological research that were designed to increase clinical relevance. An argument is then made that the full clinical value of psychiatric epidemiology will only be realized when community epidemiology becomes better integrated with clinical epidemiology and the latter takes on a more prominent role than it currently has in psychiatric research. Existing initiatives to realize an integration of community psychiatric epidemiology with clinical epidemiology are then reviewed. Finally, an agenda is proposed for an expansion of clinical psychiatric epidemiology to include a focus on both naturalistic and quasi-experimental studies of illness course and treatment response in diverse clinical samples. PMID:17896231
Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O
The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.
Naranjo, Antonio; Cáceres, Laura; Hernández-Beriaín, José Ángel; Francisco, Félix; Ojeda, Soledad; Talaverano, Sigrid; Nóvoa-Medina, Javier; Martín, José Adán; Delgado, Esmeralda; Trujillo, Elisa; Álvarez, Fátima; Magdalena, Laura; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos
The aim of the present study was to analyse the patterns of treatment adjustment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with active disease in routine clinical care. This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients with RA conducted in five hospitals. Activity scales (DAS28-ESR) and function (HAQ) were measured, as well as whether ultrasound was performed as part of the assessment. Treatment decision (no changes/reduction/intensification) and time to the next scheduled visit were the outcomes variables. Associated factors were analysed by multilevel regression models. A total of 343 patients were included (77 % women, mean age 57 years, mean RA duration 10 years), of whom 44 % were in remission by DAS28. Treatment was continued in 202 (59 %) patients, reduced in 57 (16 %), and intensified in 83 (24 %). In the 117 patients with active RA (DAS28 ≥ 3.2), treatment was intensified in 61 (52 %). Factors associated with treatment intensification were physician and patient VAS, and DAS28, but not the centre. In the multilevel regression analysis with intensification of treatment as dependent variable, the following factors were significantly associated: DAS28 [OR 3.67 (95 % CI 2.43-5.52)], patient VAS [OR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01-1.08)], and have performed an ultrasound [OR 3.36 (95 % CI 1.47-7.68)]. Factors associated with time to the next scheduled visit (an average of 4.3 months) were patient and physician VAS, DAS28, and centre. In clinical practice, half of the patients with active RA maintain or reduce the treatment. The decision to intensify treatment in active RA as recommended by a treat-to-target strategy is complex in practice.
Arthur, Darren P
This article focuses on culturally sensitive clinical issues related to best practices with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) elder patients at end-of-life (EOL) at key points in the therapeutic relationship. Vital concepts, including practice evaluation and clinical skills, are presented through a cultural and oncology lens. There is a paucity of LGBT research and literature as well as a shortfall of MSW graduate school education specific to social work palliative and end-of-life care (PELC) practice with LGBT elders. The content of this article is designed to be adapted and used as an educational tool for institutions, agencies, graduate programs, medical professions, social work, and students. Learning the unique elements of LGBT cultural history and their implications on EOL care can improve social work practice. This article provides an examination from assessment and engagement basics to advance care planning incorporating specific LGBT EOL issues.
Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B
Background Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Method This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Results Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation. PMID:27347478
Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip
Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.
Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population. PMID:24175653
Busch, Angela J; Thille, Patty; Barber, Karen A R; Schachter, Candice L; Bidonde, Julia; Collacott, Brenda K
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a serious and debilitating condition, encompassing a wide range of symptoms. Physical therapists often advocate the incorporation of leisure time physical activity (exercise training or recreational physical activity) as an important management strategy for individuals with FM. Decisions about physical activity prescription in clinical practice are informed by a variety of sources. This topical review considers physical activity prescription using the E-Model as a framework for best practice decision making. We examine findings from randomized trials, published experts, and qualitative studies through the lens of the model's five Es: 1) evidence, 2) expectations, 3) environment, 4) ethics, and 5) experience. This approach provides a robust foundation from which to make best practice decisions. Application of this model also facilitates the identification of gaps and discrepancies in the literature, future opportunities for knowledge exchange and translation, and future research.
"Clinical Practice Guideline for the proper use and cessation of hypnotics" has been developed by focusing on insomnia treatments with acceptable safety and effectiveness. In this guideline, forty clinical questions encountered in clinical practice starting from the initial treatment of insomnia, optimization of pharmacotherapy, sleep hygiene instruction and cognitive behavioral therapy, specific treatment for insomnia with various medical conditions, responding to chronic insomnia, goal setting of treatment and methods for cessation of hypnotics, have been set. Based on the existing evidence associated with the clinical questions, also on the basis of expert consensus if sufficient evidence does not exist, we set clinical recommendations for the physicians and accessible information for patients.
Tan, Kok Eng; Ng, Melissa L. Y.; Saw, Kim Guan
Among a number of urban adolescents in Malaysia, going online is a much valued practice. They are regularly drawn to the Internet to engage in activities across school, nonschool, mainstream and alternative domains. The aim of this study is to know more about what these adolescents do online. Data on the online activities were collected from 535…
Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Funk, Jeanne B.
The purpose of this study was to examine principals' perceptions and practices regarding bullying prevention. A survey instrument was developed to assess principals' stages of change and perceived barriers regarding selected bullying prevention activities as well as the effectiveness of bullying prevention activities. Of a national random sample…
Doucet, Michèle Y; Vrins, André
To improve content validity and the pertinence of outcome assessment tools used for the undergraduate Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at the University of Montreal's Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, a survey of members of the Quebec veterinary association was conducted. This survey aimed to determine the importance of a list of 71 attributes-categorized as knowledge, general skills, specific skills, and attitudes-for clinical and non-clinical types of professional activities. The results indicated that all basic knowledge components, general skills, and attitudes were equally important for all types of veterinary professional activities, while the importance of specific skills was significantly different for clinical practice and non-clinical fields. It was therefore proposed that outcomes assessment surveys of stakeholders, such as alumni and employers, be analyzed separately for each type of career option.
Dunn, L; Morgan, E
The West Midlands Regional Health Authority identified a lack of opportunities for nurses to develop advanced clinical practice through a recognized programme at Postgraduate diploma/Masters degree level. Education for clinical practice must be equally grounded in theory and practice. Advanced clinical practice requires more than just skills acquisition, it has a much wider remit incorporating elements of clinical expertise and higher level decision making, research awareness, teaching and role modelling, informing policy making and leading in the provision of patient care within individual Trusts. This initiative has encouraged universities, trusts and provider units to work together to identify and prepare students and staff for their changes in role, and to review existing boundaries for practice which will enable new approaches to team work and the provision of holistic patient care.
Clinical forensic medicine is a sub-specialty of forensic medicine and is intimately associated with the justice system of a country. Practice of clinical forensic medicine is evolving, but deviates from one jurisdiction to another. Most English-speaking countries practice clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology separately while most non-English-speaking countries practice forensic medicine which includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. Unlike the practice of forensic pathology, several countries have informal arrangements to deal with forensic patients and there are no international standards of practice or training in this discipline. Besides, this is rarely a topic of discussion. In the adversarial justice system in Sri Lanka, the designated Government Medical Officers practice both clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. Practice of clinical forensic medicine, and its teaching and training in Sri Lanka depicts unique features. However, this system has not undergone a significant revision for many decades. In this communication, the existing legal framework, current procedure of practice, examination for drunkenness, investigations, structure of referrals, reports, subsequent legal procedures, undergraduate, in-service, and postgraduate training are discussed with suggestions for reforms.
Bifarin, Oladayo; Stonehouse, David
Clinical supervision involves a supportive relationship between supervisor and supervisee that facilitates reflective learning and is part of professional socialisation. Clinical supervision can take many different forms and may be adapted to suit local circumstances. A working agreement is required between the parties to the supervision and issues surrounding confidentiality must be understood. High-quality clinical supervision leads to greater job satisfaction and less stress. When it is absent or inadequate, however, the results can be serious and it is particularly important that student nurses are well supported in this way. Further research in this area is necessary.
Lubrano, Ennio; Cantini, Fabrizio; Costanzo, Antonio; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Prignano, Francesca; Olivieri, Ignazio; Scarpa, Raffaele; Spadaro, Antonio; Atzeni, Fabiola; Narcisi, Alessandra; Ricceri, Federica; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo
Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease with a primary involvement of skin and joints, affecting approximately 2% of the population worldwide. Up to one third of patients with psoriasis are diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis and PsA are heterogeneous diseases whose severity depends on a number of clinical factors, such as areas affected and pattern of involvement, and are associated with a range of comorbid diseases and risk factors, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and liver disease. Thus measuring the severity of psoriatic disease needs to take into account the multidimensional aspects of the disease. Subjective measures including the impairment in quality of life or in daily living activities as well as the presence of cardio-metabolic comorbidities, are important for the outcome and add further levels of complexity that, to a certain extent, need to be assessed. Because of the wide range of comorbid conditions associated with psoriasis, comprehensive screening and treatment must be implemented for a most effective managing of psoriasis patients. A joint dermatologist-rheumatologist roundtable discussion was convened to share evidence on the real-life use of methods for measuring psoriasis severity comprehensively. Our objective was to provide an expert position on which clinical variables are to be taken into account when considering patients affected by psoriasis and/or PsA globally and on the assessment tools more suitable for measuring disease activity and/or severity in clinical practice.
Burelle, Timothy N.
A clinical pharmacy certificate program, the most popular among Alabama pharmacists, is described, including statistics concerning enrollment, participant characteristics, factors important in pharmacists' entering and leaving the program, and pharmacists' views of the program's strengths and weaknesses. (MSE)
Ridolo, E; Incorvaia, C; Senna, G E; Montagni, M; Olivieri, E; Canonica, G W
We performed a survey, based on a questionnaire including 20 items, submitted anonymously to Italian trainees in Allergology and Clinical Immunology, in order to obtain information about their specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) practices. The questionnaire was sent to 40 trainees, who had attended the last two years of the training course. Thirty-four subjects (mean age: 27 years, 65% females) adequately completed the survey. The answers to the questionnaire showed that only 60% of the training programs included lectures on AIT. Among the trainees using AIT, only 40% declared being able to prescribe it independently, while 60% were guided by a tutor. Of the trainees who were able to prescribe AIT autonomously, 60% were familiar with both routes of administration, i.e. subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), while 25% of these used only SLIT. In 80% of the training institutions involved, the trainees could attend a dedicated AIT outpatient ward for SCIT administration; only 40% administered AIT personally, and in half of these cases, they were guided by a tutor. Only 70% of trainees had experience in the follow-up of patients still under treatment and of patients who had completed treatment. Analysis of the answers obtained for questions on venom immunotherapy (VIT) showed that, in 90% of cases, the trainees attended a dedicated outpatients ward where VIT is administered, but with a role limited to observation/cooperation. Only 30% were involved in the follow-up of patients who were under treatment or who had completed VIT. Only 20% of the trainees felt confident enough about VIT to prescribe this treatment independently, 80% knew there were several administration protocols, and the majority prescribed products from three different manufacturers. These findings suggest that there is significant room for improving the instructions provided regarding allergology and clinical immunology to trainees in Italy with respect to AIT.
Loren, Alison W.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Beck, Lindsay Nohr; Brennan, Lawrence; Magdalinski, Anthony J.; Partridge, Ann H.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Wallace, W. Hamish; Oktay, Kutluk
Purpose To update guidance for health care providers about fertility preservation for adults and children with cancer. Methods A systematic review of the literature published from March 2006 through January 2013 was completed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library. An Update Panel reviewed the evidence and updated the recommendation language. Results There were 222 new publications that met inclusion criteria. A majority were observational studies, cohort studies, and case series or reports, with few randomized clinical trials. After review of the new evidence, the Update Panel concluded that no major, substantive revisions to the 2006 American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations were warranted, but clarifications were added. Recommendations As part of education and informed consent before cancer therapy, health care providers (including medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, urologists, hematologists, pediatric oncologists, and surgeons) should address the possibility of infertility with patients treated during their reproductive years (or with parents or guardians of children) and be prepared to discuss fertility preservation options and/or to refer all potential patients to appropriate reproductive specialists. Although patients may be focused initially on their cancer diagnosis, the Update Panel encourages providers to advise patients regarding potential threats to fertility as early as possible in the treatment process so as to allow for the widest array of options for fertility preservation. The discussion should be documented. Sperm and embryo cryopreservation as well as oocyte cryopreservation are considered standard practice and are widely available. Other fertility preservation methods should be considered investigational and should be performed by providers with the necessary expertise. PMID:23715580
Fuijkschot, Joris; Theelen, Thomas; Seyger, Marieke M B; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Groot, Imelda J M; Wevers, Ron A; Wanders, Ronald J A; Waterham, Hans R; Willemsen, Michèl A A P
This review article gives a state-of-the-art synopsis of current pathophysiological concepts in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) mainly based upon original research data of the authors in one of the world's largest clinical SLS study cohorts. Clinical features are discussed in order of appearance, and diagnostic tests are set out to guide the clinician toward the diagnosis SLS. Furthermore, current and future treatment strategies are discussed to render a comprehensive review of the topic.
Su, Min-I; Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Hung-I; Wang, Kuang-Te
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel image modality with higher resolution in the catheterization laboratory. It can differentiate tissue characteristics and provide detailed information, including dissection, tissue prolapse, thrombi, and stent apposition. In this study, we comprehensively reviewed the current pros and cons of OCT clinical applications and presented our clinical experiences associated with the advantages and limitations of this new imaging modality. PMID:27471350
Dellefield, Mary Ellen
Human resource practices including supervision and management are associated with organizational performance. Evidence supportive of such an association in nursing homes is found in the results of numerous research studies conducted during the past 17 years. In this article, best practices related to this topic have been culled from descriptive, explanatory, and intervention studies in a range of interdisciplinary research journals published between 1990 and 2007. Identified best practices include implementation of training programs on supervision and management for licensed nurses, certified nursing assistant job enrichment programs, implementation of consistent nursing assignments, and the use of electronic documentation. Organizational barriers and facilitators of these best practices are described.
Mellish, Louise C; Dunkley, Colin; Ferrie, Colin D; Pal, Deb K
Background The evidence base for management of childhood epilepsy is poor, especially for the most common specific syndromes such as rolandic epilepsy (RE) and Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS). Considerable international variation in management and controversy about non-treatment indicate the need for high quality randomised controlled trials (RCT). The aim of this study is, therefore, to describe current UK practice and explore the feasibility of different RCT designs for RE and PS. Methods We conducted an online survey of 590 UK paediatricians who treat epilepsy. Thirty-two questions covered annual caseload, investigation and management practice, factors influencing treatment, antiepileptic drug preferences and hypothetical trial design preferences. Results 132 responded (22%): 81% were paediatricians and 95% at consultant seniority. We estimated, annually, 751 new RE cases and 233 PS cases. Electroencephalography (EEG) is requested at least half the time in approximately 70% of cases; MRI brain at least half the time in 40%–65% cases and neuropsychological evaluation in 7%–8%. Clinicians reported non-treatment in 40%: main reasons were low frequency of seizures and parent/child preferences. Carbamazepine is the preferred older, and levetiracetam the preferred newer, RCT arm. Approximately one-half considered active and placebo designs acceptable, choosing seizures as primary and cognitive/behavioural measures as secondary outcomes. Conclusions Management among respondents is broadly in line with national guidance, although with possible overuse of brain imaging and underuse of EEG and neuropsychological assessments. A large proportion of patients in the UK remains untreated, and clinicians seem amenable to a range of RCT designs, with carbamazepine and levetiracetam the preferred active drugs. PMID:25202134
Physicians have always used theoretical models (paradigms) to interpret clinical reality, and have changed the prevailing model only when it could no longer satisfy clinical needs. The purpose of this essay is to review some of the paradigmatic changes in clinical reasoning that have occurred since my undergraduate medial education. My training in the 50's was along the bio-medical model that reduced all diseases to structural or biochemical dysfunctions. Within this framework, causes were perceived as leading inevitably rather than probabilistically to their consequences, and chance and ambiguity had a very small role in explication of pathophysiologic mechanisms and in diagnostic reasoning. The doctor-patient relationship was paternalistic and the orientation to extending survival rejected notions of quality of life and involved parsimonious utilization of health care resources. Today however, clinical reasoning has shifted from deductive and deterministic to inductive (evidence-based) and probabilistic. Disease is believed to result from multiple factors rather than from single causes, and there is increasing acceptance of psycho-social factors of disease. Awareness of the confounding effects of false-positive and false-negative tests has changed the attitude to diagnostic evaluation. Terms, such as risk indicators of disease, predictive value of tests and risk-benefit ratio are increasingly used in discussing clinical decisions. We respect the patient's autonomy more than we did in the past, and consider his/her preferences and quality of life in clinical decision-making. Fair distribution of medical resources is considered as an ethical principle. Finally, clinical guidelines are no longer viewed as counter-intuitive, but rather as effective means to reduce the disturbingly high rates of medical error.
Vance, H. Booney, Ed.
This book is designed to provide insight into the ways in which psychologists conduct psychoeducational assessments in a variety of settings. Each contributed chapter gives a detailed and practical discussion of a particular assessment instrument or strategy along with a detailed case study. Chapters have the following titles and authors:…
Price, Lisa Hammett; Hendricks, Sean; Cook, Colleen
Purpose: During the evaluation of language abilities, the needs of the child are best served when multiple types and sources of data are included in the evaluation process. Current educational policies and practice guidelines further dictate the use of authentic assessment data to inform diagnosis and treatment planning. Language sampling and…
The balanced scorecard is a strategic management system that impels managers to focus on the performance metrics that drive success. It measures the business process and links a management method for process improvement to strategic goals. A medical practice can use a balanced scorecard to improve operational performance and quality or service, which generates higher levels of patient satisfaction and better financial management.
Bransford, Cassandra L.
The focus of this article is on illustrating how the differences between the paternalistic and empowerment approaches embedded within social work have unnecessarily evolved into competing approaches to practice. Tracing the historical evolution of both paternalistic and empowerment approaches, the article posits that social work is more amenable…
Nelson, Nickola Wolf
Purpose: This article offers a critical response to Kamhi's (2011) essay regarding the need to balance certainty and uncertainty in evidence-based practice (EBP). Method: Points of concordance and discordance (counterpoints) between Kamhi's essay and the author's frames of reference were considered. Results: In agreement with Kamhi, a major role…
Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Sang Hoon
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is produced and secreted through a complex mechanism that is still not fully understood. In clinical fields, HBsAg has long served as a qualitative diagnostic marker for hepatitis B virus infection. Notably, advances have been made in the development of quantitative HBsAg assays, which have allowed viral replication monitoring, and there is an opportunity to make maximal use of quantitative HBsAg to elucidate its role in clinical fields. Yet, it needs to be underscored that a further understanding of HBsAg, not only from clinical point of view but also from a virologic point of view, would enable us to deepen our insights, so that we could more widely expand and apply its utility. It is also important to be familiar with HBsAg variants and their clinical consequences in terms of immune escape mutants, issues resulting from overlap with corresponding mutation in the P gene, and detection problems for the HBsAg variants. In this article, we review current concepts and issues on the quantification of HBsAg titers with respect to their biologic nature, method principles, and clinically relevant topics.
Stem cells are a relevant source of information about cellular differentiation, molecular processes and tissue homeostasis, but also one of the most putative biological tools to treat degenerative diseases. This review focuses on human stem cells clinical and experimental applications. Our aim is to take a correct view of the available stem cell subtypes and their rational use in the medical area, with a specific focus on their therapeutic benefits and side effects. We have reviewed the main clinical trials dividing them basing on their clinical applications, and taking into account the ethical issue associated with the stem cell therapy. Methods We have searched Pubmed/Medline for clinical trials, involving the use of human stem cells, using the key words "stem cells" combined with the key words "transplantation", "pathology", "guidelines", "properties" and "risks". All the relevant clinical trials have been included. The results have been divided into different categories, basing on the way stem cells have been employed in different pathological conditions. PMID:21241480
Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Rodrigues, Aristides Machado; Coelho e Silva, Manuel João; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Barbosa, Maurício Fregonesi; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship among sports practice, physical education class, habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 120 schoolchildren (mean: 11.7±0.7 years old), with no regular use of medicines. Sports practice and physical education classes were assessed through face-to-face interview, while habitual physical activity was assessed by pedometers. Bodyweight, height and height-cephalic trunk were used to estimate maturation. The following variables were measured: body fatness, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood flow velocity, intima-media thickness (carotid and femoral) and heart rate variability (mean between consecutive heartbeats and statistical index in the time domain that show the autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity root-mean by the square of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals in a time interval). Statistical treatment used Spearman correlation adjusted by sex, ethnicity, age, body fatness and maturation. RESULTS: Independently of potential confounders, sports practice was positively related to autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity (β=0.039 [0.01; 0.76]). On the other hand, the relationship between sport practice and mean between consecutive heartbeats (β=0,031 [-0.01; 0.07]) was significantly mediated by biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: Sport practice was related to higher heart rate variability at rest. PMID:25887927
Alfadda, Assim A.; Al-Dhwayan, Madhawi M.; Alharbi, Abdulhameed A.; Khudhair, Basema K. Al; Nozha, Omar M. Al; Al-Qahtani, Nawal M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Bardisi, Wedad M.; Sallam, Reem M.; Riva, John J.; Brożek, Jan L.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Moore, Ainsley
Objective: To assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the management of overweight and obese adults in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assembled an expert Saudi panel to produce this clinical practice guideline in 2015. In collaboration with the methodological working group from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, which describes both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence Results: After identifying 11 questions, corresponding recommendations were agreed upon as guidance for the management of overweight and obese adults. These included strong recommendations in support of lifestyle interventions rather than usual care alone, individualized counseling interventions rather than generic educational pamphlets, physical activity rather than no physical activity, and physical activity in addition to diet rather than diet alone. Metformin and orlistat were suggested as conditional recommendations for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery was recommended, conditionally, for the management of obese adults (body mass index of ≥40 or ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities). Conclusions: The current guideline includes recommendation for the non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical management of overweight and obese adults. In addition, the panel recommends conducting research priorities regarding lifestyle interventions and economic analysis of drug therapy within the Saudi context, as well as long term benefits and harms of bariatric surgery. PMID:27652370
Stewart, J; Breslin, W J; Beyer, B K; Chadwick, K; De Schaepdrijver, L; Desai, M; Enright, B; Foster, W; Hui, J Y; Moffat, G J; Tornesi, B; Van Malderen, K; Wiesner, L; Chen, C L
The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives.
Porz, Rouven; Landeweer, Elleke; Widdershoven, Guy
In this paper we introduce narrative and hermeneutical perspectives to clinical ethics support services (CESS). We propose a threefold consideration of 'theory' and show how it is interwoven with 'practice' as we go along. First, we look at theory in its foundational role: in our case 'narrative ethics' and 'philosophical hermeneutics' provide a theoretical base for clinical ethics by focusing on human identities entangled in stories and on moral understanding as a dialogical process. Second, we consider the role of theoretical notions in helping practitioners to understand their situation in clinical ethics practice, by using notions like 'story', 'responsibility', or 'vulnerability' to make explicit and explain their practical experience. Such theoretical notions help us to interpret clinical situations from an ethical perspective and to foster moral awareness of practitioners. And, thirdly, we examine how new theoretical concepts are developed by interpreting practice, using practice to form and improve our ethical theory. In this paper, we discuss this threefold use of theory in clinical ethics support services by reflecting on our own theoretical assumptions, methodological steps and practical experiences as ethicists, and by providing examples from our daily work. In doing so, we illustrate that theory and practice are interwoven, as theoretical understanding is dependent upon practical experience, and vice-versa.
Mukhopadhyay, S; Smith, S
Clinical teaching on the wards remains a prime method of educational instruction. Despite changes in modern educational climate and patient expectations, its value is still irrefutable. There is evidence to suggest that such teaching is beneficial to students and patients alike. This paper describes the planning and delivery steps of a ward-based teaching session with 'pregnancy of unknown location' as an example. The organisation, following-up and feedback after the session are also mentioned. We have discussed the models applicable to clinical teaching and explored ways how the 'microskill' technique could be potentially used in such a situation. The paper also focuses on the use of clinical reasoning processes. Finally, the six domains of knowledge necessary to become a good preceptor have been applied to the session. A good teaching exercise is moored to sound pedagogical principles. Its success relies on mutual trust and understanding between the teacher and the taught.
North, Jennifer C; Jordan, Kristine C; Metos, Julie; Hurdle, John F
Nutrition care and metabolic control contribute to clinical patient outcomes. Biomedical informatics applications represent a way to potentially improve quality and efficiency of nutrition management. We performed a systematic literature review to identify clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry systems used to manage nutrition care. Online research databases were searched using a specific set of keywords. Additionally, bibliographies were referenced for supplemental citations. Four independent reviewers selected sixteen studies out of 364 for review. These papers described adult and neonatal nutrition support applications, blood glucose management applications, and other nutrition applications. Overall, results indicated that computerized interventions could contribute to improved patient outcomes and provider performance. Specifically, computer systems in the clinical setting improved nutrient delivery, rates of malnutrition, weight loss, blood glucose values, clinician efficiency, and error rates. In conclusion, further investigation of informatics applications on nutritional and performance outcomes utilizing rigorous study designs is recommended.
North, Jennifer C.; Jordan, Kristine C.; Metos, Julie; Hurdle, John F.
Nutrition care and metabolic control contribute to clinical patient outcomes. Biomedical informatics applications represent a way to potentially improve quality and efficiency of nutrition management. We performed a systematic literature review to identify clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry systems used to manage nutrition care. Online research databases were searched using a specific set of keywords. Additionally, bibliographies were referenced for supplemental citations. Four independent reviewers selected sixteen studies out of 364 for review. These papers described adult and neonatal nutrition support applications, blood glucose management applications, and other nutrition applications. Overall, results indicated that computerized interventions could contribute to improved patient outcomes and provider performance. Specifically, computer systems in the clinical setting improved nutrient delivery, rates of malnutrition, weight loss, blood glucose values, clinician efficiency, and error rates. In conclusion, further investigation of informatics applications on nutritional and performance outcomes utilizing rigorous study designs is recommended. PMID:26958233
Klinkhardt, U; Harder, S
Dose-finding studies are performed routinely in patients and--if appropriate surrogate models exist--also in healthy volunteers. Such studies aim at establishing the optimal dose range for further clinical studies on the efficacy and the risk-benefit ratio of a new drug. The dose-response relationship of a drug is most often described by a sigmoidal curve. Its parameters include the mean effective dose, the maximal effect and the steepness. Interpretation of such curves should be done in the context of the intended clinical indications of the drug. The risk-benefit ratio of a drug can be assessed by overlapping the dose-response curve of wanted and unwanted clinical effects, again, any overlapping (which can be described e.g. by the therapeutic index) should be seen in the context of the indication and available therapeutic alternatives.
Jyränki, Janne; Suominen, Sinikka; Vuola, Jyrki; Bäck, Leif
Clinical examination is still the gold standard of postoperative free flap monitoring, but with intraorally situated and/or buried flaps, it can be difficult or impossible. Microdialysis is a sampling technique which offers the possibility to monitor the metabolism of a flap continuously. Ischemia can be detected by monitoring the changes in glucose, lactate, and pyruvate levels in interstitial fluid of the specific tissue. Our aim was to use microdialysis to monitor the metabolism of free flaps used for reconstructions inside the oral cavity/oropharynx and to evaluate the reliability and usefulness of this new monitoring method.Twenty-five consecutive patients who underwent oral cavity/oropharynx cancer resection and immediate reconstruction with free flap were included in the study. A microdialysis catheter was placed into the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the flap in the end of the surgical procedure. Dialysate samples were taken on an hourly basis for 72 hours postoperatively. Routine clinical monitoring was carried out by experienced nursing staff. Clinical findings were recorded and later compared with microdialysis values. Two flaps out of 25 failed in spite of reoperations. In both problem cases, microdialysis indicated ischemia 1 to 2 hours before it became clinically evident. During flap ischemia, the lactate/pyruvate ratio increased, glucose concentrations reduced, whereas lactate level increased when compared with normal values. Our results indicate that microdialysis is safe for the patient and the flap. It can reliably detect flap ischemia at an early stage. This is especially useful in buried flaps when clinical monitoring is difficult. Microdialysis may also reduce the patient discomfort caused by repeated clinical examination of the flap.
Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica
Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Antipa, Ciprian; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Stanciulescu, Viorica; Mayerzedt, Claudia; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela
In order to find out the comparative clinical effects of coherent and noncoherent low power light, we divided 74 patients with sciatics in three groups, treated with the same energy dose, as follows: A group: with IR continuous diode laser; B group: with noncoherent IR diode; C group: with placebo laser. The positive results were 66.66 percent for A group, 52.00 percent for B group and 36.36 percent for C group. We conclude, after these preliminary results, that coherent low power light has superior clinical efficacy versus noncoherent light and placebo laser, when used the same energy dose.
Weeks, Douglas L; Noteboom, J Timothy
The number needed to treat (NNT) is gaining attention as a method of reporting the results of clinical trails with dichotomous outcome measures. The NNT is defined as the number of patients who would need to be treated, on average, with a specific intervention to prevent 1 additional bad outcome or to achieve 1 desirable outcome in a given time period. Because it reports outcomes in terms of patient numbers, it is extremely useful to clinicians for making decisions about the effort expended with a particular intervention to achieve a single positive outcome. This special communication describes the NNT statistic and its utility for choosing clinical interventions.
Polypodium leucotomas extract is a natural product derived from a tropical fern that is available as an over-the-counter product in the United States and several other countries. A designated brand of oral Polypodium leucotomas extract has been shown in several research studies to exhibit a variety of antioxidant and photoprotective properties. Clinical research with this same formulation of Polypodium leucotomas extract has demonstrated multiple potential therapeutic applications. This article provides a thorough overview of research completed with Polypodium leucotomas extract and outlines suggested approaches for clinical use. PMID:27386044
Burkhardt, Olaf; Derendorf, Hartmut; Welte, Tobias
Ertapenem, a parenteral broad-spectrum 1-beta-methyl-carbapenem, was licensed 5 years ago for clinical practice in the US and Europe. The substance has a good in vitro activity against many common aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Its in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae carrying plasmid- or chromosomal-mediated beta-lactamases, including AmpC- and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, is especially clinically significant. Advantages concerning in vitro activity and low potential for so-called 'collateral damage', and development of own resistance during therapy, as shown in several randomized, controlled clinical trials, make ertapenem an excellent treatment choice for complicated aerobic and anaerobic mix infections caused by ertapenem-sensitive bacteria. On the other hand, due to its limited activity against Acinetobacter spp., enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is less suitable for late-onset nosocomial infections. International guidelines recommend the initial empirical use of ertapenem for intra-abdominal infections, skin and skin-structure infections, acute pelvic infections, complicated urinary tract infections and pneumonia (both community-acquired and 'early-onset' nosocomial) in a dose of 1.0 g administered once daily. However, recent results from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling studies in critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and adipose volunteers with a body mass index of > or = 20 kg/m(2) showed that the standard dose of 1.0 g/day may not provide adequate free, protein-unbound drug concentrations in plasma and organ tissues. Therefore, a shortening of the dosage interval or continuous infusion of ertapenem should be considered to ensure optimal free concentrations in these particular populations.
Puranik, Manjunath P; Uma, SR
Introduction Handedness becomes important for students during their training period. Limited literature is available regarding the same. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the dental practice perspectives and determine the hand preference and discomfort level among the Left-Handed (LH) clinical dental students. Materials and Methods A 30-item survey tool was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey among four successive LH cohorts (third and final year undergraduates, dental interns and postgraduates) in all the dental colleges of Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, during the year 2014. Results A total of 84 students completed the survey, response rate being 100%. About one-third (37%) reported that their institution was not properly equipped to accommodate LH students. Majority felt that LH dentists were at a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal complications. Mouth mirror handling showed equal distribution for handedness as compared to the other dental activities, whereas discomfort levels were negligible (“without any difficulty”). Dental practice perspective scores significantly correlated with the difficulty levels (r=-0.333, p<0.001). Conclusion Overall, the left-handers had a right dental practice perspective and their responses indicate a need to address their issues empathetically. PMID:27891465
Guindo, Merepen A; Shott, Joseph P; Saye, Renion; Diakité, Moussa L; Sanogo, Sintry; Dembele, Moussa B; Keita, Sekouba; Nagel, Mary C; Ellis, Ruth D; Aebig, Joan A; Diallo, Dapa A; Doumbo, Ogobara K
Laboratory capacity in the developing world frequently lacks quality management systems (QMS) such as good clinical laboratory practices, proper safety precautions, and adequate facilities; impacting the ability to conduct biomedical research where it is needed most. As the regulatory climate changes globally, higher quality laboratory support is needed to protect study volunteers and to accurately assess biological parameters. The University of Bamako and its partners have undertaken a comprehensive QMS plan to improve quality and productivity using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards and guidelines. The clinical laboratory passed the College of American Pathologists inspection in April 2010, and received full accreditation in June 2010. Our efforts to implement high-quality standards have been valuable for evaluating safety and immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidates in Mali. Other disease-specific research groups in resource-limited settings may benefit by incorporating similar training initiatives, QMS methods, and continual improvement practices to ensure best practices.
Sim, Ida; Gorman, Paul; Greenes, Robert A.; Haynes, R. Brian; Kaplan, Bonnie; Lehmann, Harold; Tang, Paul C.
Background: The use of clinical decision support systems to facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine promises to substantially improve health care quality. Objective: To describe, on the basis of the proceedings of the Evidence and Decision Support track at the 2000 AMIA Spring Symposium, the research and policy challenges for capturing research and practice-based evidence in machine-interpretable repositories, and to present recommendations for accelerating the development and adoption of clinical decision support systems for evidence-based medicine. Results: The recommendations fall into five broad areas—capture literature-based and practice-based evidence in machine-interpretable knowledge bases; develop maintainable technical and methodological foundations for computer-based decision support; evaluate the clinical effects and costs of clinical decision support systems and the ways clinical decision support systems affect and are affected by professional and organizational practices; identify and disseminate best practices for work flow–sensitive implementations of clinical decision support systems; and establish public policies that provide incentives for implementing clinical decision support systems to improve health care quality. Conclusions: Although the promise of clinical decision support system–facilitated evidence-based medicine is strong, substantial work remains to be done to realize the potential benefits. PMID:11687560
Since the first descriptions of circumscribed frontotemporal atrophies, and the first statement published by the Lund and Manchester groups, consensus clinical and pathological criteria for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have been increasingly refined. The last international behavioural variant FTD criteria (FTDC) (Rascovsky et al., 2011) are the most sensitive, operational and reliable, for the clinical syndrome. Previously exclusion features, like early and severe amnestic syndrome or spatial disorientation, which turn out to be not so rare, are taken into account, as well as imaging, and biomarkers suggestive of other pathologies like Alzheimer's disease. So far, clinical features do not seem very helpful in predicting the underlying histopathology, although there are some clues, mainly related to neurological features (e.g. motor neuron disease, extra-pyramidal symptoms or language disorders), or associated disorders (e.g. Paget disease of bone) or genetics. BvFTD remains a difficult diagnosis at very early stage, which accounts for the delay of diagnosis, especially in late onset, where the frontotemporal atrophy may not be striking. At very young onset, psychiatric diseases must be ruled out. More systematic assessment of social cognition could be helpful. Further biomarkers are expected. Systematic use of recent criteria, for BvFTD and other neurodegenerative diseases especially AD, will contribute to make early and correct diagnoses in excluding or suggesting alternative diagnoses. Post-mortem assessment, with detailed recording of clinical information, is essential to progress.
Bardsley, Mary Ellen; McGrath, Kathleen
This article describes an alternative venue clinical experience that provides advanced literacy specialist candidates and preservice teacher candidates at a small liberal arts university context for advancing their roles and understanding of effective teaching. The article situates our conceptual and pedagogical understandings of teaching and…
Malhotra, A K; Zhang, J-P; Lencz, T
Pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic (PGx) approaches to psychopharmacology aim to identify clinically meaningful predictors of drug efficacy and/or side-effect burden. To date, however, PGx studies in psychiatry have not yielded compelling results, and clinical utilization of PGx testing in psychiatry is extremely limited. In this review, the authors provide a brief overview on the status of PGx studies in psychiatry, review the commercialization process for PGx tests and then discuss methodological considerations that may enhance the potential for clinically applicable PGx tests in psychiatry. The authors focus on design considerations that include increased ascertainment of subjects in the earliest phases of illness, discuss the advantages of drug-induced adverse events as phenotypes for examination and emphasize the importance of maximizing adherence to treatment in pharmacogenetic studies. Finally, the authors discuss unique aspects of pharmacogenetic studies that may distinguish them from studies of other complex traits. Taken together, these data provide insights into the design and methodological considerations that may enhance the potential for clinical utility of PGx studies.
Moswela, Bernard; Mphale, Luke Moloko
This study was conducted to investigate possible barriers to the effective implementation of clinical supervision in Botswana primary schools, junior and senior secondary schools. Since the study sought views, experiences and observations of respondents, it adopted a qualitative approach to data collection. Teacher practitioners on study leave at…