Science.gov

Sample records for active commuting route

  1. The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof. Methods Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation. Results There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42) to 'almost perfect' (0.87). Conclusions The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. PMID:20609250

  2. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)

    PubMed Central

    Wahlgren, Lina; Schantz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately. PMID:25153462

  3. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  4. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences. We compared modelled GIS shortest path routes with actual routes measured using QStarz BT-Q1000X Global Positioning System (GPS) devices in a free-living sample of adults working in Cambridge and using varying travel modes. Predictors of differences, according to length and percentage overlap, between the two route sets were assessed using multilevel regression models and concordance coefficients. The 276 trips, made by 51 participants, were on average 27% further than modelled routes, with an average geographical overlap of 39%. However, predictability of the route depended on travel mode. For route length, there was moderate-to-substantial agreement for journeys made on foot and by bicycle. Route overlap was lowest for trips made by car plus walk (22%). The magnitude of difference depended on other journey characteristics, including travelling via intermediate destinations, distance, and use of busy roads. In conclusion, GIS routes may be acceptable for distance estimation and to explore potential routes, particularly active commuting. However, GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts in which commuting behaviour actually occurs. Public health researchers should bear these considerations in mind when studying the geographical determinants and health implications of commuting behaviour, and when recommending policy changes to encourage active travel. PMID

  5. Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Route environments may influence people's active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors. Methods The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters' perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering - stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor. Results Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering - stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, R2 = 0.415, and Model 2, R 2= 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (-0.14) course of the route + (-0.13) exhaust fumes + (-0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (-0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (-0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic

  6. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances) in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive) to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696) were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade) in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y). Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3%) of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school was associated with

  7. Inhaled particle counts on bicycle commute routes of low and high proximity to motorised traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Morawska, Lidia; Stewart, Ian; Jayaratne, Rohan; Solomon, Colin

    2012-12-01

    Frequent exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) is associated with detrimental effects on cardiopulmonary function and health. UFP dose and therefore the associated health risk are a factor of exposure frequency, duration, and magnitude of (therefore also proximity to) a UFP emission source. Bicycle commuters using on-road routes during peak traffic times are sharing a microenvironment with high levels of motorised traffic, a major UFP emission source. Inhaled particle counts were measured on popular pre-identified bicycle commute route alterations of low (LOW) and high (HIGH) proximity to motorised traffic to the same inner-city destination at peak commute traffic times. During commute, real-time particle number concentration (PNC; mostly in the UFP range) and particle diameter (PD), heart rate, geographical location, and meteorological variables were measured. To determine inhaled particle counts, ventilation rate was calculated from heart-rate-ventilation associations, produced from periodic exercise testing. Total mean PNC of LOW, compared to HIGH, was reduced (1.56 × e4 ± 0.38 × e4 versus 3.06 × e4 ± 0.53 × e4 ppcc; p = 0.012). Total estimated ventilation rate did not differ significantly between LOW and HIGH (43 ± 5 versus 46 ± 9 L min-1; p = 0.136); however, due to total mean PNC, minute inhaled particle counts were 48% lower in LOW, compared to HIGH (6.71 × e8 ± 1.30 × e8 versus 14.08 × e8 ± 1.77 × e8 particles total; p = 0.003). For bicycle commuting at peak morning commute times, inhaled particle counts and therefore cardiopulmonary health risk may be substantially reduced by decreasing proximity to motorised traffic, which should be considered by both bicycle commuters and urban planners.

  8. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  9. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  10. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-06-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  11. Active Commuting Patterns at a Large, Midwestern College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew; Wittman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand patterns and influences on active commuting (AC) behavior. Participants: Students and faculty/staff at a university campus. Methods: In April-May 2008, respondents answered an online survey about mode of travel to campus and influences on commuting decisions. Hierarchical regression analyses predicted variance in walking…

  12. Commuter exposure to ultrafine particles in different urban locations, transportation modes and routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Corradi, Elisabetta; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Schindler, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Jerrett, Michael; Ducret-Stich, Regina E.; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C.

    2013-10-01

    A better understanding of ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure in different urban transport microenvironments is important for epidemiological exposure assessments and for policy making. Three sub-studies were performed to characterize personal exposure to UFP concentration and average particle size distribution diameters in frequently traveled commuter microenvironments in the city of Basel, Switzerland. First, the spatial variation of sidewalk UFP exposures within urban areas and transport-specific microenvironments was explored. Second, exposure to UFP concentration and average particle size were quantified for five modes of transportation (walking, bicycle, bus, tram, car) during different times of the day and week, along the same route. Finally, the contribution of bicycle commuting along two different routes (along main roads, away from main roads) to total daily exposures was assessed by 24-h personal measurements. In general, smaller average particle sizes and higher UFP levels were measured at places and for travel modes in close proximity to traffic. Average trip UFP concentrations were higher in car (31,784 particles cm-³) and on bicycle (22,660 particles cm-³) compared to walking (19,481 particles cm-³) and public transportation (14,055-18,818 particles cm-³). Concentrations were highest for all travel modes during weekday morning rush hours, compared to other time periods. UFP concentration was lowest in bus, regardless of time period. Bicycle travel along main streets between home and work place (24 min on average) contributed 21% and 5% to total daily UFP exposure in winter and summer, respectively. Contribution of bicycle commutes to total daily UFP exposure could be reduced by half if main roads are avoided. Our results show the importance of considering commuter behavior and route choice in exposure assessment studies.

  13. Physical activity during leisure and commuting in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Pekkarinen, Heikki; Hänninen, Osmo; Yu, Zhijie; Tian, Huiguang; Guo, Zeyu; Nissinen, Aulikki

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate physical activity during leisure time and commuting among persons aged 15-69 years in the urban population of Tianjin, China, and to assess its associations with demographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: In 1996 a cross-sectional survey of 2002 males and 1974 females provided information on physical activity during leisure time and commuting and on demographics and health behaviours. FINDINGS: No leisure-time physical activity was engaged in by 67% of females and 61% of males. However, only 4% of females and 9% of males reported an absence of physical activity during commuting. The mean duration of leisure-time physical activity for the whole population was about 10 min per day. The average commuting time on foot or by bicycle was about 30 min. Leisure-time physical activity was more frequent among highly educated people, people with high incomes, white-collar workers, married people, non-smokers, or people commuting on foot or by bicycle than among other people. Persons with low incomes, male blue-collar workers and married people were more likely than others to engage in 30 min or more per day of physical activity on foot or by bicycle when commuting. CONCLUSION: People in Tianjin engaged in a high level of physical activity when commuting and a low level of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:12571720

  14. The physical environment and health-enhancing activity during the school commute: global positioning system, geographical information systems and accelerometry.

    PubMed

    McMinn, David; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Aitkenhead, Matt J; Johnston, Derek W; Murtagh, Shemane; Rowe, David A

    2014-05-01

    Active school travel is in decline. An understanding of the potential determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute may help to inform interventions aimed at reversing these trends. The purpose of this study was to identify the physical environmental factors associated with health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute. Data were collected in 2009 on 166 children commuting home from school in Scotland. Data on location and physical activity were measured using global positioning systems (GPS) and accelerometers, and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS). Multi-level logistic regression models accounting for repeated observations within participants were used to test for associations between each land-use category (road/track/path, other man-made, greenspace, other natural) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thirty-nine children provided 2,782 matched data points. Over one third (37.1%) of children's school commute time was spent in MVPA. Children commuted approximately equal amounts of time via natural and man-made land-uses (50.2% and 49.8% respectively). Commuting via road/track/path was associated with increased likelihood of MVPA (Exp(B)=1.23, P <0.05), but this association was not seen for commuting via other manmade land-uses. No association was noted between greenspace use and MVPA, but travelling via other natural land-uses was associated with lower odds of MVPA (Exp(B)=0.32, P <0.05). Children spend equal amounts of time commuting to school via man-made and natural land-uses, yet man-made transportation route infrastructure appears to provide greater opportunities for achieving health-enhancing physical activity levels. PMID:24893034

  15. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. Method We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n = 801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10–2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. Conclusions This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. PMID:26740344

  16. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and adiposity among US youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking or bicycling to school, i.e. active commuting, has shown promise for improving physical activity and preventing obesity in youth. Our objectives were to examine, among US youth, whether active commuting was inversely associated with adiposity and positively associated with moderate-to vigoro...

  17. Individual Public Transportation Accessibility is Positively Associated with Self-Reported Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. Methods: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commute distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men, the associations were insignificant. Conclusion: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning

  18. Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Gayah, Vikash V.; Campbell, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT) use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC) behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748) completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596) reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related. PMID:25898405

  19. Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥ 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors. PMID:23689245

  20. Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.

    PubMed

    Christian, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health. PMID:22689293

  1. The association between access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting.

    PubMed

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-12-01

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting. PMID:25489998

  2. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S.; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting. PMID:25489998

  3. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and weight among US youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have reported inconsistent findings for the relationship between active commuting to school (ACS) and physical activity or weight status/adiposity among youth. These mixed findings may be due to reliance on self-report measures of physical activity, samples drawn from specific populations, i...

  4. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and adiposity among US youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking or bicycling to school, i.e., "active commuting", was associated with greater physical activity and lower adiposity. However, findings were mixed and may be due to small sample sizes, subjectively measured physical activity, or not controlling for dietary energy intake. Our objective was to ...

  5. Active Commuting Throughout Adolescence and Central Fatness before Adulthood: Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Mielke, Gregore I.; Menezes, Ana M.; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Active commuting is a good opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA) across the lifespan that potentially might influence central body fat. We aimed to examine the prospective associations of active commuting at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with central body fat at 18 years. Methods Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3,649 participants). Active commuting, leisure-time PA and income were self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years. Waist circumference and trunk fat mass were collected at 18 years with the use of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Results Active commuting at 11 years was not prospectively associated with central body fat. However, we found that active commuting at 15 and 18 years were prospectively and cross-sectionally associated with central body fat variables, respectively, in boys but not in girls. Also, boys in the highest tertile of accumulated active commuting (i.e., average of active commuting at 11, 13 and 18 years) were associated with −2.09 cm (95%CI: −3.24; −0.94) of waist circumference and −1.11 kg (95%CI: −1.74; −0.48) of trunk fat mass compared to boys in the lowest tertile. Analyses on changes in tertiles of active commuting from 11 and 15 years to 18 years with central body fat variables at 18 years showed that boys who remained consistently in the highest tertile or moved to a higher tertile had lower levels of central body fat compared to those consistently in the lowest tertile. Conclusions Active commuting throughout adolescence in boys, especially during middle and late adolescence, is associated with lower levels in central fatness before adulthood. PMID:24791780

  6. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    PubMed Central

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  7. Impact of a walking school bus program on children's active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking School Buses (WSB) are groups of students, led to and from school by adults, in which students are picked up at designated "bus stops". The impact of WSB programs on students' active commuting to school (walking/cycling to school, ACS), and moderate-to vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) has n...

  8. Physical activity as a mediator of the relationship between active commuting to school and adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS) has been associated with more moderate-to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decreased adiposity among youth. However, no studies have examined if MVPA mediates the relationship between ACS and adiposity. We hypothesized that ACS would be inversely associated with...

  9. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health. PMID:24512572

  10. The influence of distance to school on the associations between active commuting and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Panter, Jenna; Jones, Andrew; Van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between active commuting behavior, levels of physical activity and distance to school in 9-10 year old children. Participants were children (n = 1824) who took part in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people). For both boys and girls, significant positive associations were observed between walking to school and physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during weekday journey times (8-9 am and 3-4 pm), and the size of association also became stronger with increasing distance from school. Promotion of active commuting to school might be an important way to increase levels of physical activity in school children. PMID:21467592

  11. Ecological Analysis of Parking Prices and Active Commuting in US Cities, 2009.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Wendel, Arthur M; Auchincloss, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an ecological study to determine whether parking prices are associated with active commuting across US cities. We obtained parking prices for 107 US cities from the Drexel University Central Business District Public Parking Survey, obtained city prevalence of walking and bicycling to work from the American Community Survey, and used weighted least squares linear regression to explore associations between parking prices and active commuting. After adjusting for several covariates, walking to work was 3.1% higher for every additional dollar charged for off-street daily parking, but only among more densely populated cities, and no such association was detected for bicycling to work. These preliminary results hint at the potential for parking policies to influence commuting mode choice, a link that city planners and public health officials could consider when evaluating parking policies and active transportation behaviors. PMID:27609301

  12. Physical activity in the older adults related to commuting and leisure, Maceió, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Ana Raquel de Carvalho; Novais, Francini Vilela; Andreoni, Solange; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the level of physical activity of older adults by commuting and leisure time and associated factors. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study carried out with a population-based sample of 319 older individuals in Maceió, AL, Northeastern Brazil, in 2009. The level of physical activity in leisure and commuting was measured by applying the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, long version. The variables analyzed were: age, schooling, sex, per capita income and perceived health. We used descriptive analysis, Fisher's exact test and multiple regression analysis of prevalence rates. RESULTS We classified 87.5% as insufficiently active in commuting, being significantly higher among those individuals with older ages, with more education and who feel dissatisfied with their physical health. The prevalence of older people who are insufficiently active in leisure time activity was 76.2%, being more frequent in women, in men with advanced age; older adults with lower per capita income, and dissatisfaction with comparative physical health and self-perceived mental health. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of insufficiently active was high in commuting and leisure time activities. Factors such as age, gender and income should be considered, especially with regards leisure, in order to ensure fairness in the development of policies to promote health and physical activity in this population. PMID:24626549

  13. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting) could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (re)assess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work, particularly for people who live too

  14. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been associated with higher levels of physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. To examine the relations...

  15. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with urban children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been proposed as a method to increase physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. The objective of this st...

  16. An ecological analysis of environmental correlates of active commuting in urban U.S.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2014-11-01

    We conduct a cross-sectional ecological analysis to examine environmental correlates of active commuting in 39,660 urban tracts using data from the 2010 Census, 2007-2011 American Community Survey, and other sources. The five-year average (2007-2011) prevalence is 3.05% for walking, 0.63% for biking, and 7.28% for public transportation to work, with higher prevalence for all modes in lower-income tracts. Environmental factors account for more variances in public transportation to work but economic and demographic factors account for more variances in walking and biking to work. Population density, median housing age, street connectivity, tree canopy, distance to parks, air quality, and county sprawl index are associated with active commuting, but the association can vary in size and direction for different transportation mode and for higher-income and lower-income tracts. PMID:25460907

  17. An Ecological Analysis of Environmental Correlates of Active Commuting in Urban U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2014-01-01

    We conduct a cross-sectional ecological analysis to examine environmental correlates of active commuting in 39,660 urban tracts using data from the 2010 Census, 2007-2011 American Community Survey, and other sources. The five-year average (2007-2011) prevalence is 3.05% for walking, 0.63% for biking, and 7.28% for public transportation to work, with higher prevalence for all modes in lower-income tracts. Environmental factors account for more variances in public transportation to work but economic and demographic factors account for more variances in walking and biking to work. Population density, median housing age, street connectivity, tree canopy, distance to parks, air quality, and county sprawl index are associated with active commuting, but the association can vary in size and direction for different transportation mode and for higher-income and lower-income tracts. PMID:25460907

  18. Impact of a walking school bus program on children’s active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Walking School Bus (WSB) pilot program was evaluated to determine the impact on student’s Active Commuting to School (ACS) and moderate-to vigorous- physical activity (MVPA). We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 8 low income, elementary schools in Houston, TX, USA. Students (n=149) wer...

  19. Ethnic minority children’s active commuting to school and association with physical activity and pedestrian safety behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examine...

  20. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 μm) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ≤ 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of

  1. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Hastmann, Tanis J.; Norton, Alyssa N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC) is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators (n = 437) was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors). t-tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Results. Participants actively commuted 0.51 ± 1.93 times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. Conclusions. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population. PMID:24089620

  2. Neighborhood Design and Perceptions: Relationship with Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Ashwood, J. Scott; Evenson, Kelly R.; Sirard, John R.; Rung, Ariane L.; Dowda, Marsha; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Walking to and from school contributes to total physical activity levels. This study investigated whether perceived and actual neighborhood features were associated with walking to or from school among adolescent girls. Methods A sample of geographically diverse 8th grade girls (N=890) from the Trial for Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG) study living within 1.5 miles of their middle school were recruited. Participants completed a self-administered survey on their neighborhood and walking behavior. Geographic information system (GIS) data were used to assess objective neighborhood features. Nested multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the contribution of perceived and objective measures of walking to or from school. Results Fifty-six percent (N=500) of the girls walked to or from school at least one day of the week. White (42%) girls walked more frequently than Hispanic (25%) and African American (21%) girls. Girls were nearly twice as likely to walk to or from school if they perceived their neighborhoods as safe and perceived they had places they liked to walk, controlling for other potential confounders. Additionally, girls who lived closer to school, had more active destinations in their neighborhood, and smaller sized blocks were more likely to walk to or from school than those who did not. Conclusion Safety, land use, and school location issues need to be considered together when designing interventions to increase walking to and from school. PMID:20019628

  3. Determinants of uptake and maintenance of active commuting to school.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Elaine M; Dempster, Martin; Murphy, Marie H

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to identify determinants of uptake and maintenance of active school travel (AST) over 4 years in children aged 9 at baseline. Data from wave 1 (n=8502) and 2 (n=7479) of the Growing Up in Ireland study were analysed. At 9- and 13-years 25% and 20% engaged in AST. Children were more likely to maintain or take-up AST if they lived in an urban area. Change in distance to school influenced both maintenance and adoption of AST, with a negative impact seen for increased distance between 9 and 13 years and a positive impact seen for decreased distance. Some factors which predict uptake and maintenance of AST are modifiable and can inform intervention development. PMID:27160529

  4. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  5. Neighborhood Perceptions and Active School Commuting in Low-Income Cities

    PubMed Central

    DeWeese, Robin S.; Yedidia, Michael J.; Tulloch, David L.; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background Few children accumulate the recommended ≥60 minutes of physical activity each day. Active travel to and from school (ATS) is a potential source of increased activity for children, accounting for 22% of total trips and time spent traveling by school-aged children. Purpose This study identifies the association of parents’ perceptions of the neighborhood, geospatial variables, and demographic characteristics with ATS among students in four low-income, densely populated urban communities with predominantly minority populations. Methods Data were collected in 2009–2010 from households with school-attending children in four low-income New Jersey cities. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (n=765) identified predictors of ATS. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In all, 54% of students actively commuted to school. Students whose parents perceived the neighborhood as very unpleasant for activity were less likely (OR=0.39) to actively commute, as were students living farther from school, with a 6% reduction in ATS for every 0.10 mile increase in distance to school. Perceptions of crime, traffic, and sidewalk conditions were not predictors of ATS. Conclusions Parents’ perceptions of the pleasantness of the neighborhood, independent of the effects of distance from school, may outweigh concerns about crime, traffic, or conditions of sidewalks in predicting active commuting to school in the low-income urban communities studied. Efforts such as cleaning up graffiti, taking care of abandoned buildings, and providing shade trees to improve neighborhood environments are likely to increase ATS, as are efforts that encourage locating schools closer to the populations they serve. PMID:24050414

  6. Influence of Sports, Physical Education, and Active Commuting to School on Adolescent Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Michael L.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the associations between weight status and different forms of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted telephone surveys with 1718 New Hampshire and Vermont high school students and their parents as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health. We surveyed adolescents about their team sports participation, other extracurricular physical activity, active commuting, physical education, recreational activity for fun, screen time, diet quality, and demographics. Overweight/obesity (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI for age ≥ 95 percentile) were based on self-reported height and weight. RESULTS: Overall, 29.0% (n = 498) of the sample was overweight/obese and 13.0% (n = 223) were obese. After adjustments, sports team participation was inversely related to overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.87] for >2 sports teams versus 0) and obesity (RR = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81] for >2 sports teams versus 0). Additionally, active commuting to school was inversely related to obesity (RR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.99] for >3.5 days per week versus 0). Attributable risk estimates suggest obesity prevalence would decrease by 26.1% (95% CI: 9.4%, 42.8%) if all adolescents played on 2 sports teams per year and by 22.1% (95% CI: 0.1%, 43.3%) if all adolescents walked/biked to school at least 4 days per week. CONCLUSIONS: Team sport participation had the strongest and most consistent inverse association with weight status. Active commuting to school may reduce the risk of obesity, but not necessarily overweight, and should be studied further. Obesity prevention programs should consider strategies to increase team sport participation among all students. PMID:22802608

  7. The Role of Distance in Examining the Association Between Active Commuting to School and Students' Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    DeWeese, Robin; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school (ACS) increases students' daily physical activity, but associations between student weight and ACS are inconsistent. Few studies examining ACS and weight account for distance commuted. This study examines the association between students' weight status and ACS, taking into account distance to school. Methods In 2009–10 a random digit-dial household survey conducted in low-income minority cities collected information about ACS for 1 randomly selected school-going student per household. Parents provided measured heights and weights. Distance commuted was obtained using geocoded home and school addresses. Multivariate regression analyses assessed associations of ACS and distance commuted with weight status. Results 36.6% of students were overweight/obese; 47.2% engaged in ACS. Distance walked/biked to school was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99). Without distance commuted in the model, ACS was not associated with students' weight status. Compared with no ACS, ACS greater than a half-mile was associated with 65% lower odds of a student being overweight/obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.78); ACS less than a half-mile was not. Conclusions ACS is significantly inversely associated with overweight/obesity among students who commute beyond a one-half mile threshold. PMID:25473961

  8. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  9. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  10. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-10-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents' everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  11. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  12. Making almost commuting matrices commute

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    Suppose two Hermitian matrices A, B almost commute ({parallel}[A,B]{parallel} {<=} {delta}). Are they close to a commuting pair of Hermitian matrices, A', B', with {parallel}A-A'{parallel},{parallel}B-B'{parallel} {<=} {epsilon}? A theorem of H. Lin shows that this is uniformly true, in that for every {epsilon} > 0 there exists a {delta} > 0, independent of the size N of the matrices, for which almost commuting implies being close to a commuting pair. However, this theorem does not specifiy how {delta} depends on {epsilon}. We give uniform bounds relating {delta} and {epsilon}. The proof is constructive, giving an explicit algorithm to construct A' and B'. We provide tighter bounds in the case of block tridiagonal and tridiagnonal matrices. Within the context of quantum measurement, this implies an algorithm to construct a basis in which we can make a projective measurement that approximately measures two approximately commuting operators simultaneously. Finally, we comment briefly on the case of approximately measuring three or more approximately commuting operators using POVMs (positive operator-valued measures) instead of projective measurements.

  13. The Impact of Additional Weekdays of Active Commuting to School on Children Achieving a Criterion of 300+ Minutes of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly-Smith, Andy J. W.; McKenna, Jim; Radley, Duncan; Long, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of additional days of active commuting for meeting a criterion of 300+ minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 60+ mins/day x 5) during the school week. Methods: Based on seven-day diaries supported by teachers, binary logistic regression analyses were used to predict achievement of MVPA…

  14. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Chillón, Palma

    2015-09-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  15. NLR activation takes a direct route.

    PubMed

    Monie, Tom P

    2013-03-01

    For the first time there is now clear biochemical and biophysical evidence indicating that members of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family can be activated as a result of direct interaction between the receptor and ligand. NLRX1 leucine-rich repeats bind to RNA; murine NAIP (NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein) 5 binds flagellin directly; and NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing) 1 and NOD2 may interact directly with fragments of peptidoglycan. It remains to be seen if NLRP3 has a specific ligand, but progress has been made in addressing its mechanism of activation, with cellular imbalances and mitochondrial dysfunction being important. This review updates our understanding of NLR activation in light of these recent advances and their impact on the NLR research. PMID:23394939

  16. Does active commuting improve psychological wellbeing? Longitudinal evidence from eighteen waves of the British Household Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between active travel and psychological wellbeing. Method This study used data on 17,985 adult commuters in eighteen waves of the British Household Panel Survey (1991/2–2008/9). Fixed effects regression models were used to investigate how (i.) travel mode choice, (ii.) commuting time, and (iii.) switching to active travel impacted on overall psychological wellbeing and how (iv.) travel mode choice impacted on specific psychological symptoms included in the General Health Questionnaire. Results After accounting for changes in individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and potential confounding variables relating to work, residence and health, significant associations were observed between overall psychological wellbeing (on a 36-point Likert scale) and (i.) active travel (0.185, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.321) and public transport (0.195, 95% CI: 0.035 to 0.355) when compared to car travel, (ii.) time spent (per 10 minute change) walking (0.083, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.163) and driving (− 0.033, 95% CI: − 0.064 to − 0.001), and (iii.) switching from car travel to active travel (0.479, 95% CI: 0.199 to 0.758). Active travel was also associated with reductions in the odds of experiencing two specific psychological symptoms when compared to car travel. Conclusion The positive psychological wellbeing effects identified in this study should be considered in cost–benefit assessments of interventions seeking to promote active travel. PMID:25152507

  17. Generativity as a Route to Active Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Andreas; Schmitt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We elucidate the significance of active ageing from an individual as well as from a societal perspective. Taking an individual perspective, maintaining activity in later years is linked to successful ageing because of empirical relationships to positive self-perception, satisfaction with life, and development of competences, whereas from a societal perspective, active ageing implies usage of older people's life competences as a human capital of society—a societal imperative, particularly in times of demographic change but also more basically substantiated in an ethics of responsibility, intergenerational solidarity, and generation equity. We focus on the psychological construct of generativity which is interpreted as an aspect of the philosophical-anthropological category of joint responsibility. Our own research in Mexico and the Baltic States supports the notion that maintaining access to the public sphere and active engagement for others is a more basic individual concern than a life-stages specific developmental task. We report background and results of a Dialogue Forum Project Funding, a research cooperation between our institute and the Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility, and Future aimed to improve generativity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine by implementing and supporting local initiatives offering opportunities for intergenerational dialogue. PMID:22919378

  18. Quantifying the physical activity energy expenditure of commuters using a combination of global positioning system and combined heart rate and movement sensors

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Silvia; Ogilvie, David; Dalton, Alice; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Søren; Panter, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    Background Active commuting may help to increase adults' physical activity levels. However, estimates of its energy cost are derived from a small number of studies which are laboratory-based or use self-reported measures. Methods Adults working in Cambridge (UK) recruited through a predominantly workplace-based strategy wore combined heart rate and movement sensors and global positioning system (GPS) devices for one week, and completed synchronous day-by-day travel diaries in 2010 and 2011. Commuting journeys were delineated using GPS data, and metabolic intensity (standard metabolic equivalents; MET) was derived and compared between journey types using mixed-effects linear regression. Results 182 commuting journeys were included in the analysis. Median intensity was 1.28 MET for car journeys; 1.67 MET for bus journeys; 4.61 MET for walking journeys; 6.44 MET for cycling journeys; 1.78 MET for journeys made by car in combination with walking; and 2.21 MET for journeys made by car in combination with cycling. The value for journeys made solely by car was significantly lower than those for all other journey types (p < 0.04). On average, 20% of the duration of journeys incorporating any active travel (equating to 8 min) was spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Conclusions We have demonstrated how GPS and activity data from a free-living sample can be used simultaneously to provide objective estimates of commuting energy expenditure. On average, incorporating walking or cycling into longer journeys provided over half the weekly recommended activity levels from the commute alone. This may be an efficient way of achieving physical activity guidelines and improving population health. PMID:26441297

  19. Battery cars on superconducting magnetically levitated carriers: One commuting solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, B. Mike; Oman, Henry

    1992-05-01

    Commuting to work in an urban-suburban metropolitan environment is becoming an unpleasant time-wasting process. We applied the technology of communication management to this commuting problem. Communication management is a system-engineering tool that produced today's efficient telephone network. The resulting best commuting option is magnetically levitated carriers of two-passenger, battery-powered, personally-owned local-travel cars. A commuter drives a car to a nearby station, selects a destination, drives on a waiting carrier, and enters an accelerating ramp. A central computer selects an optimum 100 miles-per-hour trunk route, considering existing and forecast traffic; assigns the commuter a travel slot, and subsequently orders switching-station actions. The commuter uses the expensive facilities for only a few minutes during each trip. The cost of travel could be less than 6 cents per mile.

  20. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant’s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s). The outcomes were changes in the share of commute trips (i) involving any active travel, (ii) involving any public transport, and (iii) made entirely by car. Variability and change data were derived from a self-reported seven-day record collected before (2009) and after (2012) the intervention. Separate multinomial regression models were estimated to assess the influence of baseline variability on behaviour change, both independently and as an interaction effect with exposure to the intervention. Results All three measures of variability predicted changes in mode share in most models. The effect size for the intervention was slightly strengthened after including variability. Commuters with higher baseline variability were more likely to increase their active mode share (e.g. for HHI: relative risk ratio [RRR] for interaction 3.34, 95% CI 1.41, 7.89) and decrease their car mode share in response to the intervention (e.g. for HHI: RRR 7.50, 95% CI 2.52, 22.34). Conclusions People reporting a higher level of variability in mode choice were more likely to change their travel behaviour following an intervention. Future research should consider such variability as a potential predictor and effect modifier of travel and physical activity behaviour change, and its significance for the design and targeting of interventions. PMID

  1. Does Commuting Affect Health?

    PubMed

    Künn-Nelen, Annemarie

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyzes the relation between commuting time and health in the UK. I focus on four different types of health outcomes: subjective health measures, objective health measures, health behavior, and healthcare utilization. Fixed effect models are estimated with British Household Panel Survey data. I find that whereas objective health and health behavior are barely affected by commuting time, subjective health measures are clearly lower for people who commute longer. A longer commuting time is, moreover, related to more visits to the general practitioner. Effects turn out to be more pronounced for women and for commuters driving a car. For women, commuting time is also negatively related to regular exercise and positively to calling in sick. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26010157

  2. Inductively commutated coilguns

    SciTech Connect

    Mongeau, P.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the concept and relevance of power factor is presented in regards to high performance launchers. As the scale of launchers grows and as efforts to improve efficiency continue power factor considerations will become crucial in engineering design and ultimate launcher performance limits. The use of motion induced commutation to improve the power factor are discussed. Various approaches to inductive commutation are presented, including: the brush-commutated 9 MJ Coilgun, the solid state-switched coilgun and the quenchgun.

  3. Inductively commutated coilguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongeau, Peter P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept and relevance of power factor is presented in the context of high-performance launchers. As the scale of launchers grows and efforts to improve efficiency continue, power factor considerations will become crucial in engineering design and ultimate launcher performance limits. The use of motion-induced commutation to improve the power factor are discussed. Various approaches to inductive commutation are presented, including the brush-commutated 9-MJ coilgun, the solid state-switched coilgun, and the quenchgun.

  4. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. PMID:26439646

  5. Covariant non-commutative space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckman, Jonathan J.; Verlinde, Herman

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a covariant non-commutative deformation of 3 + 1-dimensional conformal field theory. The deformation introduces a short-distance scale ℓp, and thus breaks scale invariance, but preserves all space-time isometries. The non-commutative algebra is defined on space-times with non-zero constant curvature, i.e. dS4 or AdS4. The construction makes essential use of the representation of CFT tensor operators as polynomials in an auxiliary polarization tensor. The polarization tensor takes active part in the non-commutative algebra, which for dS4 takes the form of so (5, 1), while for AdS4 it assembles into so (4, 2). The structure of the non-commutative correlation functions hints that the deformed theory contains gravitational interactions and a Regge-like trajectory of higher spin excitations.

  6. Delayed commutation in quantum computer networks.

    PubMed

    García-Escartín, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2006-09-15

    In the same way that classical computer networks connect and enhance the capabilities of classical computers, quantum networks can combine the advantages of quantum information and communication. We propose a nonclassical network element, a delayed commutation switch, that can solve the problem of switching time in packet switching networks. With the help of some local ancillary qubits and superdense codes, we can route a qubit packet after part of it has left the network node. PMID:17025870

  7. Commuting Distance, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Allen, Peg; Schootman, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists on themetabolic and cardiovascul ar risk correlates of commuting by vehicle, a habitual form of sedentary behavior. Purpose To examine the association between commuting distance, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk indicators. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4297 adults who had a comprehensive medical examination between 2000 and 2007 and geocoded home and work addresses in 12 Texas metropolitan counties. Commuting distance was measured along the road network. Outcome variables included weekly MET-minutes of self-reported physical activity, CRF, BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and continuously measured metabolic syndrome. Outcomes were also dichotomized using established cut-points. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, and history of high cholesterol, as well as BMI and weekly MET-minutes of physical activity and CRF (for BMI and metabolic risk models). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results Commuting distance was negatively associated with physical activity and CRF and positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and continuous metabolic score in fully adjusted linear regression models. Logistic regression analyses yielded similar associations; however, of the models with metabolic risk indicators as outcomes, only the associations with elevated blood pressure remained significant after adjustment for physical activity and CRF. Conclusions Commuting distance was adversely associated with physical activity, CRF, adiposity, and indicators of metabolic risk. PMID:22608372

  8. Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Polymers: A New Route toward Highly Efficient Solution Processable OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Cass, Michael; Bourcet, Florence; Mohamad, David; Roberts, Matthew

    2015-11-25

    Efficient intermonomer thermally activated delayed fluorescence is demonstrated for the first time, opening a new route to achieving high-efficiency solution processable polymer light-emitting device materials. External quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 10% is achieved in a simple fully solution-processed device structure, and routes for further EQE improvement identified. PMID:26457683

  9. Association between activities related to routes of infection and clinical manifestations of melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, C; Peacock, S J; Limmathurotsakul, D

    2016-01-01

    We sought associations between route of infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and clinical manifestations in 330 cases of melioidosis in northeast Thailand using bivariate multivariable logistic regression models. Activities related to skin inoculation were negatively associated with bacteraemia, activities related to ingestion were associated with bacteraemia, and activities related to inhalation were associated with pneumonia. Our study suggests that route of infection is one of the factors related to clinical manifestations of melioidosis. PMID:26417852

  10. Association between activities related to routes of infection and clinical manifestations of melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C.; Peacock, S.J.; Limmathurotsakul, D.

    2016-01-01

    We sought associations between route of infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and clinical manifestations in 330 cases of melioidosis in northeast Thailand using bivariate multivariable logistic regression models. Activities related to skin inoculation were negatively associated with bacteraemia, activities related to ingestion were associated with bacteraemia, and activities related to inhalation were associated with pneumonia. Our study suggests that route of infection is one of the factors related to clinical manifestations of melioidosis. PMID:26417852

  11. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  12. Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

    2012-03-01

    Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497

  13. Connecting with Commuters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    For the last few years, Georgia State University has taken steps toward becoming a more traditional college instead of a commuter school. It bought two Atlanta hotels to be used as residence halls, started a football team, and is building townhouses for Greek fraternities and sororities. "When alumni come back to campus, they are shocked at all…

  14. Commuter exposure to aerosol pollution on public transport in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Norford, L.

    2013-12-01

    Personal exposure to aerosol pollutants in the transport microenvironment of Singapore has not been well documented. Studies from many cities suggest that brief periods of exposure to high concentrations of airborne pollutants may have significant health impacts. Thus, a large proportion of aerosol exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips due to the proximity to traffic. A better understanding of the variability across transport modes is therefore needed to design transport policies that minimize commuters' exposure. In light of this, personal exposure measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, particle number (PN), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and active surface area (SA) were conducted on a selected route in downtown Singapore. Portable and real-time monitoring instruments were carried onto three different modes of public transport (bus, taxi, subway) and by foot. Simultaneous measurements were taken at a nearby park to capture the background concentrations. Large variability was observed amongst the various transport modes investigated. For example, the particle number concentration was on average 1.5, 1.6, 0.8, and 2.2 times higher inside buses, taxis, subway and by foot, respectively, than at the background site. Based on the results, it is possible to come up with a ranking of the 'cleanest' transport mode for Singapore.

  15. Biologically Active Oxylipins from Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Routes in Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Mariana; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae are rich and heterogeneous sources of great chemical diversity, among which oxylipins are a well-recognized class of natural products. Algal oxylipins comprise an assortment of oxygenated, halogenated, and unsaturated functional groups and also several carbocycles, varying in ring size and position in lipid chain. Besides the discovery of structurally diverse oxylipins in macroalgae, research has recently deciphered the role of some of these metabolites in the defense and innate immunity of photosynthetic marine organisms. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the chemistry, biosynthesis, ecology, and potential bioactivity of oxylipins from marine macroalgae. For a better understanding, enzymatic and nonenzymatic routes were separated; however, both processes often occur concomitantly and may influence each other, even producing structurally related molecules. PMID:26805855

  16. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement. PMID:22922991

  17. Probing deformed quantum commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Giani, Tommaso; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Several quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose their physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such a minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on position measurements has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be estimated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to the estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra induced by the deformed commutation relations.

  18. PKCζ regulates Notch receptor routing and activity in a Notch signaling-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Sjöqvist, Marika; Antfolk, Daniel; Ferraris, Saima; Rraklli, Vilma; Haga, Cecilia; Antila, Christian; Mutvei, Anders; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Holmberg, Johan; Jin, Shaobo; Eriksson, John E; Lendahl, Urban; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Activation of Notch signaling requires intracellular routing of the receptor, but the mechanisms controlling the distinct steps in the routing process is poorly understood. We identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch receptor intracellular routing. When PKCζ was inhibited in the developing chick central nervous system and in cultured myoblasts, Notch-stimulated cells were allowed to undergo differentiation. PKCζ phosphorylates membrane-tethered forms of Notch and regulates two distinct routing steps, depending on the Notch activation state. When Notch is activated, PKCζ promotes re-localization of Notch from late endosomes to the nucleus and enhances production of the Notch intracellular domain, which leads to increased Notch activity. In the non-activated state, PKCζ instead facilitates Notch receptor internalization, accompanied with increased ubiquitylation and interaction with the endosomal sorting protein Hrs. Collectively, these data identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch trafficking and demonstrate that distinct steps in intracellular routing are differentially modulated depending on Notch signaling status. PMID:24662486

  19. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  20. Antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites synthesized by chemical reduction route

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of polymers and size of nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites (Ag BNCs). In this research, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were incorporated into biodegradable polymers that are chitosan, gelatin and both polymers via chemical reduction method in solvent in order to produce Ag BNCs. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were employed as a metal precursor and reducing agent respectively. On the other hand, chitosan and gelatin were added as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of silver nanoparticles was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar. Results The properties of Ag BNCs were studied as a function of the polymer weight ratio in relation to the use of chitosan and gelatin. The morphology of the Ag BNCs films and the distribution of the Ag NPs were also characterized. The diameters of the Ag NPs were measured and their size is less than 20 nm. The antibacterial trait of silver/chitosan/gelatin bionanocomposites was investigated. The silver ions released from the Ag BNCs and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag BNC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (S. aureus and M. luteus) by diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar. Conclusions The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs with size less than 20 nm was demonstrated and showed positive results against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The Ag NPs stabilized well in the polymers matrix. PMID:22967920

  1. Accelerating commutation circuits in quantum computer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Min; Huang, Xu; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zeng-ke

    2012-12-01

    In a high speed and packet-switched quantum computer network, a packet routing delay often leads to traffic jams, becoming a severe bottleneck for speeding up the transmission rate. Based on the delayed commutation circuit proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 110502 (2006), we present an improved scheme for accelerating network transmission. For two more realistic scenarios, we utilize the characteristic of a quantum state to simultaneously implement a data switch and transmission that makes it possible to reduce the packet delay and route a qubit packet even before its address is determined. This circuit is further extended to the quantum network for the transmission of the unknown quantum information. The analysis demonstrates that quantum communication technology can considerably reduce the processing delay time and build faster and more efficient packet-switched networks.

  2. Instruction set commutivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present a state property called congruence and show how it can be used to demonstrate commutivity of instructions in a modern load-store architecture. Our analysis is particularly important in pipelined microprocessors where instructions are frequently reordered to avoid costly delays in execution caused by hazards. Our work has significant implications to safety and security critical applications since reordering can easily change the meaning and an instruction sequence and current techniques are largely ad hoc. Our work is done in a mechanical theorem prover and results in a set of trustworthy rules for instruction reordering. The mechanization makes it practical to analyze the entire instruction set.

  3. Multiple, Ligand-Dependent Routes from the Active Site of Cytochrome P450 2C9

    SciTech Connect

    Cojocaru, Vlad; Winn, Peter J.; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2012-02-13

    The active site of liver-specific, drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases is deeply buried in the protein and is connected to the protein surface through multiple tunnels, many of which were found open in different CYP crystal structures. It has been shown that different tunnels could serve as ligand passage routes in different CYPs. However, it is not understood whether one CYP uses multiple routes for substrate access and product release and whether these routes depend on ligand properties. From 300 ns of molecular dynamics simulations of CYP2C9, the second most abundant CYP in the human liver we found four main ligand exit routes, the occurrence of each depending on the ligand type and the conformation of the F-G loop, which is likely to be affected by the CYP-membrane interaction. A non-helical F-G loop favored exit towards the putative membrane-embedded region. Important protein features that direct ligand exit include aromatic residues that divide the active site and whose motions control access to two pathways. The ligands interacted with positively charged residues on the protein surface through hydrogen bonds that appear to select for acidic substrates. The observation of multiple, ligand-dependent routes in a CYP aids understanding of how CYP mutations affect drug metabolism and provides new possibilities for CYP inhibition.

  4. Simulation of Population-Based Commuter Exposure to NO2 Using Different Air Pollution Models

    PubMed Central

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; de Nazelle, Audrey; Schindler, Christian; Ineichen, Alex; Ducret-Stich, Regina E.; Perez, Laura; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C.

    2014-01-01

    We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas. PMID:24823664

  5. Simulation of population-based commuter exposure to NO₂ using different air pollution models.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; de Nazelle, Audrey; Schindler, Christian; Ineichen, Alex; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Perez, Laura; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C

    2014-05-01

    We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m(-3), range: 21-61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m(-3); range: 24-51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m(-3); range: 24-54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas. PMID:24823664

  6. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    laboratory using standard BTEX gases. The LODs for the Tenax TA sampling tubes (determined with a sample volume of 1,000 standard cubic centimeters which is close to the approximate commuter sample volumes collected) were orders of magnitude lower (0.04 to 0.7 parts per billion (ppb) for individual compounds of BTEX) compared to the PIDs' LODs (9.3 to 15 ppb of a BTEX mixture), which makes the Tenax TA sampling method more suitable to measure BTEX concentrations in the sub-parts per billion (ppb) range. PID and Tenax TA data for commuter exposures were inversely related. The concentrations of VOCs measured by the PID were substantially higher than BTEX concentrations measured by collocated Tenax TA samplers. The inverse trend and the large difference in magnitude between PID responses and Tenax TA BTEX measurements indicates the two methods may have been measuring different air pollutants that are negatively correlated. Drivers in Fort Collins, Colorado with closed windows experienced greater time-weighted average BTEX exposures than cyclists (p: 0.04). Commuter BTEX exposures measured in Fort Collins were lower than commuter exposures measured in prior studies that occurred in larger cities (Boston and Copenhagen). Although route and intake may affect a commuter's BTEX dose, these variables are outside of the scope of this study. Within the limitations of this study (including: small sample size, small representative area of Fort Collins, and respiration rates not taken into account), it appears health risks associated with traffic-induced BTEX exposures may be reduced by commuting via cycling instead of driving with windows closed and living in a less populous area that has less vehicle traffic. Although the PID did not reliably measure low-level commuter BTEX exposures, the Tenax TA sampling method did. The PID measured BTEX concentrations reliably in a controlled environment, at high concentrations (300-800 ppb), and in the absence of other air pollutants. In

  7. Relationships Between Commuting and Social Capital Among Men and Women in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Carita; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The societal need for a mobile workforce increases time spent commuting and thus also the total workday. How this affects individual well-being and social life is, however, surprisingly little known. We investigated the relation between commuting time and mode, and social participation and general trust in other people as measures of social capital, using data from public health surveys conducted in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden: in all, 21,088 persons ages 18 to 65 and working at least 30 hr per week. Commuting by car was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of low social participation and low general trust compared with active commuting, and the association increased with the duration of commuting time. In contrast, public commuting was not significantly associated with decreased social capital measures except among long-duration commuters, who reported lower social participation. The overall pattern was similar for men and for women. PMID:26273107

  8. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  9. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    laboratory using standard BTEX gases. The LODs for the Tenax TA sampling tubes (determined with a sample volume of 1,000 standard cubic centimeters which is close to the approximate commuter sample volumes collected) were orders of magnitude lower (0.04 to 0.7 parts per billion (ppb) for individual compounds of BTEX) compared to the PIDs' LODs (9.3 to 15 ppb of a BTEX mixture), which makes the Tenax TA sampling method more suitable to measure BTEX concentrations in the sub-parts per billion (ppb) range. PID and Tenax TA data for commuter exposures were inversely related. The concentrations of VOCs measured by the PID were substantially higher than BTEX concentrations measured by collocated Tenax TA samplers. The inverse trend and the large difference in magnitude between PID responses and Tenax TA BTEX measurements indicates the two methods may have been measuring different air pollutants that are negatively correlated. Drivers in Fort Collins, Colorado with closed windows experienced greater time-weighted average BTEX exposures than cyclists (p: 0.04). Commuter BTEX exposures measured in Fort Collins were lower than commuter exposures measured in prior studies that occurred in larger cities (Boston and Copenhagen). Although route and intake may affect a commuter's BTEX dose, these variables are outside of the scope of this study. Within the limitations of this study (including: small sample size, small representative area of Fort Collins, and respiration rates not taken into account), it appears health risks associated with traffic-induced BTEX exposures may be reduced by commuting via cycling instead of driving with windows closed and living in a less populous area that has less vehicle traffic. Although the PID did not reliably measure low-level commuter BTEX exposures, the Tenax TA sampling method did. The PID measured BTEX concentrations reliably in a controlled environment, at high concentrations (300-800 ppb), and in the absence of other air pollutants. In

  10. Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.

  11. Vehicular emission exposure of bicycle commuters in the urban area of Guangzhou, South China (PRC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, L.Y.; Hung, W.T. ); Qin, Y. )

    1994-01-01

    Guangzhou is a major city in South China and is at the forefront of economic reform since 1978. The population of Guangzhou is rapidly increasing and most people either walk or cycle to and from work. These commuters are highly vulnerable to vehicular emissions. An indirect approach was adopted to estimate vehicular emission exposure to Guangzhou bicycle commuters. Four bus routes were selected as typical commuting routes. Concentrations of NO[sub x] and CO as well as traffic volume, vehicle speed, ground-level wind speed, and direction were measured at monitoring points set up along the routes of typical street links passing through areas of various land uses. CO and NO[sub x] were recognized to be two major vehicular emission pollutants. The average CO exposure levels of Guangzhou bicycle commuters ranged from 3.7 [mu]L/L to 8.2 [mu]L/L. Few CO samples exceeded the Chinese national assessment standard. No adverse effect on health was expected. The average NO[sub x] exposure levels of Guangzhou bicycle commuters ranged from 0.13 [mu]L/L to 0.26 [mu]L/L. More than half of the NO[sub x] samples exceeded the Chinese national assessment standard. Adverse effects on the health of bicycle commuters might result. Other factors such as street configurations and land uses were also analyzed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Commuting projections on graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Zikatanov, Ludmil T.

    2013-02-19

    For a given (connected) graph, we consider vector spaces of (discrete) functions defined on its vertices and its edges. These two spaces are related by a discrete gradient operator, Grad and its adjoint, ₋Div, referred to as (negative) discrete divergence. We also consider a coarse graph obtained by aggregation of vertices of the original one. Then a coarse vertex space is identified with the subspace of piecewise constant functions over the aggregates. We consider the ℓ2-projection QH onto the space of these piecewise constants. In the present paper, our main result is the construction of a projection π H from the original edge-space onto a properly constructed coarse edge-space associated with the edges of the coarse graph. The projections π H and QH commute with the discrete divergence operator, i.e., we have div π H = QH div. The respective pair of coarse edge-space and coarse vertexspace offer the potential to construct two-level, and by recursion, multilevel methods for the mixed formulation of the graph Laplacian which utilizes the discrete divergence operator. The performance of one two-level method with overlapping Schwarz smoothing and correction based on the constructed coarse spaces for solving such mixed graph Laplacian systems is illustrated on a number of graph examples.

  13. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)--the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  14. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  15. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  16. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  17. Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available. Methods As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors. Results The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, P<0.001) for walking and an adjusted odds ratio of 6.15 (95% confidence interval 2.68-14.08, P<0.001) for cycling. Conclusions People who walked or cycled to work or study in inner Sydney reported higher levels of enjoyment from their commute compared with those who drove. This suggests enjoyment may be another benefit of active travel. So what? Focusing on 'enjoyment' associated with walking or cycling to work may be a positive motivator to encourage active travel. PMID

  18. What interventions increase commuter cycling? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Glenn; Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify interventions that will increase commuter cycling. Setting All settings where commuter cycling might take place. Participants Adults (aged 18+) in any country. Interventions Individual, group or environmental interventions including policies and infrastructure. Primary and secondary outcome measures A wide range of ‘changes in commuter cycling’ indicators, including frequency of cycling, change in workforce commuting mode, change in commuting population transport mode, use of infrastructure by defined populations and population modal shift. Results 12 studies from 6 countries (6 from the UK, 2 from Australia, 1 each from Sweden, Ireland, New Zealand and the USA) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 2 studies were randomised control trials and the remainder preintervention and postintervention studies. The majority of studies (n=7) evaluated individual-based or group-based interventions and the rest environmental interventions. Individual-based or group-based interventions in 6/7 studies were found to increase commuter cycling of which the effect was significant in only 3/6 studies. Environmental interventions, however, had small but positive effects in much larger but more difficult to define populations. Almost all studies had substantial loss to follow-up. Conclusions Despite commuter cycling prevalence varying widely between countries, robust evidence of what interventions will increase commuter cycling in low cycling prevalence nations is sparse. Wider environmental interventions that make cycling conducive appear to reach out to hard to define but larger populations. This could mean that environmental interventions, despite their small positive effects, have greater public health significance than individual-based or group-based measures because those interventions encourage a larger number of people to integrate physical activity into their everyday lives. PMID:26275902

  19. Commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds under different driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Park, Kun-Ho

    The driving conditions that were tested for the in-vehicle concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) included transport modes, fuel distributions, vehicle ventilation conditions, driving routes, commute seasons, car models, and driving periods. This study involved two sampling seasons (winter and summer). The in-auto/in-bus/fixed site ratio of the wintertime mean concentrations was about 6/3/1 for total VOCs and 8/3/1 for benzene. On the median, the in-auto/in-bus exposure ratio ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 for the morning commutes, and ranged from 2.4 to 4.5 for evening commutes, depending on the target compounds. The wintertime in-auto concentrations were significantly higher ( p<0.05), on the average 3-5 times higher, in a carbureted engine than in the three electronic fuel-injected cars. For the summertime in-auto concentrations of the target compounds except benzene, there were no significant differences between low and high ventilation conditions on the two urban routes. The urban in-auto benzene concentration was significantly higher ( p<0.05) under the low ventilation condition. For the rural commutes, the in-auto concentrations of all target compounds were significantly higher ( p<0.05) under the low ventilation condition. The in-auto VOC concentrations on the two urban routes did not differ significantly, and they were greater than the rural in-auto concentrations, with the differences being significant ( p<0.05) for all target compounds. The summertime in-auto concentrations of benzene and toluene were greater than the wintertime in-auto concentrations, with the difference being significant ( p<0.05), while the concentrations of the other target compounds were not significantly different between the two seasons. Neither car models nor driving periods influenced the in-auto VOC concentrations.

  20. Choice of commuting mode among employees: Do home neighborhood environment, worksite neighborhood environment, and worksite policy and supports matter?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Hipp, J. Aaron; Adlakha, Deepti; Marx, Christine M.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting the use of public transit and active transport (walking and cycling) instead of car driving is an appealing strategy to increase overall physical activity. Purpose To quantify the combined associations between self-reported home and worksite neighborhood environments, worksite support and policies, and employees’ commuting modes. Method Between 2012 and 2013, participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas were interviewed via telephone (n = 1,338) and provided information on socio-demographic characteristics, home and worksite neighborhoods, and worksite support and policies. Commuting mode was self-reported and categorized into car driving, public transit, and active commuting. Commuting distance was calculated using geographic information systems. Commuters providing completed data were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the correlates of using public transit and active commuting. Result The majority of participants reported commuting by driving (88.9%); only 4.9% used public transit and 6.2% used active modes. After multivariate adjustment, having transit stops within 10-15 minutes walking distance from home (p=0.05) and using worksite incentive for public transit (p<0.001) were associated with commuting by public transit. Commuting distance (p<0.001) was negatively associated with active commuting. Having free or low cost recreation facilities around the worksite (p=0.04) and using bike facilities to lock bikes at the worksite (p<0.001) were associated with active commuting. Conclusion Both environment features and worksite supports and policies are associated with the choice of commuting mode. Future studies should use longitudinal designs to investigate the potential of promoting alternative commuting modes through worksite efforts that support sustainable commuting behaviors as well as the potential of built environment improvements. PMID:26085979

  1. Potential health impact of switching from car to public transportation when commuting to work.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo; Mirer, Franklin E; Amstislavski, Tashia M; Eisl, Holger M; Werbe-Fuentes, Jordan; Gorczynski, John; Goranson, Chris; Wolff, Mary S; Markowitz, Steven B

    2010-12-01

    We assessed humidity-corrected particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposure and physical activity (using global positioning system monitors and diaries) among 18 people who commuted by car to Queens College, New York, New York, for 5 days, and then switched to commuting for the next 5 days via public transportation. The PM(2.5) differed little between car and public transportation commutes (1.41 μg/M(3)·min; P = .226). Commuting by public transportation rather than by car increased energy expenditure (+124 kcal/day; P < .001) equivalent to the loss of 1 pound of body fat per 6 weeks. PMID:20966368

  2. Route of Nicotine Administration Influences In Vivo Dopamine Neuron Activity: Habituation, Needle Injection, and Cannula Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yu; Zhang, Tianxiang; Li, Wei; Doyon, William; Dani, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems play a critical role in tobacco addiction driven by nicotine. Nicotine activates midbrain DA neurons and, consequently, elevates DA concentrations in targets, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the ventral striatum. The route of drug administration influences the impact of addictive drugs. Here, we examine whether the nature of the administration alters DA neuron activity and DA concentrations in the NAc. Using unhabituated naïve freely moving rats, microdialysis measurements showed that nicotine administered via needle injection caused greater DA release in the NAc than the same dose administered via an implanted chronic cannula. After habituation to the needle injections, however, there was no significant difference in DA signaling between the needle and cannula routes of administration. Consistent with these microdialysis results after habituation, our in vivo tetrode unit recordings showed no significant difference in midbrain DA neuron activity in response to nicotine delivered by needle or cannula as long as predictive cues were avoided. PMID:19714495

  3. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  4. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  5. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  6. Commuter Family Relationships: Alive and Thriving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon Ervin

    This study examined the impact that commuting, as part of a professional career lifestyle, has on family relationships. One hundred commuting couples participated in a paper and pencil survey. They responded to questions about coping as a family; dealing with the complications of children; keeping their relationship healthy; and commuting as a…

  7. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  8. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  9. Commuting Patterns of Nonmetro Household Heads, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Data from the Annual Housing Survey indicated that 22% of all employed United States household heads commuted to a county different from that in which they lived in 1975. Commuting was more prevalent among men than among women and slightly higher for whites than for Blacks. Commuting tended to increase until age 25-34 and then to decline after age…

  10. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  11. TRADEOFFs in climate effects through aircraft routing: forcing due to radiatively active gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, F.; Gauss, M.; Myhre, G.; Mancini, E.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Köhler, M. O.; Berntsen, T.; . G Stordal, E. J.; Iachetti, D.; Pitari, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2006-10-01

    We have estimated impacts of alternative aviation routings on the radiative forcing. Changes in ozone and OH have been estimated in four Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) participating in the TRADEOFF project. Radiative forcings due to ozone and methane have been calculated accordingly. In addition radiative forcing due to CO2 is estimated based on fuel consumption. Three alternative routing cases are investigated; one scenario assuming additional polar routes and two scenarios assuming aircraft cruising at higher (+2000 ft) and lower (-6000 ft) altitudes. Results from the base case in year 2000 are included as a reference. Taking first a steady state backward looking approach, adding the changes in the forcing from ozone, CO2 and CH4, the ranges of the models used in this work are -0.8 to -1.8 and 0.3 to 0.6 m Wm-2 in the lower (-6000 ft) and higher (+2000 ft) cruise levels, respectively. In relative terms, flying 6000ft lower reduces the forcing by 5-10% compared to the current flight pattern, whereas flying higher, while saving fuel and presumably flying time, increases the forcing by about 2-3%. Taking next a forward looking approach we have estimated the integrated forcing (m Wm-2 yr) over 20 and 100 years time horizons. The relative contributions from each of the three climate gases are somewhat different from the backward looking approach. The differences are moderate adopting 100 year time horizon, whereas under the 20 year horizon CO2 naturally becomes less important relatively. Thus the forcing agents impact climate differently on various time scales. Also, we have found significant differences between the models for ozone and methane. We conclude that we are not yet at a point where we can include non-CO2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes. Nevertheless, the rerouting cases that have been studied here yield relatively small changes in the radiative forcing due to the radiatively active gases.

  12. Student's exposure to volatile organic compounds while commuting by motorcycle and bus in Taipei City

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.C.; Lin, S.H.; Her, G.R. )

    1993-09-01

    This study examined student's exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while commuting by bus and motorcycle in Taipei, Taiwan in the winter of 1992. A total of 19 target C5-C10 VOCs on three most frequently used commuting routes were collected on Tenax-GC adsorbent tubes. The VOCs were desorbed by thermal desorption method and analyzed by GC-MS. The most abundant VOC exposure experienced by commuters was to toluene. Several alkylated benzenes, such as propyl benzenes, ethyl-methyl-benzenes and trimethyl-benzenes, were relatively abundant on the roads in Taipei. The mean benzene concentration measured in buses was 173 micrograms/m3 and motorcycles. On the average, the commuters in Taipei experienced about three to eight times higher VOC concentrations than the commuters in Los Angeles, California. Higher VOC concentrations were measured on motorcycles than in buses. The VOC concentrations were not significantly different between morning and afternoon commutes, nor among the three commuting routes. VOC concentrations measured in classroom at three schools in downtown Taipei did not vary significantly on each sampling day. However, at each school the in-classroom VOC concentrations varied significantly over the six consecutive sampling days. The VOC concentrations measured on the roads were about five times higher than those measured in the school classrooms in the city. Moderate to high correlations were found among most of the measurements of the 19 VOCs. The survey questionnaire indicated that daily commuting time ranged from 45 minutes for elementary school students to 95 minutes for vocational school students.

  13. Gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Inventor); Kheraluwala, Mustansir Hussainy (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit for a power switching inverter includes a current monitor circuit providing a current signal to a pair of analog comparators to implement latching of one of a pair of auxiliary switching devices which are used to provide commutation current for commutating switching inverters in the circuit. Each of the pair of comparators feeds a latching circuit which responds to an active one of the comparators for latching the associated gate drive circuit for one of the pair of auxiliary commutating switches. An initial firing signal is applied to each of the commutating switches to gate each into conduction and the resulting current is monitored to determine current direction and therefore the one of the switches which is carrying current. The comparator provides a latching signal to the one of the auxiliary power switches which is actually conducting current and latches that particular power switch into an on state for the duration of current through the device. The latching circuit is so designed that the only time one of the auxiliary switching devices can be latched on is during the duration of an initial firing command signal.

  14. Antileishmanial activity of a formulation of 2-n-propylquinoline by oral route in mice model.

    PubMed

    Campos Vieira, N; Vacus, J; Fournet, A; Baudouin, R; Bories, C; Séon-Méniel, B; Figadère, B; Loiseau, P M

    2011-11-01

    2-n-propylquinoline is presently a drug-candidate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniosis in pre-clinical development. As this compound is in an oily state, it needs to be formulated and the objectives of this study are: to prepare a formulation; to demonstrate that the new salted formulation did not alter the activity of the active ingredient; and finally, that this activity was quite good compared to the reference oral drug, miltefosine. Therefore, a 2-n-propylquinoline formulation, as camphorsulfonic salt, was prepared and characterised. On the Leishmania donovani / Balb/c mice model, a treatment by oral route at 60 mmoles/kg/day for ten consecutive days with this formulation was compared to 2-n-propylquinoline alone and to miltefosine, the oral reference drug. The salt formulation did not alter the activity of the 2-n-propylquinoline. The formulation reduced the parasite burden of 76% compared to 89% for miltefosine (not significant). The characteristics of this formulation results in a suitable drugability of 2-n-propylquinoline for further studies. PMID:22091464

  15. Force Spectroscopy of Substrate Molecules En Route to the Proteasome's Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Mirjam; Breuer, Sarah; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Guckenberger, Reinhard; Witt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    We used an atomic force microscope to study the mechanism underlying the translocation of substrate molecules inside the proteasome. Our specific experimental setup allowed us to measure interaction forces between the 20S proteasome and its substrates. The substrate (β-casein) was covalently bound either via a thiol-Au bond or by a PEG-based binding procedure to the atomic force microscope cantilever tip and offered as bait to proteasomes from Methanosarcina mazei. The proteasomes were immobilized densely in an upright orientation on mica, which made their upper pores accessible for substrates to enter. Besides performing conventional single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments, we developed a three-step procedure that allows the detection of specific proteasome-substrate single-molecule events without tip-sample contact. Using the active 20S wild type and an inactive active-site mutant, as well as two casein mutants bound with opposite termini to the microscope tip, we detected no directional preference of the proteasome-substrate interactions. By comparing the distribution of the measured forces for the proteasome-substrate interactions, were observed that a significant proportion of interaction events occurred at higher forces for the active versus the inactive proteasome. These forces can be attributed to the translocation of substrate en route to the active sites that are harbored deep inside the proteasome. PMID:21244845

  16. Activation and routing of membrane-tethered prohormone convertases 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Bruzzaniti, A; Marx, R; Mains, R E

    1999-08-27

    Many peptide hormones and neuropeptides are processed by members of the subtilisin-like family of prohormone convertases (PCs), which are either soluble or integral membrane proteins. PC1 and PC2 are soluble PCs that are primarily localized to large dense core vesicles in neurons and endocrine cells. We examined whether PC1 and PC2 were active when expressed as membrane-tethered proteins, and how tethering to membranes alters the biosynthesis, enzymatic activity, and intracellular routing of these PCs. PC1 and PC2 chimeras were constructed using the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic domain of the amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). The membrane-tethered PCs were rerouted from large dense core vesicles to the Golgi region. In addition, the chimeras were transiently expressed at the cell surface and rapidly internalized to the Golgi region in a fashion similar to PAM. Membrane-tethered PC1 and PC2 exhibited changes in pro-domain maturation rates, N-glycosylation, and in the pH and calcium optima required for maximal enzymatic activity against a fluorogenic substrate. In addition, the PC chimeras efficiently cleaved endogenous pro-opiomelanocortin to the correct bioactive peptides. The PAM transmembrane domain/cytoplasmic domain also prevented stimulated secretion of pro-opiomelanocortin products in AtT-20 cells. PMID:10455138

  17. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Binbin Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng

    2015-01-15

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses

  18. The Commuting Student; A Study of Facilities at Wayne State University. The Final Report of the Commuter Centers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Richard F.; Kurz, Theodore E.

    The urban university campus is studied through a comprehensive view of student patterns. Following an analysis of the life patterns of the commuting student with regard to schedule, environment, and adequacy of educational facilities, recommendations are presented for a number of campus facilities to house activities considered beneficial to the…

  19. Computational Investigations of Trichoderma Reesei Cel7A Suggest New Routes for Enzyme Activity Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Beckham, G. T.; Payne, C. M.; Bu, L.; Taylor, C. B.; McCabe, C.; Chu, J. W.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellulase (Cel7A) is a key industrial enzyme in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a multi-modular enzyme with a Family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, a flexible O-glycosylated linker, and a large catalytic domain. We have used simulation to elucidate new functions for the 3 sub-domains, which suggests new routes to increase the activity of this central enzyme. These findings include new roles for glycosylation, which we have shown can be used to tune the binding affinity. We have also examined the structures of the catalytically-active complex of Cel7A and its non-processive counterpart, Cel7B, engaged on cellulose, which suggests allosteric mechanisms involved in chain binding when these cellulases are complexed on cellulose. Our computational results also suggest that product inhibition varies significantly between Cel7A and Cel7B, and we offer a molecular-level explanation for this observation. Finally, we discuss simulations of the absolute and relative binding free energy of cellulose ligands and various mutations along the CD tunnel, which will affect processivity and the ability of Cel7A (and related enzymes) to digest cellulose. These results highlight new considerations in protein engineering for processive and non-processive cellulases for production of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  20. A Universal Model of Commuting Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Huet, Sylvie; Gargiulo, Floriana; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    We show that a recently proposed model generates accurate commuting networks on 80 case studies from different regions of the world (Europe and United-States) at different scales (e.g. municipalities, counties, regions). The model takes as input the number of commuters coming in and out of each geographic unit and generates the matrix of commuting flows between the units. The single parameter of the model follows a universal law that depends only on the scale of the geographic units. We show that our model significantly outperforms two other approaches proposing a universal commuting model [1], [2], particularly when the geographic units are small (e.g. municipalities). PMID:23049691

  1. Imprecise probability for non-commuting observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.

    2015-08-01

    It is known that non-commuting observables in quantum mechanics do not have joint probability. This statement refers to the precise (additive) probability model. I show that the joint distribution of any non-commuting pair of variables can be quantified via upper and lower probabilities, i.e. the joint probability is described by an interval instead of a number (imprecise probability). I propose transparent axioms from which the upper and lower probability operators follow. The imprecise probability depend on the non-commuting observables, is linear over the state (density matrix) and reverts to the usual expression for commuting observables.

  2. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  3. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  4. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  5. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  6. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  7. Impact of New Transport Infrastructure on Walking, Cycling, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panter, Jenna; Heinen, Eva; Mackett, Roger; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Walking and cycling bring health and environmental benefits, but there is little robust evidence that changing the built environment promotes these activities in populations. This study evaluated the effects of new transport infrastructure on active commuting and physical activity. Study design Quasi-experimental analysis nested within a cohort study. Setting/participants Four hundred and sixty-nine adult commuters, recruited through a predominantly workplace-based strategy, who lived within 30 kilometers of Cambridge, United Kingdom and worked in areas of the city to be served by the new transport infrastructure. Intervention The Cambridgeshire Guided Busway opened in 2011 and comprised a new bus network and a traffic-free walking and cycling route. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest distance from each participant’s home to the busway. Main outcome measures Change in weekly time spent in active commuting between 2009 and 2012, measured by validated 7-day recall instrument. Secondary outcomes were changes in total weekly time spent walking and cycling and in recreational and overall physical activity, measured using the validated Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results In multivariable multinomial regression models—adjusted for potential sociodemographic, geographic, health, and workplace confounders; baseline active commuting; and home or work relocation—exposure to the busway was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of an increase in weekly cycle commuting time (relative risk ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.03, 1.76) and with an increase in overall time spent in active commuting among the least active commuters at baseline (relative risk ratio=1.76, 95% CI=1.16, 2.67). The study found no evidence of changes in recreational or overall physical activity. Conclusions Providing new sustainable transport infrastructure was effective in promoting an increase in active commuting. These

  8. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  9. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  10. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  11. Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Lars E.; Garling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Fujii, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to…

  12. Facile route to hierarchical silver microstructures with high catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Sasa; Wang, Wei Tan, Fatang; Gu, Jian; Qiao, Xueliang; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile route was developed to prepare hierarchical silver microstructures. • The shape and size of secondary units can be tailed by varying reaction conditions. • Hierarchical silver microstructures have excellent catalytic activity. • The morphology and crystallinity of silver particles affect the catalytic activity. - Abstract: A facile, cost-effective and environmentally friendly route was developed to synthesize hierarchical silver microstructures consisting of different shaped secondary units through reducing concentrated silver nitrate with ascorbic acid in the absence of any surfactant. The as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The investigation on the morphology evolution revealed that the molar ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate was critical to control the shape of secondary structures. The length of plate-like secondary structures which composed hierarchical silver particles could be controlled by changing the reactant concentrations, and it had a key relationship with the catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH{sub 4}. The catalytic activity of these surfactant-free silver microstructures was about ten times higher than that of silver nanoparticles, and even comparable to that of gold nanoplates, which indicates that the as-obtained silver microstructures are very promising candidates for the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol due to the simple synthesis route and high catalytic activity.

  13. The commuters' exposure to volatile chemicals and carcinogenic risk in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Naohide; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián A.; Blanco Jiménez, Salvador; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    The commuters' exposure levels to volatile organic compounds were investigated in the following public transport modes: private car, microbus, bus, and metro along three commuting routes in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The target chemicals were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/ p-xylene, and formaldehyde. Integrated samples were taken while traveling during the morning rush hour (weekdays 7:00-9:00 a.m.) for six consecutive weeks in June and July, 2002. Scheffe test showed that the average concentrations of all chemicals inside cars and microbuses were statistically higher than in metro trains ( P<0.05). For non-formaldehyde chemicals, the average levels inside automobiles were significantly higher than in metro trains and buses ( P<0.05). The exposure level of formaldehyde in the microbus was much higher than those in the car, bus, and metro ( P<0.05). On the other hand, there were no differences in the exposure levels among transport routes. These findings suggest that for commuting trips of comparable durations, car and microbus passengers are exposed to higher levels of volatile organic compounds than bus and metro commuters. These findings are consistent with previous studies looking at exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide. The lifetime carcinogenic risk from commuting by car was 2.0×10 -5-3.1×10 -5, that by microbus was 3.1×10 -5-4.0×10 -5, that by bus was 2.0×10 -5-2.7×10 -5, and that by metro was 1.3×10 -5-1.7×10 -5 in Mexico City.

  14. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  15. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  16. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  17. NYPA/TH!NK Clean Commute Program Final Report - Inception through December 2004

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Don Karner

    2005-11-01

    The Clean Commute Program uses TH!NK city electric vehicles from Ford Motor Company’s electric vehicle group, TH!NK Mobility, to demonstrate the feasibility of using electric transportation in urban applications. Suburban New York City railroad commuters use the TH!NK city vehicles to commute from their private residences to railroad stations, where they catch commuter trains into New York City. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure for the TH!NK city vehicles is located at the commuters’ private residences as well as seven train stations. Ford leased at total of 97 TH!NK city electric vehicles to commuters from Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk counties for $199 per month. First Clean Commute Program vehicle deliveries occurred late in 2001, with data collection commencing in February 2002. Through May, 2004, 24 of the lessees have returned their vehicles to Ford and no longer participate in the Clean Commute Program. Reasons given for leaving the Program include relocation out of the Program area, change in employment status, change in commuting status, and, in a few cases, dissatisfaction with the vehicle. Additionally, 13 vehicles were returned to Ford when the lease was completed. In August 2002, Ford announced that it was ceasing production of the TH!NK city and would not extend any TH!NK city leases. Mileage accumulation dropped in the last quarter of the program as vehicle leases were returned to Ford. The impact of the program overall was significant as participants in the Clean Commute Program drove their vehicles over 406,074 miles, avoiding the use of over 18,887 gallons of gasoline. During the active portion of the program, the TH!NK city vehicles were driven an average of between 180 and 230 miles per month. Over 95% of all trips taken with the TH!NK city vehicles replaced trips previously taken in gasoline vehicles. This report covers the period from Program inception through December 2004.

  18. Evaluation of dose and route effects of platelet activating factor-induced extravasation in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Handley, D A; Van Valen, R G; Melden, M K; Saunders, R N

    1984-08-31

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a naturally occurring lipid that is reported to induce vessel hyperpermeability leading to loss of protein-rich plasma (extravasation). We have quantitated the systemic extravasation effects of synthetic PAF in the guinea pig by monitoring increases in hematocrit. When given intravenously (10-170 ng/kg), PAF produced dose-dependent increases in hematocrit, with maximal hemoconcentration developing in 5-7 min. In leukopenic animals the expected hematocrit increase was reduced by 57%. PAF given intra-arterially produced the dose-dependent changes in hematocrit similar to the intravenous effects of PAF. However, PAF given intraperitoneally (10-2500 micrograms/kg) was 800-1100-fold less effective than the other routes and hemoconcentration continued for 30-45 min until a maximal hematocrit was observed. These results show that PAF may markedly influence extravasation of plasma in a dose and route-dependent manner. PMID:6495262

  19. Daily time budgets of long-distance commuting workers in Tokyo megalopolis.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, M; Ishimaru, H; Ohtsuka, R

    1999-01-01

    In Tokyo Megalopolis, long-distance commuting between residences in the suburbs and work places in the centre of the city was examined. Using a questionnaire, heads of household in two suburbs were asked about the influences of long commuting hours on their daily time budgets. The results showed that on workdays, the workers who spent longer commuting rose and left home for work earlier, and came back home and retired later; accordingly, both time spent on in-home activities on workdays and hours slept on the day before a workday were shorter. Comparison of time budgets between the subjects who work 5 and 6 days per week revealed more vulnerable influences of long commuting hours in the former than the latter. The expected health consequences of these findings are discussed from a biosocial/human ecological viewpoint. PMID:10081238

  20. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  1. Opportunities and benefits. [commuter air travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The service characteristics and changes affecting commuter airline operations are summarized. Community and passenger considerations are addressed and the benefits identified in NASA-sponsored aircraft studies are discussed.

  2. Planning for rotorcraft and commuter air transportationn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.; Stowers, J.

    1981-01-01

    Community planning needs, criteria, and other considerations such as intermodal coordination and regulatory requirements, for rotorcraft and fixed wing commuter air transportation were identified. A broad range of community planning guidelines, issues, and information which can be used to: (1) direct anticipated aircraft technological improvements; (2) assist planners in identifying and evaluating the opportunities and tradeoffs presented by rotorcraft and commuter aircraft options relative to other modes; and (3) increase communication between aircraft technologists and planners for the purpose of on going support in capitalizing on rotorcraft and commuter air opportunities are provided. The primary tool for identifying and analyzing planning requirements was a detailed questionnaire administered to a selected sample of 55 community planners and other involved in planning for helicopters and commuter aviation.

  3. Non-commutativity measure of quantum discord.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Quantum discord is a manifestation of quantum correlations due to non-commutativity rather than entanglement. Two measures of quantum discord by the amount of non-commutativity via the trace norm and the Hilbert-Schmidt norm respectively are proposed in this paper. These two measures can be calculated easily for any state with arbitrary dimension. It is shown by several examples that these measures can reflect the amount of the original quantum discord. PMID:27122226

  4. Non-commutativity measure of quantum discord

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Quantum discord is a manifestation of quantum correlations due to non-commutativity rather than entanglement. Two measures of quantum discord by the amount of non-commutativity via the trace norm and the Hilbert-Schmidt norm respectively are proposed in this paper. These two measures can be calculated easily for any state with arbitrary dimension. It is shown by several examples that these measures can reflect the amount of the original quantum discord. PMID:27122226

  5. Analysis of a fuel cell hybrid commuter railway vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meegahawatte, Danushka; Hillmansen, Stuart; Roberts, Clive; Falco, Marco; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, Paul

    This study presents paper presents an analysis of the potential CO 2 savings that could be gained through the introduction of hydrogen-powered fuel cells on a commuter-style railway route. Vehicle is modelled as a fuel cell series hybrid. The analysis consists of power/energy flow models of a fuel cell stack, battery pack and hybrid drive controller. The models are implemented in a custom C# application and are capable of providing key parametric information of the simulated journey and individual energy drive components. A typical commuter return journey between Stratford Upon Avon and Birmingham is investigated. The fuel cell stack and battery pack behaviour is assessed for different stack sizes, battery sizes and control strategies to evaluate the performance of the overall system with the aim of understanding the optimum component configuration. Finally, the fuel (H 2) requirements are compared with typical diesel and hybrid-diesel powered vehicles with the aim of understanding the potential energy savings gained from such a fuel cell hybrid vehicle.

  6. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. PMID:25129446

  7. Non-commutativity in the brain.

    PubMed

    Tweed, D B; Haslwanter, T P; Happe, V; Fetter, M

    1999-05-20

    In non-commutative algebra, order makes a difference to multiplication, so that a x b not equal to b x a. This feature is necessary for computing rotary motion, because order makes a difference to the combined effect of two rotations. It has therefore been proposed that there are non-commutative operators in the brain circuits that deal with rotations, including motor circuits that steer the eyes, head and limbs, and sensory circuits that handle spatial information. This idea is controversial: studies of eye and head control have revealed behaviours that are consistent with non-commutativity in the brain, but none that clearly rules out all commutative models. Here we demonstrate non-commutative computation in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. We show that subjects rotated in darkness can hold their gaze points stable in space, correctly computing different final eye-position commands when put through the same two rotations in different orders, in a way that is unattainable by any commutative system. PMID:10353248

  8. Comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological and chemical routes with pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Alves Dos; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Ingle, Avinash P; Rai, Mahendra

    2016-08-01

    The authors report the comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological (using Fusarium oxysporum) and chemical routes in the presence and absence of pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent. The production of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by UV-visible spectra, with absorbance at about 420 nm in the case of both biological and chemical synthesis. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of face-centred cubic structure (FCC plane). The nanoparticles characterised by transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed spherical silver nanoparticles with size range of 5-40 and 10-70 nm in the case of biologically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles, respectively. Addition of pluronic F68 showed the stabilisation of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles demonstrated different inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles showed higher activity as compared with chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesised in the presence of pluronic F68 by the chemical route exhibited synergism in antibacterial activity as compared with those synthesised without pluronic F68. On the contrary, biogenic silver nanoparticles without pluronic F68 showed higher antibacterial potential. PMID:27463790

  9. Commuters and Parking at UNC-G. Preliminary Findings from the Commuting Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Donald J.; McArver, Patricia P.

    Data gleaned from items relating to transportation and parking from the Commuting Student Survey are reported. The survey questionnaire was designed to provide an overview of several aspects of the commuting student's relationship with the university and was sent to a stratified random sample of 2,140 students who were enrolled for the spring 1975…

  10. Can Walking or Biking to Work Really Make a Difference? Compact Development, Observed Commuter Choice and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Wojan, Timothy R.; Hamrick, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Promoting active commuting is viewed as one strategy to increase physical activity and improve the energy balance of more sedentary individuals thereby improving health outcomes. However, the potential effectiveness of promotion policies may be seriously undermined by the endogenous choice of commute mode. Policy to promote active commuting will be most effective if it can be demonstrated that 1) those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity, and 2) that current active commuting is not explained by unobserved characteristics that may be the true source of a lower body mass index (BMI). Methods Daily time-use diaries are used in combination with geographical characteristics of where respondents live and work to test 1) whether residents of more compact settlements are characterized by higher activity levels; and 2) whether residents of more compact settlements are more likely to bike or walk to work. An endogenous treatment model of active commuting allows testing whether reductions in BMI associated with walking or biking to work are in fact attributable to that activity or are more strongly associated with unobserved characteristics of these active commuters. Results The analysis of general activity levels confirms that residents of more compact cities do not expend more energy than residents of more sprawling cities, indicating that those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity. The endogenous treatment model is consistent with walking or biking to work having an independent effect on BMI, as unobserved factors that contribute to a higher likelihood of active commuting are not associated with lower BMI. Conclusions Despite evidence that more compact settlement patterns enable active commuting, only a small share of workers in these areas choose to walk or bike to work. In general, the activity level of residents in more compact cities and residents in more sprawling

  11. General active space commutator-based coupled cluster theory of general excitation rank for electronically excited states: Implementation and application to ScH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Mickaël; Olsen, Jeppe; Loras, Jessica; Fleig, Timo

    2013-11-01

    We present a new implementation of general excitation rank coupled cluster theory for electronically excited states based on the single-reference multi-reference formalism. The method may include active-space selected and/or general higher excitations by means of the general active space concept. It may employ molecular integrals over the four-component Lévy-Leblond Hamiltonian or the relativistic spin-orbit-free four-component Hamiltonian of Dyall. In an initial application to ground- and excited states of the scandium monohydride molecule we report spectroscopic constants using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality and up to full iterative triple excitations in the cluster operators. Effects due to spin-orbit interaction are evaluated using two-component multi-reference configuration interaction for assessing the accuracy of the coupled cluster results.

  12. General active space commutator-based coupled cluster theory of general excitation rank for electronically excited states: Implementation and application to ScH

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, Mickaël; Loras, Jessica; Fleig, Timo; Olsen, Jeppe

    2013-11-21

    We present a new implementation of general excitation rank coupled cluster theory for electronically excited states based on the single-reference multi-reference formalism. The method may include active-space selected and/or general higher excitations by means of the general active space concept. It may employ molecular integrals over the four-component Lévy-Leblond Hamiltonian or the relativistic spin-orbit-free four-component Hamiltonian of Dyall. In an initial application to ground- and excited states of the scandium monohydride molecule we report spectroscopic constants using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality and up to full iterative triple excitations in the cluster operators. Effects due to spin-orbit interaction are evaluated using two-component multi-reference configuration interaction for assessing the accuracy of the coupled cluster results.

  13. Phosphate Activation via Reduced Oxidation State Phosphorus (P). Mild Routes to Condensed-P Energy Currency Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Terence P.; Bryant, David E.; Herschy, Barry; Marriott, Katie E. R.; Cosgrove, Nichola E.; Pasek, Matthew A.; Atlas, Zachary D.; Cousins, Claire R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of mechanisms for phosphorylating organic and inorganic molecules is a key step en route to the earliest living systems. At the heart of all contemporary biochemical systems reside reactive phosphorus (P) molecules (such as adenosine triphosphate, ATP) as energy currency molecules to drive endergonic metabolic processes and it has been proposed that a predecessor of such molecules could have been pyrophosphate [P2O74−; PPi(V)]. Arguably the most geologically plausible route to PPi(V) is dehydration of orthophosphate, Pi(V), normally a highly endergonic process in the absence of mechanisms for activating Pi(V). One possible solution to this problem recognizes the presence of reactive-P containing mineral phases, such as schreibersite [(Fe,Ni)3P] within meteorites whose abundance on the early Earth would likely have been significant during a putative Hadean-Archean heavy bombardment. Here, we propose that the reduced oxidation state P-oxyacid, H-phosphite [HPO32−; Pi(III)] could have activated Pi(V) towards condensation via the intermediacy of the condensed oxyacid pyrophosphite [H2P2O52−; PPi(III)]. We provide geologically plausible provenance for PPi(III) along with evidence of its ability to activate Pi(V) towards PPi(V) formation under mild conditions (80 °C) in water. PMID:25369812

  14. Application of the soluble salt-assisted route to scalable synthesis of ZnO nanopowder with repeated photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingying; Yu, Leshu; Huang, Heyong; Feng, Yuying; Chen, Dongzhen; Xie, Xin

    2012-02-17

    In this paper, the soluble salt-assisted route has been extended to the low-cost and scalable preparation of ZnO nanostructures via the simple oxidation of Zn-Na2SO4 mixture followed by washing with water. The as-prepared ZnO nanopowders are of nanoscaled size, hexagonal phase, and pure, without being stained by Na2SO4. Their optical band gap is 3.22 eV, exhibiting a red-shift of 0.15 eV in comparison with pure ZnO bulk, and their optical absorbance is strong in the region of 200-400 nm, suggesting their full utilization of most of the UV light in sunlight. The product shows evident photocatalytic activity in degradation of RhB under solar light irradiation, and then its solar light degradation efficiency is close to that under UV irradiation, indicating that there is a possibility of practical application. More importantly, the obtained ZnO nanoparticles, because of the quick precipitation by themselves in solution with no stirring, could be easily recycled without any accessorial means such as high-speed centrifuge. The low-cost and scalable preparation, high photocatalytic activity, and convenient recycling of this ZnO nanomaterial gives it potential in purifying waste water. Hence the interesting results in this study indicate the wide range of the soluble salt-assisted route for the industrial preparation of many other advanced nanomaterials. PMID:22248758

  15. Anticancer activity of ferulic acid-inorganic nanohybrids synthesized via two different hybridization routes, reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Ryu, Kitae; Kang, Joo-Hee; Choi, Ae-Jin; Kim, Tae-il; Oh, Jae-Min

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared nanohybrids of biofunctional ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide nanomaterials through reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly routes. From X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, both nanohybrids were determined to incorporate ferulic acid molecules in anionic form. Microscopic results showed that the nanohybrids had average particle size of 150 nm with plate-like morphology. As the two nanohybridization routes involved crystal disorder and random stacking of layers, the nanohybrids showed slight alteration in z-axis crystallinity and particle size. The zeta potential values of pristine and nanohybrids in deionized water were determined to be positive, while those in cell culture media shifted to negative values. According to the in vitro anticancer activity test on human cervical cancer HeLa cells, it was revealed that nanohybrids showed twice anticancer activity compared with ferulic acid itself. Therefore we could conclude that the nanohybrids of ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide had cellular delivery property of intercalated molecules on cancer cell lines. PMID:24453848

  16. Anticancer Activity of Ferulic Acid-Inorganic Nanohybrids Synthesized via Two Different Hybridization Routes, Reconstruction and Exfoliation-Reassembly

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ae-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared nanohybrids of biofunctional ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide nanomaterials through reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly routes. From X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, both nanohybrids were determined to incorporate ferulic acid molecules in anionic form. Micrsocopic results showed that the nanohybrids had average particle size of 150 nm with plate-like morphology. As the two nanohybridization routes involved crystal disorder and random stacking of layers, the nanohybrids showed slight alteration in z-axis crystallinity and particle size. The zeta potential values of pristine and nanohybrids in deionized water were determined to be positive, while those in cell culture media shifted to negative values. According to the in vitro anticancer activity test on human cervical cancer HeLa cells, it was revealed that nanohybrids showed twice anticancer activity compared with ferulic acid itself. Therefore we could conclude that the nanohybrids of ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide had cellular delivery property of intercalated molecules on cancer cell lines. PMID:24453848

  17. Using a micromachined magnetostatic relay in commutating a DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Wright, John A. (Inventor); Lilienthal, Gerald (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A DC motor is commutated by rotating a magnetic rotor to induce a magnetic field in at least one magnetostatic relay in the motor. Each relay is activated in response to the magnetic field to deliver power to at least one corresponding winding connected to the relay. In some cases, each relay delivers power first through a corresponding primary winding and then through a corresponding secondary winding to a common node. Specific examples include a four-pole, three-phase motor in which each relay is activated four times during one rotation of the magnetic rotor.

  18. Probing deformed commutators with macroscopic harmonic oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Bawaj, Mateusz; Biancofiore, Ciro; Bonaldi, Michele; Bonfigli, Federica; Borrielli, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Marconi, Lorenzo; Marino, Francesco; Natali, Riccardo; Pontin, Antonio; Prodi, Giovanni A.; Serra, Enrico; Vitali, David; Marin, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A minimal observable length is a common feature of theories that aim to merge quantum physics and gravity. Quantum mechanically, this concept is associated with a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position measurements, which is encoded in deformed commutation relations. In spite of increasing theoretical interest, the subject suffers from the complete lack of dedicated experiments and bounds to the deformation parameters have just been extrapolated from indirect measurements. As recently proposed, low-energy mechanical oscillators could allow to reveal the effect of a modified commutator. Here we analyze the free evolution of high-quality factor micro- and nano-oscillators, spanning a wide range of masses around the Planck mass mP (≈22 μg). The direct check against a model of deformed dynamics substantially lowers the previous limits on the parameters quantifying the commutator deformation. PMID:26088965

  19. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  20. Probing deformed commutators with macroscopic harmonic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bawaj, Mateusz; Biancofiore, Ciro; Bonaldi, Michele; Bonfigli, Federica; Borrielli, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Marconi, Lorenzo; Marino, Francesco; Natali, Riccardo; Pontin, Antonio; Prodi, Giovanni A; Serra, Enrico; Vitali, David; Marin, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A minimal observable length is a common feature of theories that aim to merge quantum physics and gravity. Quantum mechanically, this concept is associated with a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position measurements, which is encoded in deformed commutation relations. In spite of increasing theoretical interest, the subject suffers from the complete lack of dedicated experiments and bounds to the deformation parameters have just been extrapolated from indirect measurements. As recently proposed, low-energy mechanical oscillators could allow to reveal the effect of a modified commutator. Here we analyze the free evolution of high-quality factor micro- and nano-oscillators, spanning a wide range of masses around the Planck mass mP (≈ 22 μg). The direct check against a model of deformed dynamics substantially lowers the previous limits on the parameters quantifying the commutator deformation. PMID:26088965

  1. ATLANTA COMMUTE VEHICLE SOAK AND START DISTRIBUTIONS AND ENGINE STARTS PER DAY: IMPACT ON MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION RATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Georgia Institute of Technology School of Civil and Environmental Engineering researchers analyzed the 2004 vehicle activity data obtained from vehicles in the Atlanta Commuter Choice Value Pricing Initiative. The onboard monitoring equipment installed in each participating vehi...

  2. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A', B and B' to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation.

  3. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  4. Effects of a new walking and cycling route on leisure-time physical activity of Brazilian adults: A longitudinal quasi-experiment.

    PubMed

    Pazin, Joris; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Guimarães, Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Duarte, Maria de Fátima da Silva

    2016-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new walking and cycling route on leisure-time physical activity (PA) (walking and moderate-to-vigorous PA) of adults. Furthermore, we also investigated the use, intention to use and barriers to use the new route for leisure-time PA. A longitudinal quasi-experiment was carried out. Three exposure groups were defined, based on the distance from home to the new route: 0-500m, 501-1000m and 1001-1500m. Telephone-based interviews were carried out in 2009 and 2012. Those living around the new walking and cycling route increased their leisure-time walking by 15min/week on average. Those residing up to 500m from the route increased leisure-time walking by 30min/week and walking plus moderate-to-vigorous PA by 50min/week. The proportion of people who started walking or practicing moderate-to-vigorous PA during leisure time and who reported intention to use the new route was higher among those living closer to it. Perceived distance was the most prevalent barrier to use the new route. PMID:26922514

  5. Tunable ZnO spheres with high anti-biofilm and antibacterial activity via a simple green hydrothermal route.

    PubMed

    Patrinoiu, Greta; Calderón-Moreno, José Maria; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Saviuc, Crina; Birjega, Ruxandra; Carp, Oana

    2016-01-15

    A family of distinct ZnO morphologies - hollow, compartmented, core-shell and full solid ZnO spheres, dispersed or interconnected - is obtained by a simple hydrothermal route, in the presence of the starch biopolymer. The zinc-carbonaceous precursors were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy, while the ZnO spheres, obtained after the thermal processing, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy, photoluminescence measurements, antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and flow cytometry tests. The formation mechanism proposed for this versatile synthesis route is based on the gelling ability of amylose, one of the starch template constituents, responsible for the effective embedding of zinc cations into starch prior to its hydrothermal carbonization. The simple variation of the raw materials concentration dictates the type of ZnO spheres. The micro-sized ZnO spheres exhibit high antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) reference and methicillin resistant clinical strains especially for Gram-negative biofilms (P. aeruginosa), demonstrating great potential for new ZnO anti-biofilm formulations. PMID:26433479

  6. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besstrashnov, V. M.; Strom, A. L.

    2011-05-01

    Assessment of seismic strong motion hazard produced by earthquakes originating within causative fault zones allows rather low accuracy of localisation of these structures that can be provided by indirect evidence of fault activity. In contrast, the relevant accuracy of localisation and characterisation of active faults, capable of surface rupturing, can be achieved solely by the use of direct evidence of fault activity. This differentiation requires strict definition of what can be classified as "active fault" and the normalisation of methods used for identification and localisation of active faults crossing oil and natural gas trunk pipelines.

  7. Employees' Perceptions of Cycle Commuting: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide an in-depth individual level understanding of the psychological factors that affect cycle commuting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 15 participants (eight cycle commuters and seven potential cycle commuters) from a "cycle-friendly" employer based in a Scottish city took part in the study.…

  8. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  9. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  10. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  11. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  12. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  13. Commutating Permanent-Magnet Motors At Low Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit provides forced commutation during starting. Forced commutation circuit diverts current from inverter SCR's and turns SCR's off during commutation intervals. Silicon controlled rectifier in circuit unnecessary when switch S10 replaced by high-current, high-voltage transistor. At present, high-current, low-voltage device must suffice.

  14. Quantum Gibbs Samplers: The Commuting Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the problem of preparing quantum Gibbs states of lattice spin Hamiltonians with local and commuting terms on a quantum computer and in nature. Our central result is an equivalence between the behavior of correlations in the Gibbs state and the mixing time of the semigroup which drives the system to thermal equilibrium (the Gibbs sampler). We introduce a framework for analyzing the correlation and mixing properties of quantum Gibbs states and quantum Gibbs samplers, which is rooted in the theory of non-commutative {{L}_p} spaces. We consider two distinct classes of Gibbs samplers, one of them being the well-studied Davies generator modelling the dynamics of a system due to weak-coupling with a large Markovian environment. We show that their spectral gap is independent of system size if, and only if, a certain strong form of clustering of correlations holds in the Gibbs state. Therefore every Gibbs state of a commuting Hamiltonian that satisfies clustering of correlations in this strong sense can be prepared efficiently on a quantum computer. As concrete applications of our formalism, we show that for every one-dimensional lattice system, or for systems in lattices of any dimension at temperatures above a certain threshold, the Gibbs samplers of commuting Hamiltonians are always gapped, giving an efficient way of preparing the associated Gibbs states on a quantum computer.

  15. Transport improvement, commuting costs, and residential location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stucker, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of introducing new transportation on residential travel patterns is presented. Data are based on changes in residential location of urban commuters that alter the mode and length of work trips as well as economic factors.

  16. Quantum Gibbs Samplers: The Commuting Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the problem of preparing quantum Gibbs states of lattice spin Hamiltonians with local and commuting terms on a quantum computer and in nature. Our central result is an equivalence between the behavior of correlations in the Gibbs state and the mixing time of the semigroup which drives the system to thermal equilibrium (the Gibbs sampler). We introduce a framework for analyzing the correlation and mixing properties of quantum Gibbs states and quantum Gibbs samplers, which is rooted in the theory of non-commutative {mathbb{L}_p} spaces. We consider two distinct classes of Gibbs samplers, one of them being the well-studied Davies generator modelling the dynamics of a system due to weak-coupling with a large Markovian environment. We show that their spectral gap is independent of system size if, and only if, a certain strong form of clustering of correlations holds in the Gibbs state. Therefore every Gibbs state of a commuting Hamiltonian that satisfies clustering of correlations in this strong sense can be prepared efficiently on a quantum computer. As concrete applications of our formalism, we show that for every one-dimensional lattice system, or for systems in lattices of any dimension at temperatures above a certain threshold, the Gibbs samplers of commuting Hamiltonians are always gapped, giving an efficient way of preparing the associated Gibbs states on a quantum computer.

  17. Propulsion opportunities for future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Circa 1990 propulsion improvement concepts are discussed for 1000 to 5000 SHP conventional turboprop powerplants including engines, gearboxes, and propellers. Cycle selection, power plant configurations and advanced technology elements are defined and evaluated using average stage length DOC for commuter aircraft as the primary merit criterion.

  18. Early-light embryonic stimulation suggests a second route, via gene activation, to cerebral lateralization in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Galliussi, Jessica; Andrew, Richard J.; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors determine the asymmetrical position of vertebrate embryos allowing asymmetric environmental stimulation to shape cerebral lateralization. In birds, late-light stimulation, just before hatching, on the right optic nerve triggers anatomical and functional cerebral asymmetries. However, some brain asymmetries develop in absence of embryonic light stimulation. Furthermore, early-light action affects lateralization in the transparent zebrafish embryos before their visual system is functional. Here we investigated whether another pathway intervenes in establishing brain specialization. We exposed chicks' embryos to light before their visual system was formed. We observed that such early stimulation modulates cerebral lateralization in a comparable vein of late-light stimulation on active retinal cells. Our results show that, in a higher vertebrate brain, a second route, likely affecting the genetic expression of photosensitive regions, acts before the development of a functional visual system. More than one sensitive period seems thus available to light stimulation to trigger brain lateralization. PMID:24048072

  19. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated. PMID:26399043

  20. Route of administration determines the anxiolytic activity of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin--are they prodrugs?

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Cica; Nieber, Karen; Kelber, Olaf; Butterweck, Veronika

    2012-07-01

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed that flavonols are metabolized by the intestinal microflora to their corresponding hydroxyphenylacetic acids. In this article, a comparison of the anxiolytic activity of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin in the elevated plus maze after oral (po) and intraperitoneal (ip) administration to mice in a dose range of 0.1 to 2.0 mg/kg is presented. In addition, their corresponding metabolites p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-HPAA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were tested after intraperitoneal administration. Anxiolytic activity was detected for kaempferol and quercetin only after oral administration. No anxiolytic effects were observed when kaempferol and quercetin were given via the intraperitoneal administration route. The corresponding hydroxyphenylacetic metabolites p-HPAA and DOPAC showed anxiolytic effects after intraperitoneal application. In order to further test the hypothesis that flavonoids are possible prodrugs which require activation by intestinal bacteria, gut sterilization was performed using pretreatment with the antibiotic enrofloxacin (7.5 mg/day, po, for 4 days). After antibiotic treatment, the anxiolytic effect of kaempferol and quercetin disappeared, whereas it was still present for the positive control diazepam. Our results support the hypothesis that flavonoids act as prodrugs which are transformed into their active hydroxyphenylacetic acid metabolites by intestinal microflora. PMID:21840194

  1. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as “Bicycle Boulevards.” We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. Methods We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes – a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. Results We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. Conclusions These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and

  2. New route toward building active ruthenium nanoparticles on ordered mesoporous carbons with extremely high stability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Sun, Chengjun; Ren, Yang; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang

    2014-01-01

    Creating highly active and stable metal catalysts is a persistent goal in the field of heterogeneous catalysis. However, a real catalyst can rarely achieve both of these qualities simultaneously due to limitations in the design of the active site and support. One method to circumvent this problem is to fabricate firmly attached metal species onto the voids of a mesoporous support formed simultaneously. In this study, we developed a new type of ruthenium catalyst that was firmly confined by ordered mesoporous carbons through the fabrication of a cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium-silica mesophase before pyrolysis and silica removal. This facile method generates fine ruthenium nanoparticles (ca. 1.7 nm) that are homogeneously dispersed on a mesoporous carbonaceous framework. This ruthenium catalyst can be recycled 22 times without any loss of reactivity, showing the highest stability of any metal catalysts; this catalyst displays a high activity (23.3 mol(LA)h(-1)g(metal)(-1)) during the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) when the metal loading is 6.1 wt%. Even at an ultralow loading (0.3 wt%), this catalyst still outperforms the most active known Ru/C catalyst. This work reveals new possibilities for designing and fabricating highly stable and active metal catalysts by creating metal sites and mesoporous supports simultaneously. PMID:24687047

  3. New route toward building active ruthenium nanoparticles on ordered mesoporous carbons with extremely high stability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Sun, Chengjun; Ren, Yang; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang

    2014-01-01

    Creating highly active and stable metal catalysts is a persistent goal in the field of heterogeneous catalysis. However, a real catalyst can rarely achieve both of these qualities simultaneously due to limitations in the design of the active site and support. One method to circumvent this problem is to fabricate firmly attached metal species onto the voids of a mesoporous support formed simultaneously. In this study, we developed a new type of ruthenium catalyst that was firmly confined by ordered mesoporous carbons through the fabrication of a cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium-silica mesophase before pyrolysis and silica removal. This facile method generates fine ruthenium nanoparticles (ca. 1.7 nm) that are homogeneously dispersed on a mesoporous carbonaceous framework. This ruthenium catalyst can be recycled 22 times without any loss of reactivity, showing the highest stability of any metal catalysts; this catalyst displays a high activity (23.3 molLAh−1gmetal−1) during the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) when the metal loading is 6.1 wt%. Even at an ultralow loading (0.3 wt%), this catalyst still outperforms the most active known Ru/C catalyst. This work reveals new possibilities for designing and fabricating highly stable and active metal catalysts by creating metal sites and mesoporous supports simultaneously. PMID:24687047

  4. Class 2 design update for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creighton, Thomas R.; Hendrich, Louis J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the final report of seven on the design of a family of commuter airplanes. This design effort was performed in fulfillment of NASA/USRA grant NGT-8001. Its contents are as follows: (1) the class 1 baseline designs for the commuter airplane family; (2) a study of takeoff weight penalties imposed on the commuter family due to implementing commonality objectives; (3) component structural designs common to the commuter family; (4) details of the acquisition and operating economics of the commuter family, i.e., savings due to production commonality and handling qualities commonality are determined; (5) discussion of the selection of an advanced turboprop propulsion system for the family of commuter airplanes, and (6) a proposed design for an SSSA controller design to achieve similar handling for all airplanes. Final class 2 commuter airplane designs are also presented.

  5. Diesel-exhaust particulates inoculated by the intranasal route have an adjuvant activity for IgE production in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takafuji, S.; Suzuki, S.; Koizumi, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Ikemori, R.; Muranaka, M.

    1987-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that the IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intraperitoneal injection of the antigens mixed with diesel-exhaust particulates (DEP) were higher than those in the animals immunized with the antigens alone. We examined the adjuvant activity of DEP inoculated by the intranasal route, i.e., the natural entrance of DEP. In 3-week interval immunization, the IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intranasal inoculation of ovalbumin (OA) mixed with DEP were higher than responses in the animals immunized with OA alone. DEP had an adjuvant activity for anti-OA IgE antibody production, even in a small dose such as 1 micrograms administered with a 3-week interval. Also in 1-week interval immunization, the enhancing effect of DEP on anti-OA IgE antibody production was demonstrated when mice were immunized with intranasal inoculation of OA and DEP. The possibility cannot be excluded that DEP, which are kept buoyant in the environmental atmosphere of urban districts, may exert an adjuvant activity for IgE antibody production after being inhaled into the human body and have some relation to the mechanism of the outbreak of allergic rhinitis caused by pollens in Japan.

  6. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Binbin; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng

    2015-01-01

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl2 using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl2 at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of -SO3H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N2 adsorption-desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of -SO3H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of -SO3H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and -SO3H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles.

  7. From Ultrafine Thiolate-Capped Copper Nanoclusters toward Copper Sulfide Nanodiscs: A Thermally Activated Evolution Route

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, Derrick; Yin, Jun; Engelhard, Mark H.; Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Chang, Paul; Miller, George; Bae, In-Tae; Das, N. C.; Wang, Chong M.; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2010-01-12

    In this report we show that the size, shape, and composition of pre-synthesized metal nanoparticles can be engineered through exploiting concurrent interparticle coalescence and interfacial copper-thiolate cleavage under a thermally-activated evolution process. This concept is demonstrated by thermally-activated processing of ultrafine (~0.5 nm) copper nanoparticles encapsulated with thiolate monolayer (Cun(SR)m) toward copper sulfide nanodiscs with controllable sizes and shapes. It involved a thermally-activated coalescence of Cun(SR)m nanoclusters accompanied by interfacial Cu-S cleavage towards the formation of Cu2S nanocrystals with well-defined nanodisc shapes with an average diameter and thickness ranging from 10.7 ±1.4 nm and 5.5 ±0.5 nm (aspect ratio ~2) to 31.2 ±4.3 nm and 3.9 ±0.4 nm (aspect ratio ~7) depending on the thermal processing parameters. These nanodiscs are stable and display remarkable ordering upon self-assembly. The abilities to create the ultrafine copper nanoclusters and to enable them to undergo a thermally-activated coalescence and a concurrent Cu-S bond cleavage toward the formation of Cu2S nanodiscs is entirely new. The viability of fine tuning the size and shape of the Cu2S nanocrystals by controlling the relative binding strength of thiolates, the C-S cleavage reactivity, and the interparticle coalescence activity, and their potential applications in electronic, sensing and photochemical devices are also discussed.

  8. Aldehyde PEGylation of laccase from Trametes versicolor in route to increase its stability: effect on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-González, Mirna; Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Laccase can be used in bioremediation, beverage (wine, fruit juice, and beer) processing, ascorbic acid determination, sugar beet pectin gelation baking, and as a biosensor. Recently, the antiproliferative activity of laccase toward tumor cells has been reported. Because of the potential applications of this enzyme, the efforts for enhancing and stabilizing its activity have increased. Thus, the PEGylation of laccase can be an alternative. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more molecules of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to a protein. Normally, during the PEGylation reaction, the activity is reduced but the stability increases; thus, it is important to minimize the loss of activity. In this work, the effects of molar ratio (1:4, 1:8, and 1:12), concentration of laccase (6 and 12 mg/ml), reaction time (4 and 17 h), molecular weight, and type of mPEG (20, 30, 40 kDa and 40 kDa-branched) were analyzed. The activity was measured using three substrates: ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. The best conditions for laccase PEGylation were 12 mg/ml of laccase, molar ratio 1:4, and 4 h reaction time. Under these conditions, the enzyme was able to maintain nearly 100% of its enzymatic activity with ABTS. The PEGylation of laccase has not been extensively explored, so it is important to analyze the effects of this bioconjugation in route to produce a robust modified enzyme. PMID:25652594

  9. Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA): addressing childhood obesity through safe routes to school.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Dierenfield, Laura; Alexander, Daniel A; Prose, Marcia; Peterson, Ann C

    2011-07-01

    Increasing active transportation to and from school may reduce childhood obesity rates in Hawai'i. A community partnership was formed to address this issue in Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA), a quasi-experimental study of active transportation in Hawai'i County. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline rates for active transportation rates to and from school and to track changes related to macro-level (statewide) policy, locally-based Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs and bicycle and pedestrian planning initiatives expected to improve the safety, comfort and ease of walking and bicycling to and from school. Measures included parent surveys, student travel tallies, traffic counts and safety observations. Assessments of the walking and biking environment around each school were made using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan. Complete Streets and SRTS policy implementation was tracked through the activities of a state transportation-led Task Force and an advocacy-led coalition, respectively. Planning initiatives were tracked through citizen-based advisory committees. Thirteen volunteer schools participated as the intervention (n=8) or comparison (n=5) schools. The majority of students were Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander in schools located in under-resourced communities. Overall, few children walked or biked to school. The majority of children were driven to and from school by their parents. With the influence of HO'ĀLA staff members, two intervention schools were obligated SRTS project funding from the state, schools were identified as key areas in the pedestrian master plan, and one intervention school was slated for a bike plan priority project. As the SRTS programs are implemented in the next phase of the project, post-test data will be collected to ascertain if changes in active transportation rates occur. PMID:21886289

  10. Reducing background noise in near-infrared medical imaging: Routes to activated fluorescing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, Mary K.; Bandera, Yuriy; Powell, Rhonda R.; Bruce, Terri F.; Foulger, Stephen H.

    2016-03-01

    Activated fluorescence was achieved for nanoparticle based systems. One particulate system consisting of a poly(propargyl acrylate) (PA) core with covalently attached derivatized fluorescein and modified bovine serum albumin covalently conjugated to a cyanine 3 derivative was initially nonfluorescent. Upon trypsin addition and subsequent proteolytic digestion, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was induced. The other particulate system consisted of a PA core with covalently attached azide modified BSA, which was covalently attached to a silicon phthalocyanine derivative (PA/BSA/akSiPc600). Both systems were biocompatible. To investigate activated fluorescence with the PA/BSA/akSiPc600 system in cancer cells, human non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cell line) were used as a model system. The PA/BSA/akSiPc600 system was incubated with the cells at varying time points in an effort to see a fluorescence increase over time as the cells uptake the particles and as they digest the BSA, most probably, via endocytosis. It was seen, through live cell scanning confocal microscopy, that the fluorescence was activated in the cell.

  11. Pulses of earthquake activity in the mantle wedge track the route of slab fluid ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lloyd; Rawlinson, Nicholas; Lister, Gordon; Tanner, Dominique; Macpherson, Colin; Morgan, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes typically record the brittle failure of part of the Earth at a point in space and time. These almost invariably occur within the crust or where the upper surface of subducting lithosphere interacts with the overriding mantle. However, there are also reports of rare, enigmatic earthquakes beneath rifts, above mantle plumes or very deep in the mantle. Here we report another type of mantle earthquake and present three locations where earthquake clusters occur in the mantle wedge overlying active subduction zones. These earthquake clusters define broadly circular to ellipsoidal columns that are 50 km or greater in diameter from depths between ~150 km and the surface. We interpret these rare pulses of earthquakes as evidence of near vertical transport of fluids (and associated flux-melts) from the subducted lithosphere through the mantle wedge. Detailed temporal analysis shows that most of these earthquakes occur over two-year periods, with the majority of events occurring in discrete month-long flurries of activity. As the time and location of each earthquake is recorded, pulses of seismic activity may provide information about the rate of magma ascent from the dehydrated subducted slab to sub-arc/backarc crust. This work indicates that fluids are not transported through the mantle wedge by diapirism, but through sub-vertical pathways facilitated by fracture networks and dykes on monthly to yearly time scales. These rare features move us toward solving what has until now represented a missing component of the subduction factory.

  12. Modification of graphene oxide by laser irradiation: a new route to enhance antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Buccheri, Maria A; D'Angelo, Daniele; Scalese, Silvia; Spanò, Simon F; Filice, Simona; Fazio, Enza; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Zimbone, Massimo; Brundo, Maria V; Pecoraro, Roberta; Alba, Anna; Sinatra, Fulvia; Rappazzo, Giancarlo; Privitera, Vittorio

    2016-06-17

    The antibacterial activity and possible toxicity of graphene oxide and laser-irradiated graphene oxide (iGO) were investigated. Antibacterial activity was tested on Escherichia coli and shown to be higher for GO irradiated for at least three hours, which seems to be correlated to the resulting morphology of laser-treated GO and independent of the kind and amount of oxygen functionalities. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show a reduction of the GO flakes size after visible laser irradiation, preserving considerable oxygen content and degree of hydrophilicity. SEM images of the bacteria after the exposure to the iGO flakes confirm membrane damage after interaction with the laser-modified morphology of GO. In addition, a fish embryo toxicity test on zebrafish displayed that neither mortality nor sublethal effects were caused by the different iGO solutions, even when the concentration was increased up to four times higher than the one effective in reducing the bacteria survival. The antibacterial properties and the absence of toxicity make the visible laser irradiation of GO a promising option for water purification applications. PMID:27158973

  13. Synthesis and Antimycobacterial Activity of some Triazole Derivatives–New Route to Functionalized Triazolopyridazines

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Kamaleddin Haj Mohammad Ebrahim; Mashayekhi, Vida; Azerang, Parisa; Minaei, Somayeh; Sardari, Soroush; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    A series of cyclic analogues of bioactive thiosemicarbazide derivatives have been synthesized as potential antimycobacterial agents. The 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione analogues (Ia-f) were prepared by heating a mixture of thiocarbohydrzide and appropriate carboxylic acids. Reaction of thiocarbohydrazide with γ-ketoesters in the presence of sodium methoxide furnished triazolopyridazine derivatives IIa-b. Finally, condensation of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione with some aldehydes gave Schiff bases IIIa-e. After characterization by different spectroscopic and analytical methods, the derivatives were tested for their inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Among the derivatives, compound Ib proved to be the most potent derivatives with MIC value of 31.25 µg/mL. Given the fact that 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones Ia-f were the most active derivatives, it could be suggested that this group of derivatives have the potential to be considered as lead compounds for future optimization efforts. PMID:26185506

  14. Synthesis and Antimycobacterial Activity of some Triazole Derivatives-New Route to Functionalized Triazolopyridazines.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Kamaleddin Haj Mohammad Ebrahim; Mashayekhi, Vida; Azerang, Parisa; Minaei, Somayeh; Sardari, Soroush; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    A series of cyclic analogues of bioactive thiosemicarbazide derivatives have been synthesized as potential antimycobacterial agents. The 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione analogues (Ia-f) were prepared by heating a mixture of thiocarbohydrzide and appropriate carboxylic acids. Reaction of thiocarbohydrazide with γ-ketoesters in the presence of sodium methoxide furnished triazolopyridazine derivatives IIa-b. Finally, condensation of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione with some aldehydes gave Schiff bases IIIa-e. After characterization by different spectroscopic and analytical methods, the derivatives were tested for their inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Among the derivatives, compound Ib proved to be the most potent derivatives with MIC value of 31.25 µg/mL. Given the fact that 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones Ia-f were the most active derivatives, it could be suggested that this group of derivatives have the potential to be considered as lead compounds for future optimization efforts. PMID:26185506

  15. Modification of graphene oxide by laser irradiation: a new route to enhance antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccheri, Maria A.; D’Angelo, Daniele; Scalese, Silvia; Spanò, Simon F.; Filice, Simona; Fazio, Enza; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Zimbone, Massimo; Brundo, Maria V.; Pecoraro, Roberta; Alba, Anna; Sinatra, Fulvia; Rappazzo, Giancarlo; Privitera, Vittorio

    2016-06-01

    The antibacterial activity and possible toxicity of graphene oxide and laser-irradiated graphene oxide (iGO) were investigated. Antibacterial activity was tested on Escherichia coli and shown to be higher for GO irradiated for at least three hours, which seems to be correlated to the resulting morphology of laser-treated GO and independent of the kind and amount of oxygen functionalities. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show a reduction of the GO flakes size after visible laser irradiation, preserving considerable oxygen content and degree of hydrophilicity. SEM images of the bacteria after the exposure to the iGO flakes confirm membrane damage after interaction with the laser-modified morphology of GO. In addition, a fish embryo toxicity test on zebrafish displayed that neither mortality nor sublethal effects were caused by the different iGO solutions, even when the concentration was increased up to four times higher than the one effective in reducing the bacteria survival. The antibacterial properties and the absence of toxicity make the visible laser irradiation of GO a promising option for water purification applications.

  16. p-adic commutation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubei, Anatoly N.

    1996-10-01

    Representations of the canonical and deformed commutation relations by bounded operators on p-adic Banach spaces are constructed. Functions from the Mahler basis of the space of p-adic continuous functions and their multiplicative analogues are shown to be the p-adic counterparts of the Hermite and q-Hermite functions. The analogue of the Stone - von Neumann uniqueness theorem fails in the p-adic case.

  17. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  18. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  19. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate air pollution during commuting in European cities--recommendations and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; de Leeuw, Frank

    2014-08-15

    Commuting is considered as one of the high-exposure periods among various daily activities, especially in high vehicle-density metropolitan areas. There is a growing awareness of the need to change our transportation habits by reducing our use of cars and shifting instead to active transport, i.e. walking or cycling. A review was undertaken using the ISI web of knowledge database with the objective to better understand personal exposure during commuting by different modes of transport, and to suggest potential strategies to minimise exposure. The air pollutants studied include particulate matter, PM black carbon, BC and particle number concentration. We focused only in European studies in order to have comparable situation in terms of vehicle fleet and policy regulations applied. Studies on personal exposure to air pollutants during car commuting are more numerous than those dealing with other types of transport, and typically conclude by emphasising that travelling by car involves exposure to relatively high particulate matter, PM exposure concentrations. Thus, compared to other transport methods, travelling by car has been shown to involve exposure both to higher PM and BC as compared with cycling. Widespread dependence on private car transport has produced a significant daily health threat to the urban commuter. However, a forward-looking, integrated transport policy, involving the phased renovation of existing public vehicles and the withdrawal of the more polluting private vehicles, combined with incentives to use public transport and the encouragement of commuter physical exercise, would reduce commuters' exposure. PMID:24907613

  20. Non-commutativity from the double sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Dimitri; Wang, Peng; Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang

    2015-03-01

    We show how non-commutativity arises from commutativity in the double sigma model. We demonstrate that this model is intrinsically non-commutative by calculating the propagators. In the simplest phase configuration, there are two dual copies of commutative theories. In general rotated frames, one gets a non-commutative theory and a commutative partner. Thus a non-vanishing B also leads to a commutative theory. Our results imply that O( D, D) symmetry unifies not only the big and small torus physics, but also the commutative and non-commutative theories. The physical interpretations of the metric and other parameters in the double sigma model are completely dictated by the boundary conditions. The open-closed relation is also an O( D, D) rotation and naturally leads to the Seiberg-Witten map. Moreover, after applying a second dual rotation, we identify the description parameter in the Seiberg-Witten map as an O( D, D) group parameter and all theories are non-commutative under this composite rotation. As a bonus, the propagators of general frames in double sigma model for open string are also presented.

  1. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  2. [Tuberculosis microepidemic in a commuter bus].

    PubMed

    Yagi, T; Sasaki, Y; Yamagishi, F; Mizutani, F; Wada, A; Kuroda, F

    1999-06-01

    A tuberculosis microepidemic in a commuter bus was reported. Index patient was a 22-year-old woman who was an employee of an electronic company. An abnormal shadow was found on her chest roentgenogram during an annual medical check-up in June, 1996. As her sputum smear was Gaffky 6, she was admitted to our hospital for medication. Extraordinary examinations including PPD skin test and chest X-ray were carried out on 49 employees of the company in October, 1996. As the result of these examinations, the distribution of maximum diameters of erythema in PPD skin test showed bimodal distribution, and tuberculosis was discovered in two patients by Chest X-ray examination. Moreover, preventive administration of Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) was indicated for 3 employees based on very strong skin reaction to PPD. These five employees were working separately from the index patient and had little contact with the patient in the work places, but using a same commuter bus. Therefore, we strongly suspect that they were infected from the index patient not in the work place but in the commuter bus. The air-conditioning of the bus used a closed recirculation system, hence insufficient ventilation in the bus contributed to the spread of tuberculosis infection. PMID:10423962

  3. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  4. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  5. Who Needs to Do What Where?: Using Learning Management Systems on Residential vs. Commuter Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonn, Steven; Teasley, Stephanie D.; Krumm, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) are web-based systems allowing instructors and/or students to share materials and interact online. This study compared differences in LMS use between instructors and students at a large residential campus with students at a smaller commuter campus. Responses to an online survey about LMS activities and tools were…

  6. A facile solvothermal route to photocatalytically active nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 from peroxide precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sujith; Gillan, Edward G.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes the rapid synthesis of nanocrystalline powders of anatase TiO 2 using exothermic metathesis (exchange) reactions moderated by a high-boiling hexadecane solvent. One reagent, TiBr 4, dissolved in hexadecane interacts with a dispersion of Na 2O 2 at elevated temperatures to produce TiO 2 and NaBr. Reactions occur within a few hours near the reflux point of hexadecane (bp 287 °C). The isolated crystalline TiO 2 powders are either anatase or anatase/brookite mixtures, depending on how quickly the reagents were heated to reflux. Locally exothermic solution-surface events occur and are likely responsible for crystalline TiO 2 formation directly from the solvothermal reaction without need for any post-reaction annealing. Rapidly synthesized nanocrystalline TiO 2 exhibits elongated nanostructural features. Results from variations in reaction conditions and use of other halide and oxygen reagents are also discussed. The isolated TiO 2 powders have organic surface coatings, but brief air calcination yields water-dispersible titania nanoparticulate powders that function as active UV photocatalysts for methylene blue solution oxidation.

  7. Assessment of noise exposure during commuting in the Madrid subway.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, M; Pavón, I; Ausejo, M; Asensio, C; Recuero, M

    2011-09-01

    Because noise-induced hearing impairment is the result not only of occupational noise exposure but also of total daily noise exposure, it is important to take the non-occupational exposure of individuals (during commuting to and from their jobs, at home, and during recreational activities) into account. Mass transit is one of the main contributors to non-occupational noise exposure. We developed a new methodology to estimate a representative commuting noise exposure. The methodology was put into practice for the Madrid subway because of all Spanish subway systems it covers the highest percentage of worker journeys (22.6%). The results of the application highlight that, for Madrid subway passengers, noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8 hr (L(Ex,8h-cj) ) depends strongly on the type of train, the presence of squealing noise, and the public address audio system, ranging from 68.6 dBA to 72.8 dBA. These values play an important role in a more complete evaluation of a relationship between noise dose and worker health response. PMID:21830871

  8. Assessment of national systems for obtaining local acceptance of waste management siting and routing activities

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, H.W.; Lipman, D.S.; Owens, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    There is a rich mixture of formal and informal approaches being used in our sister nuclear democracies in their attempts to deal with the difficulties of obtaining local acceptance for siting of waste management facilities and activities. Some of these are meeting with a degree of success not yet achieved in the US. Although this survey documents and assesses many of these approaches, time did not permit addressing in any detail their relevance to common problems in the US. It would appear the US could benefit from a periodic review of the successes and failures of these efforts, including analysis of their applicability to the US system. Of those countries (Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium, and the US) who are working to a time table for the preparation of a high-level waste (HLW) repository, Germany is the only country to have gained local siting acceptance for theirs. With this (the most difficult of siting problems) behind them they appear to be in the best overall condition relative to waste management progress and plans. This has been achieved without a particularly favorable political structure, made up for by determination on the part of the political leadership. Of the remaining three countries studied (France, UK and Canada) France, with its AVM production facility, is clearly the world leader in the HLW immobilization aspect of waste management. France, Belgium and the UK appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions. US, Switzerland and Canada appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions.

  9. Tracking a defined route for O[subscript 2] migration in a dioxygen-activating diiron enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Woon Ju; Gucinski, Grant; Sazinsky, Matthew H.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-09-08

    For numerous enzymes reactive toward small gaseous compounds, growing evidence indicates that these substrates diffuse into active site pockets through defined pathways in the protein matrix. Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase is a dioxygen-activating enzyme. Structural analysis suggests two possible pathways for dioxygen access through the {alpha}-subunit to the diiron center: a channel or a series of hydrophobic cavities. To distinguish which is utilized as the O{sub 2} migration pathway, the dimensions of the cavities and the channel were independently varied by site-directed mutagenesis and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The rate constants for dioxygen access to the diiron center were derived from the formation rates of a peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, generated upon treatment of the diiron(II) enzyme with O2. This reaction depends on the concentration of dioxygen to the first order. Altering the dimensions of the cavities, but not the channel, changed the rate of dioxygen reactivity with the enzyme. These results strongly suggest that voids comprising the cavities in toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase are not artifacts of protein packing/folding, but rather programmed routes for dioxygen migration through the protein matrix. Because the cavities are not fully connected into the diiron active center in the enzyme resting state, conformational changes will be required to facilitate dioxygen access to the diiron center. We propose that such temporary opening and closing of the cavities may occur in all bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases to control O{sub 2} consumption for efficient catalysis. Our findings suggest that other gas-utilizing enzymes may employ similar structural features to effect substrate passage through a protein matrix.

  10. Luminescent properties of a novel Al10O3N8:Eu2+ phosphor by a mechanochemical activation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liang-Jun; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jian, Xian; Feng, Yan-Yu; Tang, Hui; Luan, Chun-Hong; Liang, Ying-Lin; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    A novel Al10O3N8:Eu2+ phosphor was prepared successfully by a mechanochemical activation route. With the help of high-energy ball milling, the starting materials were mostly transformed into an amorphous phase, which significantly promotes the synthesis of Al10O3N8 phase at a relatively moderate reaction condition. Al10O3N8:Eu2+ phosphor showed a broad blue emission band under ultraviolet-light excitation and small thermal quenching. Additionally, it was found that Al10O3N8:Eu2+ phosphor showed a strong blue emission under 147 nm excitation and shorter decay time compared with BAM:Eu2+ phosphor, making it a potential phosphor used in plasma display panels. Si-N doping was performed to further increase the luminescence intensity of Al10O3N8:Eu2+ phosphor and the related mechanism was discussed. Prospectively, it was feasible to apply the synthesis approach to other hardly achieved materials.

  11. Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Yifu; Wang Yi E-mail: wangyi@itp.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    The quantum behavior of non-commutative eternal inflation is quite different from the usual scenario. Unlike the usual eternal inflation, non-commutative eternal inflation has quantum fluctuation suppressed by the Hubble parameter. Because of this, we need to reconsider many conceptions of eternal inflation. In this paper we study the Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation using the stochastic approach. We obtain a brand new form of tunneling probability for this process and find that the Hawking-Moss tunneling is more unlikely to take place in the non-commutative case than in the usual one. We also conclude that the lifetime of a metastable de Sitter vacuum in the non-commutative spacetime is longer than that in the commutative case.

  12. Generalized Uncertainty Relations in the Non-commutative Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we study two-dimensional noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with the generalized uncertainty relations . We find the new NCQM algebra from the generalized uncertainty relations. We construct a operator commuting with and discuss two possibilities; One is the case that also commutes with and another is the case that does not commute with . For both case we consider a motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field with a harmonic oscillator potential in the noncommutative plane.

  13. L-648,051, a novel cysteinyl-leukotriene antagonist is active by the inhaled route in man.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, J M; Barnes, N C; Zakrzewski, J T; Sciberras, D G; Stahl, E G; Piper, P J; Costello, J F

    1989-01-01

    1. We have studied some of the pharmacological properties of inhaled L-648,051 which has been shown to be a selective cysteinyl-leukotriene (LT) antagonist in vitro and in vivo in various animal models. 2. The effects of three different doses (1.6, 6.0 and 12.0 mg) on the bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled LTD4 have been investigated in normal male subjects in a series of double-blind, placebo controlled studies. Furthermore, the specificity of the drug has been investigated by challenging subjects with histamine after pre-inhalation of 12.0 mg L-648,051. 3. At all doses L-648,051 partially blocked the bronchoconstriction induced by LTD4 inhalation in a dose related manner. At a dose of 12.0 mg, L-648,051 decreased the maximum fall in specific airways conductance (sGaw) (placebo, 49% vs L-648,051, 21%, P less than 0.01) and shortened the time to recovery from LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction (placebo, 41 min vs L-648,051, 19 min, P less than 0.01). 4. There was no evidence of partial agonist activity, and no effect on histamine-induced bronchospasm. Inhaled L-648,051 at all doses was well tolerated. 5. We conclude that LT antagonism is possible by the inhaled route in man. Inhaled L-648,051 is an active and selective LT-antagonist in man which is well tolerated and may prove to be a useful drug for assessing the role of leukotrienes in asthma and other lung diseases. PMID:2775617

  14. Voltage reapplication rate control for commutation of thyristors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for commutating a thyristor (21) by shunting its current for a minimum interval, thereby removing sustaining voltage to said thyristor, then subsequently restoring voltage to said thyristor at a predetermined rate, utilizes a series combination of a commutation electronic switch (22) and an isolated dc voltage supply (23) connected in parallel with the thyristor. The voltage supply is arranged with a polarity that permits the current flowing through the thyristor in one direction to be bypassed through the series combination while the commutation switch is turned on and to reverse bias the thyristor when the commutation switch is fully on. A dv/dt control circuit (24) limits the rate of rise of voltage across the commutation switch (22) as it is turned off in response to a command input signal. The dv/dt control circuit is comprised of a constant current drive (31) and a capacitor (32) connected between the output terminal of the commutation switch and the control input terminal of the commutation switch. The thyristor may be a triac (40) with two commutation switches (42, 43), one for current of each polarity, or with a single commutation switch (55) and a bridge circuit (52-55) for selecting the polarity of the switch (56).

  15. Characterizing the range of children's air pollutant exposure during school bus commutes.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Lisa D; Behrentz, Eduardo; Winer, Arthur M; Jeong, Seong; Fitz, Dennis R; Pankratz, David V; Colome, Steven D; Fruin, Scott A

    2005-09-01

    Real-time and integrated measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants were conducted inside five conventional diesel school buses, a diesel bus with a particulate trap, and a bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) to determine the range of children's exposures during school bus commutes and conditions leading to high exposures. Measurements were made during 24 morning and afternoon commutes on two Los Angeles Unified School District bus routes from South to West Los Angeles, with seven additional runs on a rural/suburban route, and three runs to test the effect of window position. For these commutes, the mean concentrations of diesel vehicle-related pollutants ranged from 0.9 to 19 microg/m(3) for black carbon, 23 to 400 ng/m(3) for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH), and 64 to 220 microg/m(3) for NO(2). Concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde ranged from 0.1 to 11 microg/m(3) and 0.3 to 5 microg/m(3), respectively. The highest real-time concentrations of black carbon, PB-PAH and NO(2) inside the buses were 52 microg/m(3), 2000 ng/m(3), and 370 microg/m(3), respectively. These pollutants were significantly higher inside conventional diesel buses compared to the CNG bus, although formaldehyde concentrations were higher inside the CNG bus. Mean black carbon, PB-PAH, benzene and formaldehyde concentrations were higher when the windows were closed, compared with partially open, in part, due to intrusion of the bus's own exhaust into the bus cabin, as demonstrated through the use of a tracer gas added to each bus's exhaust. These same pollutants tended to be higher on urban routes compared to the rural/suburban route, and substantially higher inside the bus cabins compared to ambient measurements. Mean concentrations of pollutants with substantial secondary formation, such as PM(2.5), showed smaller differences between open and closed window conditions and between bus routes. Type of bus, traffic congestion levels, and encounters with

  16. Future Propulsion Opportunities for Commuter Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Commuter airplane propulsion opportunities are summarized. Consideration is given to advanced technology conventional turboprop engines, advanced propellers, and several unconventional alternatives: regenerative turboprops, rotaries, and diesels. Advanced versions of conventional turboprops (including propellers) offer 15-20 percent savings in fuel and 10-15 percent in DOC compared to the new crop of 1500-2000 SHP engines currently in development. Unconventional engines could boost the fuel savings to 30-40 percent. The conclusion is that several important opportunities exist and, therefore, powerplant technology need not plateau.

  17. Non-commutative tools for topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews several analytic tools for the field of topological insulators, developed with the aid of non-commutative calculus and geometry. The set of tools includes bulk topological invariants defined directly in the thermodynamic limit and in the presence of disorder, whose robustness is shown to have nontrivial physical consequences for the bulk states. The set of tools also includes a general relation between the current of an observable and its edge index, a relation that can be used to investigate the robustness of the edge states against disorder. The paper focuses on the motivations behind creating such tools and on how to use them.

  18. The effect of commuting microenvironment on commuter exposures to vehicular emission in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Qin, Y.

    Vehicular exhaust emission has gradually become the major air pollution source in modern cities and traffic related exposure is found to contribute significantly to total human exposure level. A comprehensive survey was conducted from November 1995 to July 1996 in Hong Kong to assess the effect of traffic-induced air pollution inside different commuting microenvironments on commuter exposure. Microenvironmental monitoring is performed for six major public commuting modes (bus, light bus, MTR, railway, tram, ferry), plus private car and roadside pavement. Traffic-related pollutants, CO, NO x, THC and O 3 were selected as the target pollutants. The results indicate that commuter exposure is highly influenced by the choice of commuting microenvironment. In general, the exposure level in decreasing order of measured pollutant level for respective commuting microenvironments are: private car, the group consisting light bus, bus, tram and pavement, MTR and train, and finally ferry. In private car, the CO level is several times higher than that in the other microenvironments with a trip averaged of 10.1 ppm and a maximum of 24.9 ppm. Factors such as the body position of the vehicle, intake point of the ventilation system, fuel used, ventilation, transport mode, road and driving conditions were used in the analysis. Inter-microenvironment, intra-microenvironment and temporal variation of CO concentrations were used as the major indicator. The low body position and low intake point of the ventilation system of the private car are believed to be the cause of higher intake of exhaust of other vehicles and thus result in high pollution level in this microenvironment. Compared with other metropolis around the world and the Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (HKAQO), exposure levels of commuter to traffic-related air pollution in Hong Kong are relatively low for most pollutants measured. Only several cases of exceedence of HKAQO by NO 2 were recorded. The strong prevailing wind

  19. Molecularly distinct routes of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake are activated depending on the activity of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA).

    PubMed

    Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Deak, András T; Groschner, Lukas N; Alam, Muhammad Rizwan; Jean-Quartier, Claire; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F

    2013-05-24

    The transfer of Ca(2+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane is an important physiological process linked to the regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, and cell death. While the definite molecular composition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake sites remains unknown, several proteins of the inner mitochondrial membrane, that are likely to accomplish mitochondrial Ca(2+) fluxes, have been described: the novel uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, the leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1 and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. It is unclear whether these proteins contribute to one unique mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake pathway or establish distinct routes for mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration. In this study, we show that a modulation of Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum by inhibition of the sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum ATPase modifies cytosolic Ca(2+) signals and consequently switches mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake from an uncoupling protein 3- and mitochondrial calcium uniporter-dependent, but leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1-independent to a leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1- and mitochondrial calcium uniporter-mediated, but uncoupling protein 3-independent pathway. Thus, the activity of sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum ATPase is significant for the mode of mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration and determines which mitochondrial proteins might actually accomplish the transfer of Ca(2+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Moreover, our findings herein support the existence of distinct mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake routes that might be essential to ensure an efficient ion transfer into mitochondria despite heterogeneous cytosolic Ca(2+) rises. PMID:23592775

  20. Shock Waves and Commutation Speed of Memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shao; Tesler, Federico; Marlasca, Fernando Gomez; Levy, Pablo; Dobrosavljević, V.; Rozenberg, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Progress of silicon-based technology is nearing its physical limit, as the minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 10 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next-generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade, and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, this progress has mainly been the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of the essence. In the present work, we report the striking result of a connection between the resistive switching and shock-wave formation, a classic topic of nonlinear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen vacancies that migrate during the commutation forms a shock wave that propagates through a highly resistive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations and experiments in a manganese-oxide-based memristor device, and we extend our theory to the case of binary oxides. The shock-wave scenario brings unprecedented physical insight and enables us to rationalize the process of oxygen-vacancy-driven resistive change with direct implications for a key technological aspect—the commutation speed.

  1. NYPA/TH!NK Clean Commute Program Report – Inception through February 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Don Karner; James Francfort

    2003-07-01

    The Clean Commute Program uses TH!NK city electric vehicles from Ford Motor Company’s electric vehicle group, TH!NK Mobility, to demonstrate the feasibility of using electric transportation in urban applications. The primary Program partners are the New York Power Authority (NYPA) and Ford. The other Program partners providing funding and other support include the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Metro North Railroad, Long Island Railroad, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Long Island Power Authority, New York State Department of Transportation, New York City Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). The data in this report is being collected via an internet-based questionnaire system by the AVTA through its subcontractor Electric Transportation Applications. Suburban New York City railroad commuters use the TH!NK city vehicles to commute from their private residences to railroad stations where they catch commuter trains into New York City. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure for the TH!NK cities is located at the commuters’ private residences as well as seven train stations. Eighty-seven commuters are using the TH!NK city vehicles, with 80% actively providing data to the AVTA. The participants have driven the vehicles nearly 150,000 miles since Program inception, avoiding the use of almost 7,000 gallons of gasoline. The TH!NK city vehicles are driven an average of between 180 and 230 miles per month, and over 95% of all trips taken with the TH!NK city vehicles replace trips previously taken in gasoline vehicles. This report covers the period from Program inception through February 2003.

  2. Soft commutated direct current motor [summary of proposed paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S.

    1998-10-22

    A novel soft commutated direct current (DC) motor is introduced. The current of the commutated coil is intentionally drained before the brush disconnects the coil. This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. A similar principle can be applied for DC generators.

  3. Impulse commutating circuit with transformer to limit reapplied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconville, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Silicon controlled rectifier opens circuit with currents flowing up to values of 30 amperes. Switching concept halves both current and voltage in middle of commutating cycle thereby lowering size and weight requirements. Commutating circuit can be turned on or off by command and will remain on in absence of load due to continuous gate.

  4. Unraveling the Image of Commutation Spark Generated in Universal Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazawa, Tamio; Almazroui, Ali; Egashira, Torao

    A universal motor, which is mainly used in vacuum cleaners, generates commutation sparks at the moment when the brush and the commutator segment are separated from each other during rotation. This study investigates the mechanism of commutation spark generation by analyzing high-speed camera images and its electrical aspect. We invented a new external trigger method that used laser light as the trigger signal for the shuttering a high-speed camera. This method enabled us to photograph sparks on any desired commutator segments during high-speed rotation, and that made the analysis after photographing easier. This paper shows that commutation sparks in universal motors are generated on every other commutator segment and at the peak of pulses in the voltage between the brush and commutator segment. Other aspects are also clarified, such as the generation of the singular and plural number of sparks on one commutator segment at a time, the time from the moment of spark generation to extinction, and spark generation during a single rotation.

  5. 75 FR 13680 - Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 571 RIN 1120-AB54 Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) regulations on sentence commutation to clarify that the Bureau...

  6. Parabosonic string and space-time non-commutativity

    SciTech Connect

    Seridi, M. A.; Belaloui, N.

    2012-06-27

    We investigate the para-quantum extension of the bosonic strings in a non-commutative space-time. We calculate the trilinear relations between the mass-center variables and the modes and we derive the Virasoro algebra where a new anomaly term due to the non-commutativity is obtained.

  7. Non-commutative relativistic equation with a Coulomb potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zaim, Slimane; Khodja, Lamine; Delenda, Yazid

    2012-06-27

    We improve the previous study of the Klein-Gordon equation in a non-commutative space-time as applied to the Hydrogen atom to extract the energy levels, by considering the secondorder corrections in the non-commutativity parameter. Phenomenologically we show that noncommutativity plays the role of spin.

  8. Understanding What Influences Successful Black Commuter Students' Engagement in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, Trina Lynn; Jones, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Black and commuter students are disadvantaged when it comes to higher education. Although black students are enrolling in college more than they did in previous years, fewer are earning degrees compared with their counterparts. Research asserts that students who live on campus are more engaged compared with students who commute. This is troubling…

  9. The carbon reduction research of teaching staff commuting aided by Google Earth: taking Guangzhou University as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongyu; Wang, Xixiang; Zhao, Meichan; Zhao, Huaqing; Lin, Zhien

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, taking Guangzhou University as an example, carbon reduction of teaching staff commuting was researched. Firstly, considering carbon emission of teaching staff commuting is come from the fuel consumption of vehicle used to trip, the routes, schedule, vehicle type, fuel type and fuel consumption per 100 km of service express bus, public bus and private car were investigated from relevant department and web questionnaire in office automation system. Secondly, the routes of service express bus, public bus and private car were drawn in Google earth browser to measure distance. Thirdly, combined the bus schedule, school calendar, curriculum timetable of teacher and fuel consumption per 100 km of all kinds of vehicle, the fuel consumption of service express bus, public bus and private car were computed. Fourthly, carbon emission was calculated according to net calorific factor and calorie carbon emission factors of fuel. Finally, the measures of carbon reduction were discussed. The research results show that teaching staff commuting emitted 455.433 tons carbon in 2005-2006 academic year. And reducing usage rate of private car and adding new service express bus line are efficient measure of carbon reduction. Former measure can reduce 33.6891 tons carbon and about 7.4% of original emission. The latter can reduce 7.6317 tons and about 1.68% of original emission.

  10. Inflation on a non-commutative space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Fritz, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We study inflation on a non-commutative space-time within the framework of enveloping algebra approach which allows for a consistent formulation of general relativity and of the standard model of particle physics. We show that within this framework, the effects of the non-commutativity of spacetime are very subtle. The dominant effect comes from contributions to the process of structure formation. We describe the bound relevant to this class of non-commutative theories and derive the tightest bound to date of the value of the non-commutative scale within this framework. Assuming that inflation took place, we get a model independent bound on the scale of space-time non-commutativity of the order of 19 TeV.

  11. Almost Commuting Unitary Matrices Related to Time Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, Terry A.; Sørensen, Adam P. W.

    2013-11-01

    The behavior of fermionic systems depends on the geometry of the system and the symmetry class of the Hamiltonian and observables. Almost commuting matrices arise from band-projected position observables in such systems. One expects the mathematical behavior of almost commuting Hermitian matrices to depend on two factors. One factor will be the approximate polynomial relations satisfied by the matrices. The other factor is what algebra the matrices are in, either for , or , the algebra of quaternions. There are potential obstructions keeping k-tuples of almost commuting operators from being close to a commuting k-tuple.We consider two-dimensional geometries and so this obstruction lives in . This obstruction corresponds to either the Chern number or spin Chern number in physics. We show that if this obstruction is the trivial element in K-theory then the approximation by commuting matrices is possible.

  12. Euler polynomials and identities for non-commutative operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Valerio; Vignat, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Three kinds of identities involving non-commutating operators and Euler and Bernoulli polynomials are studied. The first identity, as given by Bender and Bettencourt [Phys. Rev. D 54(12), 7710-7723 (1996)], expresses the nested commutator of the Hamiltonian and momentum operators as the commutator of the momentum and the shifted Euler polynomial of the Hamiltonian. The second one, by Pain [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 035304 (2013)], links the commutators and anti-commutators of the monomials of the position and momentum operators. The third appears in a work by Figuieira de Morisson and Fring [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 9269 (2006)] in the context of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems. In each case, we provide several proofs and extensions of these identities that highlight the role of Euler and Bernoulli polynomials.

  13. Effects of urban growth controls on intercity commuting.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Laudo M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of the effects of urban growth controls on the intercity commuting of workers. Growth controls (land use regulations that attempt to restrict population growth and urban sprawl) have increased housing prices and diverted population growth to uncontrolled cities. It has been suggested that resulting changes in local labour supply might stimulate intercity commuting from uncontrolled to controlled cities. To test this hypothesis, a gravity model of commuting flows between places in California is estimated using alternative econometric methods (OLS, Heckman selection and count-data). The possibility of spatial dependence in commuting flows is also taken into consideration. Results suggest larger commuting flows to destination places that restrict residential growth. PMID:20722227

  14. A Chemical Route to Activation of Open Metal Sites in the Copper-Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials HKUST-1 and Cu-MOF-2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Ki; Yun, Won Seok; Kim, Min-Bum; Kim, Jeung Yoon; Bae, Youn-Sang; Lee, JaeDong; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2015-08-12

    Open coordination sites (OCSs) in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) often function as key factors in the potential applications of MOFs, such as gas separation, gas sorption, and catalysis. For these applications, the activation process to remove the solvent molecules coordinated at the OCSs is an essential step that must be performed prior to use of the MOFs. To date, the thermal method performed by applying heat and vacuum has been the only method for such activation. In this report, we demonstrate that methylene chloride (MC) itself can perform the activation role: this process can serve as an alternative "chemical route" for the activation that does not require applying heat. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has demonstrated this function of MC, although MC has been popularly used in the pretreatment step prior to the thermal activation process. On the basis of a Raman study, we propose a plausible mechanism for the chemical activation, in which the function of MC is possibly due to its coordination with the Cu(2+) center and subsequent spontaneous decoordination. Using HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that this chemical activation route is highly suitable for activating large-area MOF films. PMID:26197386

  15. Is There "Still" a Considerable Difference? Comparing Residential and Commuter Student Profile Characteristics at a Public, Research, Commuter University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianoutsos, D.; Rosser, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the student profile characteristics, which were categorized as demographic, prematriculation, and matriculation, between traditional residential and commuter students at a public, research, commuter university. Using status attainment as the theoretical framework, the researchers employed a discriminant…

  16. Solution-phase synthesis and high photocatalytic activity of wurtzite ZnSe ultrathin nanobelts: a general route to 1D semiconductor nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shenglin; Xi, Baojuan; Wang, Chengming; Xi, Guangcheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Qian, Yitai

    2007-01-01

    A general and facile synthetic route has been developed to prepare 1D semiconductor nanomaterials in a binary solution of distilled water and ethanol amine. The influence of the volume ratio of mixed solvents and reaction temperature on the yield and final morphology of products was investigated. Significantly, this is the first time that wurtzite ZnSe ultrathin nanobelts have been synthesized in solution. It has been confirmed that the photocatalytic activity of ZnSe nanobelts in the photodegradation of the fuchsine acid is higher than that of TiO(2) nanoparticles. The present work shows that the solvothermal route is facile, cheap, and versatile. Thus, it is very easy to realize scaled-up production, and brings new light on the synthesis and self-assembly of functional materials. PMID:17616961

  17. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  18. A non-commuting stabilizer formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver

    2015-05-15

    We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.

  19. The biosynthetic routes for carbon monoxide and cyanide in the Ni-Fe active site of hydrogenases are different.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Winfried; Blokesch, Melanie; Böck, August; Albracht, Simon P J

    2005-01-17

    The incorporation of carbon into the carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands of [NiFe]-hydrogenases has been investigated by using (13)C labelling in infrared studies of the Allochromatium vinosum enzyme and by (14)C labelling experiments with overproduced Hyp proteins from Escherichia coli. The results suggest that the biosynthetic routes of the carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands in [NiFe]-hydrogenases are different. PMID:15642360

  20. Commuting behavior of western U.S. residents

    SciTech Connect

    Caviglia, J. |

    1996-06-01

    Estimation and interpretation of commutes to work has been studied extensively with respect to gender, race, and income. While the literature is extensive in these areas, there has been little research on regional differences between US states and territories. Since data which reports the commute to work is in average minutes, the distance traveled is estimated using estimates of the distance between home and work county centroids. The models differ in estimation of in-county commutes. The first assumes that the commute is equal to the radius of the county and the second estimates the commute as a weighted distance based on place location. Two data sets are compared, US National Guard data and US census data. Goal of this paper is to make conclusions about the commuting behavior of western residents through the use of these estimates, and therefore to provide a estimation method for distance commutes which can be used in further research. It is concluded that the radius method of estimation may be an over estimation, in particular in the western states. Since the non-western states are generally more homogeneously populated, this overestimation is not observed. It is recommended that the place location method be used for similar research, in particular studies dealing with western states. Suggestions are made for further research and recommendations are made for the US Army National Guard in regards to recruiting.

  1. New Walking and Cycling Routes and Increased Physical Activity: One- and 2-Year Findings From the UK iConnect Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of providing new high-quality, traffic-free routes for walking and cycling on overall levels of walking, cycling, and physical activity. Methods. 1796 adult residents in 3 UK municipalities completed postal questionnaires at baseline (2010) and 1-year follow-up (2011), after the construction of the new infrastructure. 1465 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and 2-year follow-up (2012). Transport network distance from home to infrastructure defined intervention exposure and provided a basis for controlled comparisons. Results. Living nearer the infrastructure did not predict changes in activity levels at 1-year follow-up but did predict increases in activity at 2 years relative to those living farther away (15.3 additional minutes/week walking and cycling per km nearer; 12.5 additional minutes/week of total physical activity). The effects were larger among participants with no car. Conclusions. These new local routes may mainly have displaced walking or cycling trips in the short term but generated new trips in the longer term, particularly among those unable to access more distant destinations by car. These findings support the potential for walking and cycling infrastructure to promote physical activity. PMID:25033133

  2. Gauge transformation and symmetries of the commutative multicomponent BKP hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new multi-component B type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy that takes values in a commutative subalgebra of {gl}(N,{{C}}). After this, we give the gauge transformation of this commutative multicomponent BKP (CMBKP) hierarchy. Meanwhile, we construct a new constrained CMBKP hierarchy that contains some new integrable systems, including coupled KdV equations under a certain reduction. After this, the quantum torus symmetry and quantum torus constraint on the tau function of the commutative multi-component BKP hierarchy will be constructed.

  3. Mechanism For Adjustment Of Commutation Of Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanism enables adjustment of angular position of set of Hall-effect devices that sense instantaneous shaft angle of brushless dc motor. Outputs of sensors fed to commutation circuitry. Measurement of shaft angle essential for commutation; that is, application of voltage to stator windings must be synchronized with shaft angle. To obtain correct angle measurement for commutation, Hall-effect angle sensors positioned at proper reference angle. The present mechanism accelerates adjustment procedure and makes it possible to obtain more accurate indication of minimum-current position because it provides for adjustment while motor running.

  4. Generalized Uncertainty Relation in the Non-commutative Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ≥ {θ}/{2}, {Δ} p1 {Δ } p2 ≥ {bar{θ}}/{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ≥ {hbar _{eff}}/{2} is discussed. Four each uncertainty relation, wave functions saturating each uncertainty relation are explicitly constructed. The unitary operators relating the non-commutative position and momentum operators to the commutative position and momentum operators are also investigated. We also discuss the uncertainty relation related to the harmonic oscillator.

  5. Characterising food environment exposure at home, at work, and along commuting journeys using data on adults in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment (‘foodscape’). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete assessment of foodscape exposure. This paper characterises and describes foodscape exposure of different types, at home, at work, and along commuting routes for a sample of working adults in Cambridgeshire, UK. Methods Home and work locations, and transport habits for 2,696 adults aged 29–60 were drawn from the Fenland Study, UK. Food outlet locations were obtained from local councils and classified by type - we focus on convenience stores, restaurants, supermarkets and takeaway food outlets. Density of and proximity to food outlets was characterised at home and work. Commuting routes were modelled based on the shortest street network distance between home and work, with exposure (counts of food outlets) that accounted for travel mode and frequency. We describe these three domains of food environment exposure using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results For all types of food outlet, we found very different foodscapes around homes and workplaces (with overall outlet exposure at work 125% higher), as well as a potentially substantial exposure contribution from commuting routes. On average, work and commuting environments each contributed to foodscape exposure at least equally to residential neighbourhoods, which only accounted for roughly 30% of total exposure. Furthermore, for participants with highest overall exposure to takeaway food outlets, workplaces accounted for most of the exposure. Levels of relative exposure between home, work and commuting environments were poorly correlated. Conclusions Relying solely on residential neighbourhood characterisation greatly underestimated total

  6. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  7. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  8. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  9. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  10. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  11. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evaluation of commuter category airplanes. 23.574 Section 23.574 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes. For commuter category airplanes— (a) Metallic damage tolerance....

  12. Mesoporous magnetic activated carbon: Effect of preparation route on texture and surface properties and on effect for Reactive Black 5 adsorption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios; Saroyan, Hayarpi; Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Deliyanni, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Mesoporous magnetic activated carbon: Effect of preparation route on texture and surface properties and on effect for Reactive Black 5 adsorption. Dimitrios Giannakoudakis1, Hayarpi Saroyan2, Nikolaos Lazaridis2, Eleni Deliyanni2 1 City College of New York, Chemistry Department, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, United States 2 Laboratory of General and oInorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece In this study, the effect of preparation route of a mesoporous magnetic activated carbon on Reactive Black 5 (RB5) adsorption was investigated. The synthesis of the magnetic activated carbon was achieved both with (i) impregnation method (Bmi), and (ii) co-precipitation with two precipitation agents: NaOH (Bm) and NH4OH (Bma). After synthesis, the full characterization with various techniques (SEM, FTIR, XRD, DTA, DTG, VSM) was achieved in order to testify the effect of the preparation route on its textural and surface properties. It was shown that after the precipitation method the prepared carbon presented a collapsed texture and small magnetic properties. Effects of initial solution pH, effect of temperature, adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated in order to conclude about the aforementioned effect of the preparation method on dye adsorption performance of the magnetic carbons. The adsorption evaluation of the magnetic activated carbon presented higher adsorption capacity of Bmi carbon (350 mg/g) and lower of Bm (150 mg/g). Equilibrium experiments are also performed studying the effect of contact time (pseudo-first and -second order equations) and temperature (isotherms at 25, 45 and 65 °C fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich model). A full thermodynamic evaluation was carried out, calculating the parameters of enthalpy, free energy and entropy (ΔHο, ΔGο and ΔSο). The characterization with various techniques revealed the possible interactions/forces of dye-composite system.

  13. Commuters' exposure to PM1 by common travel modes in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qi; Lu, Yi; Xiao, Shan; Shen, Junxiu; Li, Xun; Ma, Weichun; Chen, Limin

    2012-11-01

    A study on commuter's exposure to PM1 in Shanghai was presented. Commuters' real-time exposure concentrations by the common travel modes (bus, walking, cycling, taxi and subway) were measured by DustTrak™ dust monitors, and the average exposure concentrations and inhalation doses were analyzed. The lengths of the routes were designed to be within 30-min walking distance. The average PM1 exposure concentrations during commuting were 0.147 ± 0.092 mg m-3, 0.145 ± 0.088 mg m-3, 0.140 ± 0.086 mg m-3, 0.139 ± 0.086 mg m-3 and 0.122 ± 0.077 mg m-3 for the bus, walking, cycling, taxi and subway trips respectively. The concentrations in the microenvironments were 0.147 ± 0.096 mg m-3, 0.155 ± 0.098 mg m-3, 0.142 ± 0.092 mg m-3 and 0.079 ± 0.051 mg m-3 for the bus station, bus, taxi and train respectively. The concentrations in the microenvironments were close to those in Guangzhou and higher compared to the results in London, Sydney, Florence, etc. The combined effect of exposure concentration, travel time and inhalation rate led to different inter-mode relationship of inhalation doses compared to that of exposure concentrations. The inhalation doses were 54.5 ± 38.9 μg, 45.2 ± 30.1 μg, 29.2 ± 25.4 μg, 28.6 ± 25.9 μg and 12.8 ± 13.4 μg for the cycling, walking, bus, subway and taxi trips respectively. The outdoor fractions of the inhalation doses by bus, taxi and subway were much higher than the indoor fractions.

  14. Inertial spin Hall effect in non-commutative space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, B.; Chowdhury, Debashree; Ghosh, Subir

    2013-10-01

    In the present Letter the study of inertial spin current (that appears in an accelerated frame of reference) is extended to Non-Commutative (NC) space. In the Hamiltonian framework, the Dirac Hamiltonian in an accelerating frame is computed in the low energy regime by exploiting the Foldy-Wouthuysen scheme. The NC θ-effect appears from the replacement of normal products and commutators by Moyal *-products and *-commutators. In particular, the commutator between the external magnetic vector potential and the potential induced by acceleration becomes non-trivial. Expressions for θ-corrected inertial spin current and conductivity are derived explicitly. We have provided yet another way of experimentally measuring θ. The θ bound is obtained from the out of plane spin polarization, which is experimentally observable.

  15. Strong Planck constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: skuro@rs.tus.ac.jp E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2014-03-01

    We place observational likelihood constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation for a number of inflaton potentials, using Planck, WMAP polarization and BAO data. Both braneworld and non-commutative scenarios of the kind considered here are limited by the most recent data even more severely than standard general-relativity models. At more than 95 % confidence level, the monomial potential V(φ)∝φ{sup p} is ruled out for p ≥ 2 in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld cosmology and, for p > 0, also in the high-curvature limit of the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) braneworld and in the infrared limit of non-commutative inflation, due to a large scalar spectral index. Some parameter values for natural inflation, small-varying inflaton models and Starobinsky inflation are allowed in all scenarios, although some tuning is required for natural inflation in a non-commutative spacetime.

  16. Classical limits of quantum mechanics on a non-commutative configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, Fabio; Gouba, Laure

    2013-06-15

    We consider a model of non-commutative quantum mechanics given by two harmonic oscillators over a non-commutative two dimensional configuration space. We study possible ways of removing the non-commutativity based on the classical limit context known as anti-Wick quantization. We show that removal of non-commutativity from the configuration space and from the canonical operators is not commuting operation.

  17. Non-commutativity, teleology and GRB time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Pang, Yi; Wang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model in which an energy-dependent time delay of a photon originates from space-time non-commutativity, the time delay is due to a non-commutative coupling between dilaton and photon. We predict that in our model, high energy photons with different momentum can either be delayed or superluminal, this may be related to a possible time delay reported by the Fermi LAT and Fermi GBM Collaborations.

  18. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-03-27

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  19. A Homemade Autosampler/Injector Commutator for Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; de Souza, Leandro Ruela; de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Wisniewski, Célio

    2006-01-01

    An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA) was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B) connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator. PMID:17671617

  20. BIOLOGIC AND EPIGENETIC IMPACT OF COMMUTING TO WORK BY CAR OR USING PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo; Zhang, Fang Fang; Kappil, Maya A.; Flory, Janine; Mirer, Frank E; Santella, Regina M.; Wolff, Mary; Markowitz, Steven B

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Commuting by public transportation (PT) entails more physical activity and energy expenditure than by cars, but its biologic consequences are unknown. Methods In 2009-2010, we randomly sampled New York adults, usually commuting either by car (n=79) or PT (n=101). Measures comprised diet and physical activity questionnaires, weight and height, white blood cell (WBC) count, C reactive protein, (CRP) gene-specific methylation (IL-6), and global genomic DNA methylation (LINE-1 methylation). Results Compared to the 101 PT commuters, the 79 car drivers were about 9 years older, 2 kg/m2 heavier, more often non-Hispanic whites, and ate more fruits and more meats. The 2005 guidelines for physical activity were met by more car drivers than PT users (78.5% vs. 65.0%). There were no differences in median levels of CRP (car vs. PT: 0.6 vs. 0.5 mg/dl), mean levels of WBC (car vs. PT: 6.7 vs. 6.5 cells/mm3), LINE-1 methylation (car vs. PT: 78.0% vs. 78.3%), and promoter methylation of IL-6 (car vs. PT: 56.1% vs. 58.0%). Conclusions PT users were younger and lighter than car drivers, but their commute mode did not translate into a lower inflammatory response or a higher DNA methylation, maybe because, overall, car drivers were more physically active. PMID:22313796

  1. Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2007-02-01

    In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino.

  2. Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2007-02-15

    In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino.

  3. Demonstration of Caterpillar C-10 dual-fuel engines in MCI 102DL3 commuter buses

    SciTech Connect

    2000-02-28

    The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the Caterpillar C-10 Dual-Fuel Natural Gas (DFNG) engine in an over-the-road bus application. Three new Motor Coach Industries (MCI) 102DL3 buses, equipped with Caterpillar C-10 DFNG engines, and one bus, equipped with a Caterpillar C-10 diesel engine, were operated side by side on similar fixed-route revenue service for a 12-month demonstration period (February 1998 to January 1999). The buses were used as part of the Clean Air Express Commuter Bus Program in Santa Barbara County, California. The performance and reliability of the DFNG engines were similar to that of the diesel engine, but the emissions results were mixed.

  4. Long commuting time, extensive overtime, and sympathodominant state assessed in terms of short-term heart rate variability among male white-collar workers in the Tokyo megalopolis.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, T; Nishikido, N; Kobayashi, T; Kurokawa, Y; Kaneko, T; Kabuto, M

    1998-07-01

    To investigate the possible effects of long commuting time and extensive overtime on daytime cardiac autonomic activity, the short-term heart rate variability (HRV) both at supine rest and at standing rest of 223 male white-collar workers in the Tokyo Megalopolis was examined. Workers with a one-way commute of 90 min or more exhibited decreased vagal activity at supine rest and increased sympathetic activity regardless of posture, and those doing overtime of 60 h/month or more exhibited decreased vagal activity and increased sympathetic activity at standing rest. These findings suggest that chronic stress or fatigue resulting from long commuting time or extensive overtime caused these individuals to be in a sympathodominant state. Although these shifts in autonomic activities are not direct indicators of disease, it can be hypothesized that they can induce cardiovascular abnormalities or dysfunctions related to the onset of heart disease. Assessment of the daily and weekly variations in HRV as a function of daily life activities (such as working, commuting, sleeping, and exercising) among workers in Asia-Pacific urban areas might be one way of studying the possible effects of long commuting time, and extensive overtime, on health. PMID:9701898

  5. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  6. Short-term radon activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno (Sudety Mts., SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2014-09-01

    Short-term (222)Rn activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno were studied, based on continuous measurements conducted between 16 May 2008 and 15 May 2010. The results were analysed in the context of numbers of visitors arriving at the facility in particular seasons and the time per day spent inside by staff and visitors. This choice was based on partially published earlier findings (Fijałkowska-Lichwa and Przylibski, 2011). Results for the year 2009 were analysed in depth, because it is the only period of observation covering a full calendar year. The year 2009 was also chosen for detailed analysis of short-term radon concentration changes, because in each period of this year (hour, month, season) fluctuations of noted values were the most visible. Attention has been paid to three crucial issues linked to the occurrence and behaviour of radon and to the radiological protection of workers and visitors at the tourist route in Kletno. The object of study is a complex of workings in a former uranium mine situated within a metamorphic rock complex in the most radon-prone area in Poland. The facility has been equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, which is turned on after the closing time and at the end of the working day for the visitor service staff, i.e. after 6 p.m. Short-term radon activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno are related to the activity of the facility's mechanical ventilation. Its inactivity in the daytime results in the fact that the highest values of (222)Rn activity concentration are observed at the time when the facility is open to visitors, i.e. between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. The improper usage of the mechanical ventilation system is responsible for the extremely unfavourable working conditions, which persist in the facility for practically all year. The absence of appropriate radiological protection

  7. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  8. Dynamic information routing in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  9. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  10. Geometric properties of commutative subalgebras of partial differential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheglov, A. B.; Kurke, H.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate further algebro-geometric properties of commutative rings of partial differential operators, continuing our research started in previous articles. In particular, we start to explore the simplest and also certain known examples of quantum algebraically completely integrable systems from the point of view of a recent generalization of Sato's theory, developed by the first author. We give a complete characterization of the spectral data for a class of 'trivial' commutative algebras and strengthen geometric properties known earlier for a class of known examples. We also define a kind of restriction map from the moduli space of coherent sheaves with fixed Hilbert polynomial on a surface to an analogous moduli space on a divisor (both the surface and the divisor are part of the spectral data). We give several explicit examples of spectral data and corresponding algebras of commuting (completed) operators, producing as a by-product interesting examples of surfaces that are not isomorphic to spectral surfaces of any (maximal) commutative ring of partial differential operators of rank one. Finally, we prove that any commutative ring of partial differential operators whose normalization is isomorphic to the ring of polynomials k \\lbrack u,t \\rbrack is a Darboux transformation of a ring of operators with constant coefficients. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  11. A non-commutative framework for topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, C.; Carey, A. L.; Rennie, A.

    2016-04-01

    We study topological insulators, regarded as physical systems giving rise to topological invariants determined by symmetries both linear and anti-linear. Our perspective is that of non-commutative index theory of operator algebras. In particular, we formulate the index problems using Kasparov theory, both complex and real. We show that the periodic table of topological insulators and superconductors can be realized as a real or complex index pairing of a Kasparov module capturing internal symmetries of the Hamiltonian with a spectral triple encoding the geometry of the sample’s (possibly non-commutative) Brillouin zone.

  12. A melt route for the synthesis of activated carbon derived from carton box for high performance symmetric supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dewei; Fang, Guoli; Xue, Tong; Ma, Jinfu; Geng, Guihong

    2016-03-01

    Activated carbon materials have been playing a significant role in addressing the challenges posed with the ever-increasing demand for alternative clean and sustainable energy technologies. In the present study, a facile strategy is proposed for generating porosity in porous carbons by using carton box as the precursor and eutectic NaOH-KOH melt as the activating agent. The prepared carbon materials have a very high specific surface area up to 2731 m2 g-1 with large pore volume of 1.68 cm3 g-1, which is greater than that of only KOH was used at the same mass ratio. Electrochemical studies based on symmetric supercapacitor devices demonstrating that the NaOH-KOH melt activated porous carbon exhibits significantly improved rate capability in the range of 0.5-75 A g-1 despite of the similar specific capacitance with respect to KOH activated carbon at a low current density of 0.5 A g-1. The remarkable deviations in capacitive behavior at high current density for the NaOH-KOH melt activated porous carbon and KOH activated samples highlighting the specific surface area is not the only parameter that determines the capacitive performance especially at high charge-discharge rate.

  13. Long-Distance Relationships in Dual-Career Commuter Couples: A Review of Counseling Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Angel R.

    2002-01-01

    The dual-career commuter couple is an alternative family configuration that continues to grow in number. Reviews the literature on dual-career commuter couples that has been published since 1982. Addresses the counseling issues of marital and family characteristics, commuting characteristics, and decision-making styles. Counseling implications and…

  14. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  15. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  16. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  17. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  18. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  19. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  20. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  1. On the Need for Separate Commuter Programs: San Diego State Looks at Its Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, Barbie

    1980-01-01

    A self-assessment of commuter student programs and services at San Diego State University (SDSU) indicated that the university was doing well in meeting the needs of this population. For many years, most of the students at SDSU have been commuter students. Services and programs that were developed were created with the commuter student in mind.…

  2. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  3. Understanding What Influences Successful Black Commuter Students' Engagement in College: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, Trina Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Although Black commuter students are disadvantaged when it comes to higher education, research on the success of Black commuter students in college is very rare. Existing research on Black and commuter students primarily concentrate on negative statistics such as stagnant college completion rates, departure, and lack of engagement. The purpose of…

  4. 49 CFR 37.87 - Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter....87 Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in... may purchase or lease a used intercity or commuter rail car that is not readily accessible to...

  5. 49 CFR 37.87 - Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter....87 Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in... may purchase or lease a used intercity or commuter rail car that is not readily accessible to...

  6. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  7. A self-sacrifice template route to iodine modified BiOIO3: band gap engineering and highly boosted visible-light active photoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingwen; Huang, Hongwei; Yu, Shixin; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-03-01

    The development of high-performance visible-light photocatalysts with a tunable band gap has great significance for enabling wide-band-gap (WBG) semiconductors visible-light sensitive activity and precisely tailoring their optical properties and photocatalytic performance. In this work we demonstrate the continuously adjustable band gap and visible-light photocatalysis activation of WBG BiOIO3via iodine surface modification. The iodine modified BiOIO3 was developed through a facile in situ reduction route by applying BiOIO3 as the self-sacrifice template and glucose as the reducing agent. By manipulating the glucose concentration, the band gap of the as-prepared modified BiOIO3 could be orderly narrowed by generation of the impurity or defect energy level close to the conduction band, thus endowing it with a visible light activity. The photocatalytic assessments uncovered that, in contrast to pristine BiOIO3, the modified BiOIO3 presents significantly boosted photocatalytic properties for the degradation of both liquid and gaseous contaminants, including Rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO), and ppb-level NO under visible light. Additionally, the band structure evolution as well as photocatalysis mechanism triggered by the iodine surface modification is investigated in detail. This study not only provides a novel iodine surface-modified BiOIO3 for environmental application, but also provides a facile and general way to develop highly efficient visible-light photocatalysts. PMID:26911659

  8. Isomorphic routing on a toroidal mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Weizhen; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    We study a routing problem that arises on SIMD parallel architectures whose communication network forms a toroidal mesh. We assume there exists a set of k message descriptors (xi, yi), where (xi, yi) indicates that the ith message's recipient is offset from its sender by xi hops in one mesh dimension, and yi hops in the other. Every processor has k messages to send, and all processors use the same set of message routing descriptors. The SIMD constraint implies that at any routing step, every processor is actively routing messages with the same descriptors as any other processor. We call this isomorphic routing. Our objective is to find the isomorphic routing schedule with least makespan. We consider a number of variations on the problem, yielding complexity results from O(k) to NP-complete. Most of our results follow after we transform the problem into a scheduling problem, where it is related to other well-known scheduling problems.

  9. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  10. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  11. Analyses of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same Census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The d...

  12. FACTORS EFFECTING EXPOSURES TO VOCS DURING COMMUTING IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the average, Californian's spend between one and three hours each day commuting. The contribution from in-vehicle exposures to air toxics may be a significant component of total air exposure. Although pollutant concentration data are important for exposure assessments, onl...

  13. Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.

  14. Components of a Comprehensive Market Research Program for Commuter Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Cragi

    1999-01-01

    Describes and evaluates eight elements of a comprehensive market-research program for commuter colleges: secondary research with formal environmental scanning, local business community-needs assessment; adult community-member telephone survey, classroom survey, new student survey, focus groups, brainstorming sessions, and survey of college…

  15. A perspective on non-commutative quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Rachel A. D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present some of the concepts underlying a program of non-commutative quantum gravity and recall some of the results. This program includes a novel approach to spectral triple categorification and also a precise connection between Fell bundles and Connes' non-commutative geometry. Motivated by topics in quantization of the non-commutative standard model and introduction of algebraic techniques and concepts into quantum gravity (following for example Crane, Baez and Barrett), we define spectral C*-categories, which are deformed spectral triples in a sense made precise. This definition gives to representations of a C*-category on a small category of Hilbert spaces and bounded linear maps, the interpretation of a topological quantum field theory. The construction passes two mandatory tests: (i) there is a classical limit theorem reproducing a Riemannian spin manifold manifesting Connes' and Schücker's non-commutative counterpart of Einstein's equivalence principle, and (ii) there is consistency with the experimental fermion mass matrix. We also present an algebra invariant taking the form of a partition function arising from a C*-bundle dynamical system in connection with C*-subalgebra theory.

  16. Ethnic Enclave Residence, Employment, and Commuting of Latino Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Cathy Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of living in ethnic enclaves in different parts of a metropolitan area on low-skilled Latino immigrants' employment accessibility. It does so by comparing the employment status and commuting times of Latinos living in and out of ethnic neighborhoods in central city, inner-ring suburbs, and outer-ring suburbs in…

  17. The Business Case for Commuter Benefits at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavon, Patty

    2005-01-01

    Transportation and parking-related issues are common challenges for many colleges and universities today. Most institutions have far fewer parking spaces than they do commuters, and constructing and maintaining new parking facilities can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this article, an Environmental Protection Agency representative…

  18. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  19. Enhanced active aluminum content and thermal behaviour of nano-aluminum particles passivated during synthesis using thermal plasma route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe, Vikas L.; Varma, Vijay; Raut, Suyog; Nandi, Amiya Kumar; Pant, Arti; Prasanth, Hima; Pandey, R. K.; Bhoraskar, Sudha V.; Das, Asoka K.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we report synthesis and in situ passivation of aluminum nanoparticles using thermal plasma reactor. Both air and palmitc acid passivation was carried out during the synthesis in the thermal plasma reactor. The passivated nanoparticles have been characterized for their structural and morphological properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. In order to understand nature of passivation vibrational spectroscopic analysis have been carried out. The enhancement in active aluminum content and shelf life for a palmitic acid passivated nano-aluminum particles in comparison to the air passivated samples and commercially available nano Al powder (ALEX) has been observed. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to estimate active aluminum content of all the samples under investigation. In addition cerimetric back titration method was also used to estimate AAC and the shelf life of passivated aluminum particles. Structural, microstructural and thermogravomateric analysis of four year aged passivated sample also depicts effectiveness of palmitic acid passivation.

  20. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. PMID:26277386

  1. A review of commuter exposure to ultrafine particles and its health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knibbs, Luke D.; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Morawska, Lidia

    2011-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100 nm) are produced in large quantities by vehicular combustion and are implicated in causing several adverse human health effects. Recent work has suggested that a large proportion of daily UFP exposure may occur during commuting. However, the determinants, variability and transport mode-dependence of such exposure are not well-understood. The aim of this review was to address these knowledge gaps by distilling the results of 'in-transit' UFP exposure studies performed to-date, including studies of health effects. We identified 47 exposure studies performed across 6 transport modes: automobile, bicycle, bus, ferry, rail and walking. These encompassed approximately 3000 individual trips where UFP concentrations were measured. After weighting mean UFP concentrations by the number of trips in which they were collected, we found overall mean UFP concentrations of 3.4, 4.2, 4.5, 4.7, 4.9 and 5.7 × 10 4 particles cm -3 for the bicycle, bus, automobile, rail, walking and ferry modes, respectively. The mean concentration inside automobiles travelling through tunnels was 3.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3. While the mean concentrations were indicative of general trends, we found that the determinants of exposure (meteorology, traffic parameters, route, fuel type, exhaust treatment technologies, cabin ventilation, filtration, deposition, UFP penetration) exhibited marked variability and mode-dependence, such that it is not necessarily appropriate to rank modes in order of exposure without detailed consideration of these factors. Ten in-transit health effects studies have been conducted and their results indicate that UFP exposure during commuting can elicit acute effects in both healthy and health-compromised individuals. We suggest that future work should focus on further defining the contribution of in-transit UFP exposure to total UFP exposure, exploring its specific health effects and investigating exposures in the developing world.

  2. A mild synthetic route to Fe3O4@TiO2-Au composites: preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianqi; Guo, Shaobo; Guo, Xiaohua; Ge, Hongguang

    2015-10-01

    To prevent and avoid magnetic loss caused by magnetite core phase transitions involved in high-temperature crystallization of sol-gel TiO2, a direct and feasible low-temperature crystallization technique was developed to deposit anatase TiO2 nanoparticle shell on Fe3O4 sphere cores. To promote the photocatalytic efficiency of the obtained core-shell Fe3O4@TiO2 magnetic photocatalyst, uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully immobilized on the core-shell Fe3O4@TiO2 spheres via a seed-mediated growth procedure. The 3 nm Au colloid absorbed on Fe3O4@TiO2 served as a nucleation site for the growth of Au NPs overlayer. The morphology, structure, composition and magnetism of the resulting composites were characterized, and their photocatalytic activities were also evaluated. In comparison to Fe3O4@TiO2, Fe3O4@TiO2-Au exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for organic degradation under UV irradiation. This enhanced mechanism may have resulted from efficient charge separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the Au NPs attached on the TiO2. In addition, the composites possessed superparamagnetic properties with a high saturation magnetization of 44.6 emu g-1 and could be easily separated and recycled by a magnet.

  3. A New Route of Fucoidan Immobilization on Low Density Polyethylene and Its Blood Compatibility and Anticoagulation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ozaltin, Kadir; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolíček, Petr; Pelková, Jana; Sáha, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Beside biomaterials’ bulk properties, their surface properties are equally important to control interfacial biocompatibility. However, due to the inadequate interaction with tissue, they may cause foreign body reaction. Moreover, surface induced thrombosis can occur when biomaterials are used for blood containing applications. Surface modification of the biomaterials can bring enhanced surface properties in biomedical applications. Sulfated polysaccharide coatings can be used to avoid surface induced thrombosis which may cause vascular occlusion (blocking the blood flow by blood clot), which results in serious health problems. Naturally occurring heparin is one of the sulfated polysaccharides most commonly used as an anticoagulant, but its long term usage causes hemorrhage. Marine sourced sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan is an alternative anticoagulant without the hemorrhage drawback. Heparin and fucoidan immobilization onto a low density polyethylene surface after functionalization by plasma has been studied. Surface energy was demonstrated by water contact angle test and chemical characterizations were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface morphology was monitored by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Finally, their anticoagulation activity was examined for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin time (TT). PMID:27294915

  4. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2

    SciTech Connect

    Awedikian, Rafi; Francois, Achille; Guilbaud, Mickael; Moullier, Philippe; Salvetti, Anna . E-mail: anna.salvetti@univ-nantes.fr

    2005-05-10

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68.

  5. A facile and rapid room-temperature route to hierarchical bismuth oxyhalide solid solutions with composition-dependent photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Han, Qiaofeng; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The unique nanosheet-based flower-like BiOCl1-xBrx (x=0-1) hierarchical solid solutions have been prepared by the reaction of Bi2O3 and KCl/KBr in mixed solution of glacial acetic acid (HAc) and H2O in dozens of minutes under ambient conditions. During the preparation process, the intermediate bismuth oxide acetate (CH3COOBiO) plays a key role in the formation of BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions in such a short time. The as-prepared hierarchical BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions possess high specific surface areas and modified band structures, which exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and BiOBr under visible light irradiation, with the activity reaching the maximum at x=0.5. The photodegradation efficiency of the BiOCl0.5Br0.5 solid solution is twice and 12times higher than P25 TiO2 under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. PMID:27236841

  6. A New Route of Fucoidan Immobilization on Low Density Polyethylene and Its Blood Compatibility and Anticoagulation Activity.

    PubMed

    Ozaltin, Kadir; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolíček, Petr; Pelková, Jana; Sáha, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Beside biomaterials' bulk properties, their surface properties are equally important to control interfacial biocompatibility. However, due to the inadequate interaction with tissue, they may cause foreign body reaction. Moreover, surface induced thrombosis can occur when biomaterials are used for blood containing applications. Surface modification of the biomaterials can bring enhanced surface properties in biomedical applications. Sulfated polysaccharide coatings can be used to avoid surface induced thrombosis which may cause vascular occlusion (blocking the blood flow by blood clot), which results in serious health problems. Naturally occurring heparin is one of the sulfated polysaccharides most commonly used as an anticoagulant, but its long term usage causes hemorrhage. Marine sourced sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan is an alternative anticoagulant without the hemorrhage drawback. Heparin and fucoidan immobilization onto a low density polyethylene surface after functionalization by plasma has been studied. Surface energy was demonstrated by water contact angle test and chemical characterizations were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface morphology was monitored by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Finally, their anticoagulation activity was examined for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin time (TT). PMID:27294915

  7. Polarised skylight and the landmark panorama provide night-active bull ants with compass information during route following.

    PubMed

    Reid, Samuel F; Narendra, Ajay; Hemmi, Jan M; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-02-01

    Navigating animals are known to use a number of celestial and terrestrial compass cues that allow them to determine and control their direction of travel. Which of the cues dominate appears to depend on their salience. Here we show that night-active bull ants attend to both the pattern of polarised skylight and the landmark panorama in their familiar habitat. When the two directional cues are in conflict, ants choose a compromise direction. However, landmark guidance appears to be the primary mechanism of navigation used by forager ants, with those cues in the direction of heading having the greatest influence on navigation. Different colonies respond to the removal of these cues to different degrees, depending on the directional information provided by the local landmark panorama. Interestingly, other parts of the surrounding panorama also influence foraging speed and accuracy, suggesting that they too play a role in navigation. PMID:21228195

  8. Mechanism of versatile catalytic activities of quaternary CuZnFeS nanocrystals designed by a rapid synthesis route.

    PubMed

    Dalui, Amit; Thupakula, Umamahesh; Khan, Ali Hossain; Ghosh, Tanmay; Satpati, Biswarup; Acharya, Somobrata

    2015-04-17

    Quaternary alloyed nanocrystals (NCs) composed of earth abundant, environment friendly elements are of interest for energy-harvesting applications. These complex NCs are useful as catalysts for the degradation of multiple refractory organic pollutants as well as nitro-organic reduction at a rapid rate. Here, a remarkably fast (∼30 s) and facile synthesis of crystalline quaternary chalcopyrite copper-zinc-iron-sulfide (CZIS) NCs is reported. These NCs show excellent catalytic properties by degrading a number of refractory organic dyes and converting nitro-compounds at a rapid rate. The valence and conduction band information of the newly designed NCs are extracted using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, which reveal energy levels suitable for performing redox chemistry by generating reactive radicals establishing NCs as efficient catalyst with multiple uses. Rapid synthesis of high quality phase-controlled CZIS NCs with robust catalytic activities could be useful for organic waste treatment. PMID:25504671

  9. In vitro fabrication of dental filling nanopowder by green route and its antibacterial activity against dental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kui-Jae; Jin, Jong-Sik; Park, Yool-Jin; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce novel Sn, Cu, Hg, and Ag nanopowders (NPs) and a composite nanopowder (NP) synthesized using Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) root extract as a reducing and capping agent to improve the antibacterial property of dental filling materials. All of the NPs obtained were characterized using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum imaging was performed to map the elemental distributions of the NP composite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in all of the obtained NPs and the phyto-compound responsible for the reduction of various metal ions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized NP. The antibacterial properties of the synthesized Sn, Cu, Hg, Ag, composite NP, SM root extract, and commercial amalgam powder were evaluated. The Cu, composite NP, SM root extract and Ag NP displayed excellent antibacterial activity against dental bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The results of this study require further evaluation for signs of metal toxicity in appropriate animal models. However, the results are encouraging for the application of metal NPs as suitable alternatives for antibiotics and disinfectants, especially in dental filling materials. PMID:27085055

  10. A novel route to graphite-like carbon supporting SnO2 with high electron transfer and photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjie; Liu, Fenglin; Liu, Bing; Tian, Lihong; Hu, Wei; Xia, Qinghua

    2015-04-28

    Mesoporous graphite-like carbon supporting SnO2 (carbon-SnO2) nanocomposites were prepared by a modified solvothermal method combined with a post-calcination at 500°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The polyvinylpyrrolidone not only promotes the nucleation and crystallization, but also provides the carbon source in the process. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show a uniform distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles on the graphite- like carbon surface. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate the presence of strong C-Sn interaction between SnO2 and graphite-like carbon. Photoelectrochemical measurements confirm that the effective separation of electron-hole pairs on the carbon-SnO2 nanocomposite leads to a high photocatalytic activity on the degradation of Rhodamine B and glyphosate under simulated sunlight irradiation. The nanocomposite materials show a potential application in dealing with the environmental and industrial contaminants under sunlight irradiation. PMID:25638039

  11. 49 CFR 37.89 - Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. 37.89 Section 37.89... commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 37.89 - Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. 37.89 Section 37.89... commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. (a)...

  13. Novel microbial route to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and their activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, C.; Rahuman, A. Abdul; Kirthi, A. Vishnu; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Bagavan, A.; Gaurav, K.; Karthik, L.; Rao, K. V. Bhaskara

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we describe a low-cost, unreported and simple procedure for biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using reproducible bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, AFM, NC-AFM and FESEM with EDX analyses were performed to ascertain the formation and characterization of ZnO NPs. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by a peak at 374 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles and AFM showed the morphology of the nanoparticle to be spherical, oval with an average size of 57.72 nm. Synthesized ZnO NPs showed the XRD peaks at 31.75°, 34.37°, 47.60°, 56.52°, 66.02° and 75.16° were identified as (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 0 2), (1 1 0), (1 1 2) and (2 02 ) reflections, respectively. Rietveld analysis to the X-ray data indicated that ZnO NPs have hexagonal unit cell at crystalline level. The size and topological structure of the ZnO NPs was measured by NC-AFM. The morphological characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was analyzed by FESEM and chemical composition by EDX. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was ended with corresponding well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in the ZnO NPs (25 μg/mL) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 ± 1.8 mm) and Aspergillus flavus (19 ± 1.0 mm). Bacteria-mediated ZnO NPs were synthesized and proved to be a good novel antimicrobial material for the first time in this study.

  14. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  16. Peripheral oxytocin activates vagal afferent neurons to suppress feeding in normal and leptin-resistant mice: a route for ameliorating hyperphagia and obesity.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusaku; Maejima, Yuko; Suyama, Shigetomo; Yoshida, Masashi; Arai, Takeshi; Katsurada, Kenichi; Kumari, Parmila; Nakabayashi, Hajime; Kakei, Masafumi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt), a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, is implicated in regulation of feeding. Recent studies have shown that peripheral administration of Oxt suppresses feeding and, when infused subchronically, ameliorates hyperphagic obesity. However, the route through which peripheral Oxt informs the brain is obscure. This study aimed to explore whether vagal afferents mediate the sensing and anorexigenic effect of peripherally injected Oxt in mice. Intraperitoneal Oxt injection suppressed food intake and increased c-Fos expression in nucleus tractus solitarius to which vagal afferents project. The Oxt-induced feeding suppression and c-Fos expression in nucleus tractus solitarius were blunted in mice whose vagal afferent nerves were blocked by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or capsaicin treatment. Oxt induced membrane depolarization and increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in single vagal afferent neurons. The Oxt-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases were markedly suppressed by Oxt receptor antagonist. These Oxt-responsive neurons also responded to cholecystokinin-8 and contained cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. In obese diabetic db/db mice, leptin failed to increase, but Oxt increased [Ca(2+)]i in vagal afferent neurons, and single or subchronic infusion of Oxt decreased food intake and body weight gain. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt injection suppresses food intake by activating vagal afferent neurons and thereby ameliorates obesity in leptin-resistant db/db mice. The peripheral Oxt-regulated vagal afferent neuron provides a novel target for treating hyperphagia and obesity. PMID:25540101

  17. New synthetic routes for the preparation of ruthenium-1,10-phenanthroline complexes. Tests of cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of selected ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Turel, Iztok; Golobič, Amalija; Kljun, Jakob; Samastur, Petra; Batista, Urška; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Three novel complexes have been prepared through reactions of precursor [(dmso)2H][trans-RuCl4(dmso-S)2] (P) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) at different conditions. Whereas the analogs of mer-[RuCl3(dmso-S)(phen)] (1) and [Ru(phen)3]Cl2·6CH3OH (3·6CH3OH) have already been prepared by other synthetic routes before, product (H3O)[RuCl4(phen)]·4H2O (2·4H2O) is unprecedented. In the latter, isolated from highly acidic medium, one strongly bound dmso molecule in precursor P was substituted by chloride. Biological activity of 1 and previously isolated ruthenium-purine complexes ([mer-RuCl3(dmso-S)(acv)(CH3OH)] (4) (acv = acyclovir); [trans-RuCl4(dmso-S)(guaH)] (5) (guaH = protonated guanine)) was tested and compared. These data show that compounds 1, 4 and 5 are slightly cytotoxic against B-16 malignant melanoma cells but not against non-transformed V-79-379A cells. It seems that coordinated phen ligand increases the cytotoxicity of 1 in comparison to ruthenium precursor. The inability of tested compounds to induce lysis of bovine erythrocytes suggests that their cytotoxic effect is not due to the membrane damage. PMID:26085415

  18. Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on commutative encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiwu; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A secure multiparty quantum key agreement protocol using single-qubit states is proposed. The agreement key is computed by performing exclusive-OR operation on all the participants' secret keys. Based on the commutative property of the commutative encryption, the exclusive-OR operation can be performed on the plaintext in the encrypted state without decrypting it. Thus, it not only protects the final shared key, but also reduces the complexity of the computation. The efficiency of the proposed protocol, compared with previous multiparty QKA protocols, is also improved. In the presented protocol, entanglement states, joint measurement and even the unitary operations are not needed, and only rotation operations and single-state measurement are required, which are easier to be realized with current technology.

  19. Commuting flows and conservation laws for noncommutative Lax hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamanaka, Masashi

    2005-05-01

    We discuss commuting flows and conservation laws for Lax hierarchies on noncommutative spaces in the framework of the Sato theory. On commutative spaces, the Sato theory has revealed essential aspects of the integrability for wide class of soliton equations which are derived from the Lax hierarchies in terms of pseudodifferential operators. Noncommutative extension of the Sato theory has been already studied by the author and Toda, and the existence of various noncommutative Lax hierarchies are guaranteed. In this paper, we present conservation laws for the noncommutative Lax hierarchies with both space-space and space-time noncommutativities and prove the existence of infinite number of conserved densities. We also give the explicit representations of them in terms of Lax operators. Our results include noncommutative versions of KP, KdV, Boussinesq, coupled KdV, Sawada-Kotera, modified KdV equation and so on.

  20. Two Dimensional Non-commutative Space and Rydberg Atom Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we consider the case of only space-space non-commutativity in two dimension. We also discuss the Rydberg atom model in this space and use the linear realization of the coordinate and momentum operators to solve the Schrödinger equation for the Rydberg atom through the standard perturbation method. Finally, the thermodynamics for the Rydberg atom model is discussed.

  1. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M; Barry, Catherine P; Choi, Won S; Abravaya, Klara B; Schneider, George J; Ho, Shiaolan Y

    2016-06-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  2. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M.; Barry, Catherine P.; Choi, Won S.; Abravaya, Klara B.; Schneider, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  3. Determination of the flight equipment maintenance costs of commuter airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Labor and materials costs associated with maintaining and operating 12 commuter airlines carrying an average of from 42 to 1,100 passengers daily in a variety of aircraft types were studied to determine the total direct maintenance cost per flight hour for the airframe, engine, and avionics and other instruments. The distribution of maintenance costs are analyzed for two carriers, one using turboprop aircraft and the other using piston engine aircraft.

  4. ROUTE-SPECIFIC DOSIMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capacity to perform route-to-route extrapolation of toxicity data is becoming increasingly crucial to the Agency, with a number of strategies suggested and demonstrated. One strategy involves using a combination of existing data and modeling approaches. This strategy propos...

  5. Influence of Li-doping on structural characteristics and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nano-powder formed in a novel solution pyro-hydrolysis route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Ibram; Sekhar, P. S. Chandra; Padmanabham, G.; Sundararajan, G.

    2012-10-01

    Different types of Li-doped ZnO (LDZ) (Li = 0-10 wt.%) powders were prepared by following a novel pyro-hydrolysis route at 450 °C, and were thoroughly characterized by means of thermo-gravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), ultra-violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (SA), and zeta potential (ζ) measurements. Photocatalytic activity of these powders was evaluated by means of methylene blue (MB) degradation experiments conducted under the irradiation of simulated and natural solar light. Characterization results suggest that both pure ZnO and LDZ powders are quite thermally stable up to a temperature of 700 °C and possess band gap (BG) energies in the range of 3.16-3.2 eV with a direct band to band transition and ζ values of -31.6 mV to -56.4 mV. The properties exhibited by LDZ powders were found to be quite comparable to those exhibited by p-type semi-conducting LDZ powders. In order to study the kinetics of MB degradation reaction under the irradiation of simulated solar light, the Li (0.2-10 wt.%) and Al (0.5 wt.%) co-doped ZnO (0.2LADZ to 10LADZ) powders were also synthesized and employed for this purpose. The photocatalytic degradation of MB over LADZ catalysts followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) first order reaction rate relationship. The 10LDZ catalyst exhibited highest photocatalytic activity among various powders investigated in this study.

  6. Marginal Consistency: Upper-Bounding Partition Functions over Commutative Semirings.

    PubMed

    Werner, Tomás

    2015-07-01

    Many inference tasks in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence lead to partition functions in which addition and multiplication are abstract binary operations forming a commutative semiring. By generalizing max-sum diffusion (one of convergent message passing algorithms for approximate MAP inference in graphical models), we propose an iterative algorithm to upper bound such partition functions over commutative semirings. The iteration of the algorithm is remarkably simple: change any two factors of the partition function such that their product remains the same and their overlapping marginals become equal. In many commutative semirings, repeating this iteration for different pairs of factors converges to a fixed point when the overlapping marginals of every pair of factors coincide. We call this state marginal consistency. During that, an upper bound on the partition function monotonically decreases. This abstract algorithm unifies several existing algorithms, including max-sum diffusion and basic constraint propagation (or local consistency) algorithms in constraint programming. We further construct a hierarchy of marginal consistencies of increasingly higher levels and show than any such level can be enforced by adding identity factors of higher arity (order). Finally, we discuss instances of the framework for several semirings, including the distributive lattice and the max-sum and sum-product semirings. PMID:26352452

  7. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition. PMID:24175530

  8. Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiskarimian, Negar; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2016-04-01

    Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

  9. Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

    PubMed

    Reiskarimian, Negar; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time. PMID:27079524

  10. Modelling the relation between income and commuting distance.

    PubMed

    Carra, Giulia; Mulalic, Ismir; Fosgerau, Mogens; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Denmark, the UK and the USA, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a slow decaying tail that can be fitted by a power law with exponent γ ≈ 3 and (ii) an average growing slowly as a power law with an exponent less than one that depends on the country considered. The classical theory for job search is based on the idea that workers evaluate the wage of potential jobs as they arrive sequentially through time, and extending this model with space, we obtain predictions that are strongly contradicted by our empirical findings. We propose an alternative model that is based on the idea that workers evaluate potential jobs based on a quality aspect and that workers search for jobs sequentially across space. We also assume that the density of potential jobs depends on the skills of the worker and decreases with the wage. The predicted distribution of commuting distances decays as 1/r(3) and is independent of the distribution of the quality of jobs. We find our alternative model to be in agreement with our data. This type of approach opens new perspectives for the modelling of mobility. PMID:27278365

  11. Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation

    PubMed Central

    Reiskarimian, Negar; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time. PMID:27079524

  12. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  13. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  14. Effects of different stocking densities on performance and activity of cattle × yak hybrids along a transhumance route in the Eastern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Barsila, Shanker R; Devkota, Naba R; Kreuzer, Michael; Marquardt, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    Twelve lactating cattle × yak hybrids (B. taurus × B. grunniens) were investigated on five experimental pastures (Sites 1-5), following an up- and downward transhumance route (3,200, 4,000, 4,500, 4,000 and 2,600 m a.s.l.). Hybrids were kept in replicated groups of two (low SD) and four animals per paddock (high SD). As a control, yaks (with calves) were included at low SD at Sites 2-4. Performance was described by body weight, milk yield and composition. Herbage samples as selected by the animals were analyzed. Activity patterns of the hybrids were assessed at Sites 2-4. At similar body weight change and milk composition, the individual hybrids on average produced 26% less milk at high than at low SD. However, at high SD on average still 49% more milk/m(2) of pasture area was produced. Milk fat increased with time from 5.4 to 7.1%, milk protein decreased from 4.2 to 3.3%. At high SD, the hybrids spent less time standing and more time lying. The yaks gained weight at 4,500 m a.s.l. while the hybrids lost weight (+836 and -653 g/animal/day, respectively). In conclusion, high SD reduced individual milk yield and forced hybrids to spend more time for feeding. The yaks apparently had an advantage over the hybrids at very high altitude. PMID:26261756

  15. Hybrid generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states on non-commutative residuated lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen Ming; Yang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states, which are useful for the development of an algebraic theory of probabilistic models for commutative or non-commutative fuzzy logics, have been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a new way arising from generalizing residuated lattice-based filters from commutative case to non-commutative one is applied to introduce new notions of generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states, which are called hybrid ones, on non-commutative residuated lattices is provided, and the relationships between hybrid generalized states and those existing ones are studied, examples show that they are different. In particular, two problems from L.C. Ciungu, G. Georgescu, and C. Mure, "Generalized Bosbach States: Part I" (Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (2013):335-376) are solved, and properties of hybrid generalized states, which are similar to those on commutative residuated lattices, are obtained without the condition "strong".

  16. Studies on commuters' exposure to BTEX in passenger cars in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Som, D; Dutta, C; Chatterjee, A; Mallick, D; Jana, T K; Sen, S

    2007-01-01

    Commuters' exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) especially BTEX travelling in passenger cars in Kolkata, India were quantified in Phase I (2001-2002) and Phase II (2003-2004). Monitoring was made inside and in the immediate outside of passenger cars fitted with and without catalytic converters using different types of fuels, along two congested urban routes. During Phase I of the study, the benzene content in gasoline was 5% and the mean concentration of in-vehicle benzene in cars without catalytic converter was found to be as high as 721.2 microg/m3. In Phase II when the benzene content was reduced to <3% and with modified engine type, the mean in-vehicle benzene concentration was reduced to 112.4 microg/m3. The in-vehicle concentration varied with engine type and age of the vehicle. Roadside ambient mean concentration of benzene was 214.8 microg/m3 and 30.8 microg/m3 in Phase I and Phase II respectively. PMID:17113131

  17. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  18. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    mechanisms, which are used to control active route and reduce the traffic amount in the route discovery procedure. Finial, the numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of IRP routing protocol.

  19. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  20. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  1. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  2. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  3. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  4. Railroad Routing Model

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  5. Small engine technology payoffs for future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaehler, H.; Schneider, W.

    1986-01-01

    High payoff technologies for a year 2000 regenerative cycle turboprop engine were identified for a 19 passenger commuter aircraft application. A series of engines incorporating eight levels of advanced technologies were studied and their impact on aircraft performance was evaluated. Four advanced technologies are recommended to achieve a potential reduction in fuel burn of 38.3 percent. At $1.00 per gallon fuel price, a potential direct operating cost (DOC) benefit of 12.5 percent is obtained. At $2.00 per gallon, the potential DOC benefit increases to 17.0 percent.

  6. Size and seasonal distributions of airborne bioaerosols in commuting trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Wang, Che-Hsu; Hsu, Kai-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Aerobiological studies in commuting trains in northern Taiwan were carried out from August, 2007 until July, 2008. Two six-stage (>7 μm, 4.7˜7 μm, 3.3˜4.7 μm, 2.1˜3.3 μm, 1.1˜2.1 μm, 0.65˜1.1 μm) cascade impactors of 400 orifices were used to collect viable bacteria and fungi, respectively. The levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), formaldehyde (HCHO), temperature, and relative humidity in the commuting trains were also recorded during the sampling period. Results show that bacterial concentrations ranged from 25 to 1530 CFU m -3, and averaged 417 CFU m -3. The fungal concentrations ranged from 45 to 1906 CFU m -3, and averaged 413 CFU m -3. Additionally, the highest fractions occurred in the fifth stage (1.1˜2.1 μm) for both bacteria and fungi. The respirable fractions, Rb and Rf, for bacteria and fungi were 62.8% and 81.4%, respectively, which are higher than those in other studies. Furthermore, the bacterial concentration reached its highest level in autumn, and its lowest level in winter. However, the fungal concentration was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Though the total bacterial or fungal concentration did not exceed the recommendation standard in Taiwan, the relatively high respirable fraction in commuting trains probably implies a higher adverse health risk for sensitive commuters. This study further conducted multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship of various stage fractions of airborne bacteria and fungi with indoor air pollutants (CO and HCHO) and environmental parameters (CO 2, temperature, and relative humidity). The correlation coefficients of multiple regression analysis for total bacteria and fungi concentrations with indoor air pollutants and environmental parameters were 0.707 ( p < 0.00376) and 0.612 ( p < 0.00471), respectively. There are currently no formally regulated laws for indoor air quality (IAQ) in Taiwan, and this preliminary study can provide references to the Taiwan

  7. Analysis of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jianping; McCurdy, Thomas; Burke, Janet; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Liu, Cheng; Nutaro, James J; Patterson, Lauren A

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The data were obtained using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s LandScan USA population distribution model (Bhaduri et al., 2007) applied to Philadelphia PA. It is a high-resolution model used to allocate individual school-aged children to both a home and school location, and to devise a minimum-time home-to school commuting path (called a trace) between the two locations. LandScan relies heavily on Geographic Information System (GIS) data. Our GIS analyses found that in Philadelphia: (1) about 32% of the students walk across 2 or more census tracts and 40% of them walk across 4 or more census blocks; (2) 60% drive across 4 or more census tracts going to school and 50% drive across 10 or more census blocks; (3) five-minute commuting time intervals result in misclassification as high as 90% for census blocks, 70% for block groups, and 50% for census tracts; (4) a one-minute time interval is needed to reasonably resolve time spent in the various census unit designations; (5) approximately 50% of both schoolchildren s homes and schools are located within 160 m of highly-traveled roads, and 64% of the schools are located within 200 m. These findings are very important when modeling school children s exposures, especially when ascertaining the impacts of near-roadway concentrations on their total daily body burden. Since many school children also travel along these streets and roadways to get to school, a majority of children in Philadelphia are in mobile-source dominated locations most of the day. We hypothesize that exposures of school children in Philadelphia to benzene and particulate matter will be much higher than if home and school locations and commuting paths at a 1-minute time resolution are

  8. Rotating turkeys and self-commutating artificial muscle motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Gisby, Todd A.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2012-02-01

    Electrostatic motors—first used by Benjamin Franklin to rotisserie a turkey—are making a comeback in the form of high energy density dielectric elastomer artificial muscles. We present a self-commutated artificial muscle motor that uses dielectric elastomer switches in the place of bulky external electronics. The motor simply requires a DC input voltage to rotate a shaft (0.73 Nm/kg, 0.24 Hz) and is a step away from hard metallic electromagnetic motors towards a soft, light, and printable future.

  9. Finite axionic electrodynamics from a new non-commutative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Spallucci, Euro

    2012-02-01

    Using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variable formalism, we compute the static quantum potential for non-commutative axionic electrodynamics (or axionic electrodynamics in the presence of a minimal length). Accordingly, we obtain an ultraviolet finite static potential that is the sum of a Yukawa-type potential and a linear potential, leading to the confinement of static charges. Interestingly, it should be noted that this calculation involves no θ expansion at all. The present result manifests the key role played by the new quantum of length in our analysis.

  10. On the essential spectrum of certain non-commutative oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeggiani, Alberto Venni, Alberto

    2013-12-15

    We show here that the spectrum of the family of non-commutative harmonic oscillators Q{sub (α,β)}{sup w}(x,D) for α,β∈R{sub +} in the range αβ = 1 is [0, +∞) and is entirely essential spectrum. The previous existing results concern the case αβ > 1 (case in which Q{sub (α,β)}{sup w}(x,D) is globally elliptic with a discrete spectrum whose qualitative properties are being extensively studied), and ours therefore extend the picture to the range of parameters αβ ⩾ 1.

  11. [Impact of commuting on partnership and family life. A literature review of the current state of research with special emphasis on commuter marriages].

    PubMed

    Häfner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Because of modern working conditions, for many people commuting has increasingly become a necessity with many consequences for their health as well as for their family life and partnership. To date, little research has been done concerning the impact of this modern lifestyle on partnership and family life, particularly on dual-career couples and long-distance commuters. The results of a literature review are presented based on age, sex, family cycle and consequences for children; research questions are formulated. Sex-specific differences seem to be especially important, confirming the "household responsibility hypothesis." The commuter marriage as a new lifestyle seems to have become a coping mechanism for the increasing necessity in our society to commute. PMID:21626481

  12. Commuting mode and pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam W; Hang, Jing-Qing; Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Zhang, Feng-Ying; Christiani, David C

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution can be particularly high during commuting and may depend on the mode of transportation. We investigated the impact of commuting mode on pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.The Shanghai Putuo Study is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Our primary outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted, and the secondary outcome was spirometric airflow obstruction. We tested the association between mode of transportation and these outcomes after adjusting for confounders.The study population consisted of 20 102 subjects. After adjusting for confounders, the change (95% CI) in FEV1 was -2.15% pred (-2.88- -1.42% pred) among pedestrians, -1.32% pred (-2.05- -0.59% pred) among those taking buses without air conditioning, -1.33% pred (-2.05- -0.61% pred) among those taking buses with air conditioning and -2.83% pred (-5.56- -0.10% pred) among those using underground railways, as compared to cyclists (the reference group). The effects of mode on FVC % predicted were in the same direction. Private car use had a significant protective effect on FVC % predicted and the risk of airflow obstruction (defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease but not by lower limit of normal criteria).Mode of transportation is associated with differences in lung function, which may reflect pollution levels in different transportation microenvironments. PMID:26541519

  13. Piecewise Principal Coactions of Co-Commutative Hopf Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Bartosz

    2014-08-01

    Principal comodule algebras can be thought of as objects representing principal bundles in non-commutative geometry. A crucial component of a principal comodule algebra is a strong connection map. For some applications it suffices to prove that such a map exists, but for others, such as computing the associated bundle projectors or Chern-Galois characters, an explicit formula for a strong connection is necessary. It has been known for some time how to construct a strong connection map on a multi-pullback comodule algebra from strong connections on multi-pullback components, but the known explicit general formula is unwieldy. In this paper we derive a much easier to use strong connection formula, which is not, however, completely general, but is applicable only in the case when a Hopf algebra is co-commutative. Because certain linear splittings of projections in multi-pullback comodule algebras play a crucial role in our construction, we also devote a significant part of the paper to the problem of existence and explicit formulas for such splittings. Finally, we show example application of our work.

  14. Dissipative and nonunitary solutions of operator commutation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, K. A.; Tsekanovskii, E.

    2016-01-01

    We study the (generalized) semi-Weyl commutation relations UgAU* g = g(A) on Dom(A), where A is a densely defined operator and G ∋ g ↦ Ug is a unitary representation of the subgroup G of the affine group G, the group of affine orientation-preserving transformations of the real axis. If A is a symmetric operator, then the group G induces an action/flow on the operator unit ball of contracting transformations from Ker(A* - iI) to Ker(A* + iI). We establish several fixed-point theorems for this flow. In the case of one-parameter continuous subgroups of linear transformations, self-adjoint (maximal dissipative) operators associated with the fixed points of the flow yield solutions of the (restricted) generalized Weyl commutation relations. We show that in the dissipative setting, the restricted Weyl relations admit a variety of representations that are not unitarily equivalent. For deficiency indices (1, 1), the basic results can be strengthened and set in a separate case.

  15. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F. Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la

    2007-10-01

    The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations.

  16. Iconic memory-based omnidirectional route panorama navigation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yasushi; Imai, Kousuke; Tsuji, Kentaro; Yachida, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    A route navigation method for a mobile robot with an omnidirectional image sensor is described. The route is memorized from a series of consecutive omnidirectional images of the horizon when the robot moves to its goal. While the robot is navigating to the goal point, input is matched against the memorized spatio-temporal route pattern by using dual active contour models and the exact robot position and orientation is estimated from the converged shape of the active contour models. PMID:15628270

  17. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective…

  18. Urban Corridor Consortium Task Force on Part-Time and Commuter Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. Urban Corridor Consortium.

    Ways that urban corridor campuses might respond to the increasing enrollment of part-time and commuter students were reviewed by the University of Wisconsin Urban Corridor Consortium Task Force on Part-Time and Commuter Students. Members of the consortia are the following University of Wisconsin campuses: Green Bay, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Parkside,…

  19. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. (a)...

  20. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. Link...

  1. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. (a)...

  2. Adding flavor to the gravity dual of non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areán, Daniel; Paredes, Angel; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2005-08-01

    We study the addition of flavor degrees of freedom to the supergravity dual of the non-commutative deformation of the maximally supersymmetric gauge theories. By considering D7 flavor branes in the probe approximation and studying their fluctuations we extract the spectrum of scalar and vector mesons as a function of the non-commutativity. We find that the spectrum for very large non-commutative parameter is equal to the one in the commutative theory, while for some intermediate values of the non-commutativity some of the modes disappear from the discrete spectrum. We also study the semiclassical dynamics of rotating open strings attached to the D7-brane, which correspond to mesons with large spin. Under the effect of the non-commutativity the open strings get tilted. However, at small(large) distances they display the same Regge-like (Coulombic) behaviour as in the commutative theory. We also consider the addition of D5-flavor branes to the non-commutative deformation of the Script N = 1 supersymmetric Maldacena-Núñez background.

  3. Real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric with commuting and parallel Ricci tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Young Jin

    2016-08-01

    First we introduce the notion of commuting and parallel Ricci tensor for real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric Qm = SOm+2 / SO2 SOm. Then, according to the A-isotropic unit normal N, we give a complete classification of real hypersurfaces in Qm = SOm+2 / SO2 SOm with commuting and parallel Ricci tensor.

  4. CARBON MONOXIDE COMMUTER EXPOSURE DATA BASE: A 5-DAY STUDY IN LOS ANGELES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent concern about carbon monoxide exposure to the commuter population prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a five-day field project to assess the CO exposure to Los Angeles commuters. The purpose of this report is to document the field project and to pr...

  5. Commutability of the Epstein-Barr virus WHO international standard across two quantitative PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Abeynayake, Janaki; Johnson, Ryan; Libiran, Paolo; Sahoo, Malaya K; Cao, Hongbin; Bowen, Raffick; Chan, K C Allen; Le, Quynh-Thu; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2014-10-01

    The commutability of international reference standards is critical for ensuring quantitative agreement across different viral load assays. Here, we demonstrate the commutability of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) WHO international standard for the BamHI-W and artus EBV assays. PMID:25078918

  6. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems. (a) The responsible person(s) shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and...

  7. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems. (a) The responsible person(s) shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and...

  8. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems. (a) The responsible person(s) shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and...

  9. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems. (a) The responsible person(s) shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and...

  10. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems. (a) The responsible person(s) shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and...

  11. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  12. Route based forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurendonk, I. W.; Wokke, M. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface temperatures can differ several degrees on a very short distance due to local effects. In order to get more insight in the local temperature differences and to develop safer gritting routes, Meteogroup has developed a system for route based temperature forecasting. The standard version of the road model is addressed to forecast road surface temperature and condition for a specific location. This model consists of two parts. First a physical part, based on the energy balance equations. The second part of the model performs a statistical correction on the calculated physical road surface temperature. The road model is able to create a forecast for one specific location. From infrared measurements, we know that large local differences in road surface temperature exist on a route. Differences can be up to 5 degrees Celsius over a distance of several hundreds of meters. Based on those measurements, the idea came up to develop a system that forecasts road surface temperature and condition for an entire route: route based forecasting. The route is split up in sections with equal properties. For each section a temperature and condition will be calculated. The main factors that influence the road surface temperature are modelled in this forecasting system: •The local weather conditions: temperature, dew point temperature, wind, precipitation, weather type, cloudiness. •The sky view: A very sheltered place will receive less radiation during daytime and emit less radiation during nighttime. For a very open spot, the effects are reversed. •The solar view: A road section with trees on the southern side, will receive less solar radiation during daytime than a section with tress on the southern side. The route based forecast shows by means of a clear Google Maps presentation which sections will be slippery at what time of the coming night. The final goal of this type of forecast, is to make dynamical gritting possible: a variable salt amount and a different

  13. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  14. A Dream of Yukawa — Non-Local Fields out of Non-Commutative Spacetime —

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Shigefumi; Toyoda, Haruki; Takanashi, Takahiro; Umezawa, Eizo

    The coordinates of κ-Minkowski spacetime form Lie algebraic elements, in which time and space coordinates do not commute in spite of that space coordinates commute each other. The non-commutativity is realized by a Planck-length-scale constant κ - 1( ne 0), which is a universal constant other than the light velocity under the κ-Poincare transformation. Such a non-commutative structure can be realized by SO(1,4) generators in dS4 spacetime. In this work, we try to construct a κ-Minkowski like spacetime with commutative 4-dimensional spacetime based on Adsn+1 spacetime. Another aim of this work is to study invariant wave equations in this spacetime from the viewpoint of non-local field theory by H. Yukawa, who expected to realize elementary particle theories without divergence according to this viewpoint.

  15. A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuxun

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions. PMID:23112649

  16. Exploring Universal Patterns in Human Home-Work Commuting from Mobile Phone Data

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Kevin S.; Greco, Kael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Home-work commuting has always attracted significant research attention because of its impact on human mobility. One of the key assumptions in this domain of study is the universal uniformity of commute times. However, a true comparison of commute patterns has often been hindered by the intrinsic differences in data collection methods, which make observation from different countries potentially biased and unreliable. In the present work, we approach this problem through the use of mobile phone call detail records (CDRs), which offers a consistent method for investigating mobility patterns in wholly different parts of the world. We apply our analysis to a broad range of datasets, at both the country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Saudi Arabia), and city (Boston) scale. Additionally, we compare these results with those obtained from vehicle GPS traces in Milan. While different regions have some unique commute time characteristics, we show that the home-work time distributions and average values within a single region are indeed largely independent of commute distance or country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Boston)–despite substantial spatial and infrastructural differences. Furthermore, our comparative analysis demonstrates that such distance-independence holds true only if we consider multimodal commute behaviors–as consistent with previous studies. In car-only (Milan GPS traces) and car-heavy (Saudi Arabia) commute datasets, we see that commute time is indeed influenced by commute distance. Finally, we put forth a testable hypothesis and suggest ways for future work to make more accurate and generalizable statements about human commute behaviors. PMID:24933264

  17. Impact of the Mexican Alien Commuter on the Apparel Industry of El Paso, Texas--A Case Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rungeling, Brian Scott

    This study analyzed what effect commuters had on wage levels, employment, and industrial locations, and the relative importance of the commuter as part of the work force. A questionnaire was administered to 190 workers and to their 20 employers in the apparel industry of El Paso, Texas. The questionnaires revealed that the commuters were paid the…

  18. Optimal Scale of a Public Elementary School with Commuting Costs-A Case Study of Taipei County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, H.-L.; Yuan, M.-C.

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of commuting costs while determining the optimal school scale. It is found that, without commuting costs, the elementary schools in Taipei county are characterized by increasing returns to scale, and that the average public cost curve is L-shaped. However, ignoring the costs of commuting implies that the…

  19. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  20. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  1. Adaptive control system for line-commutated inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C. R.; Bailey, D. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control system for a permanent magnet motor driven by a multiphase line commutated inverter is provided with integration for integrating the back EMF of each phase of the motor. This is used in generating system control signals for an inverter gate logic using a sync and firing angle (alpha) control generator connected to the outputs of the integrators. A precision full wave rectifier provides a speed control feedback signal to a phase delay rectifier via a gain and loop compensation circuit and to the integrators for adaptive control of the attenuation of low frequencies by the integrators as a function of motor speed. As the motor speed increases, the attenuation of low frequency components by the integrators is increased to offset the gain of the integrators to spurious low frequencies.

  2. Commuting Pauli Hamiltonians as Maps between Free Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haah, Jeongwan

    2013-12-01

    We study unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians that consist of commuting tensor products of Pauli matrices. Assuming translation-invariance, a family of Hamiltonians that belong to the same phase of matter is described by a map between modules over the translation-group algebra, so homological methods are applicable. In any dimension every point-like charge appears as a vertex of a fractal operator, and can be isolated with energy barrier at most logarithmic in the separation distance. For a topologically ordered system in three dimensions, there must exist a point-like nontrivial charge. A connection between the ground state degeneracy and the number of points on an algebraic set is discussed. Tools to handle local Clifford unitary transformations are given.

  3. Quantized chaotic dynamics and non-commutative KS entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Klimek, S.; Lesniewski, A.

    1996-06-01

    We study the quantization of two examples of classically chaotic dynamics, the Anosov dynamics of {open_quote}{open_quote}cat maps{close_quote}{close_quote} on a two dimensional torus, and the dynamics of baker{close_quote}s maps. Each of these dynamics is implemented as a discrete group of automorphisms of a von Neumann algebra of functions on a quantized torus. We compute the non-commutative generalization of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, namely the Connes-Sto/rmer entropy, of the generator of this group, and find that its value is equal to the classical value. This can be interpreted as a sign of persistence of chaotic behavior in a dynamical system under quantization. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  4. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, N. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra.

  5. Investigation of Commuting Hamiltonian in Quantum Markov Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouneghani, Farzad Ghafari; Babazadeh, Mohammad; Bayramzadeh, Rogayeh; Movla, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    Graphical Models have various applications in science and engineering which include physics, bioinformatics, telecommunication and etc. Usage of graphical models needs complex computations in order to evaluation of marginal functions, so there are some powerful methods including mean field approximation, belief propagation algorithm and etc. Quantum graphical models have been recently developed in context of quantum information and computation, and quantum statistical physics, which is possible by generalization of classical probability theory to quantum theory. The main goal of this paper is preparing a primary generalization of Markov network, as a type of graphical models, to quantum case and applying in quantum statistical physics. We have investigated the Markov network and the role of commuting Hamiltonian terms in conditional independence with simple examples of quantum statistical physics.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of random non-commutative geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, John W.; Glaser, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Random non-commutative geometries are introduced by integrating over the space of Dirac operators that form a spectral triple with a fixed algebra and Hilbert space. The cases with the simplest types of Clifford algebra are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations to compute the integrals. Various qualitatively different types of behaviour of these random Dirac operators are exhibited. Some features are explained in terms of the theory of random matrices but other phenomena remain mysterious. Some of the models with a quartic action of symmetry-breaking type display a phase transition. Close to the phase transition the spectrum of a typical Dirac operator shows manifold-like behaviour for the eigenvalues below a cut-off scale.

  7. Logarithmic Sobolev inequalities in non-commutative algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Raffaella; Martinelli, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    We study the relations between (tight) logarithmic Sobolev inequalities, entropy decay and spectral gap inequalities for Markov evolutions on von Neumann algebras. We prove that log-Sobolev inequalities (in the non-commutative form defined by Olkiewicz and Zegarlinski in Ref. 25) imply spectral gap inequalities, with optimal relation between the constants. Furthermore, we show that a uniform exponential decay of a proper relative entropy is equivalent to a modified version of log-Sobolev inequalities. The relations among the mentioned inequalities are investigated and often depend on some regularity conditions, which are also discussed. With regard to this aspect, we provide an example of a positive identity-preserving semigroup not verifying the usually requested regularity conditions (which are always fulfilled for reversible classical Markov processes).

  8. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion.

    PubMed

    Tonchev, N S

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra. PMID:25493736

  9. Upper bound for the length of commutative algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Markova, Ol'ga V

    2009-12-31

    By the length of a finite system of generators for a finite-dimensional associative algebra over an arbitrary field one means the least positive integer k such that the words of length not exceeding k span this algebra (as a vector space). The maximum length for the systems of generators of an algebra is referred to as the length of the algebra. In the present paper, an upper bound for the length of a commutative algebra in terms of a function of two invariants of the algebra, the dimension and the maximal degree of the minimal polynomial for the elements of the algebra, is obtained. As a corollary, a formula for the length of the algebra of diagonal matrices over an arbitrary field is obtained. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  10. A complete set of commuting operators for the Bethe ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulek, T.; Topolewicz, S.

    2010-12-01

    We have derived an explicit formula for a complete set of commuting operators for the XXX model of the Heisenberg magnetic ring, using an algebraic Bethe ansatz approach of Faddeev and Takhtajan. Each operator turns out to be the sum of increasing l-cycles in the symmetric group acting on the set of nodes of the ring. It is demonstrated that the resulting algebra of operators encloses the total spin S, the Hamiltonian and the quasimomentum. We point out that it is a maximal Abelian subalgebra in the algebra of the symmetric group, associated with the basis of exact Bethe ansatz eigenstates, the latter classified by rigged string configurations of Kerrov, Kirillov and Reshetikhin. This algebra is also conjugated to the Jucys-Murphy algebra, responsible for the Young orthogonal basis of standard tableaux along the Schur-Weyl duality.

  11. Quantum groups, non-commutative differential geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, P

    1993-12-09

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a ``quantum geometric`` construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras A of functions and U of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of {Delta}(U). It provides invariant maps A {yields} U and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the ``reflection`` matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras -- it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity.

  12. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  13. Commuter motorcycle crashes in Malaysia: An understanding of contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Oxley, Jennifer; Yuen, Jeremy; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Hoareau, Effie; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Aziz; Bakar, Harun; Venkataraman, Saraswathy; Nair, Prame Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25–29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed. PMID:24406945

  14. Determining the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling

    PubMed Central

    de Geus, B; De Smet, S; Nijs, J; Meeusen, R

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling, and to investigate whether cycling to work at a self‐chosen intensity corresponds to recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for health improvement and ACSM recommendations for fitness improvement. Methods 18 healthy, untrained middle‐aged people, who did not cycle to work, underwent two maximal exercise tests (MT and MT2) in order to measure their maximal heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2). MT2 was performed 24 weeks after MT. Participants were asked to cycle at least three times a week to their workplace over a one‐way minimum distance of 2 km. Data on cycling were recorded in a diary. 12 weeks after MT, a field test was conducted, where participants had to cycle to or from their workplace. The same measurements were taken as during MT as markers of exercise intensity. Metabolic equivalents (METs) and energy expenditure were calculated. Results The intensity during the field test was >75% of their maximal aerobic capacity. The mean (SD) MET value was 6.8 (1.9). The energy expenditure during the field test was 220 (115) kcal or 540 (139) kcal/h and 1539 (892) kcal/week. Men consumed significantly (p<0.01) more energy per hour than women. Conclusion Commuter cycling at a self‐selected intensity meets the CDC and ACSM recommendations for health improvement and the ACSM recommendations for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. However, as the participants cycled faster during the field test than during daily cycling, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:17021003

  15. Commutative law for products of infinitely large isotropic random matrices.

    PubMed

    Burda, Zdzislaw; Livan, Giacomo; Swiech, Artur

    2013-08-01

    Ensembles of isotropic random matrices are defined by the invariance of the probability measure under the left (and right) multiplication by an arbitrary unitary matrix. We show that the multiplication of large isotropic random matrices is spectrally commutative and self-averaging in the limit of infinite matrix size N→∞. The notion of spectral commutativity means that the eigenvalue density of a product ABC... of such matrices is independent of the order of matrix multiplication, for example, the matrix ABCD has the same eigenvalue density as ADCB. In turn, the notion of self-averaging means that the product of n independent but identically distributed random matrices, which we symbolically denote by AAA..., has the same eigenvalue density as the corresponding power A(n) of a single matrix drawn from the underlying matrix ensemble. For example, the eigenvalue density of ABCCABC is the same as that of A(2)B(2)C(3). We also discuss the singular behavior of the eigenvalue and singular value densities of isotropic matrices and their products for small eigenvalues λ→0. We show that the singularities at the origin of the eigenvalue density and of the singular value density are in one-to-one correspondence in the limit N→∞: The eigenvalue density of an isotropic random matrix has a power-law singularity at the origin ~|λ|(-s) with a power sε(0,2) when and only when the density of its singular values has a power-law singularity ~λ(-σ) with a power σ=s/(4-s). These results are obtained analytically in the limit N→∞. We supplement these results with numerical simulations for large but finite N and discuss finite-size effects for the most common ensembles of isotropic random matrices. PMID:24032775

  16. Coulomb problem in non-commutative quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Galikova, Veronika; Presnajder, Peter

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to find out how it would be possible for space non-commutativity (NC) to alter the quantum mechanics (QM) solution of the Coulomb problem. The NC parameter {lambda} is to be regarded as a measure of the non-commutativity - setting {lambda}= 0 which means a return to the standard quantum mechanics. As the very first step a rotationally invariant NC space R{sub {lambda}}{sup 3}, an analog of the Coulomb problem configuration space (R{sup 3} with the origin excluded) is introduced. R{sub {lambda}}{sup 3} is generated by NC coordinates realized as operators acting in an auxiliary (Fock) space F. The properly weighted Hilbert-Schmidt operators in F form H{sub {lambda}}, a NC analog of the Hilbert space of the wave functions. We will refer to them as 'wave functions' also in the NC case. The definition of a NC analog of the hamiltonian as a hermitian operator in H{sub {lambda}} is one of the key parts of this paper. The resulting problem is exactly solvable. The full solution is provided, including formulas for the bound states for E < 0 and low-energy scattering for E > 0 (both containing NC corrections analytic in {lambda}) and also formulas for high-energy scattering and unexpected bound states at ultra-high energy (both containing NC corrections singular in {lambda}). All the NC contributions to the known QM solutions either vanish or disappear in the limit {lambda}{yields} 0.

  17. Weather routing in long-distance Mediterranean routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A. M. S.; Gallino, S.; Villa, L.; Lagouvardos, K.; Drago, A.

    2010-10-01

    The selection of ship routes based on modern weather forecasting is a mean of computing optimum shipping routes thereby increasing safety and comfort at sea, cutting down on transit time, and reducing fuel consumption. Further empirical research in the effectiveness of modern weather routing applications is required especially in applications concerning shorter routes in enclosed seas of limited geographical extent such as the Mediterranean Sea. The present study used two climatological simulations to test this state-of-the-art approach to ship routing. Simulations represented two theoretical routes: (1) a route between Italy and Greece and (2) a route between Cyprus and Italy. Both routes were analyzed across varying simulated climatic conditions and the results were compared with those of control routes. Furthermore, results were analyzed in terms of passenger and crew comfort, bunker consumption by ships, and time of crossing. The first simulation showed that weather routing would improve ship performance on 37% of days while the second simulation revealed that weather routing would support ship captains virtually all the time.

  18. Masked Proportional Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Masked proportional routing is an improved procedure for choosing links between adjacent nodes of a network for the purpose of transporting an entity from a source node ("A") to a destination node ("B"). The entity could be, for example, a physical object to be shipped, in which case the nodes would represent waypoints and the links would represent roads or other paths between waypoints. For another example, the entity could be a message or packet of data to be transmitted from A to B, in which case the nodes could be computer-controlled switching stations and the links could be communication channels between the stations. In yet another example, an entity could represent a workpiece while links and nodes could represent, respectively, manufacturing processes and stages in the progress of the workpiece towards a finished product. More generally, the nodes could represent states of an entity and the links could represent allowed transitions of the entity. The purpose of masked proportional routing and of related prior routing procedures is to schedule transitions of entities from their initial states ("A") to their final states ("B") in such a manner as to minimize a cost or to attain some other measure of optimality or efficiency. Masked proportional routing follows a distributed (in the sense of decentralized) approach to probabilistically or deterministically choosing the links. It was developed to satisfy a need for a routing procedure that 1. Does not always choose the same link(s), even for two instances characterized by identical estimated values of associated cost functions; 2. Enables a graceful transition from one set of links to another set of links as the circumstances of operation of the network change over time; 3. Is preferably amenable to separate optimization of different portions of the network; 4. Is preferably usable in a network in which some of the routing decisions are made by one or more other procedure(s); 5. Preferably does not cause an

  19. Commutability of the First World Health Organization International Standard for Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Preiksaitis, J.; Tong, Y.; Pang, X.; Sun, Y.; Tang, L.; Cook, L.; Pounds, S.; Fryer, J.; Caliendo, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA has become a standard part of care for many groups of immunocompromised patients; recent development of the first WHO international standard for human CMV DNA has raised hopes of reducing interlaboratory variability of results. Commutability of reference material has been shown to be necessary if such material is to reduce variability among laboratories. Here we evaluated the commutability of the WHO standard using 10 different real-time quantitative CMV PCR assays run by eight different laboratories. Test panels, including aliquots of 50 patient samples (40 positive samples and 10 negative samples) and lyophilized CMV standard, were run, with each testing center using its own quantitative calibrators, reagents, and nucleic acid extraction methods. Commutability was assessed both on a pairwise basis and over the entire group of assays, using linear regression and correspondence analyses. Commutability of the WHO material differed among the tests that were evaluated, and these differences appeared to vary depending on the method of statistical analysis used and the cohort of assays included in the analysis. Depending on the methodology used, the WHO material showed poor or absent commutability with up to 50% of assays. Determination of commutability may require a multifaceted approach; the lack of commutability seen when using the WHO standard with several of the assays here suggests that further work is needed to bring us toward true consensus. PMID:26269622

  20. Photography of the commutation spark using a high-speed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazawa, Tamio; Egashira, Torao; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Egoshi, Jun

    1997-12-01

    In the single-phase AC commutator motor (known as a universal motor), which is widely used in cleaners, electrical machines, etc., some problems generated by commutation sparks are wear on the brush and noise impediments. We have therefore attempted to use a high-speed camera to elucidate the commutation spark mechanism visually. The high-speed camera that we used is capable of photographing at 5,000 - 20,000,000 frames/s. Selection of a trigger module can be obtained from the operation unit and the exterior triggering signal. In this paper, we proposed an exterior trigger method that involved opening a hole of several millimeters across in the motor and using argon laser light, so that commutator segments may be photographed in position; we then conducted the experiment. This method enabled us to photograph the motor's commutator segment from any position, and we were able to confirm spark generation at every other commutator segment. Furthermore, after confirming the spark generation position of the commutator segment, we next attempted to accelerate the photographing speed to obtain more detailed photography of the moment of spark generation; we then prepared our report.

  1. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. PMID:24840278

  2. NYPA/TH!NK Clean Commute Program Report – Inception Through May 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Don Karner; James Francfort; Randall Solomon

    2004-11-01

    The Clean Commute Program uses TH!NK city electric vehicles from Ford Motor Company’s electric vehicle group, TH!NK Mobility, to demonstrate the feasibility of using electric vehicles for transportation in urban applications. Suburban New York City railroad commuters use the TH!NK city vehicles to commute from their private residences to railroad stations, where they catch commuter trains into New York City. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure for the TH!NK city vehicles is located at the commuters’ private residences as well as seven train stations. Ford leased 97 TH!NK city electric vehicles to commuters from Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk counties for $199 per month per vehicle. The first Clean Commute Program vehicle deliveries occurred late in 2001, with data collection commencing in February 2002. Through May 2004, 24 of the lessees have returned their vehicles to Ford and no longer participate in the Clean Commute Program. Reasons given for returning the vehicles include relocation out of the Program area, change in employment status, change in commuting status, and, in a few cases, dissatisfaction with the vehicle. Additionally, 13 vehicles have been returned to Ford as their leases have completed. In August 2002, Ford announced that it was ceasing production of the TH!NK city and would not extend any TH!NK city leases. Through May 2004, participants in the Clean Commute Program have driven their vehicles over 370,000 miles, avoiding the use of over 17,000 gallons of gasoline. The TH!NK city vehicles are driven an average of between 180 and 230 miles per month, and over 95% of all trips taken with the TH!NK city vehicles replace trips previously taken in gasoline vehicles. This report covers the period from Program inception through May 2004.

  3. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J. D.; Downing, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft typically have low wing loadings, and fly at low altitudes, and so they are susceptible to undesirable accelerations caused by random atmospheric turbulence. Larger commercial aircraft typically have higher wing loadings and fly at altitudes where the turbulence level is lower, and so they provide smoother rides. This project was initiated based on the goal of making the ride of the commuter aircraft as smooth as the ride experienced on the major commercial airliners. The objectives of this project were to design a digital, longitudinal mode ride quality augmentation system (RQAS) for a commuter aircraft, and to investigate the effect of selected parameters on those designs.

  4. Stability of switched linear discrete-time descriptor systems: a new commutation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guisheng; Xu, Xuping; Ho, Daniel W. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we study stability of switched linear discrete-time descriptor systems. Under the assumption that all subsystems are stable and there is no impulse occurring at the switching instants, we establish a new pairwise commutation condition under which the switched system is stable. It turns out that the condition is a natural and important extension to the existing commutation conditions, and it can be applied in discretised continuous-time switched systems in a straightforward manner. Finally, we also show that when the proposed commutation condition holds, there exists a common quadratic Lyapunov function for the subsystems.

  5. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  6. An alternative route to the arylvinyltriazole nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Chudinov, Mikhail V; Prutkov, Alexander N; Matveev, Andrey V; Grebenkina, Lyubov E; Konstantinova, Irina D; Berezovskaya, Yulia V

    2016-07-15

    A new pathway to synthesis of arylvinyl ribavirin analogues is developed which makes it possible to obtain not only trans- but also cis-isomers at vinyl bond. By this route eight ribavirin 5-arylvinyl analogues are synthesized and their antiviral activity is evaluated. PMID:27262598

  7. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.

  8. Landau-like Atomic Problem on a Non-commutative Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Jumakari; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Mamatabdulla, Hekim

    2016-06-01

    We study the motion of a neutral particle in symmetric gauge and in the framework of non-commutative Quantum Mechanics. Starting from the corresponding Hamiltonian we derive the eigenfunction and eigenvalues.

  9. Proceedings of the Monterey Conference on Planning for Rotorcraft and Commuter Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Planning and technological issues involved in rotorcraft and commuter fixed-wing air transportation are discussed. Subject areas include the future community environment, aircraft technology, community transportation planning, and regulatory perspectives.

  10. Research and technology program perspectives for general aviation and commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Simpson, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The uses, benefits, and technology needs of the U.S. general aviation industry were studied in light of growing competition from foreign general aviation manufacturers, especially in the commuter and business jet aircraft markets.

  11. Commute trip reduction in Washington: Base year worksite characteristics and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, D.

    1995-02-01

    Employers in Washington`s eight most populous counties are engaged in an effort to reduce their employees` use of single occupant automobiles for commuting. This report documents the status of those employers at the beginning of the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) program as a basis for evaluating the impacts of the program. The first section provides a brief exploration of the Washington CTR Law and a history of the first steps in its implementation. The second section presents a summary of the characteristics of the worksites affected by the law. The CTR Law calls for reductions in single occupant vehicle (SOV) commuting and in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The third section of this report presents baseline measurements of SOV and VMT and goals for reducing them. The fourth section provides summary information on the first year of programs employers planned to implement. The final section very briefly outlines actions the Commute Trip Reduction law calls for between 1995 and 1999.

  12. Cubical homology and the Leech dimension of free partially commutative monoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusainov, Akhmet A.

    2008-12-01

    The paper is devoted to problems arising when applying homological algebra to computer science. It is proved that the Leech dimension of a free partially commutative monoid is equal to the least upper bound of the cardinalities of finite subsets of pairwise commuting generators of the monoid. For an arbitrary free partially commutative monoid M(E,I) in which every subset of pairwise commuting generators is finite and for any contravariant natural system F on M(E,I) we construct a semicubical set T(E,I) with a homological system \\overline F on this set such that the Leech homology groups H_n(M(E,I),F) are isomorphic to the cubical homology groups H_n(T(E,I),\\overline F). Complexes of Abelian groups are also constructed enabling one to obtain (under additional finiteness conditions) algorithms for computing the Leech homology groups and homology groups with coefficients in right M(E,I)-modules. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  13. 78 FR 72972 - Application of Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...: The Department of Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter...

  14. 77 FR 43135 - Application of City Wings, Inc. D/B/A Seaflight for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding City Wings, Inc. d/b/a Seaflight fit, willing, and able, and awarding it Commuter Air Carrier Authorization....

  15. 77 FR 72432 - Application of Boutique Air, Inc. for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Department of Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Boutique Air, Inc., fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter air carrier...

  16. Commutation of Projections and Characterization of Traces on von Neumann Algebras. III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikchentaev, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We obtain new necessary and sufficient commutation conditions for nonnegative operators and projections in terms of operator inequalities. It is shown that in the general case in this inequalities the projections cannot be replaced by arbitrary nonnegative operators with preservation of operators commutativity. We also present new necessary and sufficient commutation conditions for projections in terms of operator inequalities. These inequalities are applied for trace characterization on von Neumann algebras in the class of all positive normal functionals. We also consider the following problems: I. Characterization of traces among arbitrary weights on von Neumann algebras. II. Characterization of tracial functionals among all positive linear functionals on C ∗-algebras. III. Characterization of commutativity for C ∗-algebras.

  17. Quantum Groups, Non-Commutative Differential Geometry and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schupp, Peter

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a 'quantum geometric' construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras {cal A} of functions and {cal U} of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of Delta({cal U}). It provides invariant maps {cal A} to{cal U} and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the 'reflection' matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras--it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity. We attempt a classification of various types of quantum Lie algebras and present a fairly general example for their construction

  18. Exposure to traffic pollution, acute inflammation and autonomic response in a panel of car commuters

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zora, Jennifer E.; Bergin, Michael H.; Yip, Fuyuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic pollution has been linked to numerous adverse health endpoints. Despite this, limited data examining traffic exposures during realistic commutes and acute response exists. Objectives: We conducted the Atlanta Commuters Exposures (ACE-1) Study, an extensive panel-based exposure and health study, to measure chemically-resolved in-vehicle exposures and corresponding changes in acute oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation and autonomic response. Methods We recruited 42 adults (21 with and 21 without asthma) to conduct two 2-h scripted highway commutes during morning rush hour in the metropolitan Atlanta area. A suite of in-vehicle particulate components were measured in the subjects’ private vehicles. Biomarker measurements were conducted before, during, and immediately after the commutes and in 3 hourly intervals after commutes. Results At measurement time points within 3 h after the commute, we observed mild to pronounced elevations relative to baseline in exhaled nitric oxide, C-reactive-protein, and exhaled malondialdehyde, indicative of pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress initiation, as well as decreases relative to baseline levels in the time-domain heart-rate variability parameters, SDNN and rMSSD, indicative of autonomic dysfunction. We did not observe any detectable changes in lung function measurements (FEV1, FVC), the frequency-domain heart-rate variability parameter or other systemic biomarkers of vascular injury. Water soluble organic carbon was associated with changes in eNO at all post-commute time-points (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our results point to measureable changes in pulmonary and autonomic biomarkers following a scripted 2-h highway commute. PMID:24906070

  19. Changing population structure and commuting situation in Tokyo Megalopolis: a municipality-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, R; Umezaki, M

    1993-06-01

    Census data was analyzed for 20 municipalities along the Tohoku Line in Tokyo Megalopolis to elucidate the changes in the population structure and the commuting situation in the last two decades. The major findings were: (1) the changing pattern of population structure markedly varied among the municipalities, and (2) the long-distance commuting workers have increased particularly among those 50 km or more from central Tokyo. PMID:8064153

  20. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Venard, J.

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. In the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.

  1. Design criteria for brush commutation in high speed traveling wave coilguns

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, W.R.; Willig, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Barrel current in a traveling wave coilgun must be commutated on and off and remain synchronized with the position of the armature coils. Brushes on the armature can be used to satisfy these two requirements. First, they provide synchronization of the currents by being physically attached to the armature coil. Second, they provide a means of shorting the turns of the barrel so that motion induced commutation can take place. Motion induced commutation is the process where the current in a shorted barrel turn is caused to rise or fall because of the voltage induced by the moving armature. This change in barrel current must take place during the time the turn is shorted by the brush. Residual current in the trailing edge of the brush must be made small at the instant the circuit is opened to minimize arcing. A set of design criteria are presented for designing a brush commutated coilgun so as to achieve the required synchronous commutation. The design variables include the barrel coil configuration and its pitch, the armature coil configuration and its number of turns, and the brush length. The number of turns in the barrel undergoing commutation at the same instant in time is directly related to the length of the brush. In this paper the results of applying the design criteria to a specific design are presented.

  2. Perceptions of air pollution during the work-related commute by adults in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badland, Hannah M.; Duncan, Mitch J.

    2009-12-01

    BackgroundThis study examines perceived health effect risks from air pollution during the work-related commute by socio-demographic and travel mode variables. MethodsPopulation-representative survey data were collected by telephone from 745 adults from Queensland, Australia. Variables assessed included socio-demographics, usual work travel mode, commute perceptions, and perceived health effects associated with air pollution during the work-related commute. ResultsApproximately 45% of the sample perceived air pollution negatively affected health outcomes when commuting to/from work, yet only 13% recognised air pollution as a major barrier to walking or cycling to/from work. No relationships existed between usual travel mode to/from work and perceived health risks associated with air pollution. Those higher educated or living in major cities were more likely to recognise air pollution harmed their health during their work-related commute when compared to respective referent categories ( p ≤ 0.05). ConclusionsRecognition of health risks from air pollution during the work-related commute was high, and awareness did not differ by travel mode. For the majority, air pollution was not a primary barrier for walking or cycling to/from work.

  3. Quantization maps, algebra representation, and non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, Carlos; Oriti, Daniele; Raasakka, Matti

    2013-08-15

    The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. In particular, the corresponding non-commutative star-product carried by this representation is obtained directly from the quantization map via deformation quantization. We then clarify under which conditions a unitary intertwiner between such algebra representation and the usual group representation can be constructed giving rise to the non-commutative plane waves and consequently, the non-commutative Fourier transform. The compact groups U(1) and SU(2) are considered for different choices of quantization maps, such as the symmetric and the Duflo map, and we exhibit the corresponding star-products, algebra representations, and non-commutative plane waves.

  4. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  5. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  6. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  7. Improving reversal median computation using commuting reversals and cycle information.

    PubMed

    Arndt, William; Tang, Jijun

    2008-10-01

    In the past decade, genome rearrangements have attracted increasing attention from both biologists and computer scientists as a new type of data for phylogenetic analysis. Methods for reconstructing phylogeny from genome rearrangements include distance-based methods, MCMC methods, and direct optimization methods. The latter, pioneered by Sankoff and extended with the software suites GRAPPA and MGR, is the most accurate approach, but is very limited due to the difficulty of its scoring procedure--it must solve multiple instances of the reversal median problem to compute the score of a given tree. The reversal median problem is known to be NP-hard and all existing solvers are extremely slow when the genomes are distant. In this paper, we present a new reversal median heuristic for unichromosomal genomes. The new method works by applying sets of reversals in a batch where all such reversals both commute and do not break the cycle of any other. Our testing using simulated datasets shows that this method is much faster than the leading solver for difficult datasets with only a slight accuracy penalty, yet retains better accuracy than other heuristics with comparable speed, and provides the additional option of searching for multiple medians. This method dramatically increases the speed of current direct optimization methods and enables us to extend the range of their applicability to organellar and small nuclear genomes with more than 50 reversals along each edge. PMID:18774904

  8. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  9. Fast Katz and commuters : efficient estimation of social relatedness.

    SciTech Connect

    On, Byung-Won; Lakshmanan, Laks V. S.; Esfandiar, Pooya; Bonchi, Francesco; Grief, Chen; Gleich, David F.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by social network data mining problems such as link prediction and collaborative filtering, significant research effort has been devoted to computing topological measures including the Katz score and the commute time. Existing approaches typically approximate all pairwise relationships simultaneously. In this paper, we are interested in computing: the score for a single pair of nodes, and the top-k nodes with the best scores from a given source node. For the pairwise problem, we apply an iterative algorithm that computes upper and lower bounds for the measures we seek. This algorithm exploits a relationship between the Lanczos process and a quadrature rule. For the top-k problem, we propose an algorithm that only accesses a small portion of the graph and is related to techniques used in personalized PageRank computing. To test the scalability and accuracy of our algorithms we experiment with three real-world networks and find that these algorithms run in milliseconds to seconds without any preprocessing.

  10. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  11. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-05-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.

  12. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  13. Facile routes of manufacturing silicon quantum dots on a silicon wafer and their surface activation by esters of N-hydroxysuccinimide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Cheng, Heming; Zhao, Tiantian; Zhang, Changchang

    2014-07-15

    Fluorescent silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) could be prepared by reduction of hydrogen silsesquioxane, etching of silicon powers with wetting chemistry techniques or electrolysis of a wafer catalyzed by polyoxometalates. Chemical modifications are indispensable for the stability of the SiQDs photoluminescence and wider applications of SiQDs. Facile routes of manufacturing SiQDs derived from a silicon wafer and its surface functionalization by N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters were described in this work in detail. Firstly, the porous silicon chip was prepared by nanosilver-assisted electroless chemical etching. Then the chip was etched successively with hydrofluoric acid/nitric acid solutions until it emitted dazzling red fluorescence which claimed the achieved SiQDs on silicon substrates (SiQDs/Si). Finally, surface NHS esters were fabricated on such an SiQDs/Si chipthrough stepwise modifications, which were tested by the amidation between the NHS esters and n-octylamine. The fluorescence emission of the SiQDs/Si chip almost remained unchanged during the successively chemical modifications, which indicated the SiQDs had capabilities of enduring the sustained high temperature and organic media. Meanwhile, the SiQDs did not leave from the silicon substrate during the surface tuning. The SiQDs obtained by ultrasonication of an SiQDs/Si chip in water were investigated by transmission electron and atomic force microscopies. PMID:24863773

  14. Preliminary control law and hardware designs for a ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Linse, D. J.; Suikat, R.; Entz, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    The continued investigation of the design of Ride Quality Augmentation Systems (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is described. The purpose of these RQAS is the reduction of the vertical and lateral acceleration response of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The current investigations include the refinement of the sample data feedback control laws based on the control-rate-weighting and output-weighting optimal control design techniqes. These control designs were evaluated using aircraft time simulations driven by Dryden spectra turbulence. Fixed gain controllers were tested throughout the aircrft operating envelope. The preliminary design of the hardware modifications necessary to implement and test the RQAS on a commuter aircraft is included. These include a separate surface elevator and the flap modifications to provide both direct lift and roll control. A preliminary failure mode investigation was made for the proposed configuration. The results indicate that vertical acceleration reductions of 45% and lateral reductions of more than 50% are possible. A fixed gain controller appears to be feasible with only minor response degradation.

  15. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity) and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities). The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health. PMID:21219597

  16. Analysis of real-time variables affecting children's exposure to diesel-related pollutants during school bus commutes in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, Lisa D.; Kozawa, Kathleen; Behrentz, Eduardo; Winer, Arthur M.; Fitz, Dennis R.; Pankratz, David V.; Colome, Steven D.; Fruin, Scott A.

    Variables affecting children's exposure during school bus commutes were investigated using real-time measurements of black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) inside 3 conventional diesel school buses, a particle trap-outfitted (TO) diesel school bus and a compressed natural gas (CNG) school bus, while traveling along an urban Los Angeles Unified School District bus route. A video camera was mounted at the front of each bus to record roadway conditions ahead of the bus during each commute. The videotapes from 12 commutes, in conjunction with pollutant concentration time series, were used to determine the influence of variables such as vehicles being followed, bus type and roadway type on pollutant concentrations inside the bus. For all buses tested, the highest concentrations of BC, PB-PAH and NO 2 were observed when following a diesel school bus, especially if that bus was emitting visible exhaust. This result was important because other diesel school buses were responsible for the majority of the diesel vehicle encounters, primarily due to caravanning with each other when leaving a school at the same time. Compared with following a gasoline vehicle or no target, following a smoky diesel school bus yielded BC and PB-PAH concentrations inside the cabin 8 and 11 times higher, respectively, with windows open, and ˜1.8 times higher for both pollutants with windows closed. When other diesel vehicles were not present, pollutant concentrations were highest inside the conventional diesel buses and lowest inside the CNG bus, while the TO diesel bus exhibited intermediate concentrations. Differences in pollutant concentrations between buses were most pronounced with the bus windows closed, and were attributed to a combination of higher concentrations in the exhaust and higher exhaust gas intrusion rates for the conventional diesel buses. Conventional diesel school buses can have a double exposure impact on

  17. Evaluation of Exposures to Diesel Particulate Matter Utilizing Ambient Air Monitoring and Urinary Biomarkers Among Pedestrian Commuters who Cross the U.S.-Mexico Border at San Ysidro, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaviz, Vanessa Eileen

    Background: Walk-in-line pedestrians crossing the U.S.-Mexico border northbound at the San Ysidro, CA Port of Entry ("Border Commuters") may be at an increased risk of experiencing elevated traffic-related air pollution, including diesel exhaust (DE). DE exposure has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, particularly cardiovascular and respiratory problems, including as lung cancer. Pedestrian crossers wait in line for extended periods and stand within 10 feet of highly concentrated traffic, particularly to diesel buses. Understanding the magnitude of traffic-related exposures is important for this vulnerable population. It was hypothesized that subjects who reside in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico and cross the border as a pedestrian will experience higher exposure to traffic-related pollutants than those who live and work in South San Diego, CA, USA and do not cross the border. Methods: Ninety-one participants were enrolled for this study; 80% were "Border Commuters" and 20% were "Non-Border Commuters". "Non-Border Commuters" served as the comparison group and were defined as residents who lived in or near and worked or went to school in San Ysidro, CA but did not cross the border. Questionnaires, time activity diaries, and urine samples were collected from all participants. Of the "Border Commuters", 56 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - samples were collected. There were 22 at-home indoor and 14 at-home outdoor 1-NP samples collected. Additionally, area samples collected at the border included 35 days of 1-NP, black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFP). Of the "Non-Border Commuters", 15 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-NP samples were collected. Additonally, 3 at-home indoor and outdoor 24-hour 1-NP samples were collected. Results: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was nearly 2-fold higher among "Border Commuters" compared to "Non

  18. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. Inmore » the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.« less

  19. Spacetime Non-Commutativity Corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde Formula of Achúcarro-Ortiz Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.

    2007-02-01

    In this letter we compute the corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde formula of Achúcarro-Ortiz black hole, which is the most general two-dimensional black hole derived from the three-dimensional rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. These corrections stem from the space non-commutativity. We show that in non-commutative case, non-rotating Achúcarro-Ortiz black hole in contrast with commutative case has two horizons.

  20. Groenewold-Moyal product, α*-cohomology, and classification of translation-invariant non-commutative structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshovi, Amir Abbass

    2013-07-01

    The theory of α*-cohomology is studied thoroughly and it is shown that in each cohomology class there exists a unique 2-cocycle, the harmonic form, which generates a particular Groenewold-Moyal star product. This leads to an algebraic classification of translation-invariant non-commutative structures and shows that any general translation-invariant non-commutative quantum field theory is physically equivalent to a Groenewold-Moyal non-commutative quantum field theory.

  1. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  2. Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te

    2016-08-01

    Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.

  3. Detailed design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent E.; Downing, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is documented. The RQAS is designed for a Cessna 402B, an 8 passenger prop twin representative to this class of aircraft. The purpose of the RQAS is the reduction of vertical and lateral accelerations of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The detailed design of the hardware (the aircraft modifications, the Ride Quality Instrumentation System (RQIS), and the required computer software) is examined. The aircraft modifications, consisting of the dedicated control surfaces and the hydraulic actuation system, were designed at Cessna Aircraft by Kansas University-Flight Research Laboratory. The instrumentation system, which consist of the sensor package, the flight computer, a Data Acquisition System, and the pilot and test engineer control panels, was designed by NASA-Langley. The overall system design and the design of the software, both for flight control algorithms and ground system checkout are detailed. The system performance is predicted from linear simulation results and from power spectral densities of the aircraft response to a Dryden gust. The results indicate that both accelerations are possible.

  4. Adaptive vibration control using synchronous demodulation with machine tool controller motor commutation

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, David James

    2008-05-13

    A control system and method for actively reducing vibration in a spindle housing caused by unbalance forces on a rotating spindle, by measuring the force-induced spindle-housing motion, determining control signals based on synchronous demodulation, and provide compensation for the measured displacement to cancel or otherwise reduce or attenuate the vibration. In particular, the synchronous demodulation technique is performed to recover a measured spindle housing displacement signal related only to the rotation of a machine tool spindle, and consequently rejects measured displacement not related to spindle motion or synchronous to a cycle of revolution. Furthermore, the controller actuates at least one voice-coil (VC) motor, to cancel the original force-induced motion, and adapts the magnitude of voice coil signal until this measured displacement signal is brought to a null. In order to adjust the signal to a null, it must have the correct phase relative to the spindle angle. The feedback phase signal is used to adjust a common (to both outputs) commutation offset register (offset relative to spindle encoder angle) to force the feedback phase signal output to a null. Once both of these feedback signals are null, the system is compensating properly for the spindle-induced motion.

  5. Silicon controlled rectifier polyphase bridge inverter commutated with gate-turn-off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A polyphase SCR inverter (10) having N switching poles, each comprised of two SCR switches (1A, 1B; 2A, 2B . . . NA, NB) and two diodes (D1B; D1B; D2A, D2B . . . DNA, DNB) in series opposition with saturable reactors (L1A, L1B; L2A, L2B . . . LNA, LNB) connecting the junctions between the SCR switches and diodes to an output terminal (1, 2 . . . 3) is commutated with only one GTO thyristor (16) connected between the common negative terminal of a dc source and a tap of a series inductor (14) connected to the positive terminal of the dc source. A clamp winding (22) and diode (24) are provided, as is a snubber (18) which may have its capacitance (c) sized for maximum load current divided into a plurality of capacitors (C.sub.1, C.sub.2 . . . C.sub.N), each in series with an SCR switch S.sub.1, S.sub.2 . . . S.sub.N). The total capacitance may be selected by activating selected switches as a function of load current. A resistor 28 and SCR switch 26 shunt reverse current when the load acts as a generator, such as a motor while braking.

  6. Identification of activity-dependent gene expression profiles reveals specific subsets of genes induced by different routes of Ca(2+) entry in cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guangxin; Pan, Liangbin; Xing, Wanli; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jianping; Cheng, Jing; Zhou, Yuxiang

    2007-07-01

    Neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription is a key feature of long-lasting synaptic strengthening associated with learning and memory, as well as activity-dependent neuroprotection. To comprehensively determine the molecular alterations, we carried out genome-wide microarray analysis in cultured rat cortical neurons treated with specific pharmacological agents, a model with alterations in neuronal activity, which were monitored by multi-site electrophysiological recordings. Of the approximately 27,000 genes, the expression of 248 genes was strongly changed in response to enhanced activity. These genes encompass a large number of members of distinct families, including synaptic vesicle proteins, ion channels, signal transduction molecules, synaptic growth regulators, and others. Two subsets of these genes were further confirmed to be specifically induced by Ca(2+) influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). In addition, those genes dynamically regulated by the enhanced activity were also elucidated, as well as those candidate genes associated with synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Our findings therefore would help define the molecular mechanisms that occur in response to neuronal activity and identify specific clusters of genes that contribute to activity-dependent and Ca(2+)-inducible modulation of brain development and function. PMID:17443680

  7. The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shifting to active modes of transport in the trip to work can achieve substantial co-benefits for health, social equity, and climate change mitigation. Previous integrated modeling of transport scenarios has assumed active transport mode share and has been unable to incorporate acknowledged system feedbacks. Objectives: We compared the effects of policies to increase bicycle commuting in a car-dominated city and explored the role of participatory modeling to support transport planning in the face of complexity. Methods: We used system dynamics modeling (SDM) to compare realistic policies, incorporating feedback effects, nonlinear relationships, and time delays between variables. We developed a system dynamics model of commuter bicycling through interviews and workshops with policy, community, and academic stakeholders. We incorporated best available evidence to simulate five policy scenarios over the next 40 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Injury, physical activity, fuel costs, air pollution, and carbon emissions outcomes were simulated. Results: Using the simulation model, we demonstrated the kinds of policies that would likely be needed to change a historical pattern of decline in cycling into a pattern of growth that would meet policy goals. Our model projections suggest that transforming urban roads over the next 40 years, using best practice physical separation on main roads and bicycle-friendly speed reduction on local streets, would yield benefits 10–25 times greater than costs. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies. Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner. The modeling process enhanced understanding by a range of stakeholders of cycling as a complex system. Participatory SDM can be a helpful method

  8. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  9. Modelling Routes towards Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Colin; Janssen, Jose; van den Berg, Bert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to define the need for a route modelling language in e-learning, identifying requirements and candidate languages, before providing a recommended approach. Design/methodology/approach: Several sources of requirements are drawn from the literature then used to review available approaches to route modelling. The best…

  10. Dynamic Message Routing Using Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibler, Thorsten; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank

    The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is composable middleware that provides applications with services such as message routing and transformation, service composition, dynamic discovery, transactional support, coordination, security features, and others. In an ESB supporting SOAP message exchange, routing algorithms typically follow the sequential SOAP message processing model, where SOAP headers are the main artefacts used to specify the message route and the processing of the payload by intermediaries along that route. This model supports neither alternative nor parallel message routes. In the case of a failing intermediary node this leads to a failure in the message delivery. Moreover, the execution order of services on SOAP message payloads at the intermediaries cannot be prescribed. In this paper, we demonstrate how these deficiencies of the SOAP message processing model can be addressed. We introduce an approach that allows for specifying SOAP message routing logic in terms of BPEL processes. We show that parallel and alternative routes for SOAP messages can be modelled and executed, and the order of services that process a message at intermediaries can be predefined to accommodate the correct processing sequence as required by the concrete application domain. Features like dynamic discovery of services and flexible service composition are leveraged to enable flexible SOAP message routing.

  11. Aspects of non-commutative gauge theory and the AdS/CFT correspondance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keith S.

    Non-commutative gauge theory with a non-constant non-commutativity parameter can be formulated as a decoupling limit of open strings ending on D3-branes wrapping a Melvin universe. We identify this model as a simple Melvin twist of flat D3 branes. Along similar lines, one recognizes the model of Hashimoto and Sethi as being the Melvin null twist, and the model of Dolan and Nappi as being the null Melvin twist, of the flat D3-brane. This construction therefore offers a unified perspective on most of the known explicit constructions of non-commutative gauge theories as a decoupled theory of D-branes in a, B-field background. In order to gain insight into the type of physics embodied in such theories, we describe the world volume theory on a D3-brane embedded in a Melvin universe which is decaying via the nucleation of monopole anti-monopole pairs. Further, focusing on the gauge theory properties and dynamics, we construct the action explicitly for the Melvin twist non-commutative gauge theory and discuss various physical features of the model. The decoupled field theory is not supersymmetric. Nonetheless, the Coulomb branch appears to remain flat at least in the large N and large 't Hooft coupling limit. We also find the analogue of Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles whose size scales with the non-commutativity parameter and is therefore position dependent.

  12. Differential commuting operator and closed-form eigenfunctions for linear canonical transforms.

    PubMed

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Liu, Chun-Lin

    2013-10-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) with a, b, c, d parameter plays an important role in quantum mechanics, optics, and signal processing. The eigenfunctions of the LCT are also important because they describe the self-imaging phenomenon in optical systems. However, the existing solutions for the eigenfunctions of the LCT are divided into many cases and they lack a systematic way to solve these eigenfunctions. In this paper, we find a linear, second-order, self-adjoint differential commuting operator that commutes with the LCT operator. Hence, the commuting operator and the LCT share the same eigenfunctions with different eigenvalues. The commuting operator is very general and simple when it is compared to the existing multiple-parameter differential equations. Then, the eigenfunctions can be derived systematically. The eigenvalues of the commuting operator have closed-form relationships with the eigenvalues of the LCT. We also simplify the eigenfunctions for |a+d|>2 and a+d=±2, b≠0 into the more compact closed form instead of the integral form. For |a+d|>2, the eigenfunctions are related to the parabolic cylinder functions. PMID:24322865

  13. Design criteria for brush commutation in high speed traveling wave coilguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, W. R.; Willig, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Barrel current in a traveling wave coilgun must be commutated on and off, and remain synchronized with the position of the armature coils. Brushes on the armature can be used to satisfy these two requirements, providing synchronization of the currents by being physically attached to the armature coil and provide a means of shorting the turns of the barrel so that motion-induced commutation can take place. This change in barrel current must take place during the time the turn is shorted by the brush. Residual current in the trailing edge of the brush must be made small at the instant the circuit is opened to minimize arcing. A set of design criteria are presented for designing a brush-commutated coilgun so as to achieve the required synchronous commutation. The numer of turns in the barrel undergoing commutation at the same instant in time is directly related to the length of the brush. The results of applying the design criteria to a specific design are presented.

  14. The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chunping; Ding, Juwen; Yang, Fei; Dong, Delong; Rong, Mingzhe; Xu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB). The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated, and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results. Based on the airflow in the arc chamber, the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated. It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process. To verify the simulation results, the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested. This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2015CB251002, 6132620303) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51377128, 51577144), and Science and Technology Project Through Grid State Corporation (No. SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564)

  15. Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

  16. [Alternative routes for insulin administration].

    PubMed

    Lassmann-Vague, V

    1994-01-01

    Ideally, insulin administration should be done through portal route, with a precise kinetic. It should also lead to a reproducible biologic effect, with minimal side-effects and be acceptable for the majority of diabetic patients. Many alternative routes of insulin administration try to fulfill one or more of these criteria. Intraperitoneal route is already used with implantable pumps. It has proven safety and metabolic efficacy, particularly upon the reduction of severe hypoglycaemia. Nasal route could provide a rapid kinetic, but its long-term utilisation depends on improvement of bioavailability and studies of local toxicity. Results concerning intrabronchic insulin seem promising, but are still preliminary. In the future, the choice among these alternative routes of insulin administration will be guided by the development of a closed-loop system. PMID:8001707

  17. SIMULTANEOUS MECHANICAL AND HEAT ACTIVATION: A NEW ROUTE TO ENHANCE SERPENTINE CARBONATION REACTIVITY AND LOWER CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McKelvy; J. Diefenbacher; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2005-01-01

    Coal can support a large fraction of global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other candidate technologies, which propose long-term storage (e.g., ocean and geological sequestration), mineral sequestration permanently disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable mineral carbonates. Only benign, naturally occurring materials are formed, eliminating long-term storage and liability issues. Serpentine carbonation is a leading mineral sequestration process candidate, which offers large scale, permanent sequestration. Deposits exceed those needed to carbonate all the CO{sub 2} that could be generated from global coal reserves, and mining and milling costs are reasonable ({approx}$4 to $5/ton). Carbonation is exothermic, providing exciting low-cost process potential. The remaining goal is to develop an economically viable process. An essential step in this development is increasing the carbonation reaction rate and degree of completion, without substantially impacting other process costs. Recently, the Albany Research Center (ARC) has accelerated serpentine carbonation, which occurs naturally over geological time, to near completion in less than an hour. While reaction rates for natural serpentine have been found to be too slow for practical application, both heat and mechanical (attrition grinding) pretreatment were found to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity. Unfortunately, these processes are too energy intensive to be cost-effective in their present form. In this project we explored the potential that utilizing power plant waste heat (e.g., available up to {approx}200-250 C) during mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) offers to enhance serpentine mineral carbonation, while reducing pretreatment energy consumption and process cost. This project was carried out in collaboration with the Albany Research Center (ARC) to maximize the insight into the

  18. Past tense route priming.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Balota, David A

    2013-03-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular past tense verbs (e.g. REACH-REACHED) or irregular past tense verbs (TEACH-TAUGHT). Critical targets, consisting of half regular and half irregular verbs, were embedded within blocks and participants' inflection response latency and accuracy were assessed. The results yielded a cross-over interaction in response latencies for both young and older adults. In the regular context there was a robust regularity effect: regular target verbs were conjugated faster than irregular target verbs. In contrast, in the irregular context, irregular target verbs were conjugated faster than regular target verbs. Experiment 2 used the same targets but in the context of either standard nonwords or nonwords ending in "-ED" to test the possibility of a phonological basis for the effect. The effect of context was eliminated. The results support the notion that distinct processes in past tense verb production can be locally biased by list context and, as shown in Experiment 2, this route priming effect was not due to phonological priming. PMID:23291293

  19. Active Esters as Pseudostoppers for Slippage Synthesis of [2]Pseudorotaxane Building Blocks: A Straightforward Route to Multi-Interlocked Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Legigan, Thibaut; Riss-Yaw, Benjamin; Clavel, Caroline; Coutrot, Frédéric

    2016-06-20

    The efficient synthesis and very easy isolation of dibenzo[24]crown-8-based [2]pseudorotaxane building blocks that contain an active ester motif at the extremity of the encircled molecular axle and an ammonium moiety as a template for the dibenzo[24]crown-8 is reported. The active ester acts both as a semistopper for the [2]pseudorotaxane species and as an extensible extremity. Among the various investigated active ester moieties, those that allow for the slippage process are given particular focus because this strategy produces fewer side products. Extension of the selected N-hydroxysuccinimide ester based pseudorotaxane building block by using either a mono- or a diamino compound, both containing a triazolium moiety, is also described. These provide a pH-dependent two-station [2]rotaxane molecular machine and a palindromic [3]rotaxane molecular machine, respectively. Molecular machinery on both interlocked compounds through variation of pH was studied and characterized by means of NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27239975

  20. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Alvarez, David A.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrationspresent in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  1. Desilylative activation of TMSCN in chemoselective Strecker-Ugi type reaction: functional fused imidazoles as building blocks as an entry route to annulated purines.

    PubMed

    Guchhait, Sankar K; Chaudhary, Vikas

    2014-09-14

    A pathway of desilylative activation of TMSCN as a functional isonitrile equivalent, and DABCO-THF as an appropriate system for activation in a chemoselective Strecker-Ugi type reaction, has rendered ethyl glyoxalate and various heterocyclic-2-amidines as feasible substrates, and afforded the successful synthesis of 3-amino-2-carboxyethyl substituted fused imidazoles as useful building blocks. This class of functional scaffold has provided, via construction of the fused pyrimidinone motif, the synthesis of biologically important C8-N9 annulated purines, adenines and their oxo/thio analogs. This new approach is convenient and flexible for the preparation of versatile purine-condensed heterocycles. PMID:25032666

  2. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  3. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES FOR CATALYST PREPARATION: USE OF ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF VANADIUM PHOSPHORUS OXIDE CATALYST AND ITS ACTIVITY FOR HYDROCARBON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) is a well-known catalyst used for the vapor phase n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. It is prepared by a variety of methods, all of which, however, eventually result in the same active phase. The two main methods for the preparation of its pr...

  4. Dualities, Twists, and Gauge Theories with Non-Constant Non-Commutativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Akikazu

    2005-01-01

    We study the world volume theory of D3-branes wrapping the Melvin universe supported by background NSNS B-field. In the appropriate decoupling limit, the open string dynamics is that of non-commutative guage field theory with non-constant non-commutativity. We identify this model as a simple Melvin twist of flat D3 branes. Along similar lines, one recognizes the model of Hashimoto and Sethi as being the Melvin null twist, and the model of Dolan and Nappi as being the null Melvin twist, of the flat D3-brane. This construction therefore offers a unified perspective on most of the known explicit constructions of non-commutative gauge theories as a decoupled theory of D-branes in a B-field background. We also describe the world volume theory on the D3-brane in a Melvin universe which is decaying via the nucleation of monopole anti-monopole pair.

  5. Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU q (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matassa, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU q (2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU q (2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU q (2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.

  6. Two Phases of the Non-Commutative Quantum Mechanics with the Generalized Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2016-04-01

    We consider the quantum mechanics on the noncommutative plane with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ge frac {θ }{2}, {Δ } p1 {Δ } p2 ge frac {bar {θ }}{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ge frac {hbar }{2}, {Δ } x1 {Δ } p2 ge frac {η }{2}. We show that the model has two essentially different phases which is determined by kappa = 1 + frac {1}{hbar 2 } (η 2 - θ bar {θ }). We construct a operator hat {π }i commuting with hat {x}j and discuss the harmonic oscillator model in two dimensional non-commutative space for three case κ > 0, κ = 0, κ < 0. Finally, we discuss the thermodynamics of a particle whose hamiltonian is related to the harmonic oscillator model in two dimensional non-commutative space.

  7. Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities. PMID:27018939

  8. Commutative n-ary superalgebras with an invariant skew-symmetric form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakova, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    We study n-ary commutative superalgebras and L∞-algebras that possess a skew-symmetric invariant form, using the derived bracket formalism. This class of superalgebras includes for instance Lie algebras and their n-ary generalizations, commutative associative and Jordan algebras with an invariant form. We give a classification of anti-commutative m-dimensional (m - 3) -ary algebras with an invariant form, and a classification of real simple m-dimensional Lie (m - 3) -algebras with a positive definite invariant form up to isometry. Furthermore, we develop the Hodge Theory for L∞-algebras with a symmetric invariant form, and we describe quasi-Frobenius structures on skew-symmetric n-ary algebras.

  9. Commute alternatives educational outreach. Transportation demand management resource program for the transportation professional. Report for July 1993-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, P.L.; Rudge, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This project is designed to aid in the planning, implementation, evaluation, and improvements of a (TDM) agency of program. Through the use of examples, the TDM professional can review innovative programs and initiatives throughout the United States, and model activities after these exhibits. The equations and benchmarks cited by this publication are other effective tools which offer insights into the relative success of TDM plan components in various environments. This report also introduces many of the traditional and innovative commute alternatives and discusses the benefits, obstacles, and goals of these initiatives. Strategies including carpooling, vanpooling, telecommuting, tax incentives, guaranteed ride home programs, bicycle and pedestrian facilities, transit, telecommuting, alternative work hour programs, and intermodalism are discussed and evaluated in real-world scenarios.

  10. Activation of C-F bonds in fluoroarenes by N-heterocyclic carbenes as an effective route to synthesize abnormal NHC complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsuk; Lee, Eunsung

    2016-09-18

    IPr (1a) reacts with octafluorotoluene by an unexpected sequential substitution of fluorides in two separate rings. The resulting tetrasubstituted imidazolium salt was isolated and elaborated into Ag(i) and Au(i) complexes with a novel abnormal NHC ligand. Both IPr (1a) and IMes (1b) were also found to be moderately reactive by nucleophilic substitution of the aromatic C-F bond in a weakly-activated fluoroarene, 1-fluoro-4-trifluoromethylbenzene (5). PMID:27533338

  11. γ-Carbon Activation through N-Heterocyclic Carbene/Brønsted Acids Cooperative Catalysis: A Highly Enantioselective Route to δ-Lactams.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonglong; Wang, Jinxin; Xia, Wenjing; Shu, Shuangjie; Jiao, Shenchao; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    A γ-carbon activation method that operates through N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis for highly enantioselective synthesis of δ-lactams is reported. The protocol allows the challenging remote γ-carbon control of regioselectivity and enantioselectivity through introduction of an appropriate γ-leaving group in the enals. The reaction offers good yields and excellent enantioselectivities, and the resulting cyclic products can be easily converted into high-value drug-like derivatives. PMID:26213807

  12. Effect of temperature and concentration of precursors on morphology and photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide thin films prepared by hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Hakola, H.; Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Kannisto, M.; Hyvärinen, L.; Järveläinen, M.; Levänen, E.

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an important semiconductive material due to its potential applications, such as conductive gas sensors, transparent conductive electrodes, solar cells, and photocatalysts. Photocatalytic activity can be exploited in the decomposition of hazardous pollutants from environment. In this study, we produced zinc oxide thin films on stainless steel plates by hydrothermal method varying the precursor concentration (from 0.029 M to 0.16 M) and the synthesis temperature (from 70 °C to 90 °C). Morphology of the synthesized films was examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and photocatalytic activity of the films was characterized using methylene blue decomposition tests. It was found that the morphology of the nanostructures was strongly affected by the precursor concentration and the temperature of the synthesis. At lower concentrations zinc oxide grew as thin needlelike nanorods of uniform length and shape and aligned perpendicular to the stainless steel substrate surface. At higher concentrations the shape of the rods transformed towards hexagon shaped units and further on towards flaky platelets. Temperature changes caused variations in the coating thickness and the orientation of the crystal units. It was also observed, that the photocatalytic activity of the prepared films was clearly dependent on the morphology of the surfaces.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and anti-bacterial activities of pure and Co-doped BaSO4 nanoparticles via chemical precipitation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Soundhirarajan, P.; Venkatesan, A.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we reported that the synthesis and characterization of pure and diverse mole Co-doped BaSO4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) brought out the information about the synthesized products is orthorhombic structure and highly crystalline in nature. The average grain size of the samples was determined by using the Debye-Scherer's equation. The existence of functional groups and band area of the samples were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The direct and indirect band gap energy of pure and doped samples was carried out using UV-VIS-DRS. The surface micrograph, morphological distribution and elemental compositions of the synthesized products were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS). Thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) techniques were analyzed thermal behaviour of pure and Co-doped samples. Finally, antibacterial activities found the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are more active in transporter, dehydrogenize and periplasmic enzymatic activities of pure and doped samples.

  14. A route from darkness to light: emergence and evolution of luciferase activity in AMP-CoA-ligases inferred from a mealworm luciferase-like enzyme.

    PubMed

    Viviani, V R; Prado, R A; Neves, D R; Kato, D; Barbosa, J A

    2013-06-11

    The origin of luciferases and of bioluminescence is enigmatic. In beetles, luciferases seem to have evolved from AMP-CoA-ligases. How the new oxygenase luminogenic function originated from AMP-ligases leading to luciferases is one of the most challenging mysteries of bioluminescence. Comparison of the cloned luciferase-like enzyme from the nonluminescent Zophobas morio mealworm and beetle luciferases showed that the oxygenase activity may have emerged as a stereoselective oxidative drift with d-luciferin, a substrate that cannot be easily thioesterified to CoA as in the case of the l-isomer. While the overall kcat displayed by beetle luciferases is orders of magnitude greater than that of the luciferase-like enzyme, the respective oxidation rates and quantum yields of bioluminescence are roughly similar, suggesting that the rate constant of the AMP-ligase activity exerted on the new d-luciferin substrate in beetle protoluciferases was the main enzymatic property that suffered optimization during the evolution of luciferases. The luciferase-like enzyme and luciferases boost the rate of luciferyl-adenylate chemiluminescent oxidation by factors of 10(6) and 10(7), respectively, as compared to the substrate spontaneous oxidation in buffer. A similar enhancement of luciferyl-adenylate chemiluminescence is provided by nucleophilic aprotic solvents, implying that the peptide bonds in the luciferin binding site of beetle luciferase could provide a similar catalytically favorable environment. These data suggest that the luciferase-like enzyme and other similar AMP-ligases are potential alternative oxygenases. Site-directed mutagenesis studies of the luciferase-like enzyme and the red light-producing luciferase of Phrixotrix hirtus railroadworm confirm here a critical role for T/S345 in luciferase function. Mutations such as I327T/S in the luciferase-like enzyme, which simultaneously increases luciferase activity and promotes blue shifts in the emission spectrum, could have

  15. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route width... routes in the case of certificate holders conducting flag operations) have a width equal to...

  16. A new inverter topology using GTO commutation. [Gate Turn Off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    A new N-phase, forced commutated bridge inverter topology has been developed wherein a single Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO) is used to commutate each of 2N main Thyristors (SCRs). Since, for most applications, the primary loss mechanism is the SCR forward drop, very high efficiencies are possible. Compared with conventional pure SCR and pure GTO inverters, cost per kW is lower - in the former case due to the large cost differential between GTOs and SCRs. Other advantages of the new inverter include high power density, low switching losses and stresses, modulation flexibility and amenability to high voltage and high frequency operation.

  17. Silicon-controlled-rectifier square-wave inverter with protection against commutation failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The square-wave SCR inverter that was designed, built, and tested includes a circuit to turn off the inverter in case of commutation failure. The basic power stage is a complementary impulse-commutated parallel inverter consisting of only six components. The 400-watt breadboard was tested while operating at + or - 28 volts, and it had a peak efficiency of 95.5 percent at 60 hertz and 91.7 percent at 400 hertz. The voltage regulation for a fixed input was 3 percent at 60 hertz. An analysis of the operation and design information is included.

  18. Systems and methods for commutating inductor current using a matrix converter

    DOEpatents

    Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun

    2012-10-16

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering current using a matrix converter in a vehicle. An electrical system comprises an AC interface, a first conversion module coupled to the AC interface, an inductive element coupled between the AC interface and the first conversion module, and a control module coupled to the first conversion module. The control module is configured to operate the first conversion module in a bidirectional operating mode to commutate current bidirectionally. When a magnitude of the current through the inductive element is greater than a first threshold value, the control module operates the conversion module in a unidirectional operating mode, wherein current is commutated unidirectionally.

  19. Wigner function for Klein-Gordon oscillator in commutative and noncommutative spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, S.; Ghominejad, M.

    2016-06-01

    As a quasi-probability distribution function in phase-space and a special representation of the density matrix, the Wigner function is of great significance in physics. In this work, the Wigner function for the Klein-Gordon oscillator is studied in commutative and noncommutative spaces. We first study the Wigner function for Klein-Gordon oscillator in commutative space then, by using a generalized Bopp's shift method, we obtain the corresponding Wigner function in noncommutative space. The additional terms in Wigner function on a NC space is related to the noncommutativity of space.

  20. Extended and internal commuting in the transformation of the intermetropolitian periphery.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J S; Mitchelson, R L

    1981-07-01

    This paper assesses the roles played by extended and internal commuting in urbanizing the intermetropolitan periphery by studying 4 standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs) in northeast Georgia (GA) and adjacent South Carolina (SC). Extended commuting is worker movements across county boundaries from nonmetropolitan areas to metropolitan areas. Internal commuting is worker movements such that origin and destination counties both lie within the intermetropolitan periphery. In the US, nonmetropolitan population growth rates now exceed those of metropolitan areas. 2 frequent interpretations of this trend are that nonmetropolitan growth is 1) decentralized resulting from metropolitan spread and 2) partially independent of metropolitian influence. The study uses commuting destinations from the 4 SMSAs (Atlanta, Macon, and Augusta, GA, and Greenville, SC), their respective central cities, and selected internal or intervening opportunity centers within the intermetropolitan periphery. Extended commuting fields were identified for both 1960 and 1970 using 0, 5, and 10% isolines; this paper only includes 0 and 5% isolines. There is an modest expansion of the 5% lines by 1970 for each region, indicating the extension of metropolitan influence. Growth is most apparent in larger centers such as Gainseville, Athens, and Conyers. By 1970, the 5% isolines show extreme cases of overlapping commuting fields. Residents of such zones interact significantly with more than 1 center; therefore, urbanization of the intermetropolitan area occurs both in response to metropolitan spread and the internal growth processes extending the influence of internal centers. Population growth within this nonmetropolitan area is linked to metropolitan center expansion and commuting to smaller internal growth centers plays an equally important role. 76% of county divisions within 15 miles of a metropolitan or internal growth center and 48% at distances of 15-35 miles experienced population

  1. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  2. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered...

  3. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered...

  4. 49 CFR 37.89 - Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. 37.89 Section 37.89 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible...

  5. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter... Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi and deny its application to resume commuter operations, pursuant to...

  6. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal,...

  7. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal,...

  8. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal,...

  9. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal,...

  10. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). ... Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered After February 1, 2012. 37... Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail Station Platforms Constructed or Altered...

  11. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal,...

  12. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an integrated setting to passengers at intercity, commuter, and high-speed rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 38.95(c) and 38.125(c). Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 57935, Sept. 19, 2011, § 37.42 was added... intercity, commuter, and high-speed rail station platforms constructed or altered after February 1, 2012. 37... passengers at intercity, commuter, and high-speed rail station platforms constructed or altered...

  13. The effect of metal cluster deposition route on structure and photocatalytic activity of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles supported on TiO2 by radiolytic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Marek; Nadolna, Joanna; Gołąbiewska, Anna; Mazierski, Paweł; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Remita, Hynd; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 (P25) was modified with small and relatively monodisperse mono- and bimetallic clusters (Ag, Pd, Pt, Ag/Pd, Ag/Pt and Pd/Pt) induced by radiolysis to improve its photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), photoluminescence spectrometry (PL), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning transition electron microscopy (STEM) and BET surface area analysis. The effect of metal type (mono- and bimetallic modification) as well as deposition method (simultaneous or subsequent deposition of two metals) on the photocatalytic activity in toluene removal in gas phase under UV-vis irradiation (light-emitting diodes- LEDs) and phenol degradation in liquid phase under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) were investigated. The highest photoactivity under Vis light was observed for TiO2 co-loaded with platinum (0.1%) and palladium (0.1%) clusters. Simultaneous addition of metal precursors results in formation of larger metal nanoparticles (15-30 nm) on TiO2 surface and enhances the Vis-induced activity of Ag/Pd-TiO2 up to four times, while the subsequent metal ions addition results in formation of metal particle size ranging from 4 to 20 nm. Subsequent addition of metal precursors results in formation of BNPs (bimetallic nanoparticle) composites showing higher stability in four cycles of toluene degradation under UV-vis. Obtained results indicated that direct electron transfer from the BNPs to the conduction band of the semiconductor is responsible for visible light photoactivity, whereas superoxide radicals (such as O2rad- and rad OOH) are responsible for pollutants degradation over metal-TiO2 composites.

  14. Exploring the evolutionary route of the acquisition of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by plant ALDH10 enzymes: implications for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant ALDH10 enzymes are aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs) that oxidize different ω-amino or trimethylammonium aldehydes, but only some of them have betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity and produce the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB). The latter enzymes possess alanine or cysteine at position 441 (numbering of the spinach enzyme, SoBADH), while those ALDH10s that cannot oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) have isoleucine at this position. Only the plants that contain A441- or C441-type ALDH10 isoenzymes accumulate GB in response to osmotic stress. In this work we explored the evolutionary history of the acquisition of BAL specificity by plant ALDH10s. Results We performed extensive phylogenetic analyses and constructed and characterized, kinetically and structurally, four SoBADH variants that simulate the parsimonious intermediates in the evolutionary pathway from I441-type to A441- or C441-type enzymes. All mutants had a correct folding, average thermal stabilities and similar activity with aminopropionaldehyde, but whereas A441S and A441T exhibited significant activity with BAL, A441V and A441F did not. The kinetics of the mutants were consistent with their predicted structural features obtained by modeling, and confirmed the importance of position 441 for BAL specificity. The acquisition of BADH activity could have happened through any of these intermediates without detriment of the original function or protein stability. Phylogenetic studies showed that this event occurred independently several times during angiosperms evolution when an ALDH10 gene duplicate changed the critical Ile residue for Ala or Cys in two consecutive single mutations. ALDH10 isoenzymes frequently group in two clades within a plant family: one includes peroxisomal I441-type, the other peroxisomal and non-peroxisomal I441-, A441- or C441-type. Interestingly, high GB-accumulators plants have non-peroxisomal A441- or C441-type isoenzymes, while low-GB accumulators

  15. A chemical bath deposition route to facet-controlled Ag3PO4 thin films with improved visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L.; Jo, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Lee, Jang Mee; Patil, Sharad B.; Pyun, Jae.-Chul.; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2016-08-01

    A facile, economic, and reproducible chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is developed for the fabrication of facet-controlled Ag3PO4 thin films with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. The fine-control of bath temperature, precursor, complexing agent, substrate, and solution pH is fairly crucial in preparing the facet-selective thin film of Ag3PO4 nanocrystal. The change of precursor from silver nitrate to silver acetate makes possible the tailoring of the crystal shape of Ag3PO4 from cube to rhombic dodecahedron and also the bandgap tuning of the deposited films. The control of [Ag+]/[phosphate] ratio enables to maximize the loading amount of Ag3PO4 crystals per the unit area of the deposited film. All the fabricated Ag3PO4 thin films show high photocatalytic activity for visible light-induced degradation of organic molecules, which can be optimized by tailoring the crystal shape of the deposited crystals. This CBD method is also useful in preparing the facet-controlled hybrid film of Ag3PO4-ZnO photocatalyst. The present study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of the present CBD method for fabricating facet-controlled thin films of metal oxosalt and its nanohybrid.

  16. Post-synthetic preparation of Sn-, Ti- and Zr-beta: a facile route to water tolerant, highly active Lewis acidic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Patrick; Hammond, Ceri; Conrad, Sabrina; Hermans, Ive

    2014-03-21

    A two-step procedure for the post-synthetic preparation of Lewis acidic Sn-, Zr- and Ti-zeolite β is reported. Dealumination of a commercially available Al-β zeolite leads to the formation of highly siliceous material containing silanol nests, which can be filled in a second step via the solid-state ion-exchange or impregnation of an appropriate metal precursor. Spectroscopic studies indicate that each metal is subsequently coordinated within the zeolite framework, and that little or no bulk oxides are formed--despite the high metal loadings. The synthesised catalysts demonstrate excellent activity for the isomerisation of glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone, a key model reaction for the upgrading of bio-renewable feedstocks, and the epoxidation of bulky olefins. PMID:24407516

  17. Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies

    PubMed Central

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Danelli, Laura; Berlingeri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been the focus of much functional anatomical research. The main trust of this work is that typical developmental dyslexics have a dysfunction of the phonological and orthography to phonology conversion systems, in which the left occipito-temporal cortex has a crucial role. It remains to be seen whether there is a systematic co-occurrence of dysfunctional patterns of different functional systems perhaps converging on the same brain regions associated with the reading deficit. Such evidence would be relevant for theories like, for example, the magnocellular/attentional or the motor/cerebellar ones, which postulate a more basic and anatomically distributed disorder in dyslexia. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of all the imaging literature published until September 2013 using a combination of hierarchical clustering and activation likelihood estimation methods. The clustering analysis on 2360 peaks identified 193 clusters, 92 of which proved spatially significant. Following binomial tests on the clusters, we found left hemispheric network specific for normal controls (i.e., of reduced involvement in dyslexics) including the left inferior frontal, premotor, supramarginal cortices and the left infero-temporal and fusiform regions: these were preferentially associated with reading and the visual-to-phonology processes. There was also a more dorsal left fronto-parietal network: these clusters included peaks from tasks involving phonological manipulation, but also motoric or visuo-spatial perception/attention. No cluster was identified in area V5 for no task, nor cerebellar clusters showed a reduced association with dyslexics. We conclude that the examined literature demonstrates a specific lack of activation of the left occipito-temporal cortex in dyslexia particularly for reading and reading-like behaviors and for visuo-phonological tasks. Additional deficits of motor and attentional systems relevant for reading may be associated

  18. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argyriou, A.

    2010-09-01

    Motivation On occasion, flood related questions are posed in the reverse from the conventional sense, e.g.: Which inflow created the flow observed at cross-section X, or the flood profile observed along reach Y? This is a signal identification type problem (hydrologic forensics). A related question concerns the operation of a reservoir, via optimal outflow control, so as to minimise downstream flood damage. Solution of the aforementioned problems requires routing of floods in the upstream direction. This is an inverse problem, and as such it is not well posed. In routing against the wave propagation, small errors in the flow measurements, or rounding errors, are amplified leading to instability, i.e., to spurious, large changes in the response (inflow hydrograph). Therefore, for the reverse solution to be stable it must be constrained by a smoothness condition; this however does not ensure its uniqueness. Storage routing models as approximate diffusion wave models By appropriate choice of their parameter values, storage routing models approximate closely diffusion-wave (DW) behaviour, if dominant flood propagation mode is that of kinematic waves (KW), which is very often true. We solve the flood signal identification problem by reversing the Muskingum routing scheme. The Muskingum routing scheme derives from a first-order accurate FD discretisation of the KW equation yet yields second-order accurate DW solutions by matching the numerical diffusion coefficient of that KW equation solution scheme to the DW equation’s hydraulic diffusion coefficient. Formulation and testing of a reverse routing scheme based on Muskingum routing Theoretical analysis of the reversed Muskingum routing scheme yields nominal grid design rules; however, we study optimal grid design mainly by numerical experimentation. First, we reverse an exact outflow hydrograph (a single-wave solution of the convection-diffusion equation), and then demonstrate the scheme’s ability to reverse

  19. Constructing Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing route for achieving enhanced photocatalytic activity and selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Su, Yiguo; Zhao, Qihang; Du, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the phase transformation from BiOCl to Bi24O31Cl10 could be realized during the thermal annealing process. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energy shifts, Raman spectra and Fouier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the formation of the Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction. The obtained Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl photocatalyst showed excellent conversion efficiency and selectivity toward photocatalytic conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The radical scavengers and electron spin resonance (ESR) results suggested that the photogenerated holes were the dominant reactive species responsible for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and superoxide radicals were not involved in the photocatalytic process. The in-situ generation of Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction may own superior interfacial contact than the two-step synthesized heterojunctions, which promotes the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers and is favorable for excellent photocatalytic activities. PMID:27340032

  20. Photo-catalytic activity of Plasmonic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles (synthesized via a green route) for the effective degradation of Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Begum, Shamima; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-07-01

    This study reports a green process for the fabrication of Ag@AgCl (silver@silver chloride) nanoparticles by using Aquilaria agallocha (AA) leaves juice without using any external reagents. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of Aquilaria agallocha leaves juice in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. From the FTIR spectra of leaves juice and phytochemicals test, it was found that flavonoids present in the leaves are responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions to Ag(0) species and leads to the formation of Ag@AgCl NPs. The synthesized Ag@AgCl NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase. Approximately, 99.46% degradation of Victoria Blue B dye were observed with Ag@AgCl NPs. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles was unchanged after 5cycles of operation. PMID:27152674