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Sample records for active component extracted

  1. Comparison of in vitro antioxidant activities and bioactive components of green tea extracts by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi; Deji, Shen; Ye, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2011-04-15

    In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities and bioactive components of green tea extracts (GTE) by ultrahigh pressure extraction and conventional extraction methods (microwave extraction, ultrasonic extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction) were investigated. DPPH radical-scavenging and FTC method were applied to test the antioxidant activities. The bioactive components were determined by chemical methods. The results indicated that the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities. The contents of polyphenols and catechins in the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction were significantly higher than those by other extraction methods, which was possibly responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction. From the results we can draw the conclusion that not only the more bioactive components are obtained but also the extract has better free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities through ultrahigh pressure extraction method. These findings further illustrate that ultrahigh pressure extraction has a bright prospect for extracting active ingredients from plant materials.

  2. Antibacterial activity of polyphenol components in oolong tea extract against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Tanaka, T; Maeda, M; Nakai, M; Hamada, S; Ooshima, T

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of oolong tea extract on oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, and to identify the response to its components. Antibacterial activity was found when the extract was added to S. mutans cells in chemically defined medium but not in complex broth media. Further, pretreatment with bovine serum albumin reduced the antibacterial activity. The extract showed antibacterial activity against all of the oral streptococci examined, with the highest activity against S. mutans MT8148R. This activity was found to originate from a monomeric polyphenol-rich fraction, and it was stronger than that of pure polyphenols. Moreover, some combinations of monomeric polyphenols showed the highest level of antibacterial activity. These results suggest that the antibacterial activity of oolong tea extract is caused by a synergistic effect of monomeric polyphenols, which can easily bind to proteins.

  3. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  4. Comparison of bioactive components and pharmacological activities of ophiopogon japonicas extracts from different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Xu, Wan-Feng; Shen, Han-Yuan; Shen, Pei-Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Dan-Dan; Xu, Han; Wang, Hong; Yan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Lin; Hao, Hai-Ping; Wang, Guang-Ji; Cao, Li-Juan

    2017-02-07

    Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) Ker-Gawl (O. japonicas), mainly cultivated in Sichuan and Zhejiang province in China, has different bioactive components and therefore their pharmacological activities. To explain the different clinical efficacy of O. japonicas derived preparations, herein we report differences of pharmacological activities between Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas and behind them the exact differences of bioactive components. Based on a LC/MS-IT-TOF method, the differences of bioactive components between Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas extracts were analyzed and respective characteristic components were picked out. We determined 39 ophiopogonones and 71 ophiopogonins compounds in Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas extracts and found the contents of these compositions have several times difference. Evidenced by experimental data of pharmacological activities in inhibiting cardiomyocyte damage induced by H2O2, mouse macrophage cell inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide and cytotoxicity in vitro, Zhejiang O. japonicas extract had a stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity than Sichuan O. japonicas extract, and the two O. japonicas extracts exhibited selective cytotoxicity on different cancer cell lines in vitro. These data shed light on the links between bioactive components and pharmacological activities of O. japonicas derived preparations. Thus, geographical origin of O. japonicas should be considered to be a key factor in efficacy studies and further clinical application.

  5. Bioactive Components of Chinese Propolis Water Extract on Antitumor Activity and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Aifeng; Fu, Chongluo; Wang, Yuanjun; Peng, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    To understand the material basis of antitumor activity of Chinese propolis water extract (CPWE), we developed a simple and efficient method using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography and separated and purified eleven chemical components (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin) from CPWE; then we tested the antitumor activities of these eleven components using different human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549). Furthermore, cell migration, procaspase 3 level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of effective components from CPWE were investigated. Our data showed that antitumor activities of the eleven components from CPWE were different from each other. CPWE and its effective components induced apoptosis by inhibiting tumor cell migration, activating caspase 3, and promoting ROS production. It can be deduced that the antitumor effects of propolis did not depend on a single component, and there must exist “bioactive components,” which also provides a new idea for Chinese propolis quality control. PMID:27123037

  6. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-07

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status.

  7. Inhibition of microglial activation by elderberry extracts and its phenolic components

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Chen, Zihong; Jiang, Jinghua; Zong, Yijia; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Greenlief, C. Michael; Rottinghaus, George E.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is one of the oldest medicinal plants noted for its cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) pomace as well as some of the anthocyanins (cyanidin chloride and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) in bv-2 mouse microglial cells. Main methods The bv-2 cells were pretreated with elderberry pomace (extracted with ethanol or ethyl acetate) or its anthocyanins and flavonols and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ (IFNγ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (indicating oxidative stress and inflammatory response) were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Key findings Analysis of total monomeric anthocyanin (as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents) indicated five-fold higher amount in the freeze-dried ethanol extract as compared to that of the oven-dried extract; anthocyanin was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts. Elderberry ethanol extracts (freeze-dried or oven-dried) showed higher anti-oxidant activities and better ability to inhibit LPS or IFNγ-induced NO production as compared with the ethyl acetate extracts. The phenolic compounds strongly inhibited LPS or IFNγ-induced ROS production, but except for quercetin, they were relatively poor in inhibiting NO production. Significance These results demonstrated difference in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of elderberry extracts depending on solvents used. Results further identified quercetin as the most active component in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses on microglial cells. PMID:25744406

  8. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  9. Water Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Has Anticancer Activity: Identification of an Active Component and Its Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ran; Shah, Navjot; Widodo, Nashi; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Terao, Keiji; Kaul, Sunil C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is a leading cause of death accounting for 15-20% of global mortality. Although advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have improved cancer survival statistics, 75% of the world population live in underdeveloped regions and have poor access to the advanced medical remedies. Natural therapies hence become an alternative choice of treatment. Ashwagandha, a tropical herb used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, has a long history of its health promoting and therapeutic effects. In the present study, we have investigated an anticancer activity in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX). Methodology/Principal Findings Anticancer activity in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX) was detected by in vitro and in vivo assays. Bioactivity-based size fractionation and NMR analysis were performed to identify the active anticancer component(s). Mechanism of anticancer activity in the extract and its purified component was investigated by biochemical assays. We report that the ASH-WEX is cytotoxic to cancer cells selectively, and causes tumor suppression in vivo. Its active anticancer component was identified as triethylene glycol (TEG). Molecular analysis revealed activation of tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRB by ASH-WEX and TEG in cancer cells. In contrast to the hypophosphorylation of pRB, decrease in cyclin B1 and increase in cyclin D1 in ASH-WEX and TEG-treated cancer cells (undergoing growth arrest), normal cells showed increase in pRB phosphorylation and cyclin B1, and decrease in cyclin D1 (signifying their cell cycle progression). We also found that the MMP-3 and MMP-9 that regulate metastasis were down regulated in ASH-WEX and TEG-treated cancer cells; normal cells remained unaffected. Conclusion We provide the first molecular evidence that the ASH-WEX and TEG have selective cancer cell growth arrest activity and hence may offer natural and economic resources for anticancer medicine. PMID:24130852

  10. Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-{gamma} and identification of an active component

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom H.W.; Peng Gang; Kota, Bhavani P.; Li, George Q.; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2005-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-{gamma} mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-{gamma} mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-{gamma}-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-{gamma} is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of solvent-extracted active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bokyung; Chung, Hye Sun; Kim, Minjung; Kang, Yong Jung; Kim, Dong Hwan; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jo; Kim, Cheol Min; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-04-01

    Herbal extracts and dietary supplements may be extracted from the medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, and are used increasingly commonly worldwide for their benefits to health and quality of life. Thus, ensuring that they are safe for human consumption is a critical issue for the preparation of plant extracts as dietary supplements. The present study investigated extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza), traditionally used in Asian countries to treat a variety of conditions, as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in functional foods. Dried S. miltiorrhiza root was extracted with various solvents and under varying extraction conditions, and the effects of the extracts on the viability of five human cancer cell lines were compared. Extracts obtained using 100% ethanol and 100% acetone as solvents exhibited more potent effects compared with extracts obtained using 70 and 30% aqueous ethanol. Furthermore, the active components of S. miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts, known as tanshinones, were investigated. Dihydrotanshinone I was observed to exhibit a higher cytotoxic potential compared with the other tanshinones in the majority of the examined cell lines. Conversely, cryptotanshinone exhibited weak anti-cancer activity. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that the active components obtained from an ethanol extract of S. miltiorrhiza possess the potential to be used as ingredients in functional and health care foods that may be used to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics in the prevention and/or treatment of cancer.

  12. Volatile components of selected liverworts, and cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of their crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Komala, Ismiarni; Ito, Takuya; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Nagashima, Fumihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2010-09-01

    Crude extracts of the Tahitian liverworts Mastigophora diclados and Frullania sp., the Indonesian Frullania sp., Dumortiera hirsuta and Marchantia sp., and the Japanese Porella perrottetiana were investigated chemically by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All extracts contained various volatile sesqui- and diterpenoids and a few aromatic compounds. The Tahitian M. diclados and Frullania sp., and the Indonesian Frullania sp. exhibited cytotoxic activity against HL-60 and KB cell lines. The extracts of the Tahitian M. diclados and the Indonesian Marchantia sp. showed radical scavenging activity, whereas the crude extracts of the Tahitian M. diclados and Frullania sp., and the Indonesian Frullania and Marchantia sp. showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.

  13. Hypothesis of potential active components in Angelica sinensis by using biomembrane extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z B; Li, S P; Hong, M; Zhu, Q

    2005-07-15

    The screening and analysis of bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is very important not only for the quality control of crude drugs but also for elucidating the therapeutic principle. In this study, a method for screening potential active components from TCMs was developed by using biomembrane extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. Based on the methodology, aqueous extract of Angelica sinensis (WEAS) was used, and four compounds were detected by HPLC in the desorption eluate of red cell membrane extraction for WEAS. The compounds were identified as ferulic acid, ligustilide, senkyunolide H and senkyunolide I based on their UV, MS and NMR spectra. Actually, ferulic acid and ligustilide are considered as major active components in Angelica sinensis. Therefore, this method may be applied to predict the potential bioactivities of multiple compounds in TCMs simultaneously.

  14. Emodin is identified as the active component of ether extracts from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, for anti-MRSA activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Peng, Wei; Li, Xiaoli; Liu, Ming; Li, Bin; Qin, Rongxin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cen, Yanyan; Pan, Xichun; Yan, Zifei; Xiao, Kangkang; Zhou, Hong

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) activity and chemical compositions of ether extracts from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (ET-RPC). Significant anti-MRSA activities of ET-RPC against MRSA252 and MRSA clinical strains were tested in in vitro antibacterial experiments, such as inhibition zone diameter test, minimal inhibitory concentration test, and dynamic bacterial growth assay. Subsequently, 7 major compounds of ET-RPC were purified and identified as polydatin, resveratrol-4-O-d-(6'-galloyl)-glucopyranoside, resveratrol, torachryson-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, 6-hydroxy-emodin, and emodin using liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry. After investigation of anti-MRSA activities of the 7 major compounds, only emodin had significant anti-MRSA activity. Further, transmission electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes in the cell wall of MRSA252, and the result revealed that emodin could damage the integrity of cell wall, leading to loss of intracellular components. In summary, our results showed ET-RPC could significantly inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains. Emodin was identified as the major compound with anti-MRSA activity; this activity was related to destruction of the integrity of the cell wall and cell membrane.

  15. Functional components of bamboo shavings and bamboo leaf extracts and their antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jinyan; Xia, Daozong; Huang, Jun; Ge, Qing; Mao, Jianwei; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to detect characteristic compounds and evaluate the free radical scavenging capacity of the bamboo leaves extract and bamboo shavings extract (BSE). The antioxidant capacity of bamboo leaf n-butanol fraction (AOB) exhibited the highest total phenolic content (49.93%), total flavonoids content (24.11%), and characteristic flavonoids and phenolic acids, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, orientin, homoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. Available data obtained with in vitro models suggested that AOB had higher free radical scavenging capacity with IC(50) values of 1.04, 4.48, 5.37, and 1.12 μg/mL on DPPH(•), O(2)(•-), (•)OH, and H(2)O(2), respectively, than the other two extracts, bamboo leaf water extract and BSE. The results indicated that the extracts from different parts of the bamboo possess excellent antioxidant activity, which can be used potentially as a readily accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Improving Anticancer Activities of Oplopanax horridus Root Bark Extract by Removing Water-soluble Components

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Williams, Stainley; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    Oplopanax horridus is used as a folk medicine by natives in the Northern Pacific coast of North America. This experiment studied the anti-proliferative effects of the extract of O. horridus root bark and its fractions chromatographed from Dianion HP20 resin column with water, 30, 50, 70 and 100% ethanol on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. The role of O. horridus in the cell cycle and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was also investigated. The results showed that the 70% and 100% ethanol fractions demonstrated more potent anti-proliferative effects than the total extract on both cell lines. The anti-proliferative effects may result from the enrichment of active constituents detected by the HPLC. The IC50 of the total extract, 50, 70, and 100% ethanol fractions for anti-proliferation on MCF-7 cells were 248.4, 123.1, 44.0, and 31.5 μg/mL, respectively, and on NSCLC cells were 125.3, 271.1, 17.6, and 23.2 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the water and 30% ethanol fractions significantly promoted cell proliferation on MCF-7 cells at concentrations > 100 μg/mL, suggesting that the hydrophilic fractions should be removed from the extract when used for cancer chemoprevention in order to achieve desirable activities. The effects of the total extract on cell cycle and apoptosis were similar to that of the 100% ethanol fraction because of the similarity of their chemical composition. At higher concentrations, the apoptotic effects of the 70% ethanol fraction are more significant. Data from this study suggested that the 70% and 100% ethanol fractions are active anti-proliferative fractions and that induction of apoptosis is the mechanism involved in the anti-proliferative effect observed. PMID:20077432

  17. Profile of volatile components of hydrodistilled and extracted leaves of Jacaranda acutifolia and their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Mostafa, Nada M; Eldahshan, Omayma A; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Volatile constituents of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of Jacaranda acutifolia Humb. and Bonpl. (Bignoniaceae) leaves were determined, and their antimicrobial activities were investigated using an agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined and compared with those of standard antibiotics (penicillin, gentamicin and nystatin). The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GLC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). Thirty-four components, comprising almost 93.8% of the total peak area, were identified in the leaf essential oil. The main components were methyl linolenate (26.7%), 1-octen-3-ol (10.8%), methyl phenyl acetate (9.9%), beta-linalool (5.5%) and palmitic acid (4.7%). The n-hexane extract revealed similar oil constituents, but also p-benzoquinone, phenyl acetic acid, resorcinol and homogentisic acid. The oil showed some activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC values of 2.2 and 2.9 mg/mL, respectively, and moderate activity against Candida albicans, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. The n-hexane extract showed moderate activities against all tested microorganisms, with MIC values ranging from 3.5 to 10.2 mg/mL. The antimicrobial activities of the hydrodistilled and extracted leaves make their local traditional uses rational.

  18. Embryonal cell surface recognition. Extraction of an active plasma membrane component.

    PubMed

    Merrell, R; Gottlieb, D I; Glaser, L

    1975-07-25

    Plasma membranes obtained from different neural regions of the chicken embryo have previously been shown to specifically bind to homotypic cells and prevent cell aggregation (Merrell, R., and Glaser, L. (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70, 2794-2798). Proteins responsible for the specific inhibition of cell aggregation have been solubilized from the plasma membrane of neural retina and optic tectum by delipidation with acetone followed by extraction with lithium diiodosalicylate. The extracts show the same regional and temporal specificity as previously shown for plasma membrane recognition by the same cells (Gottlieb, D. I., Merrell, R., and Glaser, L. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 71, 1800-1802). Two micrograms of the most purified protein fraction inhibits the aggregation of 2.5 times 10(-4) cells under standard assay conditions. This represents a 20-fold increase in specific activity compared to whole membranes.

  19. Antioxidant and genoprotective activity of selected cucurbitaceae seed extracts and LC-ESIMS/MS identification of phenolic components.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard

    2016-05-15

    Cucurbitaceae are one of most widely used plant species for human food but lesser known members have not been examined for bioactive components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and genoprotective activities from three cucurbitaceae seeds extracts and to identify phenolic components by LC-ESIMS/MS analysis. From the results, the yield of seeds extract was 20-41% (w/w) and samples had 16-40% total phenols as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Compared with methanol solvent, using acidified methanol led to increased extraction yield by 1.4 to 10-fold, higher phenolic content (149.5 ± 1.2 to 396.4 ± 1.9 mg GAE/g), higher DPPH radical quenching and enhanced genoprotective activity using the pBR322 plasmid assay. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis led to identification of 14-17 components, based on authentic standards and comparison with literature reports, as mainly phenolic acids and esters, flavonol glycosides. This may be the first mass spectrometric profiling of polyphenol components from cucurbitaceae seeds.

  20. Brefeldin A is an estrogenic, Erk1/2-activating component in the extract of Agaricus blazei mycelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sijun; Furutani, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Sadao; Zhu, Yun; Kawabata, Kazutaka; Furutani, Michiko; Nishikawa, Toshio; Tanaka, Takeshi; Masaki, Tomoh; Matsuoka, Rumiko; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2013-01-09

    We purified an Erk1/2-activating component in Agaricus blazei and identified it as brefeldin A (BFA). The extract of A. blazei mycelia (ABE) previously showed an estrogenic gene-expression profile and positive effects in patients with cardiovascular symptoms. Here, we demonstrate that BFA has estrogenic activity in reporter gene assays and stimulates an estrogen-receptor pathway revealed by activation of Erk1/2, although BFA had no growth-stimulating activity in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The presence of estrogenic activity without any explicit growth-stimulating effect is unique to BFA, and such components are termed here "silent estrogens". To test this hypothesis, we examined the target-gene transcription and signaling pathways induced by BFA. Furthermore, BFA was found in the mycelium but not fruiting body of A. blazei, suggesting the potential use of ABE for therapeutics and its supplementary use in traditional medicines and functional foods.

  1. Activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-staphylococcal components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Manubolu, Manjunath; Goodla, Lavanya; Ravilla, Sivajyothi; Obulum, Vijayasarathi Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-Staphylococcus aures components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. (S. tenuifolius). Methods Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of S. tenuifolius were prepared by soxilation for antimicrobial activity against one registered Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC No: 25923) and two clinical isolates, methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus. NCCL standard methods were followed for antibacterial activity. GC-MS was performed to identify the chemical composition of bio active fraction. Results Among all solvent extracts, methanol extract significantly reduced the growth of S. aureus (ATCC No: 25923), methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus with the best zone of inhibition at 16.23, 14.06 and 15.23 mm and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values at 426.16, 683.22 and 512.12 µg/mL, respectively. In order to detect the active component in methanol extract, it was further purified by column chromatography, which yielded four fractions (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Among these four fractions, St3 was effective against the tested strains of S. aures, with the best zone of inhibition at 15.09, 13.25 and 14.12 mm and with best MIC values at 88.16, 128.11 and 116.12 µg/mL, respectively. Effective fraction partially purified from S. tenuifolius (St3) yielded MIC's that were at least 20 fold less when compared to crude extract. GC-MS analysis of St3 revealed the presence of 3-[methyl-6,7-dihydro benzofuran-4 (5H)-one], 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, hydroquinone, methyl ester and 3 unknown compounds. Conclusions The study provides scientific evidence for traditional and folklore medicinal use of S. tenuifolius in skin infections treatment. PMID:23620836

  2. Digestibility and Bioavailability of the Active Components of Erica australis L. Aqueous Extracts and Their Therapeutic Potential as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Pilar; Falé, Pedro L.; Martins, Alice; Rauter, Amélia P.

    2015-01-01

    Erica australis L. (Ericaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat many free-radical related ailments. In the present work, the stability and biological activity of the plant aqueous extracts submitted to an in vitro digestive process were investigated. Chemical stability was monitored by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS, while the bioactivities were evaluated through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Both extracts, whose main components were flavonol glycosides, inhibited AChE, showing IC50 values of 257.9 ± 6.2 µg/mL and 296.8 ± 8.8 µg/mL for the decoction and for the infusion, respectively. Significant radical scavenging activities were also revealed by both extracts, as denoted by the IC50 values for the decoction, 6.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL, and for the infusion, 10.5 ± 0.3 µg/mL. After submission to gastric and pancreatic juices, no remarkable alterations in the composition or in the bioactivities were observed, suggesting that the extracts may pass through the gastrointestinal tract, keeping their composition and therefore their biological properties. Moreover, the bioavailability of the components of both extracts, as studied in a Caco-2 cell model, showed that compounds can permeate the membrane, which is a condition to exert their biological activities. Our results add further support to the potential of E. australis for its antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. PMID:26347794

  3. Effects of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds and its main components on human neutrophil elastase activity.

    PubMed

    Kacem, Rachid; Meraihi, Zahia

    2006-04-01

    The effects of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds and its main components on human neutrophil elastase (HNE) activity were investigated. Essential oil was extracted from N. sativa (L.) seeds using hydrodistillation. The yield was equal to 0.4%. Inhibition of HNE activity by essential oil was found to be dose dependent. The highest inhibitory concentration (HIC) of essential oil which caused total inhibition of HNE activity was 5.8 mg/ml. Microassays carried out to evaluate the inhibitory effect of major components of essential oil on HNE activity revealed that carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) showed marked HNE inhibitory activity with a very low IC(50) value (12 microM). Based on these results, the inhibitory effects of essential oil on HNE activity are due to the presence of bioactive molecules, mainly carvacrol this compound is an inhibitor of HNE and could be considered as a natural antielastase agent and possible candidate for phytotherapy in the treatment of injuries that appear in some pathologic cases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema.

  4. Inhibitory effects of seven components of danshen extract on catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Furong; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Jianguo; Jiye, A; Hao, Haiping; Peng, Ying; Ai, Hua; Wang, Guangji

    2008-07-01

    The potential for herb-drug interactions has recently received greater attention worldwide, considering the fact that the use of herbal products becomes more and more widespread. The goal of this work was to examine the potential for the metabolism-based drug interaction arising from seven active components (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, salvianolic acid B, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone) of danshen extract. Probe substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes were incubated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) with or without each component of danshen extract. IC(50) and K(i) values were estimated, and the types of inhibition were determined. Among the seven components of danshen extract, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone were potent competitive inhibitors of CYP1A2 (K(i) = 0.48, 1.0, and 0.45 microM, respectively); danshensu was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C9 (K(i) = 35 microM), and cryptotanshinone was a moderate mixed-type inhibitor of CYP2C9 (K(i) = 8 microM); cryptotanshinone inhibited weakly and in mixed mode against CYP2D6 activity (K(i) = 68 microM), and tanshinone I was a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 (IC(50) = 120 microM); and protocatechuic aldehyde was a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 130 and 160 microM for midazolam and testosterone, respectively). These findings provided some useful information for safe and effective use of danshen preparations in clinical practice. Our data indicated that it was necessary to study the in vivo interactions between drugs and pharmaceuticals with danshen extract.

  5. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p < 0.0001) and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.701, p < 0.0001) correlated significantly with macrophage activation in the whole mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p < 0.0001) were also observed between different tissues of Agaricus bisporus. Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium were the most prevalent genera identified in the different tissue parts and these taxa were significantly correlated with in vitro macrophage activation (ρ = 0.697, p < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.659, p = 0.0001, respectively). These results indicate that components derived from mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  6. Macrophage biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhao-Guang; Duan, Ting-Ting; He, Bao; Tang, Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Ru-Shang; Zhu, Jia-Xiao; Xu, You-Hua; Zhu, Quan; Feng, Liang

    2013-04-15

    A cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell insert Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays, has been developed as a tool for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR). In this research, components in the water extract of SGR (ESGR) might conjugate with the receptors or other targets on macrophages which invaded Transwell inserts, and then the eluate which contained components biospecific binding to macrophages was identified by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Six compounds, which could interact with macrophages, were detected and identified. Among these compounds, taxifolin (2) and astilbin (4) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of standards, while the four others including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1), neoastilbin (3), neoisoastilbin (5) and isoastilbin (6), were elucidated by their structure clearage characterizations of tandem mass spectrometry. Then compound 1 was isolated and purified from SGR, along with 2 and 4, was applied to the macrophage migration and adhesion assay in HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) -macrophages co-incultured Transwell system for immunological activity assessment. The results showed that compounds 1, 2 and 4 with concentration of 5μM (H), 500nM (M) and 50nM (L) could remarkably inhibit the macrophage migration and adhesion (Vs AGEs (Advanced Glycation End Produces) group, 1-L, 2-H and 4-L groups: p<0.05; other groups: p<0.01). Moreover, 1 and 4 showed satisfactory dose-effect relationship. In conclusion, the application of macrophage biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method for screening immunological active components from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  7. Carnosic acid as a component of rosemary extract stimulates skeletal muscle cell glucose uptake via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Madina; Vlavcheski, Filip; Murphy, Brennan; Hudlicky, Tomas; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Compounds that increase the activity of the energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) have the potential to regulate blood glucose levels. Although rosemary extract (RE) has been reported to activate AMPK and reduce blood glucose levels in vivo, the chemical components responsible for these effects are not known. In the present study, we measured the levels of the polyphenol carnosic acid (CA) in RE and examined the effects and the mechanism of action of CA on glucose transport system in muscle cells. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the levels of CA in RE. Parental and GLUT4myc or GLUT1myc overexpressing L6 rat myotubes were used. Glucose uptake was assessed using [(3) H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose. Total and phosphorylated levels of Akt and AMPK were measured by immunoblotting. Plasma membrane GLUT4myc and GLUT1myc levels were examined using a GLUT translocation assay. Statistics included analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. At concentrations found in rosemary extract, CA stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. At 2.0 μmol/L CA a response (226 ± 9.62% of control, P=.001), similar to maximum insulin (201 ± 7.86% of control, P=.001) and metformin (213 ± 10.74% of control, P=.001) was seen. Akt phosphorylation was not affected by CA while AMPK and ACC phosphorylation was increased and the CA-stimulated glucose uptake was significantly reduced by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Plasma membrane GLUT4 or GLUT1 glucose transporter levels were not affected by CA. Our study shows increased muscle cell glucose uptake and AMPK activation by low CA concentrations, found in rosemary extract, indicating that CA may be responsible for the antihyperglycemic properties of rosemary extract seen in vivo.

  8. Estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of a Epimedium koreanum extract and its major components: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ku; Choi, Yun-Ho; Kwon, Hyosuk; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Chung Ki; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi-Sook

    2012-08-01

    The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of Epimedii Herba, which is a traditional medicinal herb used in Korea and China were investigated in this study. The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) mediated estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of an Epimedii Herba extract (Epi ext) and its major components were determined using an estrogen responsive element driven reporter gene assay in MCF-7/ERE and HEK293T cells. The Epi ext exhibited ERα- and ERβ-mediated estrogenic activity with an EC(50) of 5.0 and 17.8 μM in HEK293T cells, respectively. Prenylflavonoid glycosides such as icariin (ICA), epimedin A, B, and C did not show any in vitro estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities. Icaritin (ICT) and quercetin exhibited in vitro ER mediated estrogenic activity with a more potent interaction with ERβ. In vivo estrogenic activities of the Epi ext, ICA and ICT were compared using an uterotrophic assay. Although the potency of in vitro estrogenic activity was in the order of ICT>Epi ext>ICA, ICA had the strongest estrogenic activity and next ICT in ovariectomized rats. These results collectively suggest that phytoestrogens possess both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity, and that the differential expression of these two compounds with opposing activities is dependent on the physiological environment in terms of estrogen level, which may be the case in humans.

  9. Antimicrobial activity and determination of bioactive components from marine Alcaligenes faecalis extract against a sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdSharad, Ali; Usup, Gires; Sahrani, Fathul Karim; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-11-01

    Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in petroleum reservoir. The serious threat normally comes from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Alcaligenes faecalis was tested in this study for the ability to inhibit the growth of SRB. Ethyl acetate extraction of A. faecalis grown in marine broth was carried out to produce crude ethyl acetate of A. faecalis (CEAF). CEAF was diluted at concentrations 0.2-12.8 mg/mL and was tested for anti-microbial activity by microdilution susceptibility tests in 96-wells plate. CEAF was then analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The microdilution susceptibility tests showed that the crude have anti- microbial activities on SRB. CEAF showed immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium which suggest the presence of active chemical compounds with antimicrobial activity. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 20 different chemical compounds in CEAF, The major components in CEAF can be related to antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, pesticide, metabolism, toxicity, anticancer and corrosion inhibition activities. In conclusion, crude ethyl acetate extract of A. faecalis has the ability to inhibit SRB growth.

  10. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    PubMed

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  11. Identification of Ellagic Acid Rhamnoside as a Bioactive Component of a Complex Botanical Extract with Anti-biofilm Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Benjamin M.; Nelson, Kate; Lyles, James T.; Jariwala, Parth B.; García-Rodriguez, Jennifer M.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Weinert, Emily E.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. It is listed among the top “serious threats” to human health in the USA, due in large part to rising rates of resistance. Many S. aureus infections are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy due to their ability to form a biofilm, which acts not only as a physical barrier to antibiotics and the immune system, but results in differences in metabolism that further restricts antibiotic efficacy. Development of a modular strategy to synthesize a library of phenolic glycosides allowed for bioactivity testing and identification of anti-biofilm compounds within an extract of the elmleaf blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius). Two ellagic acid (EA) derivatives, EA xyloside and EA rhamnoside, have been identified as components of the Rubus extract. In addition, EA rhamnoside has been identified as an inhibitor of biofilm formation, with activity comparable to the complex extract 220D-F2 (composed of a mixture of EA glycosides), and confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses. PMID:28386254

  12. Antiangiogenic Activity of Glycyrrhiza Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Qiu

    The bioactivity of extract of glycyrrhiza was detected by zebrafish antiangiogenic model after 70% ethanol extract of glycyrrhiza was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol. The inhibition of the extracts in antiangiogenic activity showed that the highest active components existed in ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza. The ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza was separated by polyamide column chromatography to obtain 7 fractions (Fr1-Fr7), which Fr5 and Fr6 showed antiangiogenic activity.

  13. Anti-angiogenic activity of gecko aqueous extracts and its macromolecular components in CAM and HUVE-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen; Huang, Shu-Qiong; Liu, Jian-Ting; Jiang, Gui-Xiang; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Gecko is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine with remarkable antineoplastic activity. However, undefined mechanisms and ambiguity regarding active ingredients limit new drug development from gecko. This study was conducted to assess anti-angiogenic properties of the aqueous extracts of fresh gecko (AG) or macromolecular components separated from AG (M-AG). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach was applied to detect the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion of the tumor cells treated with AG or M-AG. The effect of AG or M-AG on vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migratory ability was analyzed by tetrazolium dye colorimetric method, transwell and wound-healing assays. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays were used to ensure the anti-angiogenic activity of M-AG in vivo. The results showed that AG or M-AG inhibited the VEGF secretion of tumor cells, the relative inhibition rates of AG and M-AG being 27.2% and 53.2% respectively at a concentration of 20 μL/mL. AG and M-AG inhibited the vascular endothelial (VE) cell proliferation with IC50 values of 11.5 ± 0.5 μL/mL and 12.9 ± 0.4 μL/mL respectively. The VE cell migration potential was inhibited significantly (p<0.01) by the AG (≥ 24 μL/mL) or M-AG (≥ 12 μL/ mL) treatment. In vivo, neovascularization of CAM treated with M-AG was inhibited significantly (p<0.05) at a concentration of 0.4 μL/mL. This study provided evidence that anti-angiogenesis is one of the anti-tumor mechanisms of AG and M-AG, with the latter as a promising active component.

  14. Identification of volatile components of liverwort (Porella cordaeana) extracts using GC/MS-SPME and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Veljic, Milan; Marin, Petar D; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-06-06

    Chemical constituents of liverwort (Porella cordaeana) extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%), respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10%) and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635, Zygosacharomyces bailii 45, Aerobasidium pullulans L6F, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70, Pichia anomala CBS 5759, Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003 and Yarrowia lipolytica RO13), and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains (Salmonella enteritidis 155, Escherichia coli 555 and Listeria monocytogenes 56Ly). Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.

  15. Sedative effects of vapor inhalation of agarwood oil and spikenard extract and identification of their active components.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroaki; Ito, Michiho; Shiraki, Tomohiro; Yagura, Toru; Honda, Gisho

    2008-01-01

    Agarwood oil and spikenard extract were examined for their sedative activity using a spontaneous vapor administration system. It was shown that inhalation of agarwood oil vapor sedated mice. The main volatile constituents of the oil were found to be benzylacetone [agarwood oil from a Hong Kong market (1)], or alpha-gurjunene and (+)-calarene [agarwood oil made in Vietnam (2)]. A hexane extract of spikenard contained a lot of calarene, and its vapor inhalation had a sedative effect on mice. Individual principles benzylacetone, calarene, and alpha-gurjunene were administered to mice, which reproduced the result of the corresponding oil or extract. However, the most effective dose of the compounds was lower than their original content in the oil and extract (benzylacetone 0.1%, calarene 0.17%, alpha-gurjunene 1.5%).

  16. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  17. HepG2 cells biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis for screening potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqiang; Tan, Zhibin; Li, Pingting; Gao, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yuaner; Wang, Shuling

    2016-03-20

    HepG2 cells biospecific extraction method and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis was proposed for screening of potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The hypothesis suggested that when cells are incubated together with the extracts of TCM, the potential bioactive components in the TCM should selectively combine with the receptor or channel of HepG2 cells, then the eluate which contained biospecific component binding to HepG2 cells was identified using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The potential bioactive components of Bupeuri radix were investigated using the proposed approach. Five compounds in the saikosaponins of Bupeuri radix were detected as these components selectively combined with HepG2 cells, among these compounds, two potentially bioactive compounds namely saikosaponin b1 and saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of the standard sample and analysis of the structural clearance characterization of MS. Then SSb2 was used to assess the uptake of DiI-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells for antiatherosclerotic activity. The results have showed that SSb2, with indicated concentrations (5, 15, 25, and 40 μM) could remarkably uptake dioctadecylindocarbocyanine labeled- (DiI) -HDL in HepG2 cells (Vs control group, *P<0.01). In conclusion, the application of HepG2 biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS analysis is a rapid, convenient, and reliable method for screening potential bioactive components in TCM and SSb2 may be a valuable novel drug agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  18. In Vitro Screening for Antihepatic Steatosis Active Components within Coptidis Rhizoma Alkaloids Extract Using Liver Cell Extraction with HPLC Analysis and a Free Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Steatosis HepG2 Cell Assay.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Bei, Wei-Jian; Wang, Lai-You; Chen, Bao-Tian; Guo, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput method was developed and applied to screen for the active antihepatic steatosis components within Coptidis Rhizoma Alkaloids Extract (CAE). This method was a combination of two previously described assays: HepG2 cell extraction with HPLC analysis and a free fatty acid-induced (FFA) hepatic steatosis HepG2 cell assay. Two alkaloids within CAE, berberine and coptisine, were identified by HepG2 cell extraction with HPLC analysis as high affinity components for HepG2. These alkaloids were also determined to be active and potent compounds capable of lowering triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the FFA-induced hepatic steatosis HepG2 cell assay. This remarkable inhibition of TG accumulation (P < 0.01) by berberine and coptisine occurred at concentrations of 0.2  μ g/mL and 5.0 μ g/mL, respectively. At these concentrations, the effect seen was similar to that of a CAE at 100.0  μ g/mL. Another five alkaloids within CAE, palmatine, epiberberine, jateorhizine, columbamine, and magnoline, were found to have a lower affinity for cellular components from HepG2 cells and a lower inhibition of TG accumulation. The finding of two potent and active compounds within CAE indicates that the screening method we developed is a feasible, rapid, and useful tool for studying traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) in treating hepatic steatosis.

  19. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128).

  20. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Major Active Ingredients and Toxic Components in GinkgoBiloba Leaves Extract (EGb 761) by a Validated UPLC-MS-MS Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Qi; Yao, Xin; Cheng, Zongqi

    2017-01-08

    An accurate, precise and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonoids, terpene lactones, together with ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb 761). This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of major active ingredients and toxic components in EGb 761 using UPLC-MS-MS. This analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. In addition, the content of those major bioactive components in EGb 761 prepared by different manufacturers of China was determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results indicated that the quantification analysis could be readily utilized as a quality control method for EGb 761 and its other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones and ginkgolic acids as markers.

  1. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present withi...

  2. Tiliroside, the major component of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb ethanol extract, inhibits MAPK/JNK/p38-mediated inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    JIN, XIN; SONG, SHIQING; WANG, JING; ZHANG, QINGZHEN; QIU, FENG; ZHAO, FENG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) ethanol extract was confirmed in experimental animal models, including xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside, the major component of AP extract, was isolated and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of tiliroside was then examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. An MTT assay was used to determine cytotoxicity and a Griess assay was used to determine nitric oxide (NO) production. Concentration levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated (p)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p-p38 and inhibitor of κB-α were detected by western blot analysis. AP ethanol extract was revealed to inhibit xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside significantly suppressed the overproduction of NO (P<0.01), but revealed no notable inhibition of the release of TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, tiliroside significantly downregulated the elevated expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 induced by LPS (P<0.01). The phosphorylation of JNK and p38 proteins were also significantly inhibited (P<0.01), however, tiliroside exhibited no obvious inhibition on the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and the degradation of IκB-α protein. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of tiliroside may involve the downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression levels, and the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/JNK, in addition to the MAPK/p38 signaling pathway. PMID:27347085

  3. Brown Pine Leaf Extract and Its Active Component Trans-Communic Acid Inhibit UVB-Induced MMP-1 Expression by Targeting PI3K.

    PubMed

    Huh, Won Bum; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Gyu; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Song, Da Som; Jeong, Eun Hee; Lee, Charles C; Son, Joe Eun; Seo, Sang Gwon; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Lee, Chang Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is widely present in China, Japan, and Korea. Its green pine leaves have traditionally been used as a food as well as a coloring agent. After being shed, pine leaves change their color from green to brown within two years, and although the brown pine leaves are abundantly available, their value has not been closely assessed. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-photoaging properties of brown pine leaves for skin. Brown pine leaf extract (BPLE) inhibited UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression to a greater extent than pine leaf extract (PLE) in human keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent model. HPLC analysis revealed that the quantity of trans-communic acid (TCA) and dehydroabietic acid (DAA) significantly increases when the pine leaf color changes from green to brown. BPLE and TCA elicited reductions in UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation by reducing DNA binding activity of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and Fra-1. BPLE and TCA also inhibited UVB-induced Akt phosphorylation, but not mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), known regulators of AP-1 transactivation. We additionally found that BPLE and TCA inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the upstream kinase of Akt, in vitro. In summary, both BPLE and its active component TCA exhibit protective effects against UVB-induced skin aging. Taken together, these findings underline the potential for BPLE and TCA to be utilized as anti-wrinkling agents and cosmetic ingredients, as they suppress UVB-induced MMP-1 expression.

  4. Brown Pine Leaf Extract and Its Active Component Trans-Communic Acid Inhibit UVB-Induced MMP-1 Expression by Targeting PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Song, Da Som; Jeong, Eun Hee; Lee, Charles C.; Son, Joe Eun; Seo, Sang Gwon; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Lee, Chang Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is widely present in China, Japan, and Korea. Its green pine leaves have traditionally been used as a food as well as a coloring agent. After being shed, pine leaves change their color from green to brown within two years, and although the brown pine leaves are abundantly available, their value has not been closely assessed. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-photoaging properties of brown pine leaves for skin. Brown pine leaf extract (BPLE) inhibited UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression to a greater extent than pine leaf extract (PLE) in human keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent model. HPLC analysis revealed that the quantity of trans-communic acid (TCA) and dehydroabietic acid (DAA) significantly increases when the pine leaf color changes from green to brown. BPLE and TCA elicited reductions in UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation by reducing DNA binding activity of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and Fra-1. BPLE and TCA also inhibited UVB-induced Akt phosphorylation, but not mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), known regulators of AP-1 transactivation. We additionally found that BPLE and TCA inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the upstream kinase of Akt, in vitro. In summary, both BPLE and its active component TCA exhibit protective effects against UVB-induced skin aging. Taken together, these findings underline the potential for BPLE and TCA to be utilized as anti-wrinkling agents and cosmetic ingredients, as they suppress UVB-induced MMP-1 expression. PMID:26066652

  5. High molecular weight components containing N-linked oligosaccharides of Ascaris suum extract inhibit the dendritic cells activation through DC-SIGN and MR.

    PubMed

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Casabuono, Adriana A C; Portes-Junior, José A; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Couto, Alicia S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2017-04-09

    Helminths, as well as their secretory/excretory products, induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment. High molecular weight components (PI) from Ascaris suum extract down-modulate the immune response against ovalbumin (OVA). The PI exerts direct effect on dendritic cells (DCs) independent of TLR 2, 4 and MyD88 molecule and, thus, decreases the T lymphocytes response. Here, we studied the glycoconjugates in PI and the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), DC-SIGN and MR, in the modulation of DCs activity. Our data showed the presence of glycoconjugates with high mannose- and complex-type N-linked oligosaccharide chains and phosphorylcholine residues on PI. In addition, these N-linked glycoconjugates inhibited the DCs maturation induced by LPS. The binding and internalization of PI-Alexa were decreased on DCs previously incubated with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies. In agreement with this, the incubation of DCs with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies abolished the down-modulatory effect of PI on these cells. It was also observed that the blockage of CLRs, DC-SIGN and MR on DCs reverted the inhibitory effect of PI in in vitro T cells proliferation. Therefore, our data show the involvement of DC-SIGN and MR in the recognition and consequent modulatory effect of N-glycosylated components of PI on DCs.

  6. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  7. Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extracts as well as of Pure Components from Jatropha Species, Plants Used Extensively in African Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plant extracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects. PMID:21754941

  8. Walnut extract (Juglans regia L.) and its component ellagic acid exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human aorta endothelial cells and osteoblastic activity in the cell line KS483.

    PubMed

    Papoutsi, Z; Kassi, E; Chinou, I; Halabalaki, M; Skaltsounis, L A; Moutsatsou, P

    2008-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of CVD and postmenopausal osteoporosis is low in the Mediterranean area, where herbs and nuts, among others, play an important role in nutrition. In the present study, we sought a role of walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in endothelial and bone-cell function. As the endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules has been recognised as an early step in inflammation and atherogenesis, we examined the effect of walnut methanolic extract and ellagic acid, one of its major polyphenolic components (as shown by HPLC analysis), on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in human aortic endothelial cells. After incubating the cells with TNF-alpha (1 ng/ml) in the absence and in the presence of walnut extract (10-200 microg/ml) or ellagic acid (10- 7-10- 5 m), the VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression was quantified by cell-ELISA. We further evaluated the effect of walnut extract (10-50 microg/ml), in comparison with ellagic acid (10- 9-10- 6m), on nodule formation in the osteoblastic cell line KS483. Walnut extract and ellagic acid decreased significantly the TNF-alpha-induced endothelial expression of both VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Both walnut extract (at 10-25 microg/ml) and ellagic acid (at 10- 9-10- 8 m) induced nodule formation in KS483 osteoblasts. The present results suggest that the walnut extract has a high anti-atherogenic potential and a remarkable osteoblastic activity, an effect mediated, at least in part, by its major component ellagic acid. Such findings implicate the beneficial effect of a walnut-enriched diet on cardioprotection and bone loss.

  9. Anti-platelet effects of yuzu extract and its component.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hye Yon; Park, Se Won; Chung, Ill Min; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the methanolic extract of yuzu (yuzu ME) and its components hesperidin and naringin, have anti-platelet activities. Yuzu ME and hesperidin inhibited collagen-, arachidonic acid (AA)-, ADP- and thrombin-induced rat platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. Naringin also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, AA, or thrombin, but not aggregation induced by ADP. The oral administration of yuzu ME or hesperidin prolonged mouse tail vein bleeding time in a dose-dependent manner in vivo. These results suggest that yuzu ME and hesperidin have anti-platelet activity, and that intake of yuzu, which includes various flavonoids such as hesperidin, may be beneficial for individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) extract and its component, piceatannol, enhance the activity of DNA polymerase and suppress the inflammatory response elicited by UVB‑induced DNA damage in skin cells.

    PubMed

    Shiratake, Sawako; Nakahara, Tatsuo; Iwahashi, Hiroyasu; Onodera, Takefumi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    A number of naturally occurring agents are hypothesized to protect against ultraviolet (UV)‑induced skin damage. The present study screened >50 plant extracts for inhibitors of UVB‑induced cytotoxicity, using cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), and identified that the fruit of rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) was the most marked inhibitor of cell death. The protective effect of rose myrtle extract and the two key components, piceatannol and piceatannol‑4'‑O‑β‑D‑glucopyranoside, on UVB‑induced damage and inflammation in cultured NHEK was investigated. The 80% ethanol extract from rose myrtle fruit with piceatannol exhibited protection of UVB‑induced cytotoxicity in NHEK; however, piceatannol‑4'‑O‑β‑D‑glucopyranoside exhibited no protection, as determined by a 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. This extract and piceatannol reduced the production of UVB‑induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and enhanced the cellular enzyme activity of the DNA polymerases in UVB‑irradiated NHEK, suggesting that UVB‑stimulated DNA damage was repaired by the polymerases. In addition, the secretion of prostaglandin E2, which is an inflammatory mediator, was decreased. These results indicated that rose myrtle fruit extract and its key constituent, piceatannol, are potential photoprotective candidates for UV‑induced skin damage.

  11. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  12. Towards automated support for extraction of reusable components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abd-El-hafiz, S. K.; Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi

    1992-01-01

    A cost effective introduction of software reuse techniques requires the reuse of existing software developed in many cases without aiming at reusability. This paper discusses the problems related to the analysis and reengineering of existing software in order to reuse it. We introduce a process model for component extraction and focus on the problem of analyzing and qualifying software components which are candidates for reuse. A prototype tool for supporting the extraction of reusable components is presented. One of the components of this tool aids in understanding programs and is based on the functional model of correctness. It can assist software engineers in the process of finding correct formal specifications for programs. A detailed description of this component and an example to demonstrate a possible operational scenario are given.

  13. Compound fault diagnosis of gearboxes based on GFT component extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lu; Yu, Dejie

    2016-11-01

    Compound fault diagnosis of gearboxes is of great importance to the long-term safe operation of rotating machines, and the key is to separate different fault components. In this paper, the path graph is introduced into the vibration signal analysis and the graph Fourier transform (GFT) of vibration signals are investigated from the graph spectrum domain. To better extract the fault components in gearboxes, a new adjacency weight matrix is defined and then the GFT of simulation signals of the gear and the bearing with localized faults are analyzed. Further, since the GFT graph spectrum of the gear fault component and the bearing fault component are mainly distributed in the low-order region and the high-order region, respectively, a novel method for the compound fault diagnosis of gearboxes based on GFT component extraction is proposed. In this method, the nonzero ratios, which are introduced to analyze the eigenvectors auxiliary, and the GFT of a gearbox vibration signal, are firstly calculated. Then, the order thresholds for reconstructed fault components are determined and the fault components are extracted. Finally, the Hilbert demodulation analyses are conducted. According to the envelope spectra of the fault components, the faults of the gear and the bearing can be diagnosed respectively. The performance of the proposed method is validated by the simulation data and the experiment signals from a gearbox with compound faults.

  14. Antiviral activities of coffee extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Uozaki, Misao; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime

    2008-06-01

    Both hot water extracts of coffee grinds and instant coffee solutions inhibited the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1, a representative enveloped DNA virus, when they were added to the culture medium of the virus-infected cells at a dose of one fifth the concentration suitable for drinking. The antiherpetic activity was independent of the suppliers (companies) of the coffee grinds and of the locations where the coffee beans were produced. Further characterization revealed that there are two different mechanisms, by which the coffee extracts exert inhibitory activities on the virus infection; (1) a direct inactivation of the infectivity of virus particle (i.e., a virucidal activity) and (2) the inhibition of progeny infectious virus formation at the late stage of viral multiplication in the infected cells. Caffeine, but not quinic acid and chlorogenic acid, inhibited the virus multiplication to some extent, but none of them showed the virucidal activity, suggesting that other component(s) in the coffee extracts must play a role in the observed antiviral activity. In addition, the coffee extracts inhibited the multiplication of poliovirus, a non-enveloped RNA virus, but showed no virucidal effect on this virus.

  15. GC-MS analysis of bioactive components and synthesis of gold nanoparticle using Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract and its larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Deepak, Paramasivam; Arul, Dhayalan; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-07-01

    A rapid bio-reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) was achieved by Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract (CSLE), which resulted in the formation of well dispersed C. swietenia gold nanoparticles (CSGNPs). The formation of GNPs was confirmed by color changes from yellowish green to purple and their characteristic peak at 545 nm. The characterization of synthesized CSGNPs was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) followed by size and zeta potential analyses. The GC-MS profile of C. swietenia methanolic leaf extract (CSMLE) resulted 20 phytocomponents, among those heptacosanoic acid, 25-methyl-, methyl ester (C29H58O2) attributes highest peak area. The efficiency of the synthesized CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were tested against fourth instar larvae of malarial and dengue vector, which resulted more substantial upshot than with leaf extract treated. The Lethal concentration (LC50) values of CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were found to be 0.509, 0.340, 0.423 ppm and 0.602, 0.188, 0.646 ppm on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, respectively. The findings form an important baseline information proceeding biologically innocuous biopesticide for controlling the malarial and dengue vectors.

  16. Brain extraction using geodesic active contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Albert; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Tam, Roger; Traboulsee, Anthony

    2006-03-01

    Extracting the brain cortex from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head scans is an essential preprocessing step of which the accuracy greatly affects subsequent image analysis. The currently popular Brain Extraction Tool (BET) produces a brain mask which may be too smooth for practical use. This paper presents a novel brain extraction tool based on three-dimensional geodesic active contours, connected component analysis and mathematical morphology. Based on user-specified intensity and contrast levels, the proposed algorithm allows an active contour to evolve naturally and extract the brain cortex. Experiments on synthetic MRI data and scanned coronal and axial MRI image volumes indicate successful extraction of tight perimeters surrounding the brain cortex. Quantitative evaluations on both synthetic phantoms and manually labeled data resulted in better accuracy than BET in terms of true and false voxel assignment. Based on these results, we illustrate that our brain extraction tool is a robust and accurate approach for the challenging task of automatically extracting the brain cortex in MRI data.

  17. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  18. Characterization of active phenolic components in the ethanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Xiao, Sheng-yuan; Li, Zhen-guo; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-jun

    2007-09-21

    HPLC-DAD-MS was utilized to investigate the phytochemical constituents in ethanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves (EEACL) responsible for antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative effects. Eight phenylpropane diglycerides, together with two hydroxycinnamic acids, three hydroxycinnamoyl quinic acids, four phenylpropane monoglycerides, three flavones and six phenylpropanoid glycosides were detected, and their proposed structures were elucidated based on HPLC retention time, UV and MS profiles. Meanwhile, a new HPLC-DAD-MS method was established for the identification and characterization of phenylpropane diglycerides in natural plants.

  19. Antifungal effects of different plant extracts and their major components of selected aloe species.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Shalaby, N M; Elgamal, M H; Mousa, A S

    1999-08-01

    Different extracts of both fresh and dry leaves of Aloe eru A. Berger, A. vera L. Webb & Berth and A. arborescens Mill. were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium moniliforme. The toxicity of the isolated pure components were evaluated on the tested fungi. A comparative chromatographic study was performed to differentiate between natural components existing in various fractions and extracts of Aloe species and specific spray reagents were used for the detection of anthraquinones in the isolated components.

  20. Latencies of extracted distortion-product otoacoustic source components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelle, Dennis; Thiericke, John P.; Gummer, Anthony W.; Dalhoff, Ernst

    2015-12-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) evolve as a byproduct of the nonlinear amplification process of two stimulus tones f2 ≥ f1 in the cochlea. According to a prevailing model, DPOAEs comprise a nonlinear-generation and a coherent-reflection component. Recently, we introduced a new technique using short f2 pulses which enables the extraction of both source components in the time domain by nonlinear least-square curve fitting to decompose the DPOAE response into pulse basis functions (PBFs). The analysis of the extracted DPOAE source components in the time domain enables determination of their latencies which may be used to estimate cochlear frequency tuning. Short-pulse DPOAEs were acquired from 16 subjects for f2 = 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 kHz using six primary-tone levels with L2 = 25 - 65 dB SPL. For the extracted nonlinear-generation and coherent-reflection components, latencies decrease with increasing stimulus frequency and level. The obtained latency values are in accordance with the expected behavior of the cochlear amplifier and may provide an additional diagnostic parameter to assess frequency tuning.

  1. Fetal source extraction from magnetocardiographic recordings by dependent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, Draulio B.; Kardec Barros, Allan; Estombelo-Montesco, Carlos; Zhao, Hui; Roque da Silva Filho, A. C.; Baffa, Oswaldo; Wakai, Ronald; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2005-10-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) has been extensively reported in the literature as a non-invasive, prenatal technique that can be used to monitor various functions of the fetal heart. However, fMCG signals often have low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and are contaminated by strong interference from the mother's magnetocardiogram signal. A promising, efficient tool for extracting signals, even under low SNR conditions, is blind source separation (BSS), or independent component analysis (ICA). Herein we propose an algorithm based on a variation of ICA, where the signal of interest is extracted using a time delay obtained from an autocorrelation analysis. We model the system using autoregression, and identify the signal component of interest from the poles of the autocorrelation function. We show that the method is effective in removing the maternal signal, and is computationally efficient. We also compare our results to more established ICA methods, such as FastICA.

  2. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.

    PubMed

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-10-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

  3. Novel pressure-gradient driven component for blood extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Khumpuang, S.; Horede, M.; Sugiyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Portable blood analysis devices are usually appreciable for applications in blood diagnostic system. We have designed and fabricated a low-cost and simple deal blood extraction device for a biomedical analysis. The device mainly composes of blood extraction tool and a functional bio-chemical analyzing element. In this work, we report the fabrication and pressure-gradient testing results of the blood extraction tool which consists of painless microneedle array and pressure-gradient tank. Microneedle array was fabricated by X-ray lithography using PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) technique. The idea of our extraction device was simple but capability which is just to hold a sufficient pressure gradient between the tank and blood vessel. The device can draw the volume of blood up to 237 μl. The device was made of low-cost and disposable materials since it is expected to be used for single blood analysis system. In this work, we introduce design, fabrication and mechanism of the pressure gradient driven component including the extraction test results. The fabrication method of microneedle used in our system is also described.

  4. Simultaneous determination of four active components in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Callicarpa nudiflora extract

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jun; Ma, Shuangcheng; Zheng, Dongkun; Chen, Weikang; Luo, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Callicarpa nudiflora has been commonly used as a Chinese folk medicine for resolving toxin, dispersing edema and hemostasis; however, its pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior remains unknown. In our present study, a simple and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was firstly developed on simultaneous determination and PK study of four active components (luteoloside, dracocephaloside, juncein and nudifloside) following the oral administration of C. nudiflora extract to investigate their PK profiles. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex® Kinetex C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (A) and 0.05‰ formic acid in water (B). The quantitation was carried out by multiple reaction monitoring using electrospray ionization in the negative ion mode. Results: Calibration curves offered satisfactory linearity, with correlation coefficients >0.99 for all compounds within the concentration range. The low limits of quantification were 1.03 ng/mL for luteoloside, 1.16 ng/mL for dracocephaloside, 0.82 ng/mL for juncein and 0.88 ng/mL for nudifloside, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were within 7.4% and the accuracies (relative error) ranged from −7.4% to 7.9%. Conclusion: This method was successfully applied to the PK studies of luteoloside, dracocephaloside, juncein and nudifloside in rat plasma after oral administration of C. nudiflora extract, four analytes exhibited quick absorption with peak concentrations occurring at around 25 min and eliminated rapidly. PMID:26246725

  5. Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    gowri, S. Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S.; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

  6. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  7. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota

    2009-09-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  8. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six-inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. The experimental results for those component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  9. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  10. Hyperforin as a possible antidepressant component of hypericum extracts.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S S; Bhattacharya, S K; Wonnemann, M; Singer, A; Müller, W E

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin is not only the major lipophilic chemical constituent of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) but also a potent uptake inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), GABA and L-Glutamate with IC50 values of about 0.05-0.10 microg/ml (5-HT, NA, DA, GABA) and about 0.5 microg/ml (L-glutamate) in synaptosomal preparations. Furthermore, potencies of two different hypericum extracts in two conventional pharmacological paradigms useful for the detection of antidepressants (behavioral despair, learned helplessness), closely correlate with their hyperforin contents. In addition, most till now known neuropharmacological properties of the clinically used hypericum extracts can also be demonstrated with pure hyperforin. It appears, therefore, that this non-nitrogenous constituent is a possible major active principle responsible for the observed clinical efficacies of the extract as an antidepressant and that it could also be a starting point for drug discovery projects engaged in the search of psychoactive drugs with novel mode of action.

  11. [Fetal electrocardiogram extraction based on independent component analysis and quantum particle swarm optimizer algorithm].

    PubMed

    Du, Yanqin; Huang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    Fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) is an objective index of the activities of fetal cardiac electrophysiology. The acquired FECG is interfered by maternal electrocardiogram (MECG). How to extract the fetus ECG quickly and effectively has become an important research topic. During the non-invasive FECG extraction algorithms, independent component analysis(ICA) algorithm is considered as the best method, but the existing algorithms of obtaining the decomposition of the convergence properties of the matrix do not work effectively. Quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO) is an intelligent optimization algorithm converging in the global. In order to extract the FECG signal effectively and quickly, we propose a method combining ICA and QPSO. The results show that this approach can extract the useful signal more clearly and accurately than other non-invasive methods.

  12. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A.; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning procedures, the main components being the secoiridoids oleuropein and ligustroside. An acid hydrolysis pretreatment of olive wood samples before extractions did not improve the results. In the course of this study, two compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of olive wood collected during the olives' harvesting season and identified as (7′′R)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (1) and (7′′S)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (2). PMID:26904608

  13. Mineral components and anti-oxidant activities of tropical seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso

    2005-07-01

    Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.

  14. Nitric oxide radical scavenging active components from Phyllanthus emblica L.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, A; Karunakaran, R Joel

    2006-03-01

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to identify the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging components of Phyllanthus emblica. Dried fruit rind of P. emblica was extracted with methanol and then separated into hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fractions. Among these only the ethyl acetate phase showed strong NO scavenging activity in vitro, when compared with water and hexane phases. The ethyl acetate fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Five compounds showing strong NO scavenging activity were identified by spectral methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS) and by comparison with literature values to be Gallic acid, Methyl gallate, Corilagin, Furosin, and Geraniin. In addition, HPLC identification and quantification of isolated compounds were also performed. Gallic acid was found to be a major compound in the ethyl acetate extract and Geraniin showed highest NO scavenging activity among the isolated compounds.

  15. Combining 1-D components to extract pattern information: It is about more than component similarity

    PubMed Central

    Quaia, Christian; Optican, Lance M.; Cumming, Bruce G.

    2017-01-01

    At least under some conditions, plaid stimuli are processed by combining information first extracted in orientation and scale-selective channels. The rules that govern this combination across channels are only partially understood. Although the available data suggests that only components having similar spatial frequency and contrast are combined, the extent to which this holds has not been firmly established. To address this question, we measured, in human subjects, the short-latency reflexive vergence eye movements induced by stereo plaids in which spatial frequency and contrast of the components are independently varied. We found that, although similarity in component spatial frequency and contrast matter, they interact in a nonseparable way. One way in which this relationship might arise is if the internal estimate of contrast is not a faithful representation of stimulus contrast but is instead spatial frequency–dependent (with higher spatial frequencies being boosted). We propose that such weighting might have been put in place by a mechanism that, in an effort of achieve contrast constancy and/or coding efficiency, regulates the gain of detectors in early visual cortex to equalize their long-term average response to natural images. PMID:28355633

  16. Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X F; Zhang, H X; Lo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  18. [Preliminary study on molluscicidal effect of active components from Centipeda minima].

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong; Ma, An-Ning; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Peng

    2009-08-01

    The active components from Centipeda minima were extracted by water or ethanol, and identified by FTIR spectroscopy and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The molluscicidal effect of aqueous extract and ethanol extract from Centipeda minima against Oncomelania hupensis was determined as referring to the WHO guidelines for laboratory molluscicidal test. Treated with over 2.0 g/L aqueous extract and ethanol extract for five days, the mortality of O. hupensis was up to 100%, and their LC50, for snails was 0.50 g/L and 0.62 g/L, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract was higher than that of ethanol extract. The main components of aqueous extract and ethanol extract were sesquiterpenes lactones and sterols.

  19. Antioxidant components and properties of dry heat treated clove in different extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Nikousaleh, Azadeh; Prakash, Jamuna

    2016-04-01

    The effects of heat treatment and extraction solvents (pure/aqueous acetone, ethanol, methanol) on antioxidant activity (AA) and components of clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) were studied. Clove was subjected to dry heat treatment (microwave and roasting) and the AA measured by free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), reducing power (RP), and phospho-molybdenum assay (TAA). Unheated samples served as controls. The antioxidant components estimated were total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Using RP and FRSA, highest AA was observed in 80 % acetone extract of all samples (1.778-1448 and 84.5-86.0 %). TAA showed higher value in 80 % methanolic extract for all samples in the range 303.595-307.941 mmol ascorbic acid/g. Heated samples exhibited higher AA in all assays. Highest amount of phenols and flavonoids were extracted in 80 % acetone (4053-4064 mg/100 g) and 80 % methanol (11,271-11,370 mg/100 g) respectively. For tannins, maximum extraction was in 80 % acetone (control, 16441 mg/100 g), 80 % ethanol (microwave, 19,558 mg/100 g), and pure methanol (roasted, 15,823 mg/100 g). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were positively associated with AA determined using RP and FRSA. In conclusion, clove exhibited powerful AA in different extraction solvents which increased on dry heat treatments and correlated positively with antioxidant components. Hence, clove can be used as a natural antioxidant in food systems.

  20. Real-time feature extraction of P300 component using adaptive nonlinear principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The electroencephalography (EEG) signals are known to involve the firings of neurons in the brain. The P300 wave is a high potential caused by an event-related stimulus. The detection of P300s included in the measured EEG signals is widely investigated. The difficulties in detecting them are that they are mixed with other signals generated over a large brain area and their amplitudes are very small due to the distance and resistivity differences in their transmittance. Methods A novel real-time feature extraction method for detecting P300 waves by combining an adaptive nonlinear principal component analysis (ANPCA) and a multilayer neural network is proposed. The measured EEG signals are first filtered using a sixth-order band-pass filter with cut-off frequencies of 1 Hz and 12 Hz. The proposed ANPCA scheme consists of four steps: pre-separation, whitening, separation, and estimation. In the experiment, four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) are utilized: 325 ms, 350 ms, 375 ms, and 400 ms. Results The developed multi-stage principal component analysis method applied at the pre-separation step has reduced the external noises and artifacts significantly. The introduced adaptive law in the whitening step has made the subsequent algorithm in the separation step to converge fast. The separation performance index has varied from -20 dB to -33 dB due to randomness of source signals. The robustness of the ANPCA against background noises has been evaluated by comparing the separation performance indices of the ANPCA with four algorithms (NPCA, NSS-JD, JADE, and SOBI), in which the ANPCA algorithm demonstrated the shortest iteration time with performance index about 0.03. Upon this, it is asserted that the ANPCA algorithm successfully separates mixed source signals. Conclusions The independent components produced from the observed data using the proposed method illustrated that the extracted signals were clearly the P300 components elicited by task

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  2. Blind Extraction of an Exoplanetary Spectrum through Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Deroo, P.; Hollis, M. D. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-03-01

    Blind-source separation techniques are used to extract the transmission spectrum of the hot-Jupiter HD189733b recorded by the Hubble/NICMOS instrument. Such a "blind" analysis of the data is based on the concept of independent component analysis. The detrending of Hubble/NICMOS data using the sole assumption that nongaussian systematic noise is statistically independent from the desired light-curve signals is presented. By not assuming any prior or auxiliary information but the data themselves, it is shown that spectroscopic errors only about 10%-30% larger than parametric methods can be obtained for 11 spectral bins with bin sizes of ~0.09 μm. This represents a reasonable trade-off between a higher degree of objectivity for the non-parametric methods and smaller standard errors for the parametric de-trending. Results are discussed in light of previous analyses published in the literature. The fact that three very different analysis techniques yield comparable spectra is a strong indication of the stability of these results.

  3. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  4. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  5. Extraction of principal components from biosignals by neural net.

    PubMed

    Krajca, V; Principe, J C; Petránek, S

    1999-01-01

    This contribution gives the information on a useful application of principal component analysis (PCA) in the field of electroencephalogram (EEG) and laser-Doppler signal processing. The principal components are estimated by a neural network (NN) approach.

  6. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwińska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (⁻OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L.

  7. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  8. [Antitumor components screening of Stellera chamaejasme L. under the case of discrete distribution of active data].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian-Xu; Cheng, Meng-Chun; Wang, Li; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2014-06-01

    This is to report the screening, extracting and validating antitumor components and compounds from Stellera chamaejasme L. under the case of discrete distribution of active data. In this work, different components from Stellera chamaejasme L. were collected by HPD macroporous resin and polyamide resin column, and their antitumor activity on A549 were tested by MTT assay. Activity results indicate that activity of components at 30-39 min is more potent than that of Stellera chamaejasme L. extract, and the activity of components at 33.97 min is equivalent to positive drug, cis-platinum at 100 microg x mL(-1), but with totally different mode of action. Under the case of discrete activity, the weight analysis is capable of screening active components and compounds from natural products.

  9. Effects of Extracts from Tiaozhi Granule and Its Components on Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Bao, Rong-Qi; Yu, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Guo-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Sera from the rats with different drug treatments (atorvastatin, Tiaozhi granule, or its extracts) were collected. LO-2 cells or HepG2 cells were pretreated with different sera as the following groups randomly: (1) blank control group, (2) positive control group (atorvastatin group), (3) Tiaozhi granule water extract groups, (4) Tiaozhi granule alcohol extract groups, and (5) alcohol extracts for each component: Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae, Curcuma longa L., and Rhizoma Alismatis. LO-2 cells were cotransfected with plasmid carrying SR-BI and pRL-TK promoter genes. Promoter activity was measured by the luciferase reporter gene assay. The mRNA and protein expressions of SR-BI were examined using real-time PCR and western blot analyses. Our results show that promoter activity and mRNA and protein expression levels of the SR-BI were significantly upregulated by Tiaozhi granules alcohol or water extracts in a dose-dependent manner. Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae alcohol extract with a high dosage could also increase SR-BI activity and expression, but not the extracts from Curcuma longa L. and Rhizoma Alismatis. Both Tiaozhi granule alcohol and water extracts can upregulate SR-BI gene expression. Among the components, Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae are important for the regulatory effect coordinating with Curcuma longa L. and Rhizoma Alismatis. PMID:28050195

  10. [Synchronization of the activity of gamma oscillation and ERP components].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Liu, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Yun

    2005-10-01

    In the present study the activity of the gamma oscillation synchronized with the stimuli and ERP is investigated by means of unimodal and bimodal experiments. The multiresolution wavelet algorithm is used for signal extraction and Gabor transform is employed to represent the temporal evolution of the selected frequency components. The results show that the gamma oscillation is strongly phase-locked not only with the exogenous stimuli in the three experiments, but also with the endogenous components of ERPs (N2b, P300). And the ERP and the gamma oscillation induced by the bimodal stimuli show the audio-visual bisensory integration and relationship. In addition, the results from the experiments with the auditory stimuli show that the gamma oscillation may be closely related to the perception of auditory signals.

  11. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana I; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C P

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John's wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  13. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    PubMed Central

    Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/mL for aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that leaf aqueous extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor, while ethanolic extract shows a competitive inhibition effect on mushroom tyrosinase using L-DOPA as substrate. In addition, the inhibitory effect of leaf extracts on tyrosinase activity and melanin production was examined in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as levels of melanin synthesis are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by extracts in cells treated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The effects are comparable, and sometimes even better, than that of kojic acid, a well known tyrosinase inhibitor used for reference. All these results suggest that E. characias could be a great source of the natural inhibitors from tyrosinase and has the potential to be used as a whitening agent in therapeutic fields. PMID:26500815

  14. Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.

  15. Improving Information Extraction and Translation Using Component Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    74 7. CASE STUDY ON MONOLINGUAL INTERACTION.....................................................................76 7.1 IMPROVING NAME TAGGING BY...interactions described above focused on the monolingual analysis pipeline. (Huang and Vogel, 2002) presented a cross-lingual joint inference example to...alignment consistency to the task of entity extraction in a monolingual test corpus. (Florian et al., 2007) used a similar idea to expand the

  16. Active components and clinical applications of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Emily; Lockwood, Brian

    2007-12-01

    The olive tree, Olea europaea, is native to the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. The fruit and compression-extracted oil have a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications. Olive oil also constitutes a major component of the "Mediterranean diet." The chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolics include hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest levels in virgin olive oil and have demonstrated antioxidant activity. Antioxidants are believed to be responsible for a number of olive oil's biological activities. Oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, has shown activity in cancer prevention, while squalene has also been identified as having anticancer effects. Olive oil consumption has benefit for colon and breast cancer prevention. The oil has been widely studied for its effects on coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically for its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Antimicrobial activity of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein has been demonstrated against several strains of bacteria implicated in intestinal and respiratory infections. Although the majority of research has been conducted on the oil, consumption of whole olives might also confer health benefits.

  17. Dynamic extraction of spearmint oil components by using supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.H.; Hong, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of various extraction conditions on the dynamic extraction of the essential oil components carvone and limonene from spearmint leaves using SC-CO{sub 2} were investigated. The extraction rate increased with increasing pressure or decreasing temperature. an increase of the CO{sub 2} flow rate increased the extraction rate but decreased the solvent efficiency of CO{sub 2}. Ground leaf samples with a smaller particle size showed an enhanced initial extraction rate for carvone as compared to larger particle size leaf samples. The use of an ethanol modifier did not enhance the extraction rate but did cause the coextraction of pigment and waxy substances.

  18. Three-dimensional active net for volume extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, Ikuko; Muraki, Shigeru; Doi, Akio; Kaufman, Arie E.

    1998-05-01

    3D Active Net, which is a 3D extension of Snakes, is an energy-minimizing surface model which can extract a volume of interest from 3D volume data. It is deformable and evolves in 3D space to be attracted to salient features, according to its internal and image energy. The net can be fitted to the contour of a target object by defining the image energy suitable for the contour property. We present testing results of the extraction of a muscle from the Visible Human Data by two methods: manual segmentation and the application of 3D Active Net. We apply principal component analysis, which utilizes the color information of the 3D volume data to emphasize an ill-defined contour of the muscle, and then apply 3D Active Net. We recognize that the extracted object has a smooth and natural contour in contrast with a comparable manual segmentation, proving an advantage of our approach.

  19. Detecting cervical cancer progression through extracted intrinsic fluorescence and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Seema; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Pradhan, Asima

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsic fluorescence spectra of the human normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), CIN2, and cervical cancer tissue have been extracted by effectively combining the measured polarized fluorescence and polarized elastic scattering spectra. The efficacy of principal component analysis (PCA) to disentangle the collective behavior from smaller correlated clusters in a dimensionally reduced space in conjunction with the intrinsic fluorescence is examined. This combination unambiguously reveals the biochemical changes occurring with the progression of the disease. The differing activities of the dominant fluorophores, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavins, and porphyrin of different grades of precancers are clearly identified through a careful examination of the sectorial behavior of the dominant eigenvectors of PCA. To further classify the different grades, the Mahalanobis distance has been calculated using the scores of selected principal components.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Thymus daenensis methanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Mojab, Faraz; Poursaeed, Mahshid; Mehrgan, Hadi; Pakdaman, Shima

    2008-07-01

    Medicinal plants are potential of antimicrobial compounds. The present study deals with the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Thymus daenensis. Aerial parts of the plant were collected from Alvand mountainside (Hamadan, Iran) in May 2005, air-dried and extracted by methanol. The dried extract was redissolved in methanol to make a 100 mg/ml solution and then filtered. Antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negatives bacteria using disk diffusion technique. Blank paper disks were loaded with 40 microl of the methanol solution and then dried up. The impregnated disks were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar inoculated with bacterial suspension equal to 0.5 McFarland. The extract inhibited the growth Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Entrococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, but it showed no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The most significant effect was seen against S.aureus including MRSA, which are important nosocomial pathogens. MIC90 of the extract was determined against Gram-positive bacteria (3.12 mg/ml) and 11 MRSA strain (1.56 mg/ml).

  1. Antiradical activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) extracts.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, Karel; Holubova, Pavla; Zima, Ales; Muselik, Jan; Dvorska, Margita

    2007-06-27

    Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decorative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substances. We identified and quantified acteoside (1) and isoacteoside (2) in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3) and diplacone (4) in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals.

  2. Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakera, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Margaria,Tiziana; Hinchey, Mike; Vassev, Emil; Steffen, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Rich and multifaceted domain specific specification languages like the Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) help to design reliable systems with self-healing capabilities. The GEAR game-based Model Checker has been used successfully to investigate properties of the ESA Exo- Mars Rover in depth. We show here how to enable GEAR s game-based verification techniques for ASSL via systematic model extraction from a behavioral subset of the language, and illustrate it on a description of the Voyager II space mission.

  3. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent.

  4. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, Hyeji; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong; Lee, Sang-Hyeon

    2010-02-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products.

  5. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, HyeJi; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products. PMID:20198204

  6. Orbital component extraction by time-variant sinusoidal modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Zivanovic, Miroslav; De Vleeschouwer, David; Claeys, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Accurately deciphering periodic variations in paleoclimate proxy signals is essential for cyclostratigraphy. Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on the (Fast) Fourier Transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This characteristic makes it difficult to correctly interpret a proxy's power spectrum or to accurately evaluate simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency in evolutionary analyses. Here, we circumvent this drawback by using a polynomial approach to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. This approach has been proven useful to characterize audio signals (music and speech), which are non-stationary in nature (Zivanovic and Schoukens, 2010, 2012). Paleoclimate proxy signals and audio signals have in nature similar dynamics; the only difference is the frequency relationship between the different components. A harmonic frequency relationship exists in audio signals, whereas this relation is non-harmonic in paleoclimate signals. However, the latter difference is irrelevant for the problem at hand. Using a sliding window approach, the model captures time variations of an orbital component by modulating a stationary sinusoid centered at its mean frequency, with a single polynomial. Hence, the parameters that determine the model are the mean frequency of the orbital component and the polynomial coefficients. The first parameter depends on geologic interpretation, whereas the latter are estimated by means of linear least-squares. As an output, the model provides the orbital component waveform, either in the depth or time domain. Furthermore, it allows for a unique decomposition of the signal into its instantaneous amplitude and frequency. Frequency modulation patterns can be used to reconstruct changes in accumulation rate, whereas amplitude modulation can be used to reconstruct e.g. eccentricity-modulated precession. The time-variant sinusoidal model

  7. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhisheng; Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  8. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  9. [Analysis of components in natural food additive "grapefruit seed extract" by HPLC and LC/MS].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, S; Sato, K; Maitani, T; Yamada, T

    1996-01-01

    The components in a commercial natural food additive "Grapefruit seed extract" and the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds were analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS. The HPLC chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract was quite different from that of the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds. Three main peaks were observed in the chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract. By comparison of the retention times and the absorption spectra with those of authentic samples, two peaks were ascribed to methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate and 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether (triclosan). Triclosan was also identified by LC/MS by using the negative electrospray ionization method.

  10. Quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of phenolics isolated from different extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Pimenta Malagueta).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Patrícia L A; Nascimento, Talita C E S; Ramos, Natália S M; Silva, Girliane R; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Falcão, Rosângela E A; Moreira, Keila A; Porto, Ana L F; Silva, Tania M S

    2014-04-24

    This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.

  11. Spectral characterization of human EHG frequency components based on the extraction and reconstruction of the ridges in the scalogram.

    PubMed

    Terrien, J; Marque, C; Karlsson, B

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed and analyzed the external electrical activity of the uterus, the so-called electrohysterogram (EHG), associated with contractions during pregnancy and labor. The EHG is mainly composed of two distinct frequency components, FWL (Fast Wave Low, low frequency component) and FWH (Fast Wave High, high frequency component). It has been suggested that FWH is mainly associated with uterine cell excitability and FWL with the propagation of this activity. This hypothesis is still unproven. We compared two procedures for ridge extraction/reconstruction of the EHG scalogram, with the objective of analyzing the propagation of the EHG on FWH and FWL separately. The performance of the methods under investigation was tested on both synthetic and real signals. The results indicate that the EHG can be characterized by two distinct continuous ridges, supposed to be FWH and FWL, with a low reconstruction error. We have also shown that the extracted ridges have different energy, temporal characteristics and bandwidths.

  12. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  13. The antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extracts and eye gel.

    PubMed

    Kamkaen, N; Wilkinson, J M

    2009-11-01

    Extracts of Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) flowers are used in Thailand as a component of cosmetics and the chemical composition of the flowers suggest that they may have antioxidant activity. In this study the potential antioxidant activity of C. ternatea extracts and an extract containing eye gel formulation was investigated. Aqueous extracts were shown to have stronger antioxidant activity (as measured by DPPH scavenging activity) than ethanol extracts (IC(50) values were 1 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively). Aqueous extracts incorporated in to an eye gel formulation were also shown to retain this activity, however, it was significantly less than a commercial antiwrinkle cream included for comparison. The total phenolic content was 1.9 mg/g extract as gallic acid equivalents. The data from this study support the use of C. ternatea extracts as antioxidant inclusions in cosmetic products.

  14. Biologically active proteins from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, B R

    2001-10-01

    The term "biologically active proteins" is almost redundant. All proteins produced by living creatures are, by their very nature, biologically active to some extent in their homologous species. In this review, a subset of these proteins will be discussed that are biologically active in heterologous systems. The isolation and characterization of novel proteins from natural product extracts including those derived from microorganisms, plants, insects, terrestrial vertebrates, and marine organisms will be reviewed and grouped into several distinct classes based on their biological activity and their structure.

  15. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  16. Selection of a suitable extraction method for mutagenic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Pasley, T.; Warren, S.; Zweidinger, R.; Watts, R.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction methods were evaluated for recovery of mutagneic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles. Soxhlet and sonication techniques were utilized with a variety of solvents to ascertain the effect of solvent choice, extraction methods, or dissolved gases in extraction solvents on the recovery of mutagenicity. Sonication extraction gave slightly less mass recovery than the Soxhlet method. Methanol extracted more mass than the other solvents with dichloromethane recovering the least. Dissolved gases were not found to have any effect, while mutagenicity was shown to be dependent upon solvent and extraction method. Soxhlet extraction with acetone and toluene/ethanol yielded the highest recovery of mutagenic activity; however, results indicated a solvent/solute interaction which chemically altered one or more extract components. Extraction employing dichloromethane and sonication was selected as a suitable method since this treatment appeared not to alter extracted compounds, and good recovery of mutagenicity was obtained. (Copyright (c) 1988 Gordon and Breach Science Publishers Inc.)

  17. Determination of tea components with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Carmen; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen

    2003-07-16

    Levels of essential elements with antioxidant activity, as well as catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine levels, in a total of 45 samples of different teas commercialized in Spain have been evaluated. Chromium, manganese, selenium, and zinc were determined in the samples mineralized with HNO(3) and V(2)O(5), using ETAAS as the analytical technique. The reliability of the procedure was checked by analysis of a certified reference material. Large variations in the trace element composition of teas were observed. The levels ranged from 50.6 to 371.4 ng/g for Cr, from 76.1 to 987.6 microg/g for Mn, from 48.5 to 114.6 ng/g for Se, and from 56.3 to 78.6 ng/g for Zn. The four major catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC)], gallic acid (GA), and caffeine were simultaneously determined by a simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector. In all analyzed samples, EGCG ranged from 1.4 to 103.5 mg/g, EGC from 3.9 to 45.3 mg/g, ECG from 0.2 to 45.6 mg/g, and EC ranged from 0.6 to 21.2 mg/g. These results indicated that green tea has a higher content of catechins than both oolong and fermented teas (red and black teas); the fermentation process during tea manufacturing reduces the levels of catechins significantly. Gallic acid content ranged from 0.039 to 6.7 mg/g; the fermentation process also elevated remarkably gallic acid levels in black teas (mean level of 3.9 +/- 1.5 mg/g). The amount of caffeine in the analyzed samples ranged from 7.5 to 86.6 mg/g, and the lower values were detected in green and oolong teas. This study will be useful for the appraisal of trace elements and antioxidant components in various teas, and it will also be of interest for people who like drinking this beverage.

  18. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract from Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Sookvanichsilp, N; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Boonleang, C

    2008-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica and its extracts are widely used as the ingredient(s) in many rejuvenating products. Up to now, the extract of P. mirifica roots that has been used in most studies, is the alcoholic extract. In the present study, we investigated the estrogenic activity using uterotropic and MCF-7 cell proliferation models of the dichloromethane extract as well as the water extract which was obtained from partitioning the ethanolic extract. The results indicated that among the three extracts, i.e. the ethanolic extract (PM1), the water extract (PM2) and dichloromethane extract (PM3), PM3 exhibited the most potent estrogenic activity in both models, followed by PM1. The extracts produced uterotropic activity associated with the increase of water content while uterotropic activity of 17beta-estradiol was related to the increase of muscle mass. The two isoflavonoids, genistein and daidzein, were not the major active phytoestrogens involving the estrogenic activity of these extracts.

  19. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and fatty acid components of flower, leaf, stem and seed of Hypericum scabrum.

    PubMed

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-11-01

    The hexane extracts of flower, leaf, stem, and seed of Hypericum scabrum, which were collected from northwestern Iran, were obtained by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were converted to methyl esters and determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems. The hexane extract from the flower, leaf, stem, and seed contained 39.1%, 43.2%, 29.0%, and 37.6% of omega-3 fatty acids, respectively. The other main components of the flower extract were tetracosane (12.2%) and palmitic acid (9.3%), and that of the leaf extract was palmitic acid (7.4%). The stem and seed extracts contained bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (18.7% and 35.7%), nonacosane (11.7% and 3.9%) and linoleic acid (6.5% and 6.9%) as major components. The hexane extracts of different parts from H. scabrum represent an important source of omega-3 fatty acids in several Hypericum species. The antioxidant activity of all hexane extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The results indicate that hexane extracts from different parts of H. scabrum possess considerable antioxidant activity. The highest radical scavenging activity was detected in seed, which had an IC50 = 165 microg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of those samples were determined against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), as well as three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger). The bioassay showed that the oil exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity. This study reveals that the all parts of this plant are attractive sources of fatty acid components, especially the essential ones, as well as of effective natural antioxidants.

  20. In Vitro Screening for Cytotoxic Activity of Herbal Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Valter R. M.; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that a variety of chemopreventive plant components affect tumor initiation, promotion, and progression and the main difference, between botanical medicines and synthetic drugs, resides in the presence of complex metabolite mixtures shown by botanical medicine which in turn exert their action on different levels and via different mechanisms. In the present study, we performed an in vitro screening of ethanol extracts from commercial plants in order to investigate potential antitumor activity against human tumor cell lines. Experimental results obtained through a variety of methods and techniques indicated that extracts of I. verum, G. glabra, R. Frangula, and L. usitatissimum present significant reduction in in vitro tumor cell proliferation, suggesting these extracts as possible chemotherapeutical adjuvants for different cancer treatments. PMID:28386288

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Biological Activities of Extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; Lima, Fernanda Oliveira; Amaro de Carvalho, Camilo; Viana, Carine; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this work, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Brassica oleracea var. capitata extracts obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction are evaluated. The extracts obtained using the best extraction conditions were subjected to different hydrolysis conditions before their use in the biological tests. The crude and hydrolysed extracts were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with a mass detector. The use of ultrasound at 30 °C with 60% (by volume) solvent enabled obtaining a richer extract. All extracts had antioxidant activities against DPPH (13.0–80.0%), superoxide (35.2–63.2%) and peroxyl (89.3–99.5%) radicals, but the use of hydrolysed extracts considerably improved the antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activities only of the hydrolysed extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata were detected. It was confirmed that antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts can be considerably increased when hydrolysis is applied as a pretreatment to their extraction. PMID:27904339

  2. Antispasmodic effects of Prangos ferulacea acetone extract and its main component osthole on ileum contraction

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H; Shokoohinia, Y; Sajjadi, S E; Mozafari, M

    2013-01-01

    Prangos ferulacea is a plant found in the Mediterranean and Middle-east regions used as carminative, anti-flatulent, emollient and antibacterial herb. It is believed that the coumarins are responsible for some of known effects of Prangos. In this research the relaxant effects of P. ferulacea coumrin rich extract as well as osthole as its main prenylated coumarins were investigated on rat ileum contraction in vitro. Relaxant effect of osthole and P. ferulacea extract were examined on contraction induced by KCl, acetylcholine (ACh) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) and compared with propantheline and nifedipine. The acetone extract of P. ferulacea concentration-dependently relaxed ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=1.3 ± 0.25 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=7.7 ± 1.1 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=8.8 ± 1.4 μg/ml), while, the extract at lower concentration (4 μg/ml) potentiated the ACh and EFS responses. Unlike the extract, osthole did not potentiate the ileum contraction but concentration-dependently inhibited ileum contractile responses to KCl (IC50=2.2 ± 0.7 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=2.5 ± 0.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=2.8 ± 0.24 μg/ml). Propantheline concentration dependently inhibited the ileum response to ACh, with IC50 value of 0.61 ± 0.09nM without affecting the KCl response. As expected, the EFS response was only partially reduced. Nifedipine (0.2-50 nM) inhibited tonic contraction induced by KCl with IC50 value of 2.5 ± 0.8 nM but only partially inhibited the response to ACh. However, the response to EFS was reduced only by 33%. These results confirmed both potentiatory and inhibitory action of P. ferulacea extract on rat ileum contractile activity. Osthole is responsible for the inhibitory effect but potentiating components are not yet known. PMID:24019823

  3. Active Learning of Regular Expressions for Entity Extraction.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Alberto; De Lorenzo, Andrea; Medvet, Eric; Tarlao, Fabiano

    2017-03-24

    We consider the automatic synthesis of an entity extractor, in the form of a regular expression, from examples of the desired extractions in an unstructured text stream. This is a long-standing problem for which many different approaches have been proposed, which all require the preliminary construction of a large dataset fully annotated by the user. In this paper, we propose an active learning approach aimed at minimizing the user annotation effort: the user annotates only one desired extraction and then merely answers extraction queries generated by the system. During the learning process, the system digs into the input text for selecting the most appropriate extraction query to be submitted to the user in order to improve the current extractor. We construct candidate solutions with genetic programming (GP) and select queries with a form of querying-by-committee, i.e., based on a measure of disagreement within the best candidate solutions. All the components of our system are carefully tailored to the peculiarities of active learning with GP and of entity extraction from unstructured text. We evaluate our proposal in depth, on a number of challenging datasets and based on a realistic estimate of the user effort involved in answering each single query. The results demonstrate high accuracy with significant savings in terms of computational effort, annotated characters, and execution time over a state-of-the-art baseline.

  4. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Euryale ferox seed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2002-05-31

    Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.

  5. A new rolling bearing fault diagnosis method based on GFT impulse component extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lu; Yu, Dejie; Yang, Hanjian

    2016-12-01

    Periodic impulses are vital indicators of rolling bearing faults. The extraction of impulse components from rolling bearing vibration signals is of great importance for fault diagnosis. In this paper, vibration signals are taken as the path graph signals in a manifold perspective, and the Graph Fourier Transform (GFT) of vibration signals are investigated from the graph spectrum domain, which are both introduced into the vibration signal analysis. To extract the impulse components efficiently, a new adjacency weight matrix is defined, and then the GFT of the impulse component and harmonic component in the rolling bearing vibration signals are analyzed. Furthermore, as the GFT graph spectrum of the impulse component is mainly concentrated in the high-order region, a new rolling bearing fault diagnosis method based on GFT impulse component extraction is proposed. In the proposed method, the GFT of a vibration signal is firstly performed, and its graph spectrum coefficients in the high-order region are extracted to reconstruct different impulse components. Next, the Hilbert envelope spectra of these impulse components are calculated, and the envelope spectrum values at the fault characteristic frequency are arranged in order. Furthermore, the envelope spectrum with the maximum value at the fault characteristic frequency is selected as the final result, from which the rolling bearing fault can be diagnosed. Finally, an index KR, which is the product of the kurtosis and Hilbert envelope spectrum fault feature ratio of the extracted impulse component, is put forward to measure the performance of the proposed method. Simulations and experiments are utilized to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana I.; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John’s wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  7. Antirheumatoid arthritis effect of Rhus verniciflua and of the active component, sulfuretin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongwon; Yoon, Byung-Jae; Han, Yong Nam; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Ha, Joohun; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2003-10-01

    Oral administration of the MeOH extract of Rhus verniciflua or of an EtOAc fraction containing an EtOAc-soluble portion of the MeOH extract slightly decreased rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) factors in Freund's complete adjuvant reagent FCA-treated rats, indicating that they are active extracts for rheumatoid arthritis, the EtOAc extract being more active. Treatment with these two extracts prevented histological changes such as synovial cell proliferation, inflammatory cell infiltration and fat necrosis compared with an FCA-treated group. Oral administration (30 mg/kg) of sulfuretin and fustin, which were isolated from the EtOAc extract by activity-guided separation, significantly decreased RA and CRP factors, the former being more active than the latter. Treatment with the EtOAc fraction ( p. o.) containing sulfuretin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and highly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase in FCA-treated rats was also evident. Since treatment with sulfuretin and the EtOAc extract decreased the concentration of infiltrated mast cells in the rat knee exhibiting rheumatoid arthritis, we suggest that the Rhus verniciflua extract, which contains sulfuretin as an active component, may prevent rheumatoid syndromes by inhibiting reactive oxygen species.

  8. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  9. Antibacterial activity of components from Lomatium californicum.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shen-Chieh; Everngam, Molly C; Sturtz, George; Beck, John J

    2006-02-01

    The isolation, characterization and bioactivity testing of compounds from Lomatium californicum (Nutt.) are described. Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of the roots of L. californicum were subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC), flash column chromatography (FCC) and separation by normal- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Six compounds were isolated successfully and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimentation. The bioactivity of the known compounds (+)-falcarindiol, coniferyl ferulate, ferulic acid and (Z)-ligustilide were confirmed against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The known compounds senkyunolide I and trans-neocnidilide were also isolated but in too small a quantity for similar testing.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of selected herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Gowthamarajan, K; Kulkarni, T Giriraj; Mahadevan, N; Santhi, K; Suresh, B

    2002-01-01

    METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF OLEORESINS OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI HOOK: and aerial parts of Cytisus scoparius Linn. Were screened for antimicrobial activity against two bacterial strains-Bacillus subtilis (Gram Positive) and Escherichia coli (Gem negative), and two fungal strains - Candida albicans and crytococcus neoformans by two-fold serial dilution technique. The results showed that all the microorganisms used were sensitive to the extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for A. bidwilli were found to be 31.25 μg/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 500 μg/ml for all other organisms used in the study. In case of C. Scoparius, the MIC values were 250 μg/ml for B. Subtilis and 500 μg/ml for allthe other strains used. However, in comparison the ampicillin (MIC: 62.5 μg/ml), and Amphotericin-B (MIC: 125 μg/ml ), the activities of both the extracts were less except A. bidwilli against B.Subtilis.

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum

    PubMed Central

    Poonkothai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity. PMID:22557222

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of compounds with antimicrobial activity from Origanum vulgare L.: determination of optimal extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, S; Cavero, S; Jaime, L; Ibañez, E; Señoráns, F J; Reglero, G

    2006-02-01

    Oregano leaves were extracted using a pilot-scale supercritical fluid extraction plant under a wide range of extraction conditions, with the goal of determining the extraction and fractionation conditions to obtain extracts with optimal antimicrobial activity. In this investigation, the essential oil-rich fractions were selectively precipitated in the second separator, and their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the various fractions resulted in the identification of 27 compounds of the essential oil. The main components of these fractions were carvacrol, trans-sabinene hydrate, cis-piperitol, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against six different microbial species, including two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), a yeast (Candida albicans), and a fungus (Aspergillus niger). All of the supercritical fluid extraction fractions obtained showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, although the most active fraction was the one obtained in experiment 5 (fraction was obtained with 7% ethanol at 150 bar and 40 degrees C). C. albicans was the most sensitive microorganism to the oregano extracts, whereas the least susceptible was A. niger. Carvacrol, sabinene hydrate, borneol, and linalool standards also showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, with carvacrol being the most effective. Consequently, it was confirmed that essential oil from experiment 5, with the best antimicrobial activity, also presented the highest quantity of carvacrol.

  13. Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum extracts in the protection of human plasma components.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Malinowska, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Clovers (genus: Trifolium) have been used in traditional medicine by many cultures, but the biological activity of the most of these plants still remains unknown. The aim of our in vitro study was to assess the antioxidative action of phenolic extracts from aerial parts of Trifolium scabrum and Trifolium pallidum in human blood plasma, exposed to oxidative stress. In the present study we also demonstrate, for the first time the effects of the tested extracts on coagulative properties and fibrinolytic activity of blood plasma. The protective properties of the examined extracts (0.5-50 μg/ml) against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress were estimated by the measurements of 3-nitrotyrosine, thiol groups and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. The extracts considerably prevented the oxidative and nitrative damage to plasma proteins. Even the lowest doses of the Trifolium extracts (0.5 μg/ml) were able to markedly reduce 3-nitrotyrosine formation (by about 50%) and to increase the level of -SH groups (by about 30%), in comparison to the plasma exposed to ONOO(-) in the absence of the extracts. The protective action of all the used concentrations of the Trifolium extracts in the prevention of lipid peroxidation was also found. The tested extracts influenced neither the coagulative properties nor fibrinolytic activity of plasma. Moreover, the extracts were able to significantly reduce the inhibitory effect of ONOO(-) on fibrinolytic activity of plasma (assessed with the use of a chromogenic substrate for plasmin).

  14. Effect of Lycoris chejuensis and Its Active Components on Experimental Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonki; Park, Yurim; Chun, Yoon Sun; Cha, Jin Wook; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Oh, Myung Sook; Chung, Sungkwon; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2015-08-12

    We found that an extract of Lycoris chejuensis and its three isolated active components, narciclasine, 7-deoxynarciclasine, and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, each significantly reduced the formation of amyloid-β peptides in HeLa cells transfected with an amyloid precursor protein carrying the Swedish mutation up to 45 ± 3.6%. The extract down-regulated amyloid precursor protein, especially the mature form by up to 88%, and reduced the ability of secretases to generate toxic amyloid-β. Double-transgenic mice treated with the extract for 4 months also showed significantly reduced levels of amyloid-β and plaques while exhibiting improved memory functions in the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests. In conclusion, the extract and isolated active components of L. chejuensis decreased the production of amyloid-β by attenuating amyloid precursor protein levels. Furthermore, the extract improved the disrupted memory functions in animals while inhibiting amyloid plaque formation. Thus, this extract, as well as its active components, could prove beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Insecticidal effects of extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) L. cones and its principal component, xanthohumol.

    PubMed

    Aydin, T; Bayrak, N; Baran, E; Cakir, A

    2017-03-23

    Insecticidal effects of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) L. cones and its principal components, xanthohumol was investigated on five stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (F.). The mortality of adults of the insects treated with 2, 5, 5, 10 and 20 mg ml̠-1 concentrations of the extracts and xanthuhumol was counted after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. In order to determine the toxic effects of the substances tested against all tested insects, durations for 50% mortality of the adults, and LD50 values were also determined in the first 48 h by probit analysis. Our results also showed that xanthohumol was more toxic against the pests in comparison with the extracts applications. LD50 values for xanthohumol were found to be low dose as compared with the extracts. Xanthohumol was more toxic against S. granarius (L.) with 6.8 µg of LD50 value. Among the extracts, methanol extract was less effective than other extracts against all tested insects. The ethyl acetate extract of H. lupulus cones was the most effective extract against the tested pests. The quantitative amounts of xanthohumol in the extracts were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantitative data indicated that amount of xanthohumol in the extracts increased with increase of polarity of the solvents used from methanol to dichloromethane. The methanol extract contained the high amount of xanthohumol with 5.74 g/100 g extract (0.46 g/100 g plant sample).

  16. Quality assessment and scavenging activity of Siamese neem flower extract.

    PubMed

    Chaisawangwong, Worarat; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-03-01

    Young leaves and flowers of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. Active antioxidant components in the flowers are rutin and quercetin flavonoids. The aqueous extracts of young flowers collected from 14 different locations in Thailand were quantitatively analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography for the contents of rutin and quercetin, and were determined for the loss on drying, heavy metals and pesticide residues, microbial contamination, solubility, chromatographic fingerprints and acute toxicity. The extracts contained rutin and quercetin in the ranges from 388 to 1178 mg% dry weight (average 772 mg%), and 1 to 10 mg% dry weight (average 5 mg%), respectively. EC50 of the scavenging activity of all extracts was found in the range of 27-133 µg mL(-1). Loss on drying of the extracts was less than 7% w/w and no sign of toxicity (LD50 > 5 g kg(-1)) was found.

  17. Music video shot segmentation using independent component analysis and keyframe extraction based on image complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Wenjun; Shi, Yunyu; Li, Jun

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, Music video data is increasing at an astonishing speed. Shot segmentation and keyframe extraction constitute a fundamental unit in organizing, indexing, retrieving video content. In this paper a unified framework is proposed to detect the shot boundaries and extract the keyframe of a shot. Music video is first segmented to shots by illumination-invariant chromaticity histogram in independent component (IC) analysis feature space .Then we presents a new metric, image complexity, to extract keyframe in a shot which is computed by ICs. Experimental results show the framework is effective and has a good performance.

  18. Vaccination in children with allergy to non active vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Fabrizio; Bottau, Paolo; Caimmi, Silvia; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Lucia, Liotti; Peroni, Diego; Saretta, Francesca; Vernich, Mario; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Childhood immunisation is one of the greatest public health successes of the last century. Vaccines contain an active component (the antigen) which induces the immune response. They may also contain additional components such as preservatives, additives, adjuvants and traces of other substances. This review provides information about risks of hypersensitivity reactions to components of vaccines. Furthermore, recommendations to avoid or reduce reactions to vaccine components have been detailed.

  19. Extraction of fault component from abnormal sound in diesel engines using acoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayong, Ning; Changle, Sun; Yongjun, Gong; Zengmeng, Zhang; Jiaoyi, Hou

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a method for extracting fault components from abnormal acoustic signals and automatically diagnosing diesel engine faults is presented. The method named dislocation superimposed method (DSM) is based on the improved random decrement technique (IRDT), differential function (DF) and correlation analysis (CA). The aim of DSM is to linearly superpose multiple segments of abnormal acoustic signals because of the waveform similarity of faulty components. The method uses sample points at the beginning of time when abnormal sound appears as the starting position for each segment. In this study, the abnormal sound belonged to shocking faulty type; thus, the starting position searching method based on gradient variance was adopted. The coefficient of similar degree between two same sized signals is presented. By comparing with a similar degree, the extracted fault component could be judged automatically. The results show that this method is capable of accurately extracting the fault component from abnormal acoustic signals induced by faulty shocking type and the extracted component can be used to identify the fault type.

  20. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  1. Alpha amylase is a major allergenic component in occupational asthma patients caused by porcine pancreatic extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Sim; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Suh, You-Jin; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Soo-Keol; Kim, Sun-Sin; Nahm, Dong-Ho

    2002-09-01

    Porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) are composed of alpha-amylase and lipase, which are common components of digestive enzymes. They have been known to cause occupational asthma in exposed workers in pharmaceutical and baking industries, as well as in a laboratory technician, but there has been no report of PPE-induced occupational asthma in medical personnel and their IgE binding components to each component. Four asthmatic subjects showing positive results on PPE-bronchoprovocation testing were enrolled. All of them were nurses working in a university hospital. Their job included grinding and mixing PPE powder for admitted patients. Serum-specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To confirm specificity of IgE binding and cross-allergenicity among the three extracts, ELISA inhibition tests were performed. In order to characterize allergenic components within these three extracts, SDS-PAGE and IgE immunoblot analysis were done. Specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were detectable by ELISA in all study subjects. An alpha-amylase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by amylase and PPE, and minimal inhibition by lipase. However, a lipase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by alpha-amylase and PPE with a lesser degree of inhibition by lipase. Furthermore, IgE immunoblot analysis showed one IgE binding component (55 kDa) within PPE, six components (55 kDa, 43 kDa, 41 kDa, 32 kDa, 31 kDa, 29 kDa) within alpha-amylase and two components (31 kDa, 29 kDa) within lipase extracts. Thesefindings suggest that inhalation of PPE powder can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed nurses. Alpha-amylase is a major allergenic component within PPE.

  2. Active Learning-Based Pedagogical Rule Extraction.

    PubMed

    Junqué de Fortuny, Enric; Martens, David

    2015-11-01

    Many of the state-of-the-art data mining techniques introduce nonlinearities in their models to cope with complex data relationships effectively. Although such techniques are consistently included among the top classification techniques in terms of predictive power, their lack of transparency renders them useless in any domain where comprehensibility is of importance. Rule-extraction algorithms remedy this by distilling comprehensible rule sets from complex models that explain how the classifications are made. This paper considers a new rule extraction technique, based on active learning. The technique generates artificial data points around training data with low confidence in the output score, after which these are labeled by the black-box model. The main novelty of the proposed method is that it uses a pedagogical approach without making any architectural assumptions of the underlying model. It can therefore be applied to any black-box technique. Furthermore, it can generate any rule format, depending on the chosen underlying rule induction technique. In a large-scale empirical study, we demonstrate the validity of our technique to extract trees and rules from artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, on 25 data sets of varying size and dimensionality. Our results show that not only do the generated rules explain the black-box models well (thereby facilitating the acceptance of such models), the proposed algorithm also performs significantly better than traditional rule induction techniques in terms of accuracy as well as fidelity.

  3. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of phenolic rich extracts from white and red common beans.

    PubMed

    García-Lafuente, Ana; Moro, Carlos; Manchón, Noelia; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Alicia; Villares, Ana; Guillamón, Eva; Rostagno, Mauricio; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura

    2014-10-15

    According to epidemiological evidence, diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the incidence of several chronic diseases that share an inflammatory component. These protective effects are attributed, in part, to the occurrence of different antioxidant components, mainly phenolic compounds. Our aim was to characterise phenolic composition, and to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic rich extracts obtained from two kinds of common beans, white kidney beans (WKB) and round purple beans (RPB). Phenolic acids were the predominant component in WKB extracts, whereas RPB extracts presented higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, mainly catechin derivatives, proanthocyanidins and catechin glucoside. In addition, RPB extracts showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher anti-inflammatory activity by the reduction of NO production and cytokine mRNA expression of LPS stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that common bean extracts may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion.

  4. Antidepressant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Spinosus

    PubMed Central

    Ashok Kumar, B.S; Lakshman, K; Velmurugan, C; Sridhar, S.M; Gopisetty, Saran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, which affects 21% of the world population. The presently using drugs can impose a variety of side-effects including cardiac toxicity, hypopiesia, sexual dysfunction, body weight gain, and sleep disorder. During the last decade, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic effects of natural products on mental disorders. Amaranthus spinosus was investigation for antidepressant activity. Methods Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (MEAS) was investigated by using Forced swimming test (FST) and Tail suspension test (TST) models. Escitalopram and Imipramine were used as reference standards. Results It has been observed from our study that both the MEAS at higher concentration showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in immobility in tail suspension and forced swim model of depression comparable to Escitalopram and Imipramine. Discussion However further study is needed to understand mechanism of action and to identify active component responsible for antidepressant like activity. PMID:25436078

  5. Non-stationary component extraction in noisy multicomponent signal using polynomial chirping Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenlong; Xie, Junwei; Wang, Heming; Sheng, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by track-before-detection technology in radar, a novel time-frequency transform, namely polynomial chirping Fourier transform (PCFT), is exploited to extract components from noisy multicomponent signal. The PCFT combines advantages of Fourier transform and polynomial chirplet transform to accumulate component energy along a polynomial chirping curve in the time-frequency plane. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to search optimal polynomial parameters with which the PCFT will achieve a most concentrated energy ridge in the time-frequency plane for the target component. The component can be well separated in the polynomial chirping Fourier domain with a narrow-band filter and then reconstructed by inverse PCFT. Furthermore, an iterative procedure, involving parameter estimation, PCFT, filtering and recovery, is introduced to extract components from a noisy multicomponent signal successively. The Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method has better performance in component extraction from noisy multicomponent signal as well as provides more time-frequency details about the analyzed signal than conventional methods.

  6. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  7. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  8. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples-Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%-109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%-12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  9. Automated microfluidic DNA/RNA extraction with both disposable and reusable components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Johnson, Michael; Hill, Parker; Sonkul, Rahul S.; Kim, Jongwon; Gale, Bruce K.

    2012-01-01

    An automated microfluidic nucleic extraction system was fabricated with a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structure that consists of sample wells, microvalves, a micropump and a disposable microfluidic silica cartridge. Both the microvalves and micropump structures were fabricated in a single layer and are operated pneumatically using a 100 µm PDMS membrane. To fabricate the disposable microfluidic silica cartridge, two-cavity structures were made in a PDMS replica to fit the stacked silica membranes. A handheld controller for the microvalves and pumps was developed to enable system automation. With purified ribonucleic acid (RNA), whole blood and E. coli samples, the automated microfluidic nucleic acid extraction system was validated with a guanidine-based solid phase extraction procedure. An extraction efficiency of ~90% for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ~54% for RNA was obtained in 12 min from whole blood and E. coli samples, respectively. In addition, the same quantity and quality of extracted DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR also presented the appropriate amplification and melting profiles. Automated, programmable fluid control and physical separation of the reusable components and the disposable components significantly decrease the assay time and manufacturing cost and increase the flexibility and compatibility of the system with downstream components.

  10. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Metarhizium anisopli...

  12. Hypoglycemic activity of leaf organic extracts from Smallanthus sonchifolius: Constituents of the most active fractions.

    PubMed

    Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Mercado, María I; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A; Sánchez, Sara S

    2010-04-29

    The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of five organic extracts and enhydrin obtained from yacon leaves. The main constituents of the most active fraction were identified. Five organic extracts and pure crystalline enhydrin were administered to normoglycemic, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were estimated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and dose optimization of each extract. We found that the methanol, butanol and chloroform extracts showed effective hypoglycemic activity at minimum doses of 50, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for further experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of each extract produced a slight lowering effect in the fasting blood glucose level of normal healthy rats, whereas each extract tempered significantly the hyperglycemic peak after food ingestion. Daily administration of each extract for 8 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals with an increase in the plasma insulin level. Phytochemical analysis of the most active fraction, the butanol extract, showed that caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids were significant components. Additionally, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of yacon leaves, was also effective to reduce post-prandial glucose and useful in the treatment of diabetic animals (minimum dose: 0.8mg/kg body weight). The results presented here strongly support the notion that the phenolic compounds above as well as enhydrin are important hypoglycemic principles of yacon leaves that could ameliorate the diabetic state.

  13. The effect of non-structural components and lignin on hemicellulose extraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Xuan; Li, Hong-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    As the important structural component of corn stover, hemicellulose could be converted into a variety of high value-added products. However, high quality hemicellulose extraction is not an easy issue. The present study aims to investigate the effects of non-structural components (NSCs) and lignin removal on alkaline extraction of hemicellulose. Although NSCs were found to have a minimal effect on hemicellulose dissolution, they affected the color values of the hemicellulose extracts. The lignin limited the hemicellulose dissolution and increased the color value by binding to hemicellulose molecules and forming lignin-carbohydrate complexes. Sodium chlorite method can remove about 90% lignin from corn stover, especially the lignin connected to hemicellulose through p-coumaric and ferulic acids. Which increased the hemicellulose dissolution ratio to 93% and reduced the color value 14-28%, but the cost is about 20% carbohydrates lost.

  14. Feature Extraction Using Supervised Independent Component Analysis by Maximizing Class Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Yoshinori; Ozawa, Seiichi; Kotani, Manabu

    Recently, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been applied to not only problems of blind signal separation, but also feature extraction of patterns. However, the effectiveness of pattern features extracted by conventional ICA algorithms depends on pattern sets; that is, how patterns are distributed in the feature space. As one of the reasons, we have pointed out that ICA features are obtained by increasing only their independence even if the class information is available. In this context, we can expect that more high-performance features can be obtained by introducing the class information into conventional ICA algorithms. In this paper, we propose a supervised ICA (SICA) that maximizes Mahalanobis distance between features of different classes as well as maximize their independence. In the first experiment, two-dimensional artificial data are applied to the proposed SICA algorithm to see how maximizing Mahalanobis distance works well in the feature extraction. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed SICA algorithm gives good features with high separability as compared with principal component analysis and a conventional ICA. In the second experiment, the recognition performance of features extracted by the proposed SICA is evaluated using the three data sets of UCI Machine Learning Repository. From the results, we show that the better recognition accuracy is obtained using our proposed SICA. Furthermore, we show that pattern features extracted by SICA are better than those extracted by only maximizing the Mahalanobis distance.

  15. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    PubMed

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  16. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  17. Equivalent water height extracted from GRACE gravity field model with robust independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Mu, Dapeng; Liu, Xin; Yan, Haoming; Dai, Honglei

    2014-08-01

    The Level-2 monthly GRACE gravity field models issued by Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungs Zentrum (GFZ), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are treated as observations used to extract the equivalent water height (EWH) with the robust independent component analysis (RICA). The smoothing radii of 300, 400, and 500 km are tested, respectively, in the Gaussian smoothing kernel function to reduce the observation Gaussianity. Three independent components are obtained by RICA in the spatial domain; the first component matches the geophysical signal, and the other two match the north-south strip and the other noises. The first mode is used to estimate EWHs of CSR, JPL, and GFZ, and compared with the classical empirical decorrelation method (EDM). The EWH STDs for 12 months in 2010 extracted by RICA and EDM show the obvious fluctuation. The results indicate that the sharp EWH changes in some areas have an important global effect, like in Amazon, Mekong, and Zambezi basins.

  18. Comparison of antifungal activity of extracts from different Juglans regia cultivars and juglone.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, D; Garbaczewska, S; Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A; Dawidowicz, A L; Jankowska, A

    2016-11-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components. This fact allows us to conclude that juglone is not the only component of walnut green husk extracts which is responsible for the inhibition of mycelial growth. Phenolic compounds were found to be responsible for activity of the extracts and they can modify antifungal activity of juglone.

  19. Group Component Analysis for Multiblock Data: Common and Individual Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Zhang, Yu; Mandic, Danilo P

    2016-11-01

    Real-world data are often acquired as a collection of matrices rather than as a single matrix. Such multiblock data are naturally linked and typically share some common features while at the same time exhibiting their own individual features, reflecting the underlying data generation mechanisms. To exploit the linked nature of data, we propose a new framework for common and individual feature extraction (CIFE) which identifies and separates the common and individual features from the multiblock data. Two efficient algorithms termed common orthogonal basis extraction (COBE) are proposed to extract common basis is shared by all data, independent on whether the number of common components is known beforehand. Feature extraction is then performed on the common and individual subspaces separately, by incorporating dimensionality reduction and blind source separation techniques. Comprehensive experimental results on both the synthetic and real-world data demonstrate significant advantages of the proposed CIFE method in comparison with the state-of-the-art.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Terminalia catappa root.

    PubMed

    Pawar, S P; Pal, S C

    2002-06-01

    The effect against bacteria of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C), chloroform and methanolic extract of dried root of Terminalia catappa Linn. (combrataceae) was employed by cup plate agar diffusion method. The chloroform extract showed prominent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli as compared to other tested microorganisms, while petroleum ether extract was devoid of antimicrobial activity. The methanolic: extract exhibited MIC of 0.065 mg/ml against E. coli. and chloroform extract exhibited MIC of 0.4 mg/ml against S. aureus The chloroform has well as methanolic extracts showed good antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms.

  1. Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniela A; Salvador, Ana Augusta; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2013-04-10

    The possibility of increasing the aggregated value of the huge amount of residues generated by wineries around the world foment studies using the grape pomace - the residue from the wine production, composed by seed, skin and stems - to obtain functional ingredients. Nowadays, consumers in general prefer natural and safe products mainly for food and cosmetic fields, where the supercritical fluid extraction is of great importance due to the purity of the extracts provided. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the global extraction yield, the antimicrobial activity and the composition profile of Merlot and Syrah grape pomace extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and CO2 added with co-solvent at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures of 50 and 60 °C. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Soxhlet and by ultrasound-assisted leaching extraction methods. The main components from the extracts, identified by HPLC, were gallic acid, p-OH-benzoic acid, vanillic acid and epicatechin. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were evaluated using four strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi strains (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei). Despite lower extraction yield results, the supercritical fluid extracts presented the highest antimicrobial effectiveness compared to the other grape pomace extracts due to the presence of antimicrobial active compounds. Syrah extracts were less efficient against the microorganisms tested and Merlot extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Mango extracts and the mango component mangiferin promote endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Daud, Noor Huda; Aung, Cho Sanda; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Wilkinson, Ashley S; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2010-04-28

    This study tested the hypothesis that mango extracts contain bioactive molecules capable of modulating endothelial cell migration, an essential step in the formation of new blood vessels or angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels is an important therapeutic target for diseases such as limb ischemia, coronary infarction or stroke. We examined the effect of mango peel and flesh extracts as well as the individual polyphenolic molecules, mangiferin and quercetin, on bovine aortic cell migration using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Our results show that mangiferin, and extracts rich in mangiferin, increase endothelial cell migration. The dose-effect relationship for various extracts further suggests that this action of mangiferin is modulated by other components present in the extracts. The promigratory effect of mango extracts or mangiferin was unrelated to an effect on cell proliferation, and did not involve a change in the production of matrix metalloprotease-2 or -9 by the endothelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin present in mango extracts may have health promoting effects in diseases related to the impaired formation of new blood vessels.

  3. Comparison of cytotoxic activities of extracts from Selaginella species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Lei, Xiang; Chen, Ke-li

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selaginella species are resurrection plants, which are known, possess various molecular bioactivities depending on species, but only a few species have been detailed observe in the advanced research. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compare the chemical profiles of different species of Selaginella and to investigate cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis activities of some species of Selaginella. Materials and Methods: The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for chemical analysis. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and water-soluble extracts from seven Selaginella species were submitted to 3-(4,5-dimenthyl thizol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) laddering analysis and caspase-3 expression using Bel-7402, HT-29 and HeLa cells. Results: The HPLC analysis revealed two major common peaks, which were identified as amentoflavone and robustaflavone and another three main peaks in their chromatograms. The results showed that S. labordei, Selaginella tamariscina and Selaginella uncinata had relatively stronger activities on Bel-7402 and HeLa cells and Selaginella moellendorfii had moderate antiproliferation activities, but Selaginella remotifolia and Selaginella pulvinata had almost no inhibitory activities. The main active components were in the ethyl acetate extracts which had abundant biflavonoids. The effects of these extracts on cell proliferation and apoptosis in different cells were not the same, they were more apparent on HeLa cells than on HT-29 cells. The assay of DNA laddering analysis and caspase-3 expression further confirmed that inducing cell apoptosis was one of antitumor mechanisms and antitumor activities of Selaginella species were related to apoptosis induced by caspase family. Conclusion: S. labordei, S. tamariscina and S. uncinata would be potential antitumor agents. PMID:25422557

  4. Molecular characteristics of Illicium verum extractives to activate acquired immune response

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wanxi; Lin, Zhi; Wang, Lansheng; Chang, Junbo; Gu, Fangliang; Zhu, Xiangwei

    2015-01-01

    Illicium verum, whose extractives can activate the demic acquired immune response, is an expensive medicinal plant. However, the rich extractives in I. verum biomass were seriously wasted for the inefficient extraction and separation processes. In order to further utilize the biomedical resources for the good acquired immune response, the four extractives were obtained by SJYB extraction, and then the immunology moleculars of SJYB extractives were identified and analyzed by GC–MS. The result showed that the first-stage extractives contained 108 components including anethole (40.27%), 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (4.25%), etc.; the second-stage extractives had 5 components including anethole (84.82%), 2-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-n-methyl-acetamide (7.11%), etc.; the third-stage extractives contained one component namely anethole (100%); and the fourth-stage extractives contained 5 components including cyclohexyl-benzene (64.64%), 1-(1-methylethenyl)-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene (17.17%), etc. The SJYB extractives of I. verum biomass had a main retention time between 10 and 20 min what’s more, the SJYB extractives contained many biomedical moleculars, such as anethole, eucalyptol, [1S-(1α,4aα,10aβ)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, stigmast-4-en-3-one, γ-sitosterol, and so on. So the functional analytical results suggested that the SJYB extractives of I. verum had a function in activating the acquired immune response and a huge potential in biomedicine. PMID:27081359

  5. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    PubMed

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  6. Trypanocidal activity of extracts and fractions of Bertholletia excelsa.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francinete R; Januário, Ana H; Rosas, Lisandra V; Nascimento, Samara K R; Pereira, Paulo S; França, Suzelei C; Cordeiro, Milade S C; Toldo, Miriam P A; Albuquerque, Sérgio

    2005-01-01

    Crude extracts and fractions of Bertholletia excelsa stem barks were tested for trypanocidal activity. Acetone and methanol extracts showed significant in vitro trypanocidal activity against trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi since in the concentration of 500 microg/ml, the parasites were reduced in 100% and 90.3% respectively, whereas the triterpene betulinic acid pure isolated from hexane extract presented 75.4%.

  7. Semantic-Aware Components and Services of ActiveMath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Erica; Goguadze, Giorgi; Homik, Martin; Libbrecht, Paul; Ullrich, Carsten; Winterstein, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    ActiveMath is a complex web-based adaptive learning environment with a number of components and interactive learning tools. The basis for handling semantics of learning content is provided by its semantic (mathematics) content markup, which is additionally annotated with educational metadata. Several components, tools and external services can…

  8. RPCA-KFE: Key Frame Extraction for Video Using Robust Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chinh; Radha, Hayder

    2015-11-01

    Key frame extraction algorithms consider the problem of selecting a subset of the most informative frames from a video to summarize its content. Several applications, such as video summarization, search, indexing, and prints from video, can benefit from extracted key frames of the video under consideration. Most approaches in this class of algorithms work directly with the input video data set, without considering the underlying low-rank structure of the data set. Other algorithms exploit the low-rank component only, ignoring the other key information in the video. In this paper, a novel key frame extraction framework based on robust principal component analysis (RPCA) is proposed. Furthermore, we target the challenging application of extracting key frames from unstructured consumer videos. The proposed framework is motivated by the observation that the RPCA decomposes an input data into: 1) a low-rank component that reveals the systematic information across the elements of the data set and 2) a set of sparse components each of which containing distinct information about each element in the same data set. The two information types are combined into a single l1-norm-based non-convex optimization problem to extract the desired number of key frames. Moreover, we develop a novel iterative algorithm to solve this optimization problem. The proposed RPCA-based framework does not require shot(s) detection, segmentation, or semantic understanding of the underlying video. Finally, experiments are performed on a variety of consumer and other types of videos. A comparison of the results obtained by our method with the ground truth and with related state-of-the-art algorithms clearly illustrates the viability of the proposed RPCA-based framework.

  9. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  10. Identification of volatile components in Phyllanthus emblica L. and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Mouming; Luo, Wei; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Yueming

    2009-04-01

    The volatile components and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation (HD-EO) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-EO) were investigated. The compositions of volatile compounds in these oils were tentatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activites of these two extracts were investigated with microbiological tests against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi. The main components of both oils were beta-caryophyllene, beta-bourbonene, 1-octen-3-ol, thymol, and methyleugenol. Both essential oils showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the investigated oils than Gram-negative bacteria. SFE-EO exhibited a higher antifungal activity compared to HD-EO.

  11. [Comparison of protective effects of eight ethyl acetate extracts from Eclipta prostrate on NHBE cells based on component structure theory].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shu-Min; Liu, Dan; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-08-01

    To analyze and compare the protective effects of active components in different ethyl acetate extracts (EAEEPs) from Eclipta prostrate, in order to study the comparison of materials bases protecting normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. The MTT assay was taken to compare the protective effect of different EAEEPs on cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) -induced NHBE cells. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was applied to analyze the content of phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEPs. According to the results, all of the eight EAEEPs (0-200 mg x L(-1)) showed certain protective effect on NHBE cells, with statistical difference. Specifically, the total mass of EAEEP VII (89.15 mg x L(-1)) and EAEEP VIII (57.44 mg x L(-1)), which showed the strongest activity, was not the highest, while EAEEP III (132.25 mg x L(-1)) displayed the highest total mass. In the combination with the "component structure" theory, the analysis showed a significant difference in the mass structure among phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEP VIII and EAEEP VIII, which were 1.0: 1. 0: 0.5 and 1.0: 1.9: 0.8, respectively. The results suggested a specific optimal "component structure" relationship may exist in EAEEP, which could provide reference for the material base study and quality control.

  12. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products.

  13. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10–30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy. PMID:28207892

  14. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.

  15. [Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive components in Ligusticum chuanxiong by orthogonal array design].

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Cui; Wu, Xun; Yang, Xue-Dong

    2013-10-01

    With the yields of ferulic acid, coniferylferulate, Z-ligustilide, senkyunolide A, butylidenephthalide, butylphthalide, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, riligustilide, levistolide A, and total pharmacologically active ingredient as evaluation indexes, the extraction of Ligusticum chuanxiong by supercritical fluid technology was investigated through an orthogonal experiment L9 (3(4)). Four factors, namely temperature, pressure, flow rate of carbon dioxide, co-solvent concentration of the supercritical fluid, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, namely 65 degrees C of temperature, 35 MPa of pressure, 1 L x min(-1) of CO2 flow rate, 8% of co-solvent concetration, supercritical fluid extraction could achieve a better yield than the conventional reflux extraction using methanol. And the supercritical fluid extraction process was validated to be stable and reliable.

  16. Effect of sample pretreatment on the extraction of lemon (Citrus limon) components.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D

    2016-06-01

    A study on the key role of lemon sample pretreatment on the analytical results is here presented. The objective of the study was to analyze the differences between extracts obtained from lyophilized and air-dried samples-the most common sample pretreatment in citrus studies-in comparison to extracts from fresh samples. All the extracts were obtained with ultrasound assistance and analyzed by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The dataset, constituted by 74 tentative identified metabolites, was first evaluated by ANOVA, which showed significant differences in the concentration of 44 out of 74 metabolites (p≤0.01). Also, the pairwise mean comparison (Tukey HSD; p≤0.01) revealed that the concentration of metabolites in the extracts from fresh and air-dried samples was quite similar and differed from that in lyophilized samples. On the other hand, application of principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between pretreatments, explaining 86.20% of the total variability. The results of this study suggest that the main differences between extracts could be attributed to the effect of freezing or heating on metabolic pathways, and not only to thermolability of the compounds.

  17. EEG artifact elimination by extraction of ICA-component features using image processing algorithms.

    PubMed

    Radüntz, T; Scouten, J; Hochmuth, O; Meffert, B

    2015-03-30

    Artifact rejection is a central issue when dealing with electroencephalogram recordings. Although independent component analysis (ICA) separates data in linearly independent components (IC), the classification of these components as artifact or EEG signal still requires visual inspection by experts. In this paper, we achieve automated artifact elimination using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for classification of feature vectors extracted from ICA components via image processing algorithms. We compare the performance of this automated classifier to visual classification by experts and identify range filtering as a feature extraction method with great potential for automated IC artifact recognition (accuracy rate 88%). We obtain almost the same level of recognition performance for geometric features and local binary pattern (LBP) features. Compared to the existing automated solutions the proposed method has two main advantages: First, it does not depend on direct recording of artifact signals, which then, e.g. have to be subtracted from the contaminated EEG. Second, it is not limited to a specific number or type of artifact. In summary, the present method is an automatic, reliable, real-time capable and practical tool that reduces the time intensive manual selection of ICs for artifact removal. The results are very promising despite the relatively small channel resolution of 25 electrodes.

  18. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.

  19. [Comparative analysis of ergogenic efficacy of energy drinks components (caffeine and bitter orange extract) in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Anuchin, A M; Iuvs, G G

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0.6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4.28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0.43 mg of synephrine per kg body weight. Animals in the control group received the same volume (7.1 ml/kg) 7.2% aqueous solution of ethanol. Group of animals consumed caffeine in mixture with alcohol and the control group exhibited a significant weight gain, while the body weight of animals treated with the extract of bitter orange didn't significantly change. Using the methodology of the open field the effects of caffeine and bitter orange extract in combination with alcohol on the ratio of the active components of the orienting-exploratory behavior and passive-defensive behavior have been determined. Administration of mixture with caffeine increased locomotory activity by 164%, administration of bitter orange extract didn't affect this performance. Introduction of caffeine containing mixture significantly reduced the level of situational anxiety, which was manifested in the reduction of time spent by the animal in the center of the arena. The effects of ergogenic components on the performance of static and dynamic muscle endurance have been investigated. Single administration of the mixture containing caffeine, after 30 min caused a significant increase in performance and, consequently, endurance of glycolytic muscle fibers measured using the "inverted grid" test. Animals from this group produced 186% more work compared with control animals. Acute

  20. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2012-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22 h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. They were also analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method and the β-carotene linoleate model assay. Moreover, the effects of different crude olive leaf extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 40°C and sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (10% o/w) at 37°C, at a final concentration of crude extract 200 mg kg(-1) oil, were tested and compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene.

  1. Galangal pungent component, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, activates TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Koizumi, Kanako; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kubota, Kikue; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the activation of transient receptor potential cation channel (TRP) subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and TRP subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) by 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), the main pungent component in galangal. ACA did not activate TRPV1-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, but strongly activated TRPA1-expressing HEK cells. ACA was more potent than allyl isothiocyanate, the typical TRPA1 agonist.

  2. Photoprotective and Antimutagenic Activity of Agaricus subrufescens Basidiocarp Extracts.

    PubMed

    da Costa, M C D; Regina, M; Cilião Filho, M; Linde, G A; do Valle, J S; Paccola-Meirelles, L D; Colauto, N B

    2015-10-01

    The photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of opened and closed basidiocarps of Agaricus subrufescens (=A. blazei; =A. brasiliensis) obtained by different extraction methods were evaluated on Aspergillus nidulans conidia submitted to ultraviolet (UV) light. The aqueous extracts were obtained by three extraction methods: maceration, infusion, and decoction, at two different extraction times. The extracts of A. subrufescens did not present toxicity for A. nidulans conidia. A suspension of A. nidulans conidia was submitted to extracts before and after the exposure to UV light. All basidiocarp extracts, regardless of the extraction method or development stage, protected A. nidulans conidia against the damaging effects of the mutagenic agent. The antimutagenic and photoprotective activity was strengthened with extracts obtained by 168-h maceration, followed by 24-h maceration and 60-min infusion and, at last, by 30-min infusion. Although the extracts presented protector effect as well as recoverer effect to the action of UV light, the preventive effect was more evident. Differences in the biological activity in function of the different development stages were detected with greater antimutagenic and photoprotective activity for the opened basidiocarps. However, the extraction method is the most important factor to be considered when compared to the basidiocarp development stage to obtain better antimutagenic and photoprotective activity of A. subrufescens basidiocarps.

  3. Screening of a Marine Algal Extract for Antifungal Activities.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Graciliana; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years algal extracts have become increasingly interesting to the scientific community due to their promising biological properties. Phlorotannin extracts are particularly attractive partly due to their reported antifungal activity against several yeast and dermatophyte strains.The micromethod used for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) represents an effective and solvent-saving procedure to evaluate the antifungal activity of algae extracts. Here we describe the micromethod for determining the MIC and the MLC of algal extracts by using the example of a purified phlorotannin extract of brown algae.

  4. Antibacterial activity of various leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata

    PubMed Central

    Elumalai, EK; Ramachandran, M; Thirumalai, T; Vinothkumar, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata (M. emarginata). Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of M. emarginata were evaluated by agar well diffusion method against four selected bacterial species. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, amino acids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in the different leaf extracts was established. The methanol extract was more effective against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, whereas aqueous extract was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions : The results in the present study suggest that M. emarginata leaf can be used in treating diseases caused by the tested organisms. PMID:23569802

  5. Phytochemical components and biological activities of Silene arenarioides Desf.

    PubMed

    Golea, Lynda; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Lavaud, Catherine; Long, Christophe; Haba, Hamada

    2017-02-24

    In this study, six known compounds 1-6 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these compounds were identified as maltol glycoside (1), soyacerebroside I (2), chrysin (3), apigenin (4), quercetin (5) and stigmasterol glucoside (6). The compounds (1) and (2) are reported for the first time from this genus. The isolated compounds were determined using NMR techniques ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts and of compound (1) have been evaluated. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH radical scavenging method, which showed that methanol extract possesses a good antioxidant activity with value of IC50 = 8.064 ± 0.005 μg/mL.

  6. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Adonis coerulea Maxim. against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiao-Fei; Miao, Xiao-Lou; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Li, Jian-Xi; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Yan, Zuo-Ting; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yu; He, Xi-Rui; Pan, Hu

    2013-07-01

    The acaricidal activity of Adonis coerulea extracts was investigated against Psoroptes cuniculi. The aqueous, methanol, acetic ether and petroleum ether extracts all showed marked acaricidal activity in vitro. Especially, the acetic ether extract possessed strong toxicity against mites in vitro with LT50 values 0.743 h, 2.730 h, 5.919 h and 22.536 h at concentrations of 500, 250, 125 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively. At the same time, the acetic ether extract showed the best effectiveness topically to infested rabbits in vivo. After three times treatment, at the day 20, rabbits treated with A. coerulea extract were observed only small scabs or secretions in ear canal, but no mites. These findings suggested that as a potential insecticide, A. coerulea should be studied further to develop active components or a new acaricidal drug.

  7. Real-time system for extracting and monitoring the cerebral functional component during fNIRS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toru; Ohashi, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can non-invasively detect hemodynamic changes associated with cerebral neural activation in human subjects. However, its signal is often affected by changes in the optical characteristics of tissues in the head other than brain. To conduct fNIRS measurements precisely and efficiently, the extraction and realtime monitoring of the cerebral functional component is crucial. We previously developed methods for extracting the cerebral functional component—the multidistance optode arrangement (MD) method and the hemodynamic modality separation (HMS) method. In this study, we implemented these methods in a software used with the fNIRS system OEG- 17APD (Spectratech, Japan), and realized a real-time display of the extracted results. When using this system for human subject experiments, the baselines obtained with the MD and HMS methods were highly stabilized, whereas originally, the fNIRS signal fluctuated significantly when the subject moved. Through a functional experiment with repetitive single-sided hand clasping tasks, the extracted signals showed distinctively higher reproducibility than that obtained in the conventional measurements.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO₂ extraction and hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO₂ extraction in optimum conditions were β-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), β-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and α-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were β-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), β-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and α-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO₂ and hydro-distillation showed an EC₅₀ of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively.

  9. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber extract.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Daniele; Wigg, Marcia D; Miranda, Mônica M F S; Rodrigues, Hugo M; Tostes, João B F; Rozental, Sonia; da Silva, Antonio J R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2002-12-01

    The decoction of Cocos nucifera L. husk fiber has been used in northeastern Brazil traditional medicine for treatment of diarrhea and arthritis. Water extract obtained from coconut husk fiber and fractions from adsorption chromatography revealed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extract and one of the fractions rich in catechin also showed inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1-ACVr). All fractions were inactive against the fungi Candida albicans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cryptococcus neoformans. Catechin and epicatechin together with condensed tannins (B-type procyanidins) were demonstrated to be the components of the water extract.

  10. Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy.

  11. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W.; Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined

  12. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  13. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin.

  14. Quality and antitumour activity evaluation of extract of Hypericum ascyron.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Mei; Luo, Xue-Gang; Ma, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Wen; Ma, De-Yun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-01-01

    Similarity assessment of complex chromatographic profiles is a potential tool for the identification and quality control of herbal medicinal products to guarantee the expected biological activity. In this paper, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was established for controlling the quality of extract of Hypericum ascyron for the first time. With this method, the correlation coefficients of similarity of 10 batches extract of H. ascyron were >0.97. The extract of H. ascyron displayed steadily inhibitorty activities on the growth of human cervical cancer Hela cell lines. Therefore, the present study successfully set up a sensitive efficient method which might confirm stable biological activity of the extract of H. ascyron.

  15. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F; Brown, Austin; Spaethe, Johannes; Schmitt, Thomas; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a 'dance' behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL) neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol). The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors.

  16. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Brown, Austin; Spaethe, Johannes; Schmitt, Thomas; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a ‘dance’ behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL) neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol). The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors. PMID:26340263

  17. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  18. Optimisation of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oil components of Diplotaenia cachrydifolia: Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil of Diplotaenia cachrydifolia cultivated in Iran was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method. The oils were analysed by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation and mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70 eV). The effects of different parameters, such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume and extraction times (dynamic and static), on the SFE were inspected by a fractional factorial design (2(5-2)) to identify the significant parameters and their interaction. It showed that static and dynamic times had no effect on the extraction. Finally, a Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the optimum condition of the significant parameters. The optimal condition was obtained as 30.2 MPa for pressure, 65.6°C for temperature and 258.4 µL for modifier volume. The main components that were extracted with SFE were dillapiole (35.1%), limonene (33.5%) and α-calacorene (25.5%).

  19. Macroalga Padina pavonica water extracts obtained by pressurized liquid extraction and microwave-assisted extraction inhibit hyaluronidase activity as shown by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Syntia; Nehmé, Reine; Tannoury, Mona; Lesellier, Eric; Pichon, Chantal; Morin, Philippe

    2017-03-20

    Hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid, the principal component of the extracellular matrix. Inhibition of this enzyme is thus expected to hinder skin aging. Brown alga Padina pavonica activity toward hyaluronidase was evaluated using capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzymatic assays. This green technique allows evaluation of the biological activity of the natural material in an economic manner. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction and electroporation extraction techniques were used. Extraction conditions were optimized to obtain cosmetically acceptable Padina pavonica extracts with the best inhibition activity. CE-based assays were conducted using only a few nanoliters of reactants, a capillary of 60cm total length and of 50μm internal diameter, +20kV voltage for separation in 50mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 9.0) and 200nm wavelength for detection. The reaction mixture was incubated for 1h and CE analysis time was about 11min. A novel online CE-assay using transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles for in-capillary reactant mixing allowed efficient monitoring of hyaluronidase kinetics with Km and Vmax equal to 0.46±0.04mgmL(-1) and 137.1±0.3nMs(-1) (r(2)=0.99; n=3), respectively. These values compared well with literature, which validates the assay. Water extracts obtained by PLE (60°C; 2 cycles) and MAE (60°C; 1000W; 2min) presented the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity. The half maximal effective concentration (IC50) of water PLE extract was 0.04±0.01mgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.99; n=3). This value is comparable to the one obtained for Einsenia bicyclis phlorotannin fractions (IC50=0.03mgmL(-1)), which makes Padina pavonica bioactivity very promising.

  20. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution.

  1. Separation of the Components of a Commercial Analgesic Tablet: A Two-Week Sequence Comparing Purification by Two-Base Extraction and Column Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    A new laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two benchtop separation methods to isolate the three active components of the commercial analgesic Excedrin. In the two-week sequence, aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine are separated using either a two-base liquid-liquid extraction or silica column chromatography. Students then…

  2. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds.

  3. Precession missile feature extraction using sparse component analysis of radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lihua; Du, Xiaoyong; Ghogho, Mounir; Hu, Weidong; McLernon, Des

    2012-12-01

    According to the working mode of the ballistic missile warning radar (BMWR), the radar return from the BMWR is usually sparse. To recognize and identify the warhead, it is necessary to extract the precession frequency and the locations of the scattering centers of the missile. This article first analyzes the radar signal model of the precessing conical missile during flight and develops the sparse dictionary which is parameterized by the unknown precession frequency. Based on the sparse dictionary, the sparse signal model is then established. A nonlinear least square estimation is first applied to roughly extract the precession frequency in the sparse dictionary. Based on the time segmented radar signal, a sparse component analysis method using the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is then proposed to jointly estimate the precession frequency and the scattering centers of the missile. Simulation results illustrate the validity of the proposed method.

  4. Chemical composition and antidiabetic activity of Opuntia Milpa Alta extracts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Zheng, Chengjian; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan

    2010-12-01

    Three new compounds, 1-3, and 20 known compounds were isolated from the AcOEt and BuOH extract of edible Opuntia Milpa Alta. The petroleum ether extract was examined by GC and MS. A total of 26 compounds were identified, representing 95.6% of the total extract, phytosterol (36.03%) being the most abundant component, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (18.57%) represented the second largest group, followed by phytol (12.28%), palmitic acid, palmitate (13.54%), vitamin E (4.51%), and other compounds (7.47%). The effects of various extracts from edible Opuntia Milpa Alta (petroleum ether extract, AcOEt extract, BuOH extract, aqueous extract, H₂O parts) and the positive control (received dimethylbiguanide) were tested on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results indicated that all the treatment groups could significantly decrease blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice compared to the model control group (P<0.01), except the aqueous extract group (P<0.05). Especially, the petroleum ether extract group and the positive control group showed remarkable decrease of blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results indicate that the petroleum ether extract is the major hypoglycemic part in edible Opuntia Milpa Alta, which may be developed to a potential natural hypoglycemic functional ingredient.

  5. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Cosentino, Sofia; Viale, Silvia; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Esposito, Francesca; Tramontano, Enzo; Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria; Pintus, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer's disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods. PMID:27314007

  6. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Soares, Alexandra Martins dos Santos; de Araújo, Sandra Alves; Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Costa Junior, Livio Martins

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract), SE (shell extract) and CE (cotyledon extract). Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL-1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL-1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50) was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL-1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts.

  7. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  8. Extracting S-parameters of bilateral electro-optic network for lightwave component analyzer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, D.; Levchenko, A.; Korotkov, K.

    2015-11-01

    A new method for extracting E/O and O/E S-parameters of a bilateral electro-optic network (BEON) is theoretically proposed. It is based on measuring reflection coefficients from three optical loads: an absorber and two mirrors. This technique includes two series of reflections measurements: first when loads are connected to optical port of BEON directly and second when loads are connected in series with optical waveguide of fixed length. Using two BEONs and this calibration technique allows to make calibrated lightwave measurements with a standard microwave network analyzer without using additional electro-optical equipment such as lightwave component analyzer or optical heterodyne techniques.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sudjana, Aurelia N; D'Orazio, Carla; Ryan, Vanessa; Rasool, Nooshin; Ng, Justin; Islam, Nabilah; Riley, Thomas V; Hammer, Katherine A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.

  10. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  11. Modelling and extraction procedure for gate insulator and fringing gate capacitance components of an MIS structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco, J. C.; Martinez-Lopez, A. G.; Lezama, G.; Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Cerdeira, A.; Estrada, M.

    2016-07-01

    CMOS technology has been guided by the continuous reduction of MOS transistors used to fabricate integrated circuits. Additionally, the use of high-k dielectrics as well as a metal gate electrode have promoted the development of nanometric MOS transistors. Under this scenario, the proper modelling of the gate capacitance, with the aim of adequately evaluating the dielectric film thickness, becomes challenging for nanometric metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures due to the presence of extrinsic fringing capacitance components which affect the total gate capacitance. In this contribution, a complete intrinsic-extrinsic model for gate capacitance under accumulation of an MIS structure, together with an extraction procedure in order to independently determine the different capacitance components, is presented. ATLAS finite element simulation has been used to validate the proposed methodology.

  12. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents.

  13. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Sonchus oleraceus L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Kwon, Gu-Joong; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated in vitro antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus L. by extraction solvent, which were examined by reducing power, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity(HRSA) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. 70% MeOH extract had the greatest reducing power while EtOH extract had the greatest HRSA. The antioxidant activity of S. oleraceus extracts was concentration dependent and its IC(50) values ranged from 47.1 to 210.5 microg/ml and IC(50) of 70% MeOH, boiling water and 70% EtOH extracts were 47.1, 52.7 and 56.5 microg/ml, respectively. 70% MeOH extract of S. oleraceus contained the greatest amount of both phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extracts tested had greater nitrite scavenging effects at lower pH conditions. The cytotoxic activity showed that EtOH extract had the best activity against the growth of stomach cancer cell. These results suggest that S. oleraceus extract could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Evaluation of anti-cancer activity of Acanthester planci extracts obtained by different methods of extraction.

    PubMed

    Mutee, Ahmed Faisal; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Ghazali, Farid Che; Aisha, Abdalrahim Fa; Lim, Chung Pin; Ibrahim, Kamarruddin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-10-01

    Acanthaster planci, the crown-of-thorns starfish, naturally endowed with the numerous toxic spines around the dorsal area of its body. Scientific investigations demonstrated several toxico-pharmacological efficacies of A. planci such as, myonecrotic activity, hemorrhagic activity, hemolytic activity, mouse lethality, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, capillary permeability-increasing activity, edema-forming activity, anticoagulant activity and histamine-releasing activity from mast cells. The present study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of A. planci extracts obtained by different methods of extraction on MCF-7 and HCT-116, human breast and colon cancer cell lines, respectively. Results of the cell proliferation assay showed that PBS extract exhibited very potent cytotoxic activity against both MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines with IC(50) of 13.48 μg/mL and 28.78 μg/mL, respectively, while the extracts prepared by Bligh and Dyer method showed moderate cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines, for chloroform extract, IC(50) = 121.37 μg/mL (MCF-7) and 77.65 μg/mL (HCT-116), and for methanol extract, IC(50) = 46.11 μg/mL (MCF-7) and 59.29 μg/mL (HCT-116). However, the extracts prepared by sequential extraction procedure from dried starfish found to be ineffective. This study paves the way for further investigation on the peptide composition in the PBS extract of the starfish to discover potential chemotherapeutic agents.

  15. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of plant extract of Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, B Vishwanath; Tejaswini, M; Nishal, P; Pardhu, G; Shylaja, S; Kumar, Kranthi Ch

    2013-05-01

    Natural products continue to play an important role in the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. Several chemical compounds have been extracted and identified from its species known as Lantana camara (L .camara). The present study was designed for phytochemical analysis of L. camara and extraction of bioactive compound by HPLC. This also included the antimicrobial activity of the bioactive compound obtained by crude extract and the column extract. The study showed the presence of the bioactive component parthenin extracted from the HPLC analysis at a peak height of 10.3807 and it was showing antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and E. fecalis, crude (6.8 to 8.1 mm ) and column (4.0 to 6.2 mm) zone of inhibition.

  16. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  17. Enzymatic improvement in the polyphenol extractability and antioxidant activity of green tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang-Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Park, Yooheon; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Tae Young; Yu, Kwang-Won; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study describes increases in extraction efficiency and the bioconversion of catechins after treatment with several commercial enzymes. Tannase was also used to improve the anti-radical activities of green tea extracts. Enzymatic treatment with various commercial enzymes was introduced to improve the extraction efficiency of polyphenols. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and catechin contents and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the green tea extract treated with Viscozyme (VG) were significantly higher than those treated with other commercial enzymatic extractions (p<0.05). More than 95% of the epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and of the epicatechingallate (ECG) was hydrolyzed to epigallocatechin (EGC) and to epicatechin (EC) in successive 20 min treatments with Viscozyme and tannase (TG). Due to its hydrolytic activity, treatment involving tannase resulted in a significant release of gallic acid (GA), EGC, and EC, leading to greater radical scavenging activities. Regarding the IC(50) values of the DPPH and 2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, the green tea extract treated with TG showed values of 131.23 and 28.83 µg/mL, VG showed values of 224.70 and 32.54 µg/mL, and normal green tea extract (NG) showed values of 241.11 and 66.27 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that successive treatment with Viscozyme and tannase improves the extraction efficiency of polyphenols and increases radical scavenging activities.

  18. Polysaccharides in Sipunculus nudus: Extraction condition optimization and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin; Dong, Lanfang; Tong, Tong; Wang, Qingchao; Xu, Mingzhu

    2017-02-01

    Marine organisms constitute unlimited resource of bioactive substances due to their high biodiversity and represent a valuable source of new compounds. This study optimized the alkali-extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of soluble polysaccharides from the body wall of Sipunculus nudus. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction duration, extraction temperature, and alkali concentration on the yield of S. nudus polysaccharides (SNP) were examined, according to which the optimal combination of extraction parameters was obtained by an orthogonal test. The relative influencing importance of different extraction parameters on the yield of SNP followed the order as solid-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > alkali concentration > extraction duration. The highest extraction yield, 1.98%, was achieved under an optimal extraction condition: temperature 60°C, solid-liquid ratio 1:6 g mL-1, duration 5 h, and alkali (NaOH) mass fraction 6%. The in vitro antioxidant activities examination showed that extracted SNP under this optimized condition had strong power in reducing certain hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging abilities. The promising results showed that extracted SNP could be a potent natural antioxidant.

  19. Exploiting periodicity to extract the atrial activity in atrial arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinares, Raul; Igual, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation disorders are one of the main arrhythmias of the elderly. The atrial and ventricular activities are decoupled during an atrial fibrillation episode, and very rapid and irregular waves replace the usual atrial P-wave in a normal sinus rhythm electrocardiogram (ECG). The estimation of these wavelets is a must for clinical analysis. We propose a new approach to this problem focused on the quasiperiodicity of these wavelets. Atrial activity is characterized by a main atrial rhythm in the interval 3-12 Hz. It enables us to establish the problem as the separation of the original sources from the instantaneous linear combination of them recorded in the ECG or the extraction of only the atrial component exploiting the quasiperiodic feature of the atrial signal. This methodology implies the previous estimation of such main atrial period. We present two algorithms that separate and extract the atrial rhythm starting from a prior estimation of the main atrial frequency. The first one is an algebraic method based on the maximization of a cost function that measures the periodicity. The other one is an adaptive algorithm that exploits the decorrelation of the atrial and other signals diagonalizing the correlation matrices at multiple lags of the period of atrial activity. The algorithms are applied successfully to synthetic and real data. In simulated ECGs, the average correlation index obtained was 0.811 and 0.847, respectively. In real ECGs, the accuracy of the results was validated using spectral and temporal parameters. The average peak frequency and spectral concentration obtained were 5.550 and 5.554 Hz and 56.3 and 54.4%, respectively, and the kurtosis was 0.266 and 0.695. For validation purposes, we compared the proposed algorithms with established methods, obtaining better results for simulated and real registers.

  20. Selective adsorption of flavor-active components on hydrophobic resins.

    PubMed

    Saffarionpour, Shima; Sevillano, David Mendez; Van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Noordman, T Reinoud; Brouwer, Eric; Ottens, Marcel

    2016-12-09

    This work aims to propose an optimum resin that can be used in industrial adsorption process for tuning flavor-active components or removal of ethanol for producing an alcohol-free beer. A procedure is reported for selective adsorption of volatile aroma components from water/ethanol mixtures on synthetic hydrophobic resins. High throughput 96-well microtiter-plates batch uptake experimentation is applied for screening resins for adsorption of esters (i.e. isoamyl acetate, and ethyl acetate), higher alcohols (i.e. isoamyl alcohol and isobutyl alcohol), a diketone (diacetyl) and ethanol. The miniaturized batch uptake method is adapted for adsorption of volatile components, and validated with column breakthrough analysis. The results of single-component adsorption tests on Sepabeads SP20-SS are expressed in single-component Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models and multi-component versions of Langmuir and Sips models are applied for expressing multi-component adsorption results obtained on several tested resins. The adsorption parameters are regressed and the selectivity over ethanol is calculated for each tested component and tested resin. Resin scores for four different scenarios of selective adsorption of esters, higher alcohols, diacetyl, and ethanol are obtained. The optimal resin for adsorption of esters is Sepabeads SP20-SS with resin score of 87% and for selective removal of higher alcohols, XAD16N, and XAD4 from Amberlite resin series are proposed with scores of 80 and 74% respectively. For adsorption of diacetyl, XAD16N and XAD4 resins with score of 86% are the optimum choice and Sepabeads SP2MGS and XAD761 resins showed the highest affinity towards ethanol.

  1. Dilated contour extraction and component labeling algorithm for object vector representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.

    2005-08-01

    Object boundary extraction from binary images is important for many applications, e.g., image vectorization, automatic interpretation of images containing segmentation results, printed and handwritten documents and drawings, maps, and AutoCAD drawings. Efficient and reliable contour extraction is also important for pattern recognition due to its impact on shape-based object characterization and recognition. The presented contour tracing and component labeling algorithm produces dilated (sub-pixel) contours associated with corresponding regions. The algorithm has the following features: (1) it always produces non-intersecting, non-degenerate contours, including the case of one-pixel wide objects; (2) it associates the outer and inner (i.e., around hole) contours with the corresponding regions during the process of contour tracing in a single pass over the image; (3) it maintains desired connectivity of object regions as specified by 8-neighbor or 4-neighbor connectivity of adjacent pixels; (4) it avoids degenerate regions in both background and foreground; (5) it allows an easy augmentation that will provide information about the containment relations among regions; (6) it has a time complexity that is dominantly linear in the number of contour points. This early component labeling (contour-region association) enables subsequent efficient object-based processing of the image information.

  2. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  3. Antiviral activity and mode of action of propolis extracts and selected compounds.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Paul; Neuner, Annett; Nolkemper, Silke; Zundel, Christine; Nowack, Hans; Sensch, Karl Heinz; Reichling, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of propolis were analysed phytochemically and examined for their antiviral activity in vitro. Different polyphenols, flavonoids and phenylcarboxylic acids were identified as major constituents. The antiviral effect of propolis extracts and selected constituents, e.g. caffeic acid (1), p-coumaric acid (2), benzoic acid (3), galangin (4), pinocembrin (5) and chrysin (6) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was analysed in cell culture. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aqueous and ethanol propolis extracts for HSV-1 plaque formation was determined at 0.0004% and 0.000035%, respectively. Both propolis extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests, plaque formation was significantly reduced by >98%. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of propolis, the extracts were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Both propolis extracts exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity when the viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Among the analysed compounds, only galangin and chrysin displayed some antiviral activity. However, the extracts containing many different components exhibited significantly higher antiherpetic effects as well as higher selectivity indices than single isolated constituents. Propolis extracts might be suitable for topical application against herpes infection.

  4. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  5. Self-sustained vibrations in volcanic areas extracted by Independent Component Analysis: a review and new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lauro, E.; de Martino, S.; Falanga, M.; Palo, M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the physical processes associated with volcanic tremor and explosions. A volcano is a complex system where a fluid source interacts with the solid edifice so generating seismic waves in a regime of low turbulence. Although the complex behavior escapes a simple universal description, the phases of activity generate stable (self-sustained) oscillations that can be described as a non-linear dynamical system of low dimensionality. So, the system requires to be investigated with non-linear methods able to individuate, decompose, and extract the main characteristics of the phenomenon. Independent Component Analysis (ICA), an entropy-based technique is a good candidate for this purpose. Here, we review the results of ICA applied to seismic signals acquired in some volcanic areas. We emphasize analogies and differences among the self-oscillations individuated in three cases: Stromboli (Italy), Erebus (Antarctica) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico). The waveforms of the extracted independent components are specific for each volcano, whereas the similarity can be ascribed to a very general common source mechanism involving the interaction between gas/magma flow and solid structures (the volcanic edifice). Indeed, chocking phenomena or inhomogeneities in the volcanic cavity can play the same role in generating self-oscillations as the languid and the reed do in musical instruments. The understanding of these background oscillations is relevant not only for explaining the volcanic source process and to make a forecast into the future, but sheds light on the physics of complex systems developing low turbulence.

  6. Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brandon J; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Craig, Teresa A; Mehring-Franklin, Cynthia E; Defreitas, Zoraida; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  8. Surface extraction from multi-material components for metrology using dual energy CT.

    PubMed

    Heinzl, Christoph; Kastner, Johann; Gröller, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for creating surface models of multi-material components using dual energy computed tomography (DECT). The application scenario is metrology and dimensional measurement in industrial high resolution 3D x-ray computed tomography (3DCT). Based on the dual source / dual exposure technology this method employs 3DCT scans of a high precision micro-focus and a high energy macro-focus x-ray source. The presented work makes use of the advantages of dual x-ray exposure technology in order to facilitate dimensional measurements of multi-material components with high density material within low density material. We propose a workflow which uses image fusion and local surface extraction techniques: a prefiltering step reduces noise inherent in the data. For image fusion the datasets have to be registered. In the fusion step the benefits of both scans are combined. The structure of the specimen is taken from the low precision, blurry, high energy dataset while the sharp edges are adopted and fused into the resulting image from the high precision, crisp, low energy dataset. In the final step a reliable surface model is extracted from the fused dataset using a local adaptive technique. The major contribution of this paper is the development of a specific workflow for dimensional measurements of multi-material industrial components, which takes two x-ray CT datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses into account. The performance of the workflow is discussed using a test specimen as well as two real world industrial parts. As result, a significant improvement in overall measurement precision, surface geometry and mean deviation to reference measurement compared to single exposure scans was facilitated.

  9. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    PubMed

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  10. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  11. Antifungal activity of heartwood extracts from three Juniperus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heartwood samples from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane, ethanol and methanol and the hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These three species represent the ...

  12. Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Markouk, M; Bekkouche, K; Larhsini, M; Bousaid, M; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    2000-11-01

    The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.

  13. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    PubMed

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  14. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-12-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance. A systematic evaluation of the evidence-based findings in these articles was then conducted. With the exception of some weak evidence for glucose and guaraná extract, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that components of EDs, other than caffeine, contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products.

  15. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    de Castilho, Adriana Lígia; da Silva, Juliana Paola Correa; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests’ plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and disk diffusion assay (DDA) using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™ and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 μg/mL), Diclinanona calycina (MIC ≤ 40 μg/mL) and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 μg/mL; MBC = 80 μg/mL) showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter) S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter) and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter) were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter) and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter) have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy. PMID:25477906

  16. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Activities in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Gloiopeltis tenax

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaojiao; Chen, Yicun; Yao, Fen; Chen, Weizhou; Shi, Ganggang

    2012-01-01

    Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax) is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO2-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)), lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction), and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical), compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.9 mg/mL), Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL), and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO2-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing. PMID:23342386

  17. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  18. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  19. Identification of Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts with Novel Anti-Influenza Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  20. Regulatory component analysis: a semi-blind extraction approach to infer gene regulatory networks with imperfect biological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Xuan, Jianhua; Shih, Ie-Ming; Clarke, Robert; Wang, Yue

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput biotechnology capable of monitoring genomic signals, it becomes increasingly promising to understand molecular cellular mechanisms through systems biology approaches. One of the active research topics in systems biology is to infer gene transcriptional regulatory networks using various genomic data; this inference problem can be formulated as a linear model with latent signals associated with some regulatory proteins called transcription factors (TFs). As common statistical assumptions may not hold for genomic signals, typical latent variable algorithms such as independent component analysis (ICA) are incapable to reveal underlying true regulatory signals. Liao et al. [1] proposed to perform inference using an approach named network component analysis (NCA), the optimization of which is achieved by a least-squares fitting approach with biological knowledge constraints. However, the incompleteness of biological knowledge and its inconsistency with gene expression data are not considered in the original NCA solution, which could greatly affect the inference accuracy. To overcome these limitations, we propose a linear extraction scheme, namely regulatory component analysis (RCA), to infer underlying regulatory signals even with partial biological knowledge. Numerical simulations show a significant improvement of our proposed RCA over NCA, not only when signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is low, but also when the given biological knowledge is incomplete and inconsistent to gene expression data. Furthermore, real biological experiments on E. coli are performed for regulatory network inference in comparison with several typical linear latent variable methods, which again demonstrates the effectiveness and improved performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:22685363

  1. Antiinflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, B; Avila, G; Segura, D; Escalante, B

    1996-12-01

    We studied the effects of aqueous, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Aloe vera gel on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw, and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity stimulated by carrageenan. We also studied the capacity of the aqueous extract to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity. The aqueous and chloroform extracts decreased the edema induced in the hind-paw and the number of neutrophils migrating into the peritoneal cavity, whereas the ethanol extract only decreased the number of neutrophils. The antiinflammatory agents indomethacin and dexamethasone also decreased carrageenan-induced edema and neutrophil migration. The aqueous extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production from [14C]arachidonic acid. The chemical tests performed in the aqueous extract for anthraglycosides, reductor sugars and cardiotonic glycosides were positive. In the ethanol extract, the chemical tests performed for saponins, carbohydrates naftoquinones, sterols, triterpenoids and anthraquinones were also positive. In the chloroform extract, the chemical tests performed for sterols type delta 5, and anthraquinones were positive. These results demonstrated that the extracts of Aloe vera gel have antiinflammatory activity and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase.

  2. A Fast Multi-Object Extraction Algorithm Based on Cell-Based Connected Components Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qingyi; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku

    We describe a cell-based connected component labeling algorithm to calculate the 0th and 1st moment features as the attributes for labeled regions. These can be used to indicate their sizes and positions for multi-object extraction. Based on the additivity in moment features, the cell-based labeling algorithm can label divided cells of a certain size in an image by scanning the image only once to obtain the moment features of the labeled regions with remarkably reduced computational complexity and memory consumption for labeling. Our algorithm is a simple-one-time-scan cell-based labeling algorithm, which is suitable for hardware and parallel implementation. We also compared it with conventional labeling algorithms. The experimental results showed that our algorithm is faster than conventional raster-scan labeling algorithms.

  3. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  4. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACT OF TRIANTHEMA DECANDRA

    PubMed Central

    Jaswanth, A.; Jagannathan, K.; Heisonrobert, S. Jerry; Loganathan, V.; Manimaran, S.; Ruckmani, K.

    2002-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Trianthema decandra was investigated for its antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2079), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2063), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NICIM 2036) and Proteus vulgaris (NICIM 2027) at 100 μg/disc using disc diffusion method. The extract showed significant antibacterial activity and were comparable to Chloramphenicol (30/ μg/disc). Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for this herb. PMID:22557045

  6. Metaproteomics: Evaluation of protein extraction from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Susan Hove; Stensballe, Allan; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Herbst, Florian-Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Metaproteomic studies of full-scale activated sludge systems require reproducible protein extraction methods. A systematic evaluation of three different extractions protocols, each in combination with three different methods of cell lysis, and a commercial kit were evaluated. Criteria used for comparison of each method included the extracted protein concentration and the number of identified proteins and peptides as well as their phylogenetic, cell localization and functional distribution and quantitative reproducibility. Furthermore, the advantage of using specific metagenomes and a 2-step database approach was illustrated. The results recommend a protocol for protein extraction from activated sludge based on the protein extraction reagent B-Per and bead beating. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000862 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000862).

  7. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  8. Optimization of dynamic headspace extraction of the edible red algae Palmaria palmata and identification of the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Marie-Annick; Grua-Priol, Joëlle; Prost, Carole; Demaimay, Michel

    2004-02-11

    A new extraction method was applied to the volatile compounds of Palmaria palmata. Dynamic headspace was optimized according to an experimental design, and descriptive sensory analysis and intensity and similarity tests were performed for each extract to assess their respective representativeness. Results showed that extract obtained with crushed algae after a 30 min purge was the most representative. GC-MS analysis was then performed on this extract to identify the volatile components. Seven halogenated compounds, seven aldehydes, two ketones, three alcohols, and four miscellaneous compounds were identified. Among them, halogenated compounds were the most characteristic of red algae, and more particularly, iodoethane and iodopentane, which had yet been found in other seaweeds.

  9. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  10. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity. PMID:22408418

  11. Effect of chlorogenic acid on antioxidant activity of Flos Lonicerae extracts*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lan

    2007-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is a medically useful traditional Chinese medicine herb. However, little is known about the antioxidant properties of Flos Lonicerae extracts. Here the antioxidant capacity of water, methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared from Flos Lonicerae to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ is examined. Chlorogenic acid, a major component of Flos Lonicerae, is identified and further purified from 70% ethanolic extract with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its antioxidant capacity is characterized. The total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid contents in Flos Lonicerae are determined. The present results demonstrate that the Flos Lonicerae extracts exhibit antioxidant activity and chlorogenic acid is a major contributor to this activity. PMID:17726749

  12. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective.

  13. Gating effects of component B on oxygen activation by the methane monooxygenase hydroxylase component.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Nesheim, J C; Lee, S K; Lipscomb, J D

    1995-10-20

    Component B (MMOB) of the soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) system accelerates the initial velocity of methane oxidation by up to 150-fold by an unknown mechanism. The active site of MMO contains a diferric, hydroxo-bridged diiron cluster located on the hydroxylase component (MMOH). This cluster is reduced by the NAD(P)H-coupled reductase component to the diferrous state, which then reacts with O2 to yield two reaction cycle intermediates sequentially termed compounds P and Q. The rate of compound P formation is shown here to be independent of O2 concentration, suggesting that an MMOH-O2 complex (compound O) is (congruent to irreversibly) formed before compound P. Compound Q is capable of reacting with hydrocarbons to yield the MMOH-product complex, compound T. It is shown here that MMOB accelerates catalysis by increasing congruent to 1000-fold the rate of O2 association and reaction with diferrous MMOH leading to compound P. Modeling of the single turnover reaction in the presence of substoichiometric MMOB suggests that MMOB also accelerates the compound P to Q conversion by congruent to 40-fold. Due to this O2-gating effect of MMOB, either compound Q or T becomes the dominant species during turnover, depending upon the substrate concentration and type. Because these are the species that either react with substrate (Q) or release product (T), their buildup maximizes the turnover rate. This is the first direct role in catalysis to be recognized for MMOB and represents a novel method for oxygenase regulation.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata.

    PubMed

    Murugan, T; Wins, J Albino; Murugan, M

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. 'For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by 'Zone of inhibition ≤12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols' and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, T.; Wins, J. Albino; Murugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. ‘For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by ‘Zone of inhibition ≤12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols’ and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata. PMID:23901174

  16. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of extractives from Wedelia calendulacea.

    PubMed

    Mottakin, A K M; Chowdhury, R; Haider, M S; Rahman, K M; Hasan, C M; Rashid, M A

    2004-06-01

    The cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Wedelia calendulacea were assayed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and standardized disk diffusion method against 19 bacterial strains. Three diterpenes isolated from the plant were also evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activities. The LC50 for the crude extracts against the brine shrimp nauplii were found to be 4.59 microg/ml, 7.99 microg/ml and 14.88 microg/ml, respectively, whereas the positive control, vincristine sulfate showed an LC50 of 0.58 microg/ml. Among the crude extracts and pure compounds tested, (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid isolated from the chloroform extract showed the highest inhibitory activity against most of the bacterial strains with mean zone of inhibition of 10-21 mm at 200 microg/disc.

  17. Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiaoxuan; Wintersteen, Carol L; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2002-03-27

    Characteristic aroma components of buckwheat honey were studied by combined sensory and instrumental techniques. Relative aroma intensity of individual volatile components was evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of solvent extracts and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) of decreasing headspace samples (GCO-H). Results indicated that 3-methylbutanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), and (E)-beta-damascenone were the most potent odorants in buckwheat honey, with 3-methylbutanal being primarily responsible for the distinct malty aroma. Other important aroma-active compounds included methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, maltol, vanillin, methional, coumarin, and p-cresol.

  18. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanol extract from Polygonum minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Noor Zarina Abd; Bunawan, Hamidun; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    A study was carried out to test the cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of methanolic extracts from the leaves and stem of Polygonum minus or kesum. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on Vero cells indicates the LC50 value for leaf extract towards the Vero cells was 875 mg/L and the LC50 value for stem extract was 95 mg/L. The LC50 values indidcate the non-cytotoxic effect of the extracts and worth for further testing. Antiviral test were carried out towards herpes simplex virus infected Vero cells using three concentration of extract which were equivalent to 1.0 LC50, 0.1 LC50 and 0.01 LC50. Three different treatments to detect antiviral activity were used. Mild antiviral activity of the stem extract was detected when cells were treated for 24 hours with plant extract before viral infection. This demonstrates the capability of the test compound to protect the cells from viral attachment and of the possible prophylactic effect of the P. minus stem methanol extract.

  19. Extraction and chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the active principles from selected Chinese herbs and other medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosuo; Kapoor, Vimal; Smythe, George A

    2003-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have a long history of use in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and a substantial body of evidence has, over recent decades, demonstrated a range of important pharmacological properties. Western biomedical researchers are examining not only the efficacy of the traditional herbal products but, through the use of a range of bioassays and analytical techniques, are developing improved methods to isolate and characterize active components. This review briefly describes the different extraction methodologies used in the preparation of herbal extracts and reviews the utility of chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of their active components. In particular, applications of gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the isolation and characterization of active components of ginseng are critically assessed. The analysis of toxic substances from herb extracts with mass spectrometric techniques is also discussed along with the potential for mass spectrometric methods to investigate the proteomics of herbal extracts.

  20. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Kemal; Kovac-Besovic, Elvira E.; Niksic, Haris; Muratovic, Samija; Sofic, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon) is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR), expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34) and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%. The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. PMID:26042507

  1. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  2. [Studies on acetylspiramycin. II. Biological activities of spiramycin components].

    PubMed

    Kondo, A; Sato, K; Shuto, K; Yamashita, K; Ichikawa, S; Takahashi, K; Kita, K; Nishiie, Y; Sano, H; Yamaguchi, K

    1990-09-01

    Acetylspiramycin (ASPM) was fractionated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak fractions were named F1 to F7 successively in order of increasing retention times (Rt), i.e., increasing hydrophobicity, and studied for 1) antibacterial activities (MIC), 2) antibacterial potency against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, 3) therapeutic effect on mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae III, Staphylococcus aureus Smith, 4) acute toxicity by i.p. administration to mice (LD50) and 5) cytotoxicities to fibroblasts derived from Chinese-hamster lung (CHL), cow pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAE) and rat hepatic cells. The results obtained are summarized below. 1. Components F1 and 4'-acetylspiramycin F2 had significantly different biological activities from those of other components: F1 showed the lowest antibacterial potency of 492 micrograms (potency)/mg, F2 showed the highest antibacterial potency of 2,040 micrograms (potency)/mg and correspondingly the lowest LD50 value of 692 mg/kg (the highest toxicity). The therapeutic effect of F2 on infections in mice was found to be the second smallest and was superior only to that of F1. The LD50 value of F1 was 1,200 mg/kg and similar to that of ASPM. 2. Antibacterial potencies of F3, F4, F5 and F6 were 1,165, 1,266, 1,374 and 1,530 micrograms (potency)/mg, respectively; fraction with the higher antibacterial activities corresponded to the longer retention times, i.e., the greater hydrophobicities. The most hydrophobic component, F7, 3-propionyl-3",4"-diacetylspiramycin, however, showed a low antibacterial potency of 1,085 micrograms (potency)/mg, next to the lowest one, F1, a fact which was in contradiction to with the sequential relation between hydrophobicities and potencies from F3 to F6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic activities of Hakea sericea Schrader extracts

    PubMed Central

    Luís, Ângelo; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Ferreira, Susana; Duarte, Ana Paula; Domingues, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hakea sericea Schrader is an invasive shrub in Portuguese forests. Objective: The goal of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of H. sericea extracts against several strains of microorganisms, including the ability to inhibit the formation of biofilms. Additionally the cytotoxic properties of these extracts, against human cells, were assessed. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts of H. sericea was assessed by disk diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value determination. The antibiofilm activity was determined by quantification of total biofilm biomass with crystal violet. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by hemolysis assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results: For Gram-positive bacteria, MIC values of H. sericea methanolic extracts ranged between 0.040 and 0.625 mg/mL, whereas the fruits extract yielded the lowest MIC for several strains of microorganisms, namely, S. aureus, B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Stems and fruits extract at 2.5 mg/mL effectively eradicated the biofilm of S. aureus ATCC 25923, SA 01/10 and MRSA 12/10. Regarding leaves extract, hemolysis was not observed, and in the case of stems and fruits, hemolysis was verified only for higher concentrations, suggesting its low toxicity. Fruits extract presented no toxic effect to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) cells however for concentrations of 0.017 and 0.008 mg/mL this extract was able to decrease human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) viability in about 60%, as MTT test results had confirmed. This is a clearly demonstrator of the cytotoxicity of this extract against MCF-7 cells. PMID:24914310

  4. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  5. Stachyose: One of the Active Fibroblast-proliferating Components in the Root of Rehmanniae Radix (地黃 dì huáng)

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; To, Ming-Ho; Lau, Kit-Man; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Cheng, Ling; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the fibroblast-proliferating activities of different Rehmanniae Radix (RR) samples and its chemical components using human normal fibroblast cells Hs27. Those active components were quantified in differently treated RR samples using UPLC so as to correlate activity with component content. Our results showed that dried RR aqueous extract exhibited the most potent fibroblast-proliferating activity. Stronger effect was observed when ethanol with heating was applied in the extraction process. Stachyose and verbascoside were demonstrated for their first time to exhibit significant stimulatory effects on fibroblast proliferation. However, the proliferating effect of dried RR extract did not correlate with the stachyose content, and verbascoside was not responsible for the fibroblast proliferative effect of RR since it was undetectable in all samples. In conclusion, stachyose only contributed in part to the activity of RR, suggesting that other active components might be present and yet to be found. PMID:24716137

  6. Antiplatelet effect of active components derived from Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Da-Zhuo

    2015-10-10

    Atherothrombosis is the major cause of acute coronary syndromes and cardiovascular deaths. Platelets participate in the processes of forming and extending atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, antiplatelet therapy is a milestone in the primary and second prevention of atherothrombotic diseases. Along with the longterm use of antiplatelet agents, the safety and drug resistance has become a big concern in clinic and new drugs possessing higher effectiveness and fewer adverse effects are needed. Abundant recent data support that traditional Chinese herbs may be a good alternative and complementary choice of new antiplatelet drugs. This review highlights the progress of antiplatelet effect of active components derived from traditional Chinese herbs based on their chemical structures.

  7. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  8. Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry) extracts and its taurine component inhibit PPAR-γ-dependent gene transcription in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: Possible implications for diabetic retinopathy treatment.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Salam, N K; Roufogalis, Basil D; Huang, T H W

    2011-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a preventable microvascular diabetic complication that damages human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Taurine is abundant in the fruit of Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry), and is reportedly beneficial for diabetic retinopathy. However, the mechanism of its action is unknown. Hence, we have investigated the mechanism of action of an extract from L. barbarum on a model of diabetic retinopathy, the retinal ARPE-19 cell line, and identified the receptor function of taurine, an active component of L. barbarum (Goji Berry) extract, which is potentially responsible for the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy. We demonstrate for the first time that L. barbarum extract and its taurine component dose-dependently enhance PPAR-γ luciferase activity in HEK293 cell line transfected with PPAR-γ reporter gene. This activity was significantly decreased by a selective PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. Moreover, L. barbarum extract and taurine dose-dependently enhanced the expression of PPAR-γ mRNA and protein. In an inflammation model where ARPE-19 cells were exposed to high glucose L. barbarum extract and taurine down-regulated the mRNA of pro-inflammatory mediators encoding MMP-9, fibronectin and the protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS proteins. The predicted binding mode of taurine in the PPAR-γ ligand binding site mimics key electrostatic interactions seen with known PPAR-γ agonists. We conclude that PPAR-γ activation by L. barbarum extract is associated with its taurine content and may explain at least in part its use in diabetic retinopathy progression.

  9. Kinetics Extraction Modelling and Antiproliferative Activity of Clinacanthus nutans Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Fazil, Farah Nadiah Mohd; Azzimi, Nur Syarafina Mohd; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham; Kamalaldin, Nurulain Atikah; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans is widely grown in tropical Asia and locally known "belalai gajah" or Sabah snake grass. It has been used as a natural product to treat skin rashes, snake bites, lesion caused by herpes, diabetes, fever, and cancer. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the maximum yield and time of exhaustive flavonoids extraction using Peleg's model and to evaluate potential of antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cell (A549). The extraction process was carried out on fresh and dried leaves at 28 to 30°C with liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 mL/g for 72 hrs. The extracts were collected intermittently analysed using mathematical Peleg's model and RP-HPLC. The highest amount of flavonoids was used to evaluate the inhibitory concentration (IC50) via 2D cell culture of A549. Based on the results obtained, the predicted maximum extract density was observed at 29.20 ± 14.54 hrs of extraction (texhaustive). However, the exhaustive time of extraction to acquire maximum flavonoids content exhibited approximately 10 hrs earlier. Therefore, 18 hrs of extraction time was chosen to acquire high content of flavonoids. The best antiproliferative effect (IC50) on A549 cell line was observed at 138.82 ± 0.60 µg/mL. In conclusion, the flavonoids content in Clinacanthus nutans water extract possesses potential antiproliferative properties against A549, suggesting an alternative approach for cancer treatment.

  10. Anti-oxidant activities of Acanthopanax senticosus stems and their lignan components.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghyun; Son, Dongwook; Ryu, Jiyoung; Lee, Yeon Sil; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kang, Jungil; Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Shin, Kuk Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of Acanthopanax senticosus stems were evaluated in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The n-butanol fraction from the water extract of the stems, when pretreated orally at 200 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days in rats, was demonstrated to exhibit significant increases in antioxidant enzyme activities such as hepatic cytosolic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase by 30.31, 19.82 and 155%, respectively. The n-butanol fraction whereas showed a significant inhibition of serum GPT activity (65.79% inhibition) elevated with hepatic damage induced by CCl4-intoxication. Eleutheroside B, a lignan component, isolated from the n-butanol fraction was found to cause a moderate free radical scavenging effect on DPPH, its scavenging potency as indicated in IC50 value, being 58.5 microM. These results suggested that the stems of A. senticosus possess not only antioxidant but also hepatoprotective activities.

  11. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation

    PubMed Central

    Bugni, Tim S.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Pole, Ann R.; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of Parmotrema saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. PMID:19289158

  12. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation.

    PubMed

    Bugni, Tim S; Andjelic, Cynthia D; Pole, Ann R; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

    2009-07-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of P. saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively.

  13. Enzyme-assistant extraction (EAE) of bioactive components: a useful approach for recovery of industrially important metabolites from seaweeds: a review.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the biological activities of seaweeds could have gained a considerable research interest because of their specific functional compounds, which may not be available in land plants. Thus, efforts at discovery of novel metabolites from seaweeds over the past years have yielded a considerable amount of new active compounds. In addition, studies about the extraction of active compounds from natural products have attracted special attention in the last recent years. Potent biologically active compounds of seaweeds have been demonstrated to play a significant role in prevention of certain degenerative diseases such as cancer, inflammation, arthritis, diabetes and hypertension. Therefore, seaweed derived active components, whose immense biochemical diversity looks like to become a rich source of novel chemical entities for the use as functional ingredients in many industrial applications such as functional foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Thus, the interest in the extraction of active compounds from seaweeds is obvious. However, the physical and chemical barriers of the plant material become the key drawbacks of such extraction process. Therefore, enhanced release and recovery of active compounds attached to the cells have been addressed. Taken together, the aim of this communication is to discuss the potential use of enzyme treatment as a tool to improve the extraction efficiency of bioactive compounds from seaweeds.

  14. Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of oral and topical application of Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The parameters assessed were the days needed for re-epithelization and percentage of wound closure. The hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the granuloma tissue of the wound was also measured. The percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the control group showed only 51.1% on the eighth day of wounding (p < .01). The days needed for re-epithelization were 17.7 for the control animals; extract treatment at a dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg b.wt reduced the period to 14 and 13 days, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the extract-treated group compared with the untreated animals. The data indicate potent wound healing activity ofC. officinalis extract.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V).

  16. Antibacterial activity of Chamomilla recutita oil extract against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Kvetnaya, Asya S

    2008-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of an oil extract of Chamomilla recutita flowers against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was evaluated by the agar dilution method using Colombia agar with 10% sheep blood, an inoculum of McFarland 0.5 and incubation in an anaerobic atmosphere at 37 degrees C for 3 days. The oil extract was prepared by olive oil extraction of Chamomilla recutita flowers using rotary pulsation. The MIC(90) (minimal inhibitory concentration) and MIC(50) were 125 mg/mL and 62.5 mg/mL, respectively. It was shown that the Chamomilla recutita oil extract inhibited the production of urease by H. pylori. In addition, it was found that the morphological and fermentative properties of H. pylori were affected by application of the Chamomilla recutita oil extract.

  17. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  18. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed.

  19. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of the extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and quantification of bioactive components by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Önder, Ferah Cömert; Ay, Mehmet; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2013-11-06

    In this research, antioxidant activities of various extracts obtained from Humulus lupulus L. were compared by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC assays. The amount of total phenolic components determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was found to be highest for 25% aqueous ethanol (9079 ± 187.83 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and methanol-1 (directly) (8343 ± 158.39 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) extracts. The n-hexane extract of H. lupulus exhibited the greatest with DPPH (14.95 ± 0.03 μg Trolox equivalent/g sample). The highest phenolic content in the ethanolic extract could be the major contributor to its highest CUPRAC activity (3.15 ± 0.44 mmol Trolox equivalent/g sample). Methanol-2 (n-hexane, acetone, and methanol) and methanol-3 (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and methanol) extracts, respectively, exhibited the most potent ABTS (7.35 ± 0.03 mM Trolox equivalent) and FRAP (1.56 ± 0.35 mmol Fe(2+)/g sample) activities. Some of the components from the crude extracts were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. Comparative screening of antioxidant activities of H. lupulus extracts and quantification of some major components by LC-MS/MS, qualitatively analysis of the reported ones which were optimal under negative ion SIM mode and coinjection, are going to be valuable for food and health applications.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of extract and fractions from Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham.

    PubMed

    Miceli, N; Taviano, M F; Giuffrida, D; Trovato, A; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2005-02-28

    Several species of Nepeta genus are utilized in folk medicine for treatment of contusions, rheumatic pains, fever, cutaneous eruptions. Some species are employed for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this paper, we report the results of phytochemical studies on aerial parts of Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham (Lamiaceae), an endemic plant of Greece. The bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract led to the isolation of ursolic acid and polyphenol fraction. By HPLC, we determined some phenolics: chlorogenic acid (0.315 mg/g) and the flavonoids rutin (0.091 mg/g), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (0.387 mg/g) and a luteolin derivative. We assayed the radical scavenging activity of Nepeta sibthorpii methanol extract by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, we studied the anti-inflammatory activity of Nepeta sibthorpii methanol extract (50 mg/kg, os), ursolic acid and polyphenol fraction (dose corresponding to 50 mg/kg of methanol extract, os) in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rat. In this experimental model, we observed a significant inhibition of paw oedema. We suppose that the anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract could be related to the free radical scavenging activity and that it depends on a synergic action of all the components of the methanol extract, even if ursolic acid can be considered the main responsible for this activity.

  1. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta cataria.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Ahmet; Ozer, Hakan; Sokmen, Munevver; Gulluce, Medine; Sokmen, Atalay; Kilic, Hamdullah; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baris, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is an important medicinal herb belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Nepeta cataria, and its essential oil composition were investigated. The essential oil, which has 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (70.4%), 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (6.0%), thymol (2.3%), and 4aalpha,7alpha, 7abeta3-nepetalactone (2.5%), as main components, exhibited activity against eleven bacteria, and twelve fungi and a yeast, C. albicans; with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values ranging from 12.50 to 250 microl/ml; the methanol extract showed weaker activity. The samples were also subjected to a screening for their possible antioxidant activities by using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. In DPPH assay, the extract showed slight antioxidant activity whereas the essential oil remained inactive. In the latter case, both the extract and the essential oil exerted weak activity having inhibiton ratios of linoleic acid oxidation at 16.4% and 27.0%, respectively. The weak antioxidative nature of the extract could be attributed to the low phenolic content, estimated as gallic acid equivalent at 22.6 +/- 2.07 microg/ml or 2.26%. In both systems, antioxidant capacity of BHT was determined in parallel experiments.

  4. Antioxidant Activity in the Extracts of Two Edible Aroids

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, P.; Misra, T. K.; Singh, I. D.

    2010-01-01

    Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC50 values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC50 values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

  5. Physalis alkekengi carotenoidic extract inhibitor of soybean lipoxygenase-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Pintea, Adela; Bunea, Andrea; Braicu, Cornelia; Stanila, Andreea; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the carotenoidic saponified extract of Physalis alkekengi sepals (PA) towards the lipoxygenase (LOX) oxidation of linoleic acid. Lipoxygenase activity in the presence of carotenoids, standard and from extract, was followed by its kinetic behaviour determining the changes in absorption at 234 nm. The standard carotenoids used were β-carotene (β-car), lutein (Lut), and zeaxanthin (Zea). The calculated enzymatic specific activity (ESA) after 600 s of reaction proves that PA carotenoidic extract has inhibitory effect on LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. A longer polyenic chain of carotenoid structure gives a higher ESA during the first reaction seconds. This situation is not available after 600 s of reaction and may be due to a destruction of this structure by cooxidation of carotenoids, besides the classical LOX reaction. The PA carotenoidic extract inhibiting the LOX-1 reaction can be considered a source of lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  6. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borges Fernandes, Luciana Cristina; Campos Câmara, Carlos; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg) in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s) and their mechanism(s) of action. PMID:21716675

  7. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  8. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juncheng; Tian, Shan; Shu, Xiaoying; Du, Hongtao; Li, Na; Wang, Junru

    2016-01-01

    A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP) extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b) were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL) and LPS (2 μg/mL) had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05). All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food. PMID:27347944

  9. [Crude extraction and activity assay of CEL I].

    PubMed

    Han, Suo-Yi; Yang, Ma-Li; Gai, Jun-Yi; Yu, De-Yue

    2006-09-01

    CEL I, extracted from celery, is the first known eukaryotic nuclease that cleaves DNA with high specificity at sites of base-substitution mismatch and DNA distortion. It is a key enzyme for TILLING research. Here we reported a crude extraction method and activity assay of CEL I. Incision at mismatches of single nucleotide suggested that CEL I can effectively detect DNA at G-->A base substitution and the result can be obtained from an ABI377 Sequencer. Therefore, the extracted enzyme can be used in TILLING.

  10. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  11. Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.

    PubMed

    Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2004-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.

  12. Solid phase micro-extraction GC-MS analysis of natural volatile components in melon and rice.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harrie A; Jonker, Harry; De Vos, Ric C H; Hall, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    The natural fragrance compounds produced by plants play key roles in the long-term fitness and survival of these plants as well as being of direct/indirect benefit to man. Almost all plant fragrances, either pleasant or unpleasant, comprise many different compounds, from different chemical classes and can indeed be highly complex in composition involving several hundred types of volatile molecule. Analyzing these mixtures and identifying their main (bio)active components is of importance in both fundamental and applied science. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) plays a central role here. GC-MS has regularly been used for fragrance analysis and different extraction/adsorption and detection protocols have been designed specifically for plant materials. In this chapter, two methods are presented for two highly contrasting plant organs-a melon fruit and rice grains. Metabolomics analyses of these important food crops are already helping us understand better which components are most important in determining the flavour of these important food crops and how we might go about producing new "designer" crops which are even tastier than the existing ones.

  13. Antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from various spices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  15. Cholesteryl Ester Hydroperoxides Are Biologically Active Components of Minimally Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Almazan, Felicidad; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Miller, Yury I.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) occurs in vivo and significantly contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. An important mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo is its modification with 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO). We have developed a model of minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL) in which native LDL is modified by cells expressing 12/15LO. This mmLDL activates macrophages inducing membrane ruffling and cell spreading, activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we found that many of the biological activities of mmLDL were associated with cholesteryl ester (CE) hydroperoxides and were diminished by ebselen, a reducing agent. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of many mono- and polyoxygenated CE species in mmLDL but not in native LDL. Nonpolar lipid extracts of mmLDL activated macrophages, although to a lesser degree than intact mmLDL. The macrophage responses were also induced by LDL directly modified with immobilized 12/15LO, and the nonpolar lipids extracted from 12/15LO-modified LDL contained a similar set of oxidized CE. Cholesteryl arachidonate modified with 12/15LO also activated macrophages and contained a similar collection of oxidized CE molecules. Remarkably, many of these oxidized CE were found in the extracts of atherosclerotic lesions isolated from hyperlipidemic apoE–/– mice. These results suggest that CE hydroperoxides constitute a class of biologically active components of mmLDL that may be relevant to proinflammatory activation of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:18263582

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extractable conifer heartwood compounds toward Phytophthora ramorum.

    PubMed

    Manter, Daniel K; Kelsey, Rick G; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2007-11-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven western conifer trees and individual volatile compounds in the extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western redcedar exhibited the strongest activity, followed by yellow-cedar, western juniper, and Port-Orford-cedar with moderate activity, and no activity for Douglas-fir and redwood extracts. Chemical composition of the extracts varied both qualitatively and quantitatively among the species with a total of 37 compounds identified by mass spectrometry. Of the 13 individual heartwood compounds bioassayed, three showed strong activity with a Log(10) EC(50) less than or equal to 1.0 ppm (hinokitiol, thymoquinone, and nootkatin), three expressed moderate activity ranging from 1.0-2.0 ppm (nootkatol, carvacrol, and valencene-11,12-diol), four compounds had weak activity at 2.0-3.0 ppm [alpha-terpineol, valencene-13-ol, (+)-beta-cedrene, (-)-thujopsene], and three had no activity [(+)-cedrol, delta-cadinene, and methyl carvacrol]. All of the most active compounds contained a free hydroxyl group, except thymoquinone. The importance of a free hydroxyl was demonstrated by the tremendous difference in activity between carvacrol (Log(10) EC(50) 1.81 +/- 0.08 ppm) and methyl carvacrol (Log(10) EC(50) >3.0 ppm). A field trial in California, showed that heartwood chips from redcedar placed on the forest floor for 4 months under Umbellularia californica (California bay laurel) with symptoms of P. ramorum leaf blight significantly limited the accumulation of P. ramorum DNA in the litter layer, compared with heartwood chips from redwood.

  17. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 μg/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1 × 10(4) μg/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants.

  18. Essential Oil Variability and Biological Activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Wood According to the Extraction Time.

    PubMed

    Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Saka, Boualem; Boudarene, Lynda; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) kinetics of essential oil (EO) extracted from Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. wood was conducted, in order to assess the impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analyses showed significant differences between the extracted EOs, where each family class or component presents a specific kinetic according to extraction time, technique and especially for the major components: camphene, linalool, cedrol, carvacrol and α-acorenol. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, where each activity has a specific effect according to extraction time and technique. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select EOs to be investigated carefully depending on extraction time and technique, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of EO in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food.

  19. Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, A M; Menon, S; Menon, R; Couto, A G; Bürger, C; Biavatti, M W

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of the pantropical genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae) are known popularly as cow's foot, due to their unique characteristic bilobed aspect. The species Bauhinia forficata (Brazilian Orchid-tree) is widely used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic. The present work investigates the hypoglycemic activity of the dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata leaves in vivo, as well as the influence of the drying and granulation processes on this activity. The fluid extract was dried to generate oven-dried (ODE), spray-dried (SDE) and wet granulation (WGE) extracts, with the aid of colloidal silicon dioxide and/or cellulose:lactose mixture. The dried extracts were characterized by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and photo microscopy image analysis. 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o. of each dried product were administered orally to male Wistar rats over 7 days old, for biomonitoring of the hypoglycemic activity profile. The effect of the extracts was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 7 days of treatment, fasting glucose was determined, and the livers were removed, dried on tissue paper, weighed, and stored at -20 degrees C to estimate hepatic glycogen. Our results show that spray-drying or oven-drying processes applied to B. forficata extracts did not significantly alter its flavonoid profile or its hypoglycemic activity. Indeed, the dried extracts of B. forficata act differently from glibenclamide. Despite the lower active content in WGE, because of the higher concentration of adjuvants, the use of the granulation process improved the manufacturing properties of the ODE, making this material more appropriate for use in tablets or capsules.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Antrodia camphorata extracts against oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Antrodia camphorata Extracts against Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions. PMID:25144619

  2. Lamb wave feature extraction using discrete wavelet transformation and Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, Mojtaba; Ziaiefar, Hamidreza; Amiryan, Milad; Honarvar, Farhang; Hojjat, Yousef; Mahmoudi, Mehdi; Al-Yahmadi, Amur; Bahadur, Issam

    2016-04-01

    In this research, a new method is presented for eliciting the proper features for recognizing and classifying the kinds of the defects by guided ultrasonic waves. After applying suitable preprocessing, the suggested method extracts the base frequency band from the received signals by discrete wavelet transform and discrete Fourier transform. This frequency band can be used as a distinctive feature of ultrasonic signals in different defects. Principal Component Analysis with improving this feature and decreasing extra data managed to improve classification. In this study, ultrasonic test with A0 mode lamb wave is used and is appropriated to reduce the difficulties around the problem. The defects under analysis included corrosion, crack and local thickness reduction. The last defect is caused by electro discharge machining (EDM). The results of the classification by optimized Neural Network depicts that the presented method can differentiate different defects with 95% precision and thus, it is a strong and efficient method. Moreover, comparing the elicited features for corrosion and local thickness reduction and also the results of the two's classification clarifies that modeling the corrosion procedure by local thickness reduction which was previously common, is not an appropriate method and the signals received from the two defects are different from each other.

  3. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A.; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, {beta}-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  4. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    PubMed

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  5. Target localization and signature extraction in GPR data using expectation-maximization and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichman, Daniel; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very promising technology for subsurface threat detection. A successful algorithm employing GPR should achieve high detection rates at a low false-alarm rate and do so at operationally relevant speeds. GPRs measure reflections at dielectric boundaries that occur at the interfaces between different materials. These boundaries may occur at any depth, within the sensor's range, and furthermore, the dielectric changes could be such that they induce a 180 degree phase shift in the received signal relative to the emitted GPR pulse. As a result of these time-of-arrival and phase variations, extracting robust features from target responses in GPR is not straightforward. In this work, a method to mitigate polarity and alignment variations based on an expectation-maximization (EM) principal-component analysis (PCA) approach is proposed. This work demonstrates how model-based target alignment can significantly improve detection performance. Performance is measured according to the improvement in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for classification before and after the data is properly aligned and phase-corrected.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-inducing activities of Cryptococcus neoformans components.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, D; Cianci, L; Migliardo, M; Mancuso, G; Cusumano, V; Corradini, C; Teti, G

    1996-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production may lead to increased human immunodeficiency virus replication in patients with AIDS. In order to identify cryptococcal components that are predominantly responsible for stimulating TNF production, various concentrations of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM), mannoproteins (MP), and alpha(1-3) [corrected] glucan were added to whole-blood cultures. All of the cryptococcal components tested, as well as whole heat-killed cryptococci, were capable of inducing TNF-alpha release in a dose-dependent manner. MP were significantly more potent than any of the other cryptococcal components tested or heat-killed cryptococci in stimulating TNF-alpha production (P < 0.05). GXM, in contrast, was significantly less potent in this activity than either GalXM or MP (P < 0.05). As little as 0.5 microg of MP per ml was sufficient to produce moderate but significant elevations of TNF-alpha release. Maximal MP-induced TNF-alpha levels were similar to those induced by Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide, our positive control. Further experiments using isolated leukocytes suggested that monocytes were the cell population mainly responsible for TNF-alpha production, although the participation of other cell types could not be excluded. The presence of complement-sufficient plasma was a necessary requirement for TNF-alpha induction by GXM, GalXM, and low doses of MP. High MP concentrations (100 microg/ml) were also capable of stimulating TNF-alpha production in the absence of plasma. These data indicate that soluble products released by C. neoformans are capable of inducing TNF-alpha secretion in human leukocytes. This may be clinically relevant, since high concentrations of such products are frequently found in the body fluids of AIDS patients infected with C. neoformans. PMID:8945566

  7. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  8. In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Muruhan, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Senthil; Viswanathan, Pugalendi Kodukkur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Conclusions S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine. PMID:23570013

  9. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  10. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata.

    PubMed

    Vasic, Sava M; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Licina, Braho Z; Radojevic, Ivana D; Comic, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use.

  11. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata

    PubMed Central

    Vasic, Sava M.; Stefanovic, Olgica D.; Licina, Braho Z.; Radojevic, Ivana D.; Comic, Ljiljana R.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use. PMID:27385958

  12. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Nur Saeida; Abdullah, Hasmah; Abdul Wahab, Wan Nor Amilah Wan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis. PMID:25709331

  13. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

  14. Signaling Components of Redox Active Endosomes: The Redoxosomes

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Fredrick D.; Abbott, Duane; Li, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Subcellular compartmentalization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in transmitting cell signals in response to environmental stimuli. In this regard, signals at the plasma membrane have been shown to trigger NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production within the endosomal compartment and this step can be required for redox-dependent signal transduction. Unique features of redox-active signaling endosomes can include NADPH oxidase complex components (Nox1, Noxo1, Noxa1, Nox2, p47phox, p67phox, and/or Rac1), ROS processing enzymes (SOD1 and/or peroxiredoxins), chloride channels capable of mediating superoxide transport and/or membrane gradients required for Nox activity, and novel redox-dependent sensors that control Nox activity. This review will discuss the cytokine and growth factor receptors that likely mediate signaling through redox-active endosomes, and the common mechanisms whereby they act. Additionally, the review will cover ligand-independent environmental injuries, such as hypoxia/reoxygenation injury, that also appear to facilitate cell signaling through NADPH oxidase at the level of the endosome. We suggest that redox-active endosomes encompass a subset of signaling endosomes that we have termed redoxosomes. Redoxosomes are uniquely equipped with redox-processing proteins capable of transmitting ROS signals from the endosome interior to redox-sensitive effectors on the endosomal surface. In this manner, redoxosomes can control redox-dependent effector functions through the spatial and temporal regulation of ROS as second messengers. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1313–1333. PMID:19072143

  15. Reinvestigation of the proteolytically active components of Bromelia pinguin fruit.

    PubMed

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Natalucci, Claudia L; Caffini, Néstor O

    2005-09-01

    Pinguinain is the name given to a proteolytic enzyme preparation obtained from Bromelia pinguin fruits that has been scarcely studied. The present paper deals on the reexamination of the proteases present in fruits of B. pinguin grown in Cienfuegos, Cuba. The preparation (partially purified pinguinain, PPP) showed the main characteristics of the cysteine proteases, i.e., optimum pH within alkaline range (pH 7.2-8.8), inhibition of proteolytic activity by thiol blocking reagents, which is usually reverted by addition of cysteine, a remarkable thermal stability and notable stability at high ionic strength values. Isoelectric focusing and zymogram of PPP revealed the presence of several proteolytic components between pI 4.6 and 8.1. Preliminary peptidase purification by cationic exchange chromatography showed the presence of two main proteolytic fractions with molecular masses of approximately 20.0 kDa, according to SDS-PAGE.

  16. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients.

  17. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC

    PubMed Central

    Kanthal, Lakshmi Kanta; Dey, Akalanka; Satyavathi, K.; Bhojaraju, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:24497744

  18. Wild Sicilian rosemary: phytochemical and morphological screening and antioxidant activity evaluation of extracts and essential oils.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Speciale, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Leto, Claudio; Rubino, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    To identify the best biotypes, an extensive survey of Sicilian wild rosemary was carried out by collecting 57 samples from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. All the biotypes collected were classified as Rosmarinus officinalis L. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characteristics of the plants allowed the division of the biotypes into seven main groups, although the characteristics examined were found to be highly similar and not area-dependent. Moreover, all samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying an extraction protocol to obtain the nonvolatile components and hydrodistillation to collect the essential oils for the volatile components. The extracts were characterized by LC-UV-DAD/ESI-MS, and the essential oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the nonvolatile fractions, 18 components were identified, namely, 13 flavones, two organic acids, and three diterpenes. In the volatile fractions, a total of 82 components were found, with as predominant components α-pinene and camphene among the monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone among the oxygenated monoterpenes. Cluster analyses were carried out on both phytochemical profiles, allowing the separation of the rosemary samples into different chemical groups. Finally, the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) colorimetric assay, the UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and the scavenging activity of the superoxide radical (O$\\rm{{_{2}^{{^\\cdot} -}}}$). The present study confirmed that the essential oils and organic extracts of the Sicilian rosemary samples analyzed showed a considerable antioxidant/free radical-scavenging activity.

  19. Cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium.

    PubMed

    Mohire, N C; Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B; Yadav, A V

    2007-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium. This plant species contains 5,7,2-4 tetrahydroxy isoflavone 6-6 glucoside which are potent antioxidant and are believed to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Cardiotonic effect of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium was studied by using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Calcium free Ringer solution was used as vehicle for administration of aqueous extract of P. marsupium as a test extract and digoxin as a standard. A significant increase in height of force of contraction (positive inotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) at a very low concentration (0.25 mg/ml) was observed with test extract as compared to the same dose of a standard digoxin. The present results indicated that a significant increase in height of force of contraction with decrease in heart rate was observed as the dose of test extract increased. The test extract produced cardiac arrest at 4 mg/ml, a higher concentration, as compared to standard, digoxin (0.5 mg/ml). Compared to digoxin, a drug with narrow therapeutic window, P. marsupium showed wide therapeutic window.

  20. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  1. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds.

  2. Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Araújo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa Filho, José Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200 mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus. PMID:22645460

  3. Antinociceptive activity of ethanol extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Araújo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa Filho, José Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200 mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus.

  4. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05). Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in the extract-treated mice compared with the EAC control mice. MPBL and EPBL treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05) and restored GSH, SOD and CAT levels towards normal compared with the EAC control. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that Piper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.

  5. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    PubMed

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  6. Allergen extracts directly mobilize and activate human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Lena; Rudin, Anna; Wennerås, Christine

    2004-06-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by the presence of eosinophils, which are recruited to the affected tissues by chemoattractants produced by T cells, mast cells and epithelium. Our objective was to evaluate if allergens can directly activate human eosinophils. The capacity of purified allergen extracts to elicit eosinophil chemotaxis, respiratory burst, degranulation and up-regulation of the adhesion molecule complement receptor 3 (CR3) was determined in eosinophils isolated from healthy blood donors. Eosinophils stimulated with an extract from house dust mite (HDM) released the granule protein major basic protein (MBP) and up-regulated the surface expression of CR3. Cat allergen extracts also induced the up-regulation of CR3, but not the release of MBP; instead cat, as well as birch and grass allergens, elicited the release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). In addition, grass pollen extract caused the secretion of MBP. None of the allergens stimulated eosinophilic cationic protein release, nor production of free oxygen radicals. Both HDM and birch extracts were chemotactic for eosinophils. These findings establish that common aeroallergens can directly activate eosinophils in vitro. We propose that eosinophil activation in vivo is not exclusively mediated by cytokines and chemokines of the allergic inflammatory reaction, but could partly be the result of direct interaction between allergens and eosinophils.

  7. Antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected gourd vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Baljeet S; Yadav, Roshanlal; Yadav, Ritika B; Garg, Munish

    2016-04-01

    Study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of methanolic (ME), ethanolic (EE) and butanolic extracts (BE) of selected gourd vegetables. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different assays namely ferric thiocyanate test (FTC), thiobarbituric acid test (TBA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH free radicals scavenging test. A densitometric HPTLC analysis was performed for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Different extracts of the selected gourd vegetables revealed different antioxidant activity. Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrica revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total phenols, flavonids, tannins and carotenoids content and also the antioxidant activity in comparison to remaining vegetable extracts. Correlation studies indicated that FRAP test best described the antioxidant activity of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids (r = 0.854, 0.692 and 0.915 respectively). HPTLC profiles revealed the presence of maximum number of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L. siceraria and M. charantia.

  8. Kinetics Extraction Modelling and Antiproliferative Activity of Clinacanthus nutans Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Fazil, Farah Nadiah Mohd; Azzimi, Nur Syarafina Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans is widely grown in tropical Asia and locally known “belalai gajah” or Sabah snake grass. It has been used as a natural product to treat skin rashes, snake bites, lesion caused by herpes, diabetes, fever, and cancer. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the maximum yield and time of exhaustive flavonoids extraction using Peleg's model and to evaluate potential of antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cell (A549). The extraction process was carried out on fresh and dried leaves at 28 to 30°C with liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 mL/g for 72 hrs. The extracts were collected intermittently analysed using mathematical Peleg's model and RP-HPLC. The highest amount of flavonoids was used to evaluate the inhibitory concentration (IC50) via 2D cell culture of A549. Based on the results obtained, the predicted maximum extract density was observed at 29.20 ± 14.54 hrs of extraction (texhaustive). However, the exhaustive time of extraction to acquire maximum flavonoids content exhibited approximately 10 hrs earlier. Therefore, 18 hrs of extraction time was chosen to acquire high content of flavonoids. The best antiproliferative effect (IC50) on A549 cell line was observed at 138.82 ± 0.60 µg/mL. In conclusion, the flavonoids content in Clinacanthus nutans water extract possesses potential antiproliferative properties against A549, suggesting an alternative approach for cancer treatment. PMID:28105464

  9. Spatial frequency components influence cell activity in the inferotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Maria A; Vicente, Ana F; Romero, Maria C; Perez, Rogelio; Gonzalez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    We studied the correlation between the spatial frequency of complex stimuli and neuronal activity in the monkey inferotemporal (IT) cortex while performing a task that required visual recognition. Single-cell activity was recorded from the right IT cortex. The frequency components of the images used as stimuli were analyzed by using a fast Fourier transform, and a modulus was obtained for 40 spatial frequency ranges from 0.3 to 11.1 cycles/deg. We recorded 82 cells showing statistically significant responses (analysis of variance, P < 0.05) to at least one of the images used as a stimulus. Seventy-eight percent of these cells (n = 64) showed significant responses to at least three images, and in two thirds of them (n = 42), we found a statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) between cell response and the modulus amplitude of at least one frequency range present in the images. Our results suggest that information about spatial frequency of the visual images is present in the IT cortex.

  10. Thermo-optically active planar polymeric components for telecommunication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Beeson, Karl W.; Pant, Deepti; Blomquist, Robert; Shacklette, Lawrence W.; McFarland, Michael J.

    2000-05-01

    A key property that differentiates optical polymers from more conventional optical materials such as glass, is the rapid variation of the refractive index with temperature. This large difference in dn/dT can be leveraged to produce efficient thermo-optically active optical components. An advanced polymeric waveguide technology was developed for affordable thermo-optically active integrated optical devices that address the needs of the telecom industry. We engineered high-performance organic polymers that can be readily made into single-mode waveguide structures of controlled geometries and of modal profiles that closely match standard telecom glass fibers. These materials are formed from highly-crosslinked halogenated acrylate monomers with specific linkages that determined properties such as flexibility, toughness, optical loss, thermal stability, and humidity resistance. These monomers are intermiscible, providing for precise continuous adjustment of the refractive index over a wide range. In polymer form, they exhibit state-of-the-art loss values, suppressed polarization effects, and exceptional environmental stability. The devices we describe include thermally tunable Bragg-grating-based wavelength filters, thermally tunable arrayed-waveguide gratings, and digital optical switches.

  11. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The

  12. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  13. Antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus.

    PubMed

    Akindele, A J; Adeyemi, O O

    2007-01-01

    The antiinflammatory effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus was evaluated using the carrageenan and egg albumin induced rat paw edema, xylene induced mouse ear edema and formaldehyde induced arthritis inflammation tests. The extract administered orally at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w produced a significant (P<0.05) dose dependent inhibition of edema formation in all four methods used. The results obtained suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of B. coccineus is endowed with effective antiinflammatory activity mediated via either inhibition of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity or cyclooxygenase cascade and by blocking the release of vasoactive substances (histamine, serotonin and kinins). These findings seem to justify the use of the plant in traditional African medicine in the treatment of inflammation, including arthritic conditions.

  14. Antinociceptive Activity of an Ethanol Extract of Justicia spicigera.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Castellanos, Luis Manuel Orozco; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and sedative activity of an ethanol extract of Justicia spicigera an evergreen used in Mexican traditional medicine for the relief of pain, wounds, fever and inflammation. At 200 mg/kg po, the maximum dose examined, the ethanol extract of J. spicigera (JSE) had analgesic activity in mice in the acetic acid writhing test, the second phase of the formalin test and the tail flick test that was similar in efficacy to the NSAID, naproxen (150 mg/kg po). JSE was inactive in the hot plate test and and the ketamine-induced sleeping time test; it had no sedative effects. These results show that the ethanol extract from the leaves of J. spicigera has antinociceptive effects in mice without inducing sedation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 180-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  16. Antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier extract.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Delfan, Bahram; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Moradi, Nasim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Rashidipour, Marzieh

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had

  17. Biologic activity of purified cotton bract extracts in man and guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, M G; Schachter, E N; Fick, R B; Merrill, W W; Cooper, J A; Keirns, J J; Oliver, J; Wall, J H

    1986-01-01

    Purified aqueous extracts of cotton bract induce acute airway constriction in healthy volunteers never before exposed to cotton bract. The response is similar to that of textile workers who inhale cotton dust. Approximately 60% of volunteers respond to bract extract with significant decreases in lung function, and these volunteers show an increased number of lymphocytes present in their lungs. Following inhalation of bract, the percent of polymorphonuclear leukocytes increases. Macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from volunteers pre-challenged with bract extract release increased amounts of chemotactic factor and superoxide anion. Efforts to detect release of histamine and leukotrienes in volunteers following challenge with bract show no increase in urinary histamine and no significant release of leukotrienes in lung lavage fluid. Purified extracts exhibit chemotactic activity in vitro. They also contract guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle in vitro. This preparation contains mast cells but no basophils, and the H-1 blocker, mepyramine blocks the contraction. Purified bract extracts contain no histamine or endotoxin but other contractors of smooth muscle may be present. The purified extract exhibits spectral, fluorescent, and radioimmune assay properties similar to a leukotriene B-like component. Cotton bract appears to have direct as well as cell-mediated activities. PMID:3011395

  18. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-14

    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  19. Active components of common traditional Chinese medicine decoctions have antioxidant functions.

    PubMed

    Guo, K J; Xu, S F; Yin, P; Wang, W; Song, X Z; Liu, F H; Xu, J Q; Zoccarato, I

    2011-10-01

    Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoctions are proven to have multiple functions in animal production. These decoctions are seldom recognized by the international scientific community because the mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. According to TCM theory, Cortex Phellodendri (COP), Rhizoma Atractylodes (RA), Agastache Rugosa (AR), and Gypsum Fibrosum (GF) can be used to formulate a medicinal compound that prevents or cures animal disease caused by heat stress. The aim of this research was to study the regulatory functions of the active components of TCM and to elucidate the effects of different TCM decoctions on antioxidant activity and lipid peroxide content, using in vitro and in vivo models of heat stress. For in vitro experiments, intestinal crypt-like epithelial cell line-6 (IEC-6) cells were employed to evaluate the effects of the active components of COP, RA, AR, and GF. For in vivo experiments, forty-eight 2-mo-old Chinese experimental mini-pigs (7.20 ± 0.02 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal-temperature group (NTG); a high-temperature group (HTG); HTG treated with COP, RA, AR, and GF (1:1:1:1, TCM1); and HTG treated with COP, RA, AR, and GF (1:1:1:0.5, TCM2). Results showed that the active components of the COP, RA, AR, and GF increased (P < 0.05) the proliferation and viability of heat-stressed IEC-6 cells and that the most effective treatment doses of COP alkaloid, RA Aetherolea, Herba Agastachis Aetherolea, and GF water extract were 200, 100, 100, and 200 µg/mL, respectively. All 4 active components increased (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and glutathione content, and decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content with respect to the heat-stressed group to concentrations similar to those seen in NTG. In vivo experiments demonstrated that TCM1 and TCM2 improved (P < 0.05) the poor growth performance seen in HTG pigs. The superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and

  20. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    PubMed Central

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification. PMID:26347154

  1. Actively controlled multiple-sensor system for feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, Michael J.; Silberberg, Teresa M.

    1991-08-01

    Typical vision systems which attempt to extract features from a visual image of the world for the purposes of object recognition and navigation are limited by the use of a single sensor and no active sensor control capability. To overcome limitations and deficiencies of rigid single sensor systems, more and more researchers are investigating actively controlled, multisensor systems. To address these problems, we have developed a self-calibrating system which uses active multiple sensor control to extract features of moving objects. A key problem in such systems is registering the images, that is, finding correspondences between images from cameras of differing focal lengths, lens characteristics, and positions and orientations. The authors first propose a technique which uses correlation of edge magnitudes for continuously calibrating pan and tilt angles of several different cameras relative to a single camera with a wide angle field of view, which encompasses the views of every other sensor. A simulation of a world of planar surfaces, visual sensors, and a robot platform used to test active control for feature extraction is then described. Motion in the field of view of at least one sensor is used to center the moving object for several sensors, which then extract object features such as color, boundary, and velocity from the appropriate sensors. Results are presented from real cameras and from the simulated world.

  2. Trend extraction of rail corrugation measured dynamically based on the relevant low-frequency principal components reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfu; Liu, Hongli; Ma, Ziji

    2016-10-01

    Rail corrugation dynamic measurement techniques are critical to guarantee transport security and guide rail maintenance. During the inspection process, low-frequency trends caused by rail fluctuation are usually superimposed on rail corrugation and seriously affect the assessment of rail maintenance quality. In order to extract and remove the nonlinear and non-stationary trends from original mixed signals, a hybrid model based ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and modified principal component analysis (MPCA) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the existing de-trending methods based on EMD, this method first considers low-frequency intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) thought to be underlying trend components that maybe contain some unrelated components, such as white noise and low-frequency signal itself, and proposes to use PCA to accurately extract the pure trends from the IMFs containing multiple components. On the other hand, due to the energy contribution ratio between trends and mixed signals is prior unknown, and the principal components (PCs) decomposed by PCA are arranged in order of energy reduction without considering frequency distribution, the proposed method modifies traditional PCA and just selects relevant low-frequency PCs to reconstruct the trends based on the zero-crossing numbers (ZCN) of each PC. Extensive tests are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show the proposed EEMD-PCA-ZCN is an effective tool for trend extraction of rail corrugation measured dynamically.

  3. Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a fungus that parasitizes on the larva of Lepidoptera, has been used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), and particularly focused on its anticancer and antimetastatic actions. Based on in vitro studies, we report that WECS showed an anticancer action, and this action was antagonized by an adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, this anticancer action of WECS was promoted by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. These results suggest that one of the components of WECS with an anticancer action might be an adenosine or its derivatives. Therefore, we focused on cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) as one of the active ingredients of WECS. According to our experiments, cordycepin showed an anticancer effect through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor, followed by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation and cyclin D1 suppression. Cordycepin also showed an antimetastatic action through inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by cancer cells and suppressing the invasiveness of cancer cells via inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and accelerating the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 from cancer cells. In conclusion, cordycepin, an active component of WECS, might be a candidate anticancer and antimetastatic agent.

  4. [Extraction of single-trial event-related potentials by means of ARX modeling and independent component analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongchang; Du, Sidan

    2006-12-01

    The present paper focused on the extraction of event-related potentials on a single sweep under extremely low S/N ratio. Two methods that can efficiently remove spontaneous EEG, ocular artifacts and power line interference were presented based on ARX modeling and independent component analysis (ICA). The former method applied ARX model to the measured compound signal that extensively contained the three kinds of ordinary noises mentioned above, and used ARX algorithm for parametric identification. The latter decomposed the signal by means of independent component analysis. Besides, some of ICA's important decomposing characters and its intrinsic causality were pointed out definitely. According to the practical situation, some modification on FastICA algorithm was also given, so as to implement auto-adaptive mapping of decomposed results to ERP component. Through simulation, both the two ways are proved to be highly capable of signal extraction and S/N ratio improving.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of plant extracts from Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia F; Costa Junior, Livio M; Lima, Aldilene S; Silva, Carolina R; Ribeiro, Maria N S; Mesquista, José W C; Rocha, Cláudia Q; Tangerina, Marcelo M P; Vilegas, Wagner

    2017-03-15

    Helminth infections represent a serious problem for the production of small ruminants that is currently aggravated by resistance to anthelmintic products and has induced a search for control alternatives, such as natural products. In this study, extracts of Turnera ulmifolia L. (leaves and roots), Parkia platycephala Benth. (leaves and seeds) and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. (leaves and bark), which have been cited in ethnoveterinary studies and selected naturally by goats in the cerrado (Brazilian savanna), were tested in vitro against Haemonchus contortus. Hydroacetonic (ACT) and hydroalcoholic (ETH) extracts were evaluated using an Egg Hatching Assay (EHA), a Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). A second set of incubations was performed using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the anthelmintic effects of EHA and LEIA. Data from each extract were used to calculate inhibition concentrations (IC50). All tested extracts showed activity against at least one life stage of H. contortus. The use of PVPP revealed that the tannins are not the only extracts of secondary metabolites responsible for the anthelmintic effects. The results showed clear in vitro anthelmintic activities against H. contortus at different stages and indicated the potential use of these species as a promising alternative approach to control helminthic infections of small ruminants.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea africana ethanol stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Bawo, Michael Burata; Mbagwu, Herbert Orji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana. Conclusion: The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:27222838

  7. Αntioxidant activity of Cynara scolymus L. and Cynara cardunculus L. extracts obtained by different extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Markaki, Panagiota; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Proestos, Charalampos

    2017-05-01

    Extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) and Cynara scolymus L. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and classical extraction (CE)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity. Moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. Results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction) displayed the highest TPC values (1.57 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) g(-1) fresh weight (fw)), the highest DPPH(•) scavenging activity (IC50; 0.91 mg ml(-1)) and the highest ABTS(•+) radical scavenging capacity (2.08 mg Trolox Equivalents (TE) g(-1) fw) compared to infusions and other extracts studied. Moreover, Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction technique proved to be more appropriate and effective for the extraction of antiradical and phenolic compounds.

  8. Erythrocytes and cell line-based assays to evaluate the cytoprotective activity of antioxidant components obtained from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Botta, Albert; Martínez, Verónica; Mitjans, Montserrat; Balboa, Elena; Conde, Enma; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress can damage cellular components including DNA, proteins or lipids, and may cause several skin diseases. To protect from this damage and addressing consumer's appeal to natural products, antioxidants obtained from algal and vegetal extracts are being proposed as antioxidants to be incorporated into formulations. Thus, the development of reliable, quick and economic in vitro methods to study the cytoactivity of these products is a meaningful requirement. A combination of erythrocyte and cell line-based assays was performed on two extracts from Sargassum muticum, one from Ulva lactuca, and one from Castanea sativa. Antioxidant properties were assessed in erythrocytes by the TBARS and AAPH assays, and cytotoxicity and antioxidant cytoprotection were assessed in HaCaT and 3T3 cells by the MTT assay. The extracts showed no antioxidant activity on the TBARS assay, whereas their antioxidant capacity in the AAPH assay was demonstrated. On the cytotoxicity assays, extracts showed low toxicity, with IC50 values higher than 200μg/mL. C. sativa extract showed the most favourable antioxidant properties on the antioxidant cytoprotection assays; while S. muticum and U. lactuca extracts showed a slight antioxidant activity. This battery of methods was useful to characterise the biological antioxidant properties of these natural extracts.

  9. Protective effects of St. John's wort extract and its component hyperforin against cytokine-induced cytotoxicity in a pancreatic beta-cell line.

    PubMed

    Menegazzi, Marta; Novelli, Michela; Beffy, Pascale; D'Aleo, Valentina; Tedeschi, Elisa; Lupi, Roberto; Zoratti, Elisa; Marchetti, Piero; Suzuki, Hisanori; Masiello, Pellegrino

    2008-01-01

    In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, increased production of cytokines on autoimmune or metabolic basis is supposed to trigger an inflammatory process leading to dysfunction and death of pancreatic beta-cells. Therefore, anti-inflammatory pharmacological approaches aimed at blocking cytokine signalling pathways and consequent cytotoxicity in beta-cells are highly advisable. Based on previous evidence of cytokine antagonistic effects in other cell types, we explored the protective action of Hypericum perforatum (St-John's-wort) extract and its component hyperforin against cytokine-induced functional impairment and apoptosis in the INS-1E beta-cell line, searching for the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that either St-John's-wort extract or hyperforin (at 1-3 microM) prevented cytokine-induced impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected cells against apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion. Inducible-NO-synthase expression was also potently hindered by the vegetal compounds. Interestingly, cytokine-induced activations of the signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-1 (STAT-1) and the nuclear-factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were both down-regulated by SJW extract or HPF (range 0.5-5 microM) when evaluated by electrophoretic-mobility-shift-assay. Other transcription factors (CBF-1, SP-1) were unaffected. Components of SJW extract other than HPF were much less effective in down-regulating cytokine signalling. Significantly, inhibition of cytokine-elicited STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activation was confirmed in isolated rat and human islets incubated in the presence of these vegetal compounds. In conclusion, St-John's-wort extract and hyperforin are non-peptidyl compounds which, at low concentrations, target key mechanisms of cytokine-induced beta-cell injury, thereby improving beta-cell function and survival. Thus, they are potentially valuable for the prevention or limitation of beta-cell loss in diabetes.

  10. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-α, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β) and chemokines (i.e. IL-8) are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso) and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector), GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography). Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a) cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-α by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b) accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-α or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients. PMID:21496221

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of environmental plants: activity of the leaf extracts from seashore plants.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Yonemori, S; Oyama, Y; Takeda, Y; Tanaka, T; Andoh, T; Shinohara, A; Nakata, M

    1999-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of 39 plant species was examined. These leaves were collected from the plants growing on subtropical seashores. The activity was evaluated by three kinds of assay methods, which included the DPPH radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid oxidation assay, and oxidative cell death assay. Two extracts from Excoecaria agallocha and Terminalia catappa showed remarkably potent activity in all assay systems. The HPLC analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of the same antioxidant and isolation work for the compound identified ellagic acid. The isolated ellagic acid showed strong antioxidant activity in the assay systems used.

  12. Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract.

    PubMed

    Baananou, Sameh; Bouftira, Ibtissem; Mahmoud, Amor; Boukef, Kamel; Marongiu, Bruno; Boughattas, Naceur A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53-76%) and seeds (51-95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300 mg kg(-1) dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of gastric lesions (91% and 95%, respectively) which was similar to that induced by omeprazole (94%). Essential oil and aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts of A. graveolens were tested to determine their antibacterial activity using the paper disc-diffusion method, the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration. Essential oil of A. graveolens was strongly inhibitory against Escherichia coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The chemical composition of the volatile oil was investigated by gas chromatography analysis. The major components identified were β-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, α-thuyene, α-pinene, β-phellendrene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene.

  13. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Tunisian quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) pulp and peel polyphenolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Fattouch, Sami; Caboni, Pierluigi; Coroneo, Valentina; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Angioni, Alberto; Dessi, Sandro; Marzouki, Nejib; Cabras, Paolo

    2007-02-07

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit aqueous acetone extracts were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry were used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content of the pulp and peel parts ranged from 37 to 47 and 105 to 157 mg/100 g of fresh weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) was the most abundant phenolic compound in the pulp (37%), whereas rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside) was the main one in the peel (36%). The radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined and compared with that of synthetic antioxidants. The stronger properties corresponded to those obtained from peel material with a 70-80% inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against different microorganism strains was also investigated. Quince peel extract was the most active for inhibiting bacteria growth with minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations in the range of 102-5 x 103 microg polyphenol/mL. It seems that chlorogenic acid acts in synergism with other components of the extracts to exhibit their total antimicrobial activities.

  15. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  16. Extraversion and behavioral activation: integrating the components of approach.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena C; DeYoung, Colin G; Oakman, Jonathan M; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the structure and correlates of lower order traits related to approach, specifically, facets of extraversion and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. A 3-factor structure of approach was derived in community and clinical samples: assertiveness, enthusiasm, and sensation seeking. All factors were positively associated with Openness/Intellect scores. Enthusiasm and assertiveness were both negatively associated with Neuroticism scores, but were distinguished by associations with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Sensation seeking was negatively associated with Conscientiousness scores. The 3 factors demonstrated a unique profile of association with components of impulsivity. Enthusiasm and assertiveness were negatively related to psychopathological symptoms, whereas sensation seeking was largely independent of psychopathology. Results suggest that approach is associated with 3 subfactors, which differ in their pattern or magnitude of associations with other variables, thus underscoring the importance of distinguishing among them. Further, results support the construct validity of the Assertiveness and Enthusiasm aspect scales of the Big Five Aspect Scales to assess traits at this level of the personality hierarchy.

  17. In vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch.

    PubMed Central

    Asnaashari, Solmaz; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba; Ebrahimi, Atefeh; Bamdad Moghadam, Sedigheh; Delazar, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The risk of drug resistance and the use of medicinal plants in malaria prevention and treatment have led to the search for new antimalarial compounds with natural origin. Methods:In the current study, six extracts with different polarity from aerial parts and rhizomes of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch., were screened for their antimalarial properties by cell-free β-hematin formation assay. Results: Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both parts of plant showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 0.797 ± 0.016 mg/mL in aerial parts and 0.324 ± 0.039 mg/mL in rhizomes compared to positive control (Chloroquine, IC50 = 0.014 ± 0.003 mg/mL, IC90 = 0.163 ± 0.004 mg/mL). Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the most potent part (DCM extract of rhizomes) by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) afforded seven fractions. Sixty percent ethyl acetate/n-hexane fraction showed considerable antimalarial activity with IC50 value of 0.047 ± 0.0003 mg/mL. Conclusion: From 6 extracts with different polarity of E. macrophylla,s aerial parts and rhizomes, the DCM extract of both parts were the most active extract in this assay. The preliminary phytochemical study on the VLC fractions of the most potent part persuades us to focus on purifying the active components of these extracts and to conduct further investigation towards in vivo evaluation. PMID:26457251

  18. Cardiotonic activity of methanolic extract of Saussurea lappa Linn roots.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Bashir, Sajid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir-Hayat; Manzoor, Rashida

    2013-11-01

    The cardiac activity of Saussurea lappa roots was evaluated in isolated perfused rabbit heart by the Langendorff's technique. Heart rate, contractility and coronary flow were determined in the presence of different concentrations of methanolic extract of Saussurea lappa, digoxin and diltiazem. The extract exhibited significant (p<0.01) positive inotropic effect at the first three doses (0.5/μg, 2.5/μg and 5.0/μg) while a significant negative chronotropic effect and coronary flow rates were observed at all the doses tested. These effects were comparable to the effects of digoxin and diltiazem. The increase in force of contraction with decrease in heart rate and coronary flow rates were also observed to be dose dependent as increase in the dose of test extract further enhanced the effects except contractility that started decreasing at higher doses. It is conceivable therefore, that Saussurea lappa roots contain certain pharmacologically active compounds that could be involved in the cardiotonic activity of the extract.

  19. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  20. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial, anticollagenase, and antioxidant activities of hop components (Humulus lupulus) addressing acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Satoh-Yamaguchi, Keiko; Ono, Mitsunori

    2009-04-01

    Seven naturally derived components from hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) extracts were tested for evaluation of biological activities affecting acne vulgaris. Five strains, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Kocuria rhizophila and, Staphylococcus pyogenes, were selected as the main acne-causing bacteria. Hop extracts xanthohumol and the lupulones showed strong inhibitory activities against all of the strains. Although hydrogenated derivatives did not show the same level of activity, naturally occurring xanthohumol, humulones, and lupulones all showed moderate to strong anticollagenase inhibitory activities. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated with seven different methods based on different reactive oxygen species. Xanthohumol showed the highest activity in total oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as singlet oxygen absorbance capacity.

  1. Extracts of three Laserpitium L. species and their principal components laserpitine and sesquiterpene lactones inhibit microbial growth and biofilm formation by oral Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Popović, Višnja; Stojković, Dejan; Nikolić, Miloš; Heyerick, Arne; Petrović, Silvana; Soković, Marina; Niketić, Marjan

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial properties of extracts of underground parts of three Laserpitium L. (Apiaceae) species, namely Laserpitium latifolium L., Laserpitium zernyi Hayek and Laserpitium ochridanum Micevski, were investigated. The investigated species are widely used as functional foods, as spices and for preparations in traditional medicine for treating complaints connected with infection and inflammation. Furthermore, antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of laserpitine, the most abundant compound in the chloroform extract of L. latifolium, and guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones, such as, isomontanolide, montanolide and tarolide, principal components of the extracts of L. zernyi and L. ochridanum were assessed. The antimicrobial activity was tested using the microdilution method against five pathogenic bacteria and five fungi, as well as in the microplate biofilm assay on two Candida clinical isolates (C. albicans and C. krusei). Among the extracts, L. latifolium showed the most prominent activity. Isolated metabolites exerted higher effects against fungal than against bacterial strains, isomontanolide being the most active. Interestingly, all constituents showed higher potential on inhibition of biofilm formation than fluconazole, a reference compound. Tested metabolites may be good novel agents with high antifungal and antibacterial potential that might find practical applications in food industry as food preservatives in order to retard the growth of food spoiling microbes, but only after detailed safety assessments.

  2. Effect of Encapsulation on Antimicrobial Activity of
Herbal Extracts with Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Matouskova, Petra; Bokrova, Jitka; Benesova, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased. The use of natural components with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance to reduce this problem. The presented work is focused on the study of the effect of encapsulation of selected plant and animal antimicrobial substances (herbs, spices, lysozyme and nisin) on their activity and stability. Antimicrobial components were packaged into liposomes and polysaccharide particles (alginate, chitosan and starch). Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) bacteria. Encapsulation was successful in all types of polysaccharide particles and liposomes. The prepared particles exhibited very good long-term stability, especially in aqueous conditions. Antimicrobial activity was retained in all types of particles. Liposomes with encapsulated herb and spice extracts exhibited very good inhibitory effect against all tested bacterial strains. Most of herbal extracts had very good antimicrobial effect against the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains, while Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to lysozyme particles. Thus, particles with co-encapsulated herbs and lysozyme are more active against different types of bacteria, and more stable and more effective during long-term storage. Particles with encapsulated mixture of selected plant extracts and lysozyme could be used as complex antimicrobial preparation with controlled release in the production of food and food supplements, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:27956862

  3. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.

  4. Photodynamic activity of plant extracts from Sarawak, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Jong, Wan Wui; Tan, Pei Jean; Kamarulzaman, Fadzly Adzhar; Mejin, Michele; Lim, Diana; Ang, Ida; Naming, Margarita; Yeo, Tiong Chia; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2013-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment that involves the irradiation of an administered photosensitizing drug with light of a particular wavelength to activate the photosensitizer to kill abnormal cells. To date, only a small number of photosensitizers have been clinically approved for PDT, and researchers continue to look for new molecules that have more desirable properties for clinical applications. Natural products have long been important sources of pharmaceuticals, and there is a great potential for discovery of novel chemotypes from under-explored biodiversities in the world. The objective of this study is to mine the terrestrial plants in Sarawak, Borneo Island, for new photosensitizers for PDT. In a screening program from 2004 to 2008, we prepared and studied 2,400 extracts from 888 plants for their photosensitizing activities. This report details the bioprospecting process, preparation and testing of extracts, analysis of the active samples, fractionation of four samples, and isolation and characterization of photosensitizers.

  5. Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.

    PubMed

    Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities.

  6. In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Taioba) Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Caxito, Marina L. C.; Correia, Rachell R.; Gomes, Anne Caroline C.; Justo, Graça; Coelho, Marsen G. P.; Sakuragui, Cássia M.; Kuster, Ricardo M.; Sabino, Katia C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott is a herb of the Araceae family, popularly known as taioba, which is consumed as food in some regions of Brazil, Africa, and Asia. This species has already been evaluated for the antifungal activities. However, based on its potential antitumor activity, the present study further aimed to examine the antitumor, as well as chelation, activity of X. sagittifolium leaf extract. Results showed that hydroethanolic extract of X. sagittifolium leaves (HEXs-L) exhibits cytotoxic effects against the immortalized line of human T-lymphocytic (Jurkat) and myelogenous (K562) leukemia cells, but not nontumor RAW 264.7 macrophages or NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. HEXs-L inhibited 50.3% of Jurkat cell proliferation, reducing by 20% cells in G2/M phase, but increasing cells in sub-G1 phase, thereby inducing apoptosis by 54%. In addition, HEXs-L inhibited NO production by 59%, as determined by Griess reaction, and chelated 93.8% of free Fe(II), as demonstrated by ferrozine assay. Phytochemical studies were carried out by ESI-MS, identifying apigenin di-C-glycosides as major compounds. Overall, this work revealed that leaf extract of Xanthosoma sagittifolium presented chelating activity and in vitro antitumor activity, arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis of leukemia cells, thus providing evidence that taioba leaves may have practical application in cancer therapy. PMID:26180533

  7. Analysis of coal tar pitch and smoke extract components and their cytotoxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhitao; Wu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Hansong; Qin, Lijuan; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yiming

    2011-02-28

    Coal tar pitch and its smoke are considered hazardous by-products and common pollutant generated from coal industry processing. In this study, coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with dimethylsulfoxide. We identified only 0.3025% of components in the total coal tar pitch using GC/MS. Among 18 identified compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has the highest relative abundance (0.19%). The remaining components were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. In contrast, among 38 coal tar pitch smoke extract constituents that have been profiled, 87.91% were PAHs, and the remaining 12.09% were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. The cytotoxic effect of coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts on BEAS-2B cells were also evaluated by MTT assay. BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch showed a non dose-dependent U-shaped cytotoxicity with a dosage for maximal inhibitory of 3.75 mg/L. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch smoke extracts showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity with a LC(50) of 8.64 mg/L. Our study demonstrated the significant different composition and cytotoxicity of coal tar pitch and its extracts, suggesting two different underlying mechanisms that are pending future investigation.

  8. Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants.

    PubMed

    Warr, Susan J; Thompson, Ken; Kent, Martin

    1992-11-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of Botrytis cinerea was inhibited by the seed coat extracts of Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum but not by those of Hyacinthoides non-scripta or Allium ursinum. The buried seeds of Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum can survive in woodland soils for long periods, whereas those of Hyacinthoides non-scripta and Allium ursinum are short-lived. The presence of antifungal agents in the seed coats of persistent species and their possible role in protecting seeds against fungal pathogens is discussed.

  9. The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Motamedi, Hossein; Vafei, Mouzhan; Bakhtiari, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia fistula, is a flowering plant and a member of Fabaceae family. Its leaves are compound of 4 - 8 pairs of opposite leaflets. There are many Cassia species around the world which are used in herbal medicine. Objectives: This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-bacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula native to Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial inhibitory effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula was tested on 3 Gram positive: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and 5 Gram negative: Salmonella Typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis bacterial species using disc diffusion method at various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were measured by the tube dilution assay. Results: The extract of C. fistula was effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The most susceptible microorganisms to ethanolic and methanolic extracts were E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Also B. cereus and S. aureus showed the least sensitivity to ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of ethanolic extracts against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae were also determined. Conclusions: With respect to the obtained results and regarding to the daily increase of the resistant microbial strains to the commercial antibiotics, it can be concluded that these extracts can be proper candidates of antibacterial substance against pathogenic bacterial species especially S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. PMID:25147664

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study

  11. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  12. Aromadendrine, a new component of the flavonoid pattern of Olea europaea L. and its anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Rizza, Luisa; Frasca, Giuseppina; Cardile, Venera; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2013-03-01

    Leaves of Olea europaea, cultivar Nocellara del Belice, were examined with respect to the medium-polar fraction, obtained by an ethyl acetate extraction of the whole extract. In the medium polar fraction, we isolated the two hydroxy-phenyl-ethyl alcohols (hydroxyl-tyrosol and tyrosol) that are the main component of olives. In addition, we isolated a flavonoidic compound, aromadendrine, a dihydroflavonol yet known but quite rare in nature. It is the first time that aromadendrine is isolated in O. europaea and we studied the aromadendrine biological activity. In particular, the ability of aromadendrine to reduce the inflammation induced in normal keratinocytes using an in vitro cell model was evaluated. The results of the present research indicate aromadendrine as a novel component in O. europaea with effective activity against skin inflammation.

  13. Determination of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) polyphenol components using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Overall contribution to antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Gon-Sup; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Man-Bae; Lee, Won Sup; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Soo Jung; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

    2014-03-01

    The type and content of plant polyphenols can be influenced by maturity. Korean chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves of three different maturities (young, mature, and aged) were extracted with 70% aqueous methanol. The polyphenols in the leaves were analysed for the first time using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and comparison with reported data. Among the 12 characterised components, five flavonoids, 3, 4, and 10-12, and a dicaffeoylquinic acid derivative, 6, were characterised for the first time in chokeberry leaves. Each polyphenol component was validated and quantified using a representative polyphenol standard of the same group. The antioxidant activity of the three different mature leaf extracts was determined. The antioxidant activity was highest for young leaves, followed by mature and aged leaves. The results suggest that younger chokeberry leaves may be more favourable for processing a higher quality functional tea due to their higher polyphenol content.

  14. Relevance of carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid concentrations in the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) methanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Maria J; Lax, Vanesa; Rota, Maria C; Lorán, Susana; Sotomayor, José A

    2012-09-26

    The importance of the diterpenic and rosmarinic acid content in the biological activities of rosemary extracts has been studied previously, but how the relationship between the concentration of these components affects their antioxidant and antibacterial activities has received little attention. Accordingly, from a total of 150 plants, 27 methanolic extracts were selected, for their similar diterpene contents but different ratios between carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations. In extracts with similar rosmarinic acid contents but differing proportions between carnosic acid and carnosol, the two diterpenes were seen to equally affect the in vitro antioxidant activity; however, and related with the antibacterial efficiency, this biological activity improved when carnosol was the major diterpene component.

  15. Synergistic Effect and Antiquorum Sensing Activity of Nymphaea tetragona (Water Lily) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Akil; Park, Ji-Yong; Kim, Jin-Yoon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis is a common and widely distributed food borne disease where Salmonella typhimurium is one of the most important etiologic agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Nymphaea tetragona alone and in combination with antibiotics against S. typhimurium. It also aimed to assess the plant for quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) activity and to identify the bioactive compounds. The antibacterial activities of the extract were assessed using broth microdilution method. Disk agar diffusion method was employed to determine the QSI and bioactive compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Ethyl acetate fraction of N. tetragona extract (EFNTE) demonstrated good antimicrobial activity (MIC 781 μg/mL) against 4 strains out of 5. FIC index ranged from 0.375 to 1.031 between EFNTE/tylosin and 0.515 to 1.250 between EFNTE/streptomycin against S. typhimurium. Among all extracts, EFNTE and butanol fraction more significantly inhibited pigment production of C. violaceum. Polyphenols were identified as major compound of EFNTE and butanol fraction. These results indicate that combination among N. tetragona extract and antibiotics could be useful to combat drug-resistance Salmonella infections and polyphenols are promising new components from N. tetragona that warrant further investigation as a candidate anti-Salmonella agent and quorum sensing inhibitor. PMID:24895589

  16. Synergistic effect and antiquorum sensing activity of Nymphaea tetragona (water lily) extract.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Ji-Yong; Kim, Jin-Yoon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis is a common and widely distributed food borne disease where Salmonella typhimurium is one of the most important etiologic agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Nymphaea tetragona alone and in combination with antibiotics against S. typhimurium. It also aimed to assess the plant for quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) activity and to identify the bioactive compounds. The antibacterial activities of the extract were assessed using broth microdilution method. Disk agar diffusion method was employed to determine the QSI and bioactive compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Ethyl acetate fraction of N. tetragona extract (EFNTE) demonstrated good antimicrobial activity (MIC 781 μg/mL) against 4 strains out of 5. FIC index ranged from 0.375 to 1.031 between EFNTE/tylosin and 0.515 to 1.250 between EFNTE/streptomycin against S. typhimurium. Among all extracts, EFNTE and butanol fraction more significantly inhibited pigment production of C. violaceum. Polyphenols were identified as major compound of EFNTE and butanol fraction. These results indicate that combination among N. tetragona extract and antibiotics could be useful to combat drug-resistance Salmonella infections and polyphenols are promising new components from N. tetragona that warrant further investigation as a candidate anti-Salmonella agent and quorum sensing inhibitor.

  17. Anticancer Activity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic and Flavonoids Content of Wild Tragopogon porrifolius Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rishmawi, Suzi; Ariqat, Sharehan H.; Khalid, Mahmoud F.; Warad, Ismail; Salah, Zaidoun

    2016-01-01

    Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AA). Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC)), while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner. PMID:27999608

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in the bark extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Rai, Archana; Mishra, Saumya; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Roy, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bark tissue of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant from Sundarban estuary, India. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial efficacies of various extracts of S. caseolaris were assessed by disc diffusion method against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The methanolic extract among others showed significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the bark tissue extract from the species was found to be quite appreciable. The extracts were found to retain their antimicrobial activities despite pH and thermal treatments, thus indicating the stability of their activity even at extreme conditions. The antioxidant activity was also found to be considerably stable after thermal treatments. The components of the tissue extracts were subjected to separation using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography by agar-overlay and DPPH spraying methods respectively. A number of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties were observed on the developed bioautography plate. The fractions with antimicrobial properties were isolated from the reference TLC plates and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for partial characterization and identification of the metabolites that might be responsible for the activities. The study suggests Sonneratia caseolaris bark as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in the bark extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant.

    PubMed

    Simlai, Aritra; Rai, Archana; Mishra, Saumya; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Roy, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bark tissue of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant from Sundarban estuary, India. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial efficacies of various extracts of S. caseolaris were assessed by disc diffusion method against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The methanolic extract among others showed significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the bark tissue extract from the species was found to be quite appreciable. The extracts were found to retain their antimicrobial activities despite pH and thermal treatments, thus indicating the stability of their activity even at extreme conditions. The antioxidant activity was also found to be considerably stable after thermal treatments. The components of the tissue extracts were subjected to separation using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography by agar-overlay and DPPH spraying methods respectively. A number of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties were observed on the developed bioautography plate. The fractions with antimicrobial properties were isolated from the reference TLC plates and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for partial characterization and identification of the metabolites that might be responsible for the activities. The study suggests Sonneratia caseolaris bark as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural

  20. CONTRACTING AND ERUPTING COMPONENTS OF SIGMOIDAL ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Rui; Wang Yuming; Liu Chang; Wang Haimin; Toeroek, Tibor

    2012-10-01

    It has recently been noted that solar eruptions can be associated with the contraction of coronal loops that are not involved in magnetic reconnection processes. In this paper, we investigate five coronal eruptions originating from four sigmoidal active regions, using high-cadence, high-resolution narrowband EUV images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). The magnitudes of the flares associated with the eruptions range from GOES class B to class X. Owing to the high-sensitivity and broad temperature coverage of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO, we are able to identify both the contracting and erupting components of the eruptions: the former is observed in cold AIA channels as the contracting coronal loops overlying the elbows of the sigmoid, and the latter is preferentially observed in warm/hot AIA channels as an expanding bubble originating from the center of the sigmoid. The initiation of eruption always precedes the contraction, and in the energetically mild events (B- and C-flares), it also precedes the increase in GOES soft X-ray fluxes. In the more energetic events, the eruption is simultaneous with the impulsive phase of the nonthermal hard X-ray emission. These observations confirm that loop contraction is an integrated process in eruptions with partially opened arcades. The consequence of contraction is a new equilibrium with reduced magnetic energy, as the contracting loops never regain their original positions. The contracting process is a direct consequence of flare energy release, as evidenced by the strong correlation of the maximal contracting speed, and strong anti-correlation of the time delay of contraction relative to expansion, with the peak soft X-ray flux. This is also implied by the relationship between contraction and expansion, i.e., their timing and speed.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Andiara; Ferreira, Danielly Cunha Araújo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax®), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax®), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil®) or fluoride (Sorriso®, control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk diffusion method. Water was used as a control. Disks impregnated with the toothpastes were placed in Petri dishes containing culture media inoculated with 23 indicative microorganisms by the pour plate method. After incubation, the inhibition growth halos were measured and statistical analyses (α=0.05) were performed. The results indicated that all formulations, except for conventional toothpaste (Sorriso®), showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The toothpaste containing natural extracts (Parodontax®) was the only product able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The toothpastes containing chlorhexidine, triclosan or natural extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

  2. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    PubMed Central

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  3. Antiulcerogenic Activity and Toxicity of Bauhinia holophylla Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Rozza, A. L.; Cesar, D. A. S.; Pieroni, L. G.; Saldanha, L. L.; Dokkedal, A. L.; De-Faria, F. M.; Souza-Brito, A. R. M.; Vilegas, W.; Takahira, R. K.; Pellizzon, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Bauhinia are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, and inflammation, among other conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiulcer effect of a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of B. holophylla. The chemical profile of the extract was determined by HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS. A dose-effect relation was constructed using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses and studies of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were performed in stomach samples. The involvement of SH compounds, NO, K+ATP channels, and α2-adrenergic receptors in the gastroprotective effect was evaluated. A toxicity study was performed with a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg. The extract was composed mainly of cyanoglucoside and flavonol-O-glycosides derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. SH compounds, NO release, K+ATP channel activation, and presynaptic α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation each proved to be involved in the antiulcer effect. The levels of GSH and activity of GR and GPx were increased, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were modulated. There was an antidiarrheal effect and there were no signs of toxicity. B. holophylla presents antiulcer activity mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuating the inflammatory response, without inducing side effects. PMID:25954316

  4. Antileishmanial Activity of a Calophyllum brasiliense Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Bruna Muller; De Mello, Tatiane Franca Perles; Lera, Daniele Stefani Lopes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Cortez, Diógenes Aparecido Garcia; Donatti, Lucélia; Silveira, Thais Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2017-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) is a tree that grows mainly in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Its leaves possess antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity against certain tumor cell lines, and antimicrobial activity in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.Aiming to identify ultrastructural changes and DNA fragmentation in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, promastigotes were treated with a concentration of the dichloromethane extract and coumarin (-) mammea A/BB from C. brasiliense leaves that inhibited 50 % of the parasites (IC50), and were evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes showed different levels of mitochondrial alterations, including mitochondrial swelling and a reduction in the density of the mitochondrial matrix. Induced DNA fragmentation, as observed by TUNEL, suggested that the extract and coumarin (-) mammea A/BB induced apoptosis-like cell death. These results suggest that the combination of C. brasiliense extract and coumarin (-) mammea A/BB can be considered a promising candidate for the development of new antiprotozoal agents, because of its significant leishmanicidal activity.

  5. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age.

  6. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  7. Characterization of the herb-derived components in rats following oral administration of Carthamus tinctorius extract by extracting diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) in the MS(n) chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Feng; Song, Yue-Lin; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2014-12-21

    In this study, a new strategy named extracting diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) in the MS(n) chromatograms [E(DFI)MS(n)Cs] was proposed to rapidly detect and identify the in vivo components derived from the extract of Carthamus tinctorius (ECT), using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. In order to comprehensively summarize the DFIs for the global identification of in vivo constituents of ECT, chemical profiling was carried out, and then the typical metabolic pathways of the primary components were proposed according to their chemical categories, by orally administering representative reference compounds. Based on the proposed metabolic pathways and the fragmentation rules, a list of DFIs was constructed and adopted to differentiate and identify the metabolites from the endogenous substances in the MS(n) chromatograms of ECT-treated biological samples, in combination with the neutral loss scan mode as a supplement. As a result, a total of 156 compounds were tentatively assigned in vivo, including 63, 73, 50, and 17 components from rat plasma, urine, bile, and feces, respectively, following oral administration of ECT. Deglycosylation, oxidation, methylation, sulfonation, and glucuronidation were observed as the major metabolic pathways for the chemical constituents of ECT, and dehydroxylation was detected at the A-ring of flavones for the first time. The findings suggested that the E(DFI)MS(n)Cs-based strategy which integrated ideas from single compounds to herbal extracts and from extract chemical profiling to in vivo metabolite profiling, could be used as a reliable tool for rapidly discovering and identifying herb-related constituents in vivo.

  8. Comparing conventional and supercritical extraction of (-)-mammea A/BB and the antioxidant activity of Calophyllum brasiliense extracts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Renata Menoci; Lemos, Caroline Ortega Terra; Leal, Ivana Correa Ramos; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; da Silva, Edson Antonio; Cabral, Vladimir Ferreira; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio

    2013-05-24

    Calophyllum brasiliense is a rich source of bioactive coumarins, xanthones and biflavonoids. The aim of the study was to compare the phenol contents and the antioxidant activity of C. brasiliense extracts obtained by conventional and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods, as well as the quantification of crude extracts and (-)-mammea A/BB yields. Dichloromethane and hexane were used as solvents for the conventional extractions and SFE was developed using supercritical CO₂; the kinetic curves were modeled using a second-order empirical model. The dichloromethane extract presented the best total yield, although it showed the lowest content of (-)-mammea A/BB. The concentration of the coumarin was considerably higher in extracts obtained by the supercritical fluid method and a higher antioxidant activity was assigned to extracts obtained by this technique. Concerning the total phenolic contents, both the dichloro-methane and the supercritical extractions produced satisfactory amounts. The SFE method proved to be more promising than conventional methods.

  9. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Koosha, Mona; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Abolhasani, Mandan; Charedar, Soroor; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups). Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+) glucose, D (+) galactose, D (+) mannose, D (−) fructose, D (−) arabinose, L (−) fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin. Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose. Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules) in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins. PMID:23785692

  10. DIFFERENTIAL ALLERGIC AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES TO FUNGAL COMPONENT EXTRACTS IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metarhizium anisopliae mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible protease (IND) extracts were combined to produce the antigen MACA to screen for allergenic potential. Involuntary aspiration (IA) exposure to MACA in BALB/c mice has caused immune, inflammatory and physiological ...

  11. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  12. Antitumor Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron In Vitro and In Vivo and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Wen-tao; Feng, Xie-he; Chen, Ke-li

    2015-01-01

    The antitumor activities of ethyl acetate extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron (SD extracts) in vitro and in vivo and its possible mechanism were investigated. HPLC method was developed for chemical analysis. SD extracts were submitted to 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on different cells, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR analysis using HepG2 cell and antitumor activity in vivo using H-22 xenograft tumor mice. Six biflavonoids from SD extracts were submitted to molecular docking assay. The results showed that SD extracts had considerable antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxicity on normal cells and could induce cell apoptosis. The mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis induced by SD extracts may be associated with decreasing the ratio of bcl-2 and bax mRNA level, activating caspase-3, suppressing survivin, and decreasing the gene expression of COX-2, 5-LOX, FLAP, and 12-LOX mRNA. The main active component in SD extracts is biflavonoids and some exhibited strong interactions with COX-2, 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX. These results offering evidence of possible mechanisms of SD extracts suppress cell proliferation and promote apoptosis and provide the molecular theoretical basis of clinical application of S. doederleinii for cancer therapy. PMID:25866543

  13. [Secondary metabolites, lethality and antimicrobial activity of extracts from three corals and three marine mollusks from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Hernández, Juan; Camacho, Angel

    2010-06-01

    The study of biochemical activity of extracts obtained from marine organisms is gaining interest as some have proved to have efficient health or industrial applications. To evaluate lethality and antimicrobial activities, some chemical tests were performed on crude extracts of the octocorals Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa and the mollusks Pteria colymbus, Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons, collected in Venezuelan waters. The presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, unsaturated sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes in all invertebrates, was evidenced. Additionally, sesquiterpenlactones, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides were also detected in some octocoral extracts, suggesting that biosynthesis of these metabolites is typical in this group. From the lethality bioassays, all extracts resulted lethal to Artemia salina (LC50<1000 microg/ml) with an increased of lethal activity with exposition time. P. pomum extract showed the highest lethality rate (LC50=46.8 microg/ml). Compared to the octocorals, mollusks extracts displayed more activity and a greater action spectrum against different bacterial strains, whereas octocorals also inhibited some fungi strains growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to the antimicrobial power of the extracts (66.7%), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were not affected. The antibiosis shown by marine organisms extracts indicates that some of their biosynthesized metabolites are physiologically active, and may have possible cytotoxic potential or as a source of antibiotic components.

  14. Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    PubMed

    Long, S R; Carey, R A; Crofoot, K M; Proteau, P J; Filtz, T M

    2006-11-01

    Extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) have become popular herbal supplements for their well-recognized cardiotonic effects. Many commercial preparations have been used successfully in the treatment of congestive heart failure, although the active principles within these extracts have yet to be conclusively identified. Several hawthorn preparations were studied and found to have negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay using unpaced cells. As compared to conventional cardiac drugs (i.e., epinephrine, milrinone, ouabain, or propranolol), hawthorn extract has a unique activity profile. Hawthorn extract appears to be anti-arrhythmic and capable of inducing rhythmicity in quiescent cardiomyocytes. Hawthorn extract does not cause beta-adrenergic receptor blockade at concentrations which cause negative chronotropic effects. Commercial hawthorn preparations, extracts prepared from dried leaves and those made from dried berries have similar chronotropic activities. When crude extracts are separated using size-exclusion chromatography, several fractions retain multiple cardiac activities. Assays with chromatographic fractions reveal that multiple dissimilar cardioactive components may exist within the extract, making the identification of individual active constituents more challenging.

  15. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  16. Extraction of essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens: comparison of global yields, chemical composition and antioxidant activity obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical extraction.

    PubMed

    Nejia, Herzi; Séverine, Camy; Jalloul, Bouajila; Mehrez, Romdhane; Stéphane, Condoret Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 and hydrodistillation (HD) were compared as methods to isolate the essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens. The odour of the oil obtained by SFE at 90 bar and 40°C was very close to the odour of the leaves of C. sempervirens before the extraction. Compounds extracted by both SFE and HD were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. Moreover, the difference in the chemical composition obtained by SFE and HD was quite noticeable qualitatively and quantitatively. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were also determined. Compared to HD, the SFE method presents some advantages: the extraction was completed after 1 h in SFE, although 4 h is necessary for HD, and the yield was improved by 34%. Finally, it has also been shown that SFE is very selective towards some specific components such as manoyl oxide, trans-totarol and α-acoradiene.

  17. Selection of independent components based on cortical mapping of electromagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Fen

    2012-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used to attenuate interference caused by noise components from the electromagnetic recordings of brain activity. However, the scalp topographies and associated temporal waveforms provided by ICA may be insufficient to distinguish functional components from artifactual ones. In this work, we proposed two component selection methods, both of which first estimate the cortical distribution of the brain activity for each component, and then determine the functional components based on the parcellation of brain activity mapped onto the cortical surface. Among all independent components, the first method can identify the dominant components, which have strong activity in the selected dominant brain regions, whereas the second method can identify those inter-regional associating components, which have similar component spectra between a pair of regions. For a targeted region, its component spectrum enumerates the amplitudes of its parceled brain activity across all components. The selected functional components can be remixed to reconstruct the focused electromagnetic signals for further analysis, such as source estimation. Moreover, the inter-regional associating components can be used to estimate the functional brain network. The accuracy of the cortical activation estimation was evaluated on the data from simulation studies, whereas the usefulness and feasibility of the component selection methods were demonstrated on the magnetoencephalography data recorded from a gender discrimination study.

  18. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antischistosomal Activities of Extracts from Grateloupia livida (Harv). Yamada

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Fen; Chen, Weizhou; Zhong, Shuping; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designated to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and antischistosomal activities of Grateloupia livida (GL) extracts in vitro. A GL Ethanol extract (EE) was separated into petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butyl alcohol (BuOH) and aqueous (AQ) fractions to fractionate the polar and non-polar compounds in the EE. Extracts antioxidant activities were evaluated in vitro by DPPH radical-scavenging, deoxyribose radical scavenging, and β-carotene bleaching assays, all using butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the reference antioxidant compound. The most effective antioxidant properties were observed in the PE fraction in all three assays. Antimicrobial testing showed that the PE fraction exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, with the PE fraction also exhibiting strong activity against the human pathogenic trematode S. japonicum adult worm. In order to investigate the relationships between bioactivity and chemical composition, the chemical composition of the PE fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 25 components were identified in the PE fraction, most of which have known antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. However, none of the compounds have reported activity against Schistosoma, suggesting that the schistosomicidal activity of the PE fraction may be related to minor constituents present in the extract, or governed by more intricate synergistic or additive relationships. Finally, fractions with the greatest biological activity displayed neither cellular cytotoxicity, at concentrations up to 100 ug/ml, or acute oral toxicity in mice, at doses up to 2000 mg/kg. Based on antioxidant, antimicrobial, antischistosomal activities, and low toxicity, the PE fraction possesses properties useful for food preservation and overall improvement of human health. PMID:24312216

  19. Molluscicidal activity of crude water and hexane extracts of Hypericum species to snails (Radix peregra).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rainha, Nuno; Rosa, José Silvino; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José

    2012-04-01

    In spite of intense research on both chemical constituency and biological activity of Hypericum species, potential applications of their active components for pest control have been less well investigated. In the present study, Hypericum androsaemum (tutsan), Hypericum foliosum (malfurada), and Hypericum undulatum (wavy St. John's wort) aqueous and hexane extracts were studied for their molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Radix peregra. The molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts was low, except for H. androsaemum infusion (median lethal concentration [LC50](adults)  = 317.1 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 415 ppm), and less important compared with the toxicity of all three hexane extracts tested: H. androsaemum (LC50(adults)  = 30.47 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 73.25 ppm), H. undulatum (LC50(adults)  = 30.55 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 60.54 ppm), and H. foliosum (LC50(adults)  = 48.61 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 38.81 ppm). An ovicidal effect was observed only with H. androsaemum infusion (1.85% of hatching at 500 ppm) and H. foliosum hexane extract (0.0% of hatching at 100 ppm). A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the lipophylic extracts from these Hypericum sp. revealed a different chemical profile and confirmed the presence of ursolic acid only in H. undulatum as the main compound. The present study indicates that products from hexane extracts of the Hypericum sp. analyzed may be used as potential molluscicides to control snails responsible for transmitting fasciolosis.

  20. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development.

  1. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Trigona Apicalis propolis extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah

    2016-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.

  2. Identification of potent anticancer activity in Ximenia americana aqueous extracts used by African traditional medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Cristina; Eyol, Erguel; Berger, Martin R. . E-mail: m.berger@dkfz.de

    2006-03-15

    The antineoplastic activity of a plant powder used in African traditional medicine for treating cancer was investigated by analyzing the activity of various extracts in vitro. The most active, aqueous extract was subsequently subjected to a detailed investigation in a panel of 17 tumor cell lines, showing an average IC{sub 5} of 49 mg raw powder/ml medium. The sensitivity of the cell lines varied by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 mg/ml in MCF7 breast cancer cells to 170 mg/ml in AR230 chronic-myeloid leukemia cells. Immortalized, non-tumorigenic cell lines showed a marginal sensitivity. In addition, kinetic and recovery experiments performed in MCF7 and U87-MG cells and a comparison with the antineoplastic activity of miltefosine, gemcitabine, and cisplatinum in MCF7, U87-MG, HEp2, and SAOS2 cells revealed no obvious similarity between the sensitivity profiles of the extract and the three standard agents, suggesting a different mechanism of cytotoxicity. The in vivo antitumor activity was determined in the CC531 colorectal cancer rat model. Significant anticancer activity was found following administration of equitoxic doses of 100 (perorally) and 5 (intraperitoneally) mg raw powder/kg, indicating a 95% reduced activity following intestinal absorption. By sequencing the mitochondrial gene for the large subunit of the ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase (rbcL) in DNA from the plant material, the source plant was identified as Ximenia americana. A physicochemical characterization showed that the active antineoplastic component(s) of the plant material are proteins with galactose affinity. Moreover, by mass spectrometry, one of these proteins was shown to contain a stretch of 11 amino acids identical to a tryptic peptide from the ribosome-inactivating protein ricin.

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Hamelia patens extracts.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman

    2016-01-01

    Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity.

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Functional Beverage Concentrates Containing Herbal Medicine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Jung Hoan; Jeong, Sehyun; Kim, Min Hee; Yang, Su-Jin; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of functional beverage concentrates containing herbal medicine extracts (FBCH) using various antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenolic content of FBCH (81.45 mg/100 g) was higher than Ssanghwa tea (SHT, 37.56 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of FBCH showed 52.92% DPPH and 55.18% ABTS radical scavenging activities at 100 mg/mL, respectively. FBCH showed significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the SHT (DPPH, 23.43%; ABTS, 22.21%; reducing power optical density; 0.23, P<0.05). In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following FBCH treatment. These results suggest that the addition of herbal medicine extract contributes to the improved functionality of beverage concentrates.

  5. Antinociceptive Activity of Melicope ptelefolia Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Mohd Padzil, Azyyati; Shaari, Khozirah; Khalid, Syamimi; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Ahmad, Syahida; Akira, Ahmad; Israf, Daud; Lajis, Nordin

    2010-01-01

    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals. PMID:21274262

  6. Pharmacological Effects of Active Components of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Jian-Gang; Li, Hao; Yang, Hui-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia, not only severely decreases the quality of life for its victims, but also brings a heavy economic burden to the family and society. Unfortunately, few chemical drugs designed for clinical applications have reached the expected preventive or therapeutic effect so far, and combined with their significant side-effects, there is therefore an urgent need for new strategies to be developed for AD treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine has accumulated many experiences in the treatment of dementia during thousands of years of practice; modern pharmacological studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of many active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted from Radix Ginseng, exerts a [Formula: see text]-secretase inhibitor effect so as to decrease A[Formula: see text] aggregation. It can also inhibit the apoptosis of neuron cells. Tanshinone IIA, extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, and baicalin, extracted from Radix Scutellariae[Formula: see text] can inhibit the oxidative stress injury in neuronal cells. Icariin, extracted from Epimedium brevicornum, can decrease A[Formula: see text] levels and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and can also inhibit oxidative stress and apoptosis. Huperzine A, extracted from Huperzia serrata, exerts a cholinesterase inhibitor effect. Evodiamine, extracted from Fructus Evodiae, and curcumin, extracted from Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, exert anti-inflammatory actions. Curcumin can act on A[Formula: see text] and tau too. Due to the advantages of multi-target effects and fewer side effects, Chinese medicine is more appropriate for long-term use. In this present review, the pharmacological effects of commonly used active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of AD are discussed.

  7. Multi-Component Profiling of Trace Volatiles in Blood by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Dynamic Headspace Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kakuta, Shoji; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic headspace extraction method (DHS) with high-pressure injection is described. This dynamic extraction method has superior sensitivity to solid phase micro extraction, SPME and is capable of extracting the entire gas phase by purging the headspace of a vial. Optimization of the DHS parameters resulted in a highly sensitive volatile profiling system with the ability to detect various volatile components including alcohols at nanogram levels. The average LOD for a standard volatile mixture was 0.50 ng mL−1, and the average LOD for alcohols was 0.66 ng mL−1. This method was used for the analysis of volatile components from biological samples and compared with acute and chronic inflammation models. The method permitted the identification of volatiles with the same profile pattern as in vitro oxidized lipid-derived volatiles. In addition, the concentration of alcohols and aldehydes from the acute inflammation model samples were significantly higher than that for the chronic inflammation model samples. The different profiles between these samples could also be identified by this method. Finally, it was possible to analyze alcohols and low-molecular-weight volatiles that are difficult to analyze by SPME in high sensitivity and to show volatile profiling based on multi-volatile simultaneous analysis. PMID:26819905

  8. Multi-Component Profiling of Trace Volatiles in Blood by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Dynamic Headspace Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Shoji; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic headspace extraction method (DHS) with high-pressure injection is described. This dynamic extraction method has superior sensitivity to solid phase micro extraction, SPME and is capable of extracting the entire gas phase by purging the headspace of a vial. Optimization of the DHS parameters resulted in a highly sensitive volatile profiling system with the ability to detect various volatile components including alcohols at nanogram levels. The average LOD for a standard volatile mixture was 0.50 ng mL(-1), and the average LOD for alcohols was 0.66 ng mL(-1). This method was used for the analysis of volatile components from biological samples and compared with acute and chronic inflammation models. The method permitted the identification of volatiles with the same profile pattern as in vitro oxidized lipid-derived volatiles. In addition, the concentration of alcohols and aldehydes from the acute inflammation model samples were significantly higher than that for the chronic inflammation model samples. The different profiles between these samples could also be identified by this method. Finally, it was possible to analyze alcohols and low-molecular-weight volatiles that are difficult to analyze by SPME in high sensitivity and to show volatile profiling based on multi-volatile simultaneous analysis.

  9. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth.

  10. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  11. Near-infrared microscopy imaging for quantitative analysis of active component in counterfeit imidacloprid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue; Cao, Jinli; Ye, Shengfeng; Duan, Jia; Wu, Lijun; Li, Qianqian; Min, Shungeng

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) imaging systems simultaneously record spectral and spatial information. Near-infrared imaging was applied to the identification of imidacloprid in both artificially mixed samples and commercial formulation in this study. The distributions of technical imidacloprid and additive in the heterogeneous counterfeit were obtained by the relationship imaging (RI) mode. Furthermore a series of samples which consisted of different contents of uniformly distributed imidacloprid were prepared and three data cubes were generated at each content. Extracted spectra from those images were imported to establish the partial least squares model. The model's results were: R2 99.21%, RMSEC 0.0306, RMSECV 0.0183, RMSECV/mean value 0.0348 and RSEP 0.0784. The prediction relative error of commercial formulation is 0.0680, indicating the predicted value was correlated to the real content. Lastly the chemical value reconstruction image of imidacloprid formulation products was calculated by MATLAB program. NIR microscopy imaging manifests herein its potential in qualitatively identifying the active component in counterfeit pesticide and quantifying the active component in scanned image.

  12. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Tzasna; Canales, Margarita; Teran, Barbara; Avila, Olivia; Duran, Angel; Garcia, Ana Maria; Hernandez, Hector; Angeles-Lopez, Omar; Fernandez-Araiza, Mario; Avila, Guillermo

    2007-04-20

    In traditional Mexican medicine Cordia curassavica (Jacq) Roemer & Schultes is used to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological disorders in Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, obtained by using Clevenger distillation apparatus, and hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cordia curassavica. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 13 bacteria and five fungal strains. The oil and extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and five fungal strains. Sarcina lutea and Vibrio cholerae were the strains more sensitive to the essential oil effect (MIC=62 microg/mL) and Vibrio cholerae for the hexane extract (MIC=125 microg/mL). Rhyzoctonia solani was the strain more sensitive to the essential oil effect (IC(50)=180 microg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes for the hexane extract (IC(50)=230 microg/mL). The essential oil was examined by GC and GC-MS. A total 11 constituents representing 96.28% of the essential oil were identified: 4-methyl,4-ethenyl-3-(1-methyl ethenyl)-1-(1-methyl methanol)cyclohexane (37.34%), beta-eudesmol (19.21%), spathulenol (11.25%) and cadina 4(5), 10(14) diene (7.93%) were found to be the major components. The present study tends to confirm the use in the folk medicine of Cordia curassavica in gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological diseases.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and bioguided fractionation of Rumex tingitanus extracts for meat preservation.

    PubMed

    Mhalla, Dhekra; Bouaziz, Amira; Ennouri, Karim; Chawech, Rachid; Smaoui, Slim; Jarraya, Raoudha; Tounsi, Slim; Trigui, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Rumex tingitanus leaves extracts as well as the identification of bioactive components and their performance in meat preservation. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids in the ethyl acetate fraction (Rt EtOAcF). For antimicrobial efficacy, leaves extract and derived fraction were tested for their capacity to inhibit bacterial and fungal proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the most potent antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the others extracts. Thus, the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the proliferation of Listeria monocytogenes in minced beef meat model was examined. This fraction eradicates the L. monocytogenes population in meat in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. A bio-guided purification of the Rt EtOAc fraction resulted in the isolation of the compound responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity. This compound was identified as luteolin by analysis of spectroscopic data.

  15. Protection of HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate toxicity mediated by the antioxidant activity of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica extracts.

    PubMed

    Sucontphunt, Apirada; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Nimmannit, Ubonthip; Dan Dimitrijevich, S; Gracy, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration is known to be due to oxidative stress acting through a pathway involving the excessive activation of glutamate receptors. We studied the neuroprotection potential of an ethyl acetate-ethanol extract of Pueraria mirifica (P. candollei var. mirifica) root (PM extract). PM extract was evaluated for its antioxidant and neuroprotective activities against glutamate toxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 neuronal cells. The extract at concentrations of 10 and 50 μg/ml exhibited considerable antioxidant activity with significant neuroprotection, based on the microscopic observations of cell morphology and the determination of cell viability and cell number. Studies of the possible mechanisms of action indicated that the neuroprotection exerted by PM extract was related to its scavenging activity against H(2)O(2) and related reactive oxygen species. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses showed that the extract contained daidzein and genistein as identified constituents, as well as additional components with antioxidant activity. While daidzein and genistein individually and in combination were observed not to be neuroprotective, we propose that the antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of PM extract are derived from the combined properties of its constituents.

  16. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  17. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of pine pollen extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ae-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the medicinal properties of pine pollen, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of pine pollen extract (PPE) were investigated. PPE displayed a strong free radical scavenger activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. It was observed also that the antioxidant activity, measured by the ferric thiocyanate method, increased with the addition of PPE to the linoleic acid emulsion system. PPE was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls formed from liver homogenate. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power of PPE was excellent. Thereafter, the study investigated the effects of PPE in modulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the effect of PPE on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in the human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982. PPE was found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment with PPE at 10 microg/mL significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) production in SW982 cells. IL-1beta-induced JNK activation was inhibited by PPE (10 microg/mL), whereas p38 and ERK1/2 were not affected. These findings suggest that pine pollen is a potential antioxidant and beneficial for inflammatory conditions through down-regulation of JNK and MMPs.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  19. Activation of formylmethanofurna synthesis in cell extracts of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    SciTech Connect

    Bobik, T.A.; Wolfe, R.S. )

    1989-03-01

    In cell extracts of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, formylmethanofuran (formyl-MFR) synthesis (an essential CO{sub 2} fixation reaction that is an early step in CO{sub 2} reduction to methane) is subject to a complex activation that involves a heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and N-(7-mercaptoheptanoyl)threonine O{sup 3}-phosphate (CoM-S-S-HTP). In this paper we report that titanium(III) citrate, a low-potential reducing agent, stimulated CO{sub 2} reduction to methane and activated formyl-MFR synthesis in cell extracts. Titanium(III) citrate functioned as the sole source of electrons for formyl-MFR synthesis and enabled this reaction to occur independently of CoM-S-S-HTP. In addition, CoM-S-S-HTP was found to activate an unknown electron carrier that reduced metronidazole. The activation of formyl-MFR synthesis by CoM-S-S-HTP may involve the activation of a low-potential electron carrier.

  20. Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.

  1. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  2. Photosynthetic Reaction Centers as Active Molecular Electronic Components. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-13

    lauryl dimethylarnine oxide (LDAO). This is followed by final purification by ion-exchange chromatography. Typical media are DEAE-Sephacel with an...producing improved forms of subtilisin which is widely used in laundry detergents. Other more direct routes to stabilizing the protein structure...purified reaction centers will allow us to eliminate the extraction steps in the purification procedure which are associated with removing the antenna

  3. Extraction optimization for obtaining Artemisia capillaris extract with high anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Kim, Bum-Keun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts have been used as herbal medicines to treat a wide variety of human diseases. We used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Artemisia capillaris Thunb. extraction parameters (extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration) for obtaining an extract with high anti-inflammatory activity at the cellular level. The optimum ranges for the extraction parameters were predicted by superimposing 4-dimensional response surface plots of the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced PGE2 and NO production and by cytotoxicity of A. capillaris Thunb. extracts. The ranges of extraction conditions used for determining the optimal conditions were extraction temperatures of 57-65°C, ethanol concentrations of 45-57%, and extraction times of 5.5-6.8 h. On the basis of the results, a model with a central composite design was considered to be accurate and reliable for predicting the anti-inflammation activity of extracts at the cellular level. These approaches can provide a logical starting point for developing novel anti-inflammatory substances from natural products and will be helpful for the full utilization of A. capillaris Thunb. The crude extract obtained can be used in some A. capillaris Thunb.-related health care products.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus koraiensis Cone Bark Extracts Prepared by Micro-Wave Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun-Ae; Kim, Dong-Hee; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyun; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; An, Bong-Jeun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Cho, Young-Je

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus koraiensis cone bark extracts prepared by conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts prepared using MAE were applied to RAW 264.7 cell at 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL of concentrations, and tested for cytoxicity. The group treated with 50 μg/mL of 50% ethanol extracts showed toxicity. In order to investigate the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, extracts of water and ethanol were treated with 5, 10, and 25 μg/mL concentrations. The inhibitory activity of water and 50% ethanol extracts groups were determined as 40% and 60% at 25 μg/mL concentration, respectively. We found concentration dependent decreases on inducible NO synthase. The inhibitory effect against forming inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, was also superior in the 25 μg/mL treated group than the control group. According to these results, the water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts both inhibited inflammatory mediators by reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, The MAE extracts of P. koraiensis cone bark can be developed as a functional ingredient with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27752500

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus koraiensis Cone Bark Extracts Prepared by Micro-Wave Assisted Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun-Ae; Kim, Dong-Hee; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyun; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; An, Bong-Jeun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Cho, Young-Je

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus koraiensis cone bark extracts prepared by conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts prepared using MAE were applied to RAW 264.7 cell at 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL of concentrations, and tested for cytoxicity. The group treated with 50 μg/mL of 50% ethanol extracts showed toxicity. In order to investigate the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, extracts of water and ethanol were treated with 5, 10, and 25 μg/mL concentrations. The inhibitory activity of water and 50% ethanol extracts groups were determined as 40% and 60% at 25 μg/mL concentration, respectively. We found concentration dependent decreases on inducible NO synthase. The inhibitory effect against forming inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, was also superior in the 25 μg/mL treated group than the control group. According to these results, the water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts both inhibited inflammatory mediators by reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, The MAE extracts of P. koraiensis cone bark can be developed as a functional ingredient with anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. Characterisation of taste-active extracts from raw Brassica oleracea vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zabaras, Dimitrios; Roohani, Mahshid; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Cochet, Maeva; Delahunty, Conor M

    2013-04-25

    Chemical and sensory characterisation of whole and fractionated myrosinase-free extracts from selected Australian-grown, raw Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and red cabbage) was carried out to determine the contribution of key phytochemicals (i.e. glucosinolates, free sugars, phenolics) to the taste profiles of these vegetables. Glucosinolate (GS) and phenolic profiles were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Ten glucosinolates (GS) were quantified across the vegetables investigated. Brussels sprouts (186.3 μg g(-1) FW) followed by broccoli (164.1 μg g(-1) FW) were found to contain the most GS. The phenolic profiles of all samples were dominated by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. As expected, red cabbage was the only vegetable with a significant anthocyanin signal (574.0 μg g(-1) FW). Red cabbage (26.7 mg g(-1) FW) and cauliflower (18.7 mg g(-1) FW) were found to contain a higher concentration of free sugars than Brussels sprouts (12.6 mg g(-1) FW) and broccoli (10.2 mg g(-1) FW). Descriptive sensory analysis of the whole extracts found sweetness (cauliflower and red cabbage sweeter than broccoli and Brussels sprouts) and bitterness (Brussels sprouts more bitter than others) as the most discriminating attributes. A hydrophilic fraction with sweetness, umami and saltiness as the main attributes was the most taste active fraction across all Brassica whole extracts. Sub-fractionation showed that this fraction was also bitter but the presence of sugars counteracted bitterness. Several components within each extract were found to contribute to the bitterness of whole Brassica extracts. The total and individual GS content alone could not explain the perceived bitterness of these extracts. Phenolics and/or other components are likely to be contributing to the bitterness associated with these vegetables.

  7. Extraction and antioxidant activity of flavonoids of Morus nigra

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26885210

  8. EXTRACTS OF IRRADIATED MATURE HUMAN TOOTH CROWNS CONTAIN MMP-20 PROTEIN AND ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    MCGUIRE, J.D.; MOUSA, A.A.; ZHANG, BO J.; TODOKI, L.S.; HUFFMAN, N.T.; CHANDRABABU, K.B.; MORADIAN-OLDAK, J.; KEIGHTLEY, A.; WANG, Y.; WALKER, M.P.; GORSKI, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We recently demonstrated a significant correlation between enamel delamination and tooth-level radiation dose in oral cancer patients. Since radiation can induce the synthesis and activation of matrix metalloproteinases, we hypothesized that irradiated teeth may contain active matrix metalloproteinases. Materials and Methods Extracted teeth from oral cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and from healthy subjects were compared. Extracted mature third molars from healthy subjects were irradiated in vitro and/or incubated for 0 to 6 months at 37°C. All teeth were then pulverized, extracted, and extracts subjected to proteomic and enzymatic analyses. Results Screening of irradiated crown extracts using mass spectrometry identified MMP-20 (enamelysin) which is expressed developmentally in dentin and enamel but believed to be removed prior to tooth eruption. MMP-20 was composed of catalytically active forms at Mr=43, 41, 24 and 22 kDa and was immunolocalized predominantly to the morphological dentin enamel junction. The proportion of different sized MMP-20 forms changed with incubation and irradiation. While the pattern was not altered directly by irradiation of healthy teeth with 70 G, subsequent incubation at 37°C for 3–6 months with or without prior irradiation caused the proportion of Mr=24–22 kDa MMP-20 bands to increase dramatically. Extracts of teeth from oral cancer patients who received >70 Gy radiation also contained relatively more 24 and 22 kDa MMP-20 than those of healthy age-related teeth. Conclusion MMP-20 is a radiation-resistant component of mature tooth crowns enriched in the dentin-enamel. We speculate that MMP-20 catalyzed degradation of organic matrix at this site could lead to enamel delamination associated with oral cancer radiotherapy. PMID:24607847

  9. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  10. Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengyi; Shi, Xuejie; Xu, Lanlan; Yi, Yuetao

    2016-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is an economic crop widely planted in saline-alkaline soil. The use of Jerusalem artichoke is of great significance. In this study, the response surface method was employed to optimize the effects of processing variables (extraction temperature, pH, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on the yield of Jerusalem artichoke pectin. Under the optimal extraction conditions: pH 1.52, 63.62 min, 100°C and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 44.4 mL/g, the maximum pectin yield was predicted to be 18.76%. Experiments were conducted under these optimal conditions and a pectin yield of 18.52±0.90% was obtained, which validated the model prediction. The effects of diff erent drying methods (freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying) on the properties of Jerusalem artichoke pectin were evaluated and they were compared with apple pectin. FTIR spectral analysis showed no major structural diff erences in Jerusalem artichoke pectin samples produced by various drying treatments. The antioxidant activities of pectin dried by diff erent methods were investigated using in vitro hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems. The results revealed that the activities of spray dried pectin (SDP) and apple pectin (AP) were stronger than those of vacuum oven dried pectin (ODP) and vacuum freeze dried pectin (FDP). Therefore compared with the other two drying methods, the spray drying method was the best.

  11. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Yuan, Qingxia; Zhou, Xianjiao; Zeng, Fuhua; Lu, Xiangyang

    2016-11-24

    Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2-4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5-10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb). Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia) was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  12. In Vivo Wound Healing Activity of Abrus cantoniensis Extract

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Song, Hongjin; Nie, Fayu; Wang, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    Abrus cantoniensis (Leguminosae sp.) is a traditionally used remedy for treating rheumatism, blood stasis, and internal injuries. In order to reveal a new insight of the utilization of the plant, solvent extraction by ethyl acetate (EA) was performed in order to evaluate the plant extracts' in vivo excision and incision-wound potentials with models. The contents of the EA fraction, wound healing activity, acute oral toxicity, and acute dermal toxicity were studied. As a result, the main chemical constituents of the EA fraction were alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The acute oral toxicity test results and assessment of skin hypoallergenicity showed that the plant extract was safe at LD50 as high as 5000 mg/kg. Both excision and incision model tests results indicated that the EA fraction of A. cantoniensis showed a significant wound healing capacity at a concentration of 5% (v/w) (p < 0.01) as observed by the increased wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, and increased hydroxyproline content compared to the ones of the controls. The present study showed that the EA fraction of A. cantoniensis possesses potential wound healing activities and provided recent results for the use of A. cantoniensis for wound curing. PMID:28119760

  13. Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen extract.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen in mice. The antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking, and the hot plate test. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema, and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The ethanol extract of pine pollen (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and an elevation of the pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. The pine pollen extract also produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema as well as arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The inhibitions were similar to those produced by aminopyrine and indomethacin, p.o. The different polyphenols found in pine pollen could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions. The results obtained indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects.

  14. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jarosław; Zieba, Krzysztof; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h.

  15. Analysis of Extracted and Volatile Components in Blackstrap Molasses Feed as Candidate House Fly Attractants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    acid 14.41 Both Propionic acid 15.45 Both × Butanoic acid 16.86 Both × Furfuryl alcohol 17.16 Both × Pentanoic acid 18.14 Hexane Propanamide 18.84...Table 1). Another study conducted on volatiles from cane molasses identified furfuryl alcohol, which was found in both hexane and ether extracts in this

  16. Antihyperglycemic and Insulin Secretagogue Activities of Abrus precatorius Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Umamahesh, Balekari; Veeresham, Ciddi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. Materials and Methods: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated. Results: In diabetic rats, APME treatment significantly restored body weight (26.39%), blood glucose (32.39%), and insulin levels (73.95%) in comparison to diabetic control rats. In MIN6-β cells, APME potentiated insulin secretion in a dependent manner of glucose (3–16.7 mM) and extract (5–500 μg/mL) concentration. Insulin secretagogue effect was demonstrated in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine, glibenclamide, elevated extracellular calcium, and K+ depolarized media. Insulin release was reduced in the presence of nifedipine, ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (calcium blocking agents), and diazoxide (potassium channel opener). Conclusion: The study suggests that APME antihyperglycemic activity might involve the insulin secretagogue effect by pancreatic beta cells physiological pathways via K+-ATP channel dependent and independently, along with an effect on Ca2+ channels. SUMMARY Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) showed a significant anti hyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Also demonstrated a potent In vitro insulin secretagogue effect in mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β)APME treatment significantly restored body weight (26.39%), reduced blood glucose (32.39%) and enhanced circulatory insulin levels (73.95%) in diabetic ratsAPME demonstrated glucose and extract dose dependent insulin secretionInsulin secretagogue effect was demonstrated

  17. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation.

    PubMed

    Aram, Lior; Braun, Tslil; Braverman, Carmel; Kaplan, Yosef; Ravid, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Arama, Eli

    2016-04-04

    How cells avoid excessive caspase activity and unwanted cell death during apoptotic caspase-mediated removal of large cellular structures is poorly understood. We investigate caspase-mediated extrusion of spermatid cytoplasmic contents in Drosophila during spermatid individualization. We show that a Krebs cycle component, the ATP-specific form of the succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (A-Sβ), binds to and activates the Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex required for caspase activation in spermatids. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that this interaction occurs on the mitochondrial surface, thereby limiting the source of CRL3 complex activation to the vicinity of this organelle and reducing the potential rate of caspase activation by at least 60%. Domain swapping between A-Sβ and the GTP-specific SCSβ (G-Sβ), which functions redundantly in the Krebs cycle, show that the metabolic and structural roles of A-Sβ in spermatids can be uncoupled, highlighting a moonlighting function of this Krebs cycle component in CRL activation.

  18. Role of catechins in the antioxidant capacity of an active film containing green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Colon, M; Nerin, C

    2012-10-03

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.

  19. Fucoidans from the brown seaweed Adenocystis utricularis: extraction methods, antiviral activity and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Nora M A; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Flores, María L; Stortz, Carlos A

    2003-01-20

    The brown seaweed Adenocystis utricularis (family Adenocystaceae, order Ectocarpales sensu lato) was extracted in parallel with three solvents usually utilized for obtaining fucoidans: distilled water, 2% calcium chloride solution and diluted hydrochloric acid (pH 2) solution. In each case, the extraction was effected at room temperature and then at 70 degrees C. The extraction yields and characteristics of the products were similar in the three cases, with only minor differences. The analytical features of the products indicate that two different types of fucoidans are present in this seaweed. One of them, mostly extracted at room temperature, is composed mainly of L-fucose, D-galactose and ester sulfate (the 'galactofucan'). The other product (the 'uronofucoidan') is the major component of the extracts obtained at 70 degrees C. It is composed mainly of fucose, accompanied by other monosaccharides (mostly Man, but also Glc, Xyl, Rha and Gal), significant amounts of uronic acids and low proportions of sulfate ester. Fractionation with the cationic detergent cetrimide has allowed achieving a better separation of the galactofucan and uronofucoidan components. The galactofucans show a high inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, with no cytotoxicity, whereas the uronofucoidans carry no antiviral activity. Structural studies on the galactofucan fractions were carried out by methylation analysis, desulfation and NMR spectroscopy. The fucan constituent is mainly composed of 3-linked alpha-L-fucopyranosyl backbone, mostly sulfated at C-4, and branched at C-2 with non-sulfated fucofuranosyl and fucopyranosyl units, and 2-sulfated fucopyranosyl units. The galactan moiety is more heterogeneous, with predominant D-galactopyranose units linked on C-3 and C-6, and sulfation mostly on C-4, even in terminal non-reducing units. It may be inferred that at least some of these galactose units carry the alpha-configuration.

  20. Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    PubMed

    Krishna, T P Adarsh; Krishna, T P Ajeesh; Chithra, N D; Deepa, P E; Darsana, U; Sreelekha, K P; Juliet, Sanis; Nair, Suresh N; Ravindran, Reghu; Kumar, K G Ajith; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2014-01-01

    The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston (family: Vitaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (AIT). The per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. The extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. Peak mortality rate was observed after day 5 of treatment. Mortality of engorged female ticks, inhibition of fecundity, and hatching of eggs were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of the extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 10.46%. The HPTLC profiling of the petroleum ether extract revealed the presence of at least seven polyvalent components. In the petroleum ether extract, nicotine was identified as one of the components up to a concentration of 5.4%. However, nicotine did not reveal any acaricidal activity up to 20000 ppm (2%). Coconut oil, used as diluent for dissolving the extract, did not reveal any acaricidal effects. The results are indicative of the involvement of synergistic or additive action of the bioactive components in the tick mortality and inhibition of the oviposition.

  1. Pressure activated interconnection of micro transfer printed components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevatte, Carl; Guven, Ibrahim; Ghosal, Kanchan; Gomez, David; Moore, Tanya; Bonafede, Salvatore; Raymond, Brook; Trindade, António Jose; Fecioru, Alin; Kneeburg, David; Meitl, Matthew A.; Bower, Christopher A.

    2016-05-01

    Micro transfer printing and other forms of micro assembly deterministically produce heterogeneously integrated systems of miniaturized components on non-native substrates. Most micro assembled systems include electrical interconnections to the miniaturized components, typically accomplished by metal wires formed on the non-native substrate after the assembly operation. An alternative scheme establishing interconnections during the assembly operation is a cost-effective manufacturing method for producing heterogeneous microsystems, and facilitates the repair of integrated microsystems, such as displays, by ex post facto addition of components to correct defects after system-level tests. This letter describes pressure-concentrating conductor structures formed on silicon (1 0 0) wafers to establish connections to preexisting conductive traces on glass and plastic substrates during micro transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. The pressure concentrators penetrate a polymer layer to form the connection, and reflow of the polymer layer bonds the components securely to the target substrate. The experimental yield of series-connected test systems with >1000 electrical connections demonstrates the suitability of the process for manufacturing, and robustness of the test systems against exposure to thermal shock, damp heat, and mechanical flexure shows reliability of the resulting bonds.

  2. Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Logeswaran, Selvarasoo; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2012-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05), improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of E. guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties. PMID:22312255

  3. Extraction of dynamic speckle activity information from digital holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budini, Nicolas; Balducci, Nicolas; Mulone, Cecilia; Monaldi, Andrea C.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we show how dynamic speckle information can be extracted directly from digital holograms. This allows improving the analysis and characterization of dynamic phenomena by combining dynamic speckle with digital holographic interferometry measurements. We have studied the drying process of paint coatings, which is a typical study case in the field of dynamic speckle characterization, since the speckle activity (SA) of drying coatings is known to decay smoothly as a function of time. We recorded both holograms and speckle images during the process. In this way, we could compare the evolution of global SA calculated from speckle images by a standard method with the evolution of speckle correlation extracted directly from the holograms. The results obtained from both methods have shown to be in good agreement.

  4. Vesselness-guided Active Contour: A Coronary Vessel Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Maryam Taghizadeh; Jalalat, Morteza; Sadri, Saeed; Doosthoseini, Alimohamad; Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Amirfattahi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Vessel extraction is a critical task in clinical practice. In this paper, we propose a new approach for vessel extraction using an active contour model by defining a novel vesselness-based term, based on accurate analysis of the vessel structure in the image. To achieve the novel term, a simple and fast directional filter bank is proposed, which does not employ down sampling and resampling used in earlier versions of directional filter banks. The proposed model not only preserves the performance of the existing models on images with intensity inhomogeneity, but also overcomes their inability both to segment low contrast vessels and to omit non-vessel structures. Experimental results for synthetic images and coronary X-ray angiograms show desirable performance of our model. PMID:24761379

  5. In vitro Antiviral Activity of Rubia cordifolia Aerial Part Extract against Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Gong, Xuepeng; Tan, Jia Y.; Kang, Lifeng; Li, Dongyan; Vikash; Yang, Jihong; Du, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The root of Rubia cordifolia has been used traditionally as a hemostatic agent, while the aerial part of the plant consisting of leaf and stem is known to exhibit anti-diarrheal properties and has been widely used as a remedy in many parts of China. As rotavirus is one of the most commonly associated diarrhea-causing pathogen, this study aims to investigate the anti-rotaviral effect of R. cordifolia aerial part (RCAP). The cytotoxicity of RCAP toward MA-104 cells was evaluated using the WST-8 assay. Colloidal gold method and real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay were used to confirm the findings of the antiviral assay. Then, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method was subsequently used to investigate the mode of death among the cells. And the representative components of aqueous extract were isolated and identified. It was shown that both the viability of MA-104 cells and the viral load were reduced with increasing concentration of the extract. DAPI staining showed that virus-induced apoptosis was the cause of the low cell viability and viral load, an effect which was accelerated with incubation in the aqueous herbal extract. The major compounds postulated to exhibit this activity were isolated from the aqueous herbal extract and identified to be compounds Xanthopurpurin and Vanillic Acid. This study showed that RCAP extract effectively inhibited rotavirus multiplication by promoting virus-induced apoptosis in MA-104 cells. PMID:27679574

  6. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms.

  7. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  8. Andrographis paniculata Extract (HMPL-004) for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sandborn, William J; Targan, Stephan R; Byers, Vera S; Rutty, Dean A; Mu, Hua; Zhang, Xun; Tang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized to A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) 1,200 mg or 1,800 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 45 and 60% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical response at week 8, compared with 40% of those who received placebo (P=0.5924 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.0183 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). In all, 34 and 38% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 8, compared with 25% of those who received placebo (P=0.2582 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.1011 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). Adverse events developed in 60 and 53% of patients in the A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily groups, respectively, and 60% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis treated with A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) at a dose of 1,800 mg daily were more likely to achieve clinical response than those receiving placebo. PMID:23044768

  9. Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2004-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents.

  10. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  11. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and physalin D from Physalis alkekengi and evaluation of antioxidant potential of physalin D.

    PubMed

    Helvaci, S; Kökdil, G; Kawai, M; Duran, N; Duran, G; Güvenç, A

    2010-02-01

    Physalis alkekengi L. (Solanaceae) is a popular plant in traditional European and Chinese folk medicine, and it has been reported to have many ethnopharmacological properties including antifungal, anti-cough, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and febricide activities. Some active components from Physalis species have been investigated. However, no antimicrobial activity studies on extracts and physalins of P. alkekengi have been carried out. In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract from aerial parts of P. alkekengi and the dichloromethane extract from calyces of the plant. The extracts were tested against five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria and five Candida species by using disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The extracts were fractionated to isolate physalins using chromatographic techniques, and physalin D was isolated from the extracts. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of (1)H-NMR spectroscopic study, and confirmed by comparison with a reference sample and literature data. Results indicated that all the extracts and physalin D were characterized by antibacterial action, especially against Gram-positive bacteria, with MIC values between 32 and 128 microg/mL. The methanol extract had moderate activity against fungi at MICs ranging from 128 to 512 microg/mL, but the dichloromethane extract and physalin D had low activity against fungi at MICs ranging from 256 to 512 microg/mL. Additionally, the antioxidant activi