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Sample records for active compound extracted

  1. Antimicrobial activity of extractable conifer heartwood compounds toward Phytophthora ramorum.

    PubMed

    Manter, Daniel K; Kelsey, Rick G; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2007-11-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven western conifer trees and individual volatile compounds in the extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western redcedar exhibited the strongest activity, followed by yellow-cedar, western juniper, and Port-Orford-cedar with moderate activity, and no activity for Douglas-fir and redwood extracts. Chemical composition of the extracts varied both qualitatively and quantitatively among the species with a total of 37 compounds identified by mass spectrometry. Of the 13 individual heartwood compounds bioassayed, three showed strong activity with a Log(10) EC(50) less than or equal to 1.0 ppm (hinokitiol, thymoquinone, and nootkatin), three expressed moderate activity ranging from 1.0-2.0 ppm (nootkatol, carvacrol, and valencene-11,12-diol), four compounds had weak activity at 2.0-3.0 ppm [alpha-terpineol, valencene-13-ol, (+)-beta-cedrene, (-)-thujopsene], and three had no activity [(+)-cedrol, delta-cadinene, and methyl carvacrol]. All of the most active compounds contained a free hydroxyl group, except thymoquinone. The importance of a free hydroxyl was demonstrated by the tremendous difference in activity between carvacrol (Log(10) EC(50) 1.81 +/- 0.08 ppm) and methyl carvacrol (Log(10) EC(50) >3.0 ppm). A field trial in California, showed that heartwood chips from redcedar placed on the forest floor for 4 months under Umbellularia californica (California bay laurel) with symptoms of P. ramorum leaf blight significantly limited the accumulation of P. ramorum DNA in the litter layer, compared with heartwood chips from redwood.

  2. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2012-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22 h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. They were also analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method and the β-carotene linoleate model assay. Moreover, the effects of different crude olive leaf extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 40°C and sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (10% o/w) at 37°C, at a final concentration of crude extract 200 mg kg(-1) oil, were tested and compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene.

  3. A review on antifungal activity of mushroom (basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dias, Joana; Teixeira, Vânia; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The present review reports the antifungal activity of mushroom extracts and isolated compounds including high (e.g. peptides and proteins) and low (e.g. sesquiterpenes and other terpenes, steroids, organic acids, acylcyclopentenediones and quinolines) molecular weight compounds. Most of the studies available on literature focused on screening of antifungal activity of mushroom extracts, rather than of isolated compounds. Data indicate that mushroom extracts are mainly tested against different Candida species, while mushroom compounds are mostly tested upon other fungi. Therefore, the potential of these compounds might be more useful in food industry than in clinics. Oudemansiella canarii and Agaricus bisporus methanolic extracts proved to be the most active mushroom extracts against Candida spp. Grifolin, isolated from Albatrellus dispansus, seemed to be the most active compound against phytopathogenic fungi. Further studies should be performed in order to better understand the mechanism of action of this and other antifungal compounds as well as safety issues.

  4. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis.

  5. Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  6. Antioxidative activities and active compounds of extracts from Catalpa plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.

  7. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795

  8. Screening of Panamanian Plant Extracts for Pesticidal Properties and HPLC-Based Identification of Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Seiser, Tobias; Wiebe, Christine; Dickhaut, Joachim; Reingruber, Rüdiger; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for fungicidal, insecticidal, and herbicidal activities. A total of 19 active extracts were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling, and extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Miconia affinis, Myrcia splendens, Combretum aff. laxum, and Erythroxylum macrophyllum were selected for the isolation of compounds. Chelerythrine (2), macarpine (3), dihydrosanguinarine (5), and arjunolic acid (8) showed moderate-to-good fungicidal activity. Myricetin-3-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside (13) showed moderate insecticidal activity, but no compound with herbicidal activity was identified. PMID:26839818

  9. Extraction, chemical characterization and biological activity determination of broccoli health promoting compounds.

    PubMed

    Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

    2013-10-25

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) contains substantial amount of health-promoting compounds such as vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and dietary essential minerals; thus, it benefits health beyond providing just basic nutrition, and consumption of broccoli has been increasing over the years. This review gives an overview on the extraction and separation techniques, as well as the biological activity of some of the above mentioned compounds which have been published in the period January 2008 to January 2013. The work has been distributed according to the different families of health promoting compounds discussing the extraction procedures and the analytical techniques employed for their characterization. Finally, information about the different biological activities of these compounds has been also provided.

  10. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds.

  11. Cell extraction combined with off-line HPLC for screening active compounds from Coptis chinensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Ya-Ming; Duan, Hongquan; Zhou, Jing; Xu, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cell membrane chromatography is a useful tool for screening active compounds from natural products. As the reason of separation mechanism, traditional cell membrane chromatography could not be used for screening the active compounds absorbed through the cell membrane and influencing the cell signal transduction pathway. In this work, we establish a new method named cell extraction combined with off-line HPLC for screening the compounds penetrating the cell membrane. This is the first time 3 T3-L1 adipocyte culture has been combined with HPLC technology. Compared with other cell membrane chromatography methods, there is good resolution and no further analysis by other chromatographic steps is required. On co-incubating crude extracts of Coptis chinensis with cells and analyzing the compounds extracted by the cells, active compounds such as berberine were detected. Glucose consumption tests showed that berberine could increase glucose consumption by insulin-resistant 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. The levels of intracellular berberine correlated with its activity. The results indicate that the developed method could be an alternative method for screening active compounds from natural products.

  12. Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongxun; Lo, Raymond

    2004-12-01

    A preliminary antimicrobial disk assay of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extracts showed that the n-butanol fraction exhibited the most significant antimicrobial activities against seven bacteria species, four yeasts, and four molds. Eight phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of artichoke leaf extracts. On the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the structures of the isolated compounds were determined as the four caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid (1), cynarin (2), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), and the four flavonoids, luteolin-7-rutinoside (5), cynaroside (6), apigenin-7-rutinoside (7), and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. The isolated compounds were examined for their antimicrobial activities on the above microorganisms, indicating that all eight phenolic compounds showed activity against most of the tested organisms. Among them, chlorogenic acid, cynarin, luteolin-7-rutinoside, and cynaroside exhibited a relatively higher activity than other compounds; in addition, they were more effective against fungi than bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these compounds were between 50 and 200 microg/mL.

  13. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Vinholis, Adriana Helena Chicharo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2009-07-01

    Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of compounds with antimicrobial activity from Origanum vulgare L.: determination of optimal extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, S; Cavero, S; Jaime, L; Ibañez, E; Señoráns, F J; Reglero, G

    2006-02-01

    Oregano leaves were extracted using a pilot-scale supercritical fluid extraction plant under a wide range of extraction conditions, with the goal of determining the extraction and fractionation conditions to obtain extracts with optimal antimicrobial activity. In this investigation, the essential oil-rich fractions were selectively precipitated in the second separator, and their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the various fractions resulted in the identification of 27 compounds of the essential oil. The main components of these fractions were carvacrol, trans-sabinene hydrate, cis-piperitol, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against six different microbial species, including two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), a yeast (Candida albicans), and a fungus (Aspergillus niger). All of the supercritical fluid extraction fractions obtained showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, although the most active fraction was the one obtained in experiment 5 (fraction was obtained with 7% ethanol at 150 bar and 40 degrees C). C. albicans was the most sensitive microorganism to the oregano extracts, whereas the least susceptible was A. niger. Carvacrol, sabinene hydrate, borneol, and linalool standards also showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, with carvacrol being the most effective. Consequently, it was confirmed that essential oil from experiment 5, with the best antimicrobial activity, also presented the highest quantity of carvacrol.

  15. Cytotoxic activities of extracts and compounds from Viscum coloratum and its transformation products by Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guan-E; Chen, Bainian; Zhang, Zhaoming; Gong, Jun; Bai, Hongjun; Li, Jiankuan; Wang, Yufen; Li, Baozhen

    2009-03-01

    The bioassay-oriented fractionation of mistletoe crude extracts (MCEE) using 75% ethanol and culture products of mistletoe transformed by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a photosynthetic bacterium (PSBT), revealed that the high cytotoxic activities were due to the petroleum ether extracts (PEs) and the acid-precipitated proteins from the aqueous extracts (AQs) of MCEE and PSBT. The isolated triterpenes may account for the activities of the PEs of MCEE and PSBT, respectively. Extraction of MCEE using petroleum ether led to the isolation of 3-epi-betulinic acid (1), betulonic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3), and beta-amyrin acetate (4), while petroleum ether extraction of PSBT led to the isolation of 1,3,4,betulinic acid (5), erythrodiol (6), and (3beta)-olean-12-ene-3,23-diol (7). The PE of PSBT exerted higher cytotoxicity than the PE of MCEE, which was due to the different triterpene contents of these two extracts. The cytotoxic activities of all compounds were tested, and the results revealed that compounds 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 contributed significantly to the cytotoxicities of both PEs. The AQ of the PSBT exerted almost the same cytotoxic activity and lower toxicity compared to the AQ of the MCEE. These findings indicate that mistletoe products biotransformed by R. sphaeroides could be used to treat cancers, since they have lower toxicities and higher antitumor activities compared to standard treatments.

  16. Antipoliovirus Activity of the Organic Extract of Eupatorium buniifolium: Isolation of Euparin as an Active Compound

    PubMed Central

    Visintini Jaime, María Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Martino, Virginia S.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.; Muschietti, Liliana V.

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral activity of the organic extract (OE) of Eupatorium buniifolium against poliovirus type 1 was determined by in vitro assays with an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 23.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the OE allowed the isolation of an active principle that was identified by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, EI-MS, UV, and IR spectroscopy) as the benzofuran euparin. The plaque reduction assay in Vero cells was used to assess the antiviral activity of euparin against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with EC50 values of 0.47, 0.12, and 0.15 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, this compound showed high selectivity indexes of 284.9, 1068, and 854.7, respectively. In order to identify the mechanism by which euparin exerts its antiviral activity, the virucidal effect, the pretreatment of Vero cells, and the time of action on one viral replication cycle were evaluated. Results obtained demonstrated that euparin exerts its effect during the early events of the replication cycle, from the virus adsorption to cells up to the first twenty minutes after infection. This is the first report on the presence of euparin in E. buniifolium and its antiviral activity. PMID:23956770

  17. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  18. Antiviral activity and mode of action of propolis extracts and selected compounds.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Paul; Neuner, Annett; Nolkemper, Silke; Zundel, Christine; Nowack, Hans; Sensch, Karl Heinz; Reichling, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of propolis were analysed phytochemically and examined for their antiviral activity in vitro. Different polyphenols, flavonoids and phenylcarboxylic acids were identified as major constituents. The antiviral effect of propolis extracts and selected constituents, e.g. caffeic acid (1), p-coumaric acid (2), benzoic acid (3), galangin (4), pinocembrin (5) and chrysin (6) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was analysed in cell culture. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aqueous and ethanol propolis extracts for HSV-1 plaque formation was determined at 0.0004% and 0.000035%, respectively. Both propolis extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests, plaque formation was significantly reduced by >98%. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of propolis, the extracts were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Both propolis extracts exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity when the viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Among the analysed compounds, only galangin and chrysin displayed some antiviral activity. However, the extracts containing many different components exhibited significantly higher antiherpetic effects as well as higher selectivity indices than single isolated constituents. Propolis extracts might be suitable for topical application against herpes infection.

  19. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  20. Study of the volatile compounds and odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham extracted by SPME.

    PubMed

    del Pulgar, José Sánchez; García, Carmen; Reina, Raquel; Carrapiso, Ana I

    2013-06-01

    The volatile compounds and the most odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham were investigated by extracting them using a solid phase microextraction technique with a 2 cm Carboxen/PDMS/DVB fiber. The detection frequency method was applied to estimate the potential contribution of each compound to the odor of hams. Twenty-one volatile compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in dry-cured ham by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and eight in dry-cured Iberian ham. Gas chromatography-olfactometry allowed the identification for the first time of six compounds not previously reported as odorants of Iberian ham, and also two odorants were newly identified in dry-cured ham. According to the detection frequency method, the most odor active compounds found were 3-methylbutanoic acid (dirty sock-like smelling), hexanal (cut grass-like odor), 3-methylbutanal (sweaty and bitter almond-like odor), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (toasted nuts-like odor) and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like odor).

  1. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC

    PubMed Central

    Kanthal, Lakshmi Kanta; Dey, Akalanka; Satyavathi, K.; Bhojaraju, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:24497744

  2. Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Activities of Angelica shikokiana Extract and Its Isolated Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mira, Amira; Alkhiary, Wael; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Angelica shikokiana is a Japanese medicinal plant that is used traditionally in several ailments of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is no report regarding its anticoagulant or antiplatelet activities. So this study was designed to screen for such activities (anticoagulant by prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time assays and antiplatelet activities against adenosine 5'-diphosphate [ADP] and arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregations) for the methanol extract of the aerial part (Angelica methanol extract [AME]), its isolated coumarins, flavonoids, and flavonoid metabolites. The AME had potent anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities, and the flavonoid compounds were evidenced to be responsible for such activities. Among coumarins compounds, hyuganin C showed significant prolongation of only PT, while other coumarins were inactive. Similarly, hyuganin C and bergapten were the only active coumarins against ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Compared to the parent compounds, colonic metabolites of the flavonoids had similar anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities, while glucuronides showed sharp decreases in all studied activities. This is the first report showing that the medicinal plant A shikokiana has potent antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities.

  3. Antialgal and antilarval activities of bioactive compounds extracted from the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianyu; Han, Xiurong; Gao, Min; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    With the global ban on the application of organotin-based marine coatings by the International Maritime Organization, the development of environmentally friendly, low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries has become an urgent need. Marine microorganisms have been considered as a potential source of natural antifoulants. In this study, the antifouling potential of marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae, the toxic and red-tide microalgae, was investigated. We performed a series of operations to extract the bioactive substances from Amphidinium carterae and tested their antialgal and antilarval activities. The crude extract of Amphidinium carterae showed significant antialgal activity and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 55.4 μg mL-1. After purification, the isolated bioactive substances (the organic extract C) exhibited much higher antialgal and antilarval activities with EC50 of 12.9 μg mL-1 against Skeletonema costatum and LC50 of 15.1 μg mL-1 against Amphibalanus amphitrite larvae. Subsequently, IR, Q-TOFMS, and GC-MS were utilized for the structural elucidation of the bioactive compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- to 22-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested the bioactive compounds isolated from Amphidinium carterae exhibited a significant inhibiting effect against the diatom Skeletonema costatum and Amphibalanus amphitrite larvae, and could be substitutes for persistent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  4. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    PubMed Central

    Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Yusof, Mohd Yasim

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237), phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512), and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260). The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups (P > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24790603

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Ying, Le; Sun, Da; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v), and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v). Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems. PMID:22072923

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. Extracts and Pure Compounds Using Bioguided Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Besbes Hlila, Malek; Mosbah, Habib; Majouli, Kaouther; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Mastouri, Maha; Aouni, Mahjoub; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens threatened the clinical efficacy of many existing antibiotics. This situation has been recognized globally as a serious concern and justifies further research to discover antimicrobial agents from natural origins including plant extracts. The aim of our work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. extracts and pure compounds using a bioguided fractionation, and try to explain some traditional use of this genus. The best antimicrobial activity-guided fractionation was obtained by BuOH fractions of flowers, fruits and (stems and leaves) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 0.0195 to 5 mg/ml. Escherichia coli was the most affected bug, thus the MIC of fruits BuOH extract showed the best anti-Escherichia coli activity (MIC = 0.0195 mg/ml), followed by the (stems and leaves) and flowers BuOH extracts; MIC = 0.078 and 0.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the subfractions obtained from these three mixed fractions showed also an important antimicrobial activity against the three microorganisms, with MIC values between 0.0195 and 0.312 mg/ml. The fractionation of the aerial part BuOH fraction led to the isolation of oleanolic acid (1) and luteolin 7-O-glucopyranoside (2) which are reported here for the first time from S. arenaria. Both compounds showed good antimicrobial activities with MIC values ranging from 170 to 683 μm and 86 to 347 μm, respectively. These results support the use of the Scabiosa genus to inhibit the growth of tested pathogenic bacteria and yeasts which may reduce illnesses associated with their exposure.

  7. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR), as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5) and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1) and (E)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8). Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:21269424

  8. Antiinflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Ethanol Extract and Isolated Compounds from Millettia pulchra.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xiaowei; Zhang, Leilei; Gao, Li; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Lijing; Li, Liyong; Si, Jianyong; Cao, Li

    2015-01-01

    The plant Millettia pulchra was commonly used in folk medicine for the management of inflammation. However, there was no scientific rationale for these effects and the mechanism of action remained incompletely understood. The present study was designed to investigate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of an ethanol extract of the stem of M. pulchra (EMP) in vivo, and to explore the antiinflammatory activity of compounds isolated from EMP in vitro. We found that EMP reduced xylene-induced ear edema and relieved both acetic acid-induced pain and pain in the hot plate test. Additionally, a significant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) production was observed in cells treated with the isolated compounds. Lanceolatin B, which showed the greatest inhibition of NO synthesis among the compounds tested, also reduced levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and phosphorylation inhibitory kappa B alpha (p-IκBα) in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provide convincing evidence that EMP and the individual isolated compounds possess significant antiinflammatory and analgesic activities.

  9. Phenolic Compounds of Potato Peel Extracts: Their Antioxidant Activity and Protection against Human Enteric Viruses.

    PubMed

    Silva-BeltrÁn, Norma Patricia; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; López-Cuevas, Osvaldo; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; López-Mata, Marco A; Del-Toro-SÁnchez, Carmen Lizette; Marquez-Rios, Enrique; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    2017-02-28

    Potato peels (PP) contain several bioactive compounds. These compounds are known to provide human health benefits, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, these compounds could have effects on human enteric viruses that have not yet been reported. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant properties in the acidified ethanol extract (AEE) and water extract of PP, and the antiviral effects on the inhibition of Av-05 and MS2 bacteriophages, which were used as human enteric viral surrogates. The AEE showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids were the major phenolic acids. In vitro analysis indicated that PP had a strong antioxidant activity. A 3 h incubation with AEE at a concentration of 5 mg/ml was needed to reduce the PFU/ml (plaque-forming unit per unit volume) of Av-05 and MS2 by 2.8 and 3.9 log₁₀, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest that PP has potential to be a source of natural antioxidants against enteric viruses.

  10. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude extracts, separated fractions, groups of chemical substances, and individual compounds from natural sources are all evaluated stepwise while performing purifications in in-house bioassays. In a stepwise fashion proceeding from crude extracts to fractions and on to pure compounds, decisions ar...

  11. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  12. The study of interactions between active compounds of coffee and willow (Salix sp.) bark water extract.

    PubMed

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  13. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively.

  14. Antifungal properties of ethanolic extract and its active compounds from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana (Florin) heartwood.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tsair-Bor; Chang, Hui-Ting; Hsieh, Chun-Chun; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-07-01

    The ethanolic extract of Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana heartwood was screened for antifungal compounds by agar dilution assay and liquid chromatography. Two compounds, beta-thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin, responsible for the antifungal property of C. macrolepis var. formosana heartwood were isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The antifungal activities of these two compounds were further evaluated against total 15 fungi, including wood decay fungi, tree pathogenic fungi and molds. The hexane soluble fraction showed the strongest antifungal activities among all fractions. beta-Thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin exhibited not only very strong antifungal activity, but also broad antifungal spectrum. The MIC values of beta-thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin were in the range of 5.0-50.0 microg/ml. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to study the structural change of fungal hyphae induced by beta-thujaplicin. Strong cell wall shrinkage indicated the fungicidal effect could be attributed to the combined actions of metal chelating and cytoplasm leakage. It also suggests that the role of metal chelating is indispensable in the design of environmental-friendly fungicides.

  15. Characterization of odor-active compounds in extracts obtained by simultaneous extraction/distillation from moroccan black olives.

    PubMed

    Collin, Sonia; Nizet, Sabrina; Muls, Sophie; Iraqi, Rafika; Bouseta, Amina

    2008-05-14

    "Greek-style" Moroccan black table olives were screened for potent odorants by GC/olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis of representative Likens-Nickerson extracts and compared with "Spanish-style" green fruits. ( Z)-3-Hexenal, ( E, E)-2,4-decadienal, ( E, Z)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, and methional were found in both green and black olives, but with significant differences in concentration according to the fruit ripening degree (the first was lower and the last two were higher in black fruits). Specific compounds not previously detected in green olives (gamma-deca- and dodecalactones, delta-decalactone, and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol) proved to be, with methional, the strongest odors in black olive extracts. These extracts were also distinguishable from green olive extracts by the presence of new sulfur compounds and fewer terpenes.

  16. Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and compounds from Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wen-Cai, Ye; He, Kan; Wu, Hsan-au; Cruz, Erica; Roller, Marc; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the growth inhibitory effect of extracts and compounds from black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells and to determine the nature of the active components. Black cohosh fractions enriched for triterpene glycosides and purified components from black cohosh and related Asian species were tested for growth inhibition of the ER(-) Her2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. Growth inhibitory activity was assayed using the Coulter Counter, MTT and colony formation assays. Results suggested that the growth inhibitory activity of black cohosh extracts appears to be related to their triterpene glycoside composition. The most potent Cimicifuga component tested was 25-acetyl-7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside, which has an acetyl group at position C-25. It had an IC(50) of 3.2microg/ml (5microM) compared to 7.2microg/ml (12.1microM) for the parent compound 7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside. Thus, the acetyl group at position C-25 enhances growth inhibitory activity. The purified triterpene glycoside actein (beta-d-xylopyranoside), with an IC(50) equal to 5.7microg/ml (8.4microM), exhibited activity comparable to cimigenol 3-O-beta-d-xyloside. MCF7 (ER(+)Her2 low) cells transfected for Her2 are more sensitive than the parental MCF7 cells to the growth inhibitory effects of actein from black cohosh, indicating that Her2 plays a role in the action of actein. The effect of actein on Her2 overexpressing MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 (ER(+)Her2 low) human breast cancer cells was examined by fluorescent microscopy. Treatment with actein altered the distribution of actin filaments and induced apoptosis in these cells. These findings, coupled with our previous evidence that treatment with the triterpene glycoside actein induced a stress response and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, suggest that compounds from Cimicifuga species may be useful in the prevention and

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Tibouchina candolleana (melastomataceae), isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda M.; de Souza, Maria Gorete; Crotti, Antônio E. Miller; Martins, Carlos H. G.; Ambrósio, Sérgio R.; Veneziani, Rodrigo C. S.; e Silva, Márcio L. Andrade; Cunha, Wilson R.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of β-amyrin, α-amyrin, and β-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:24031892

  18. Laserpitium zernyi Hayek Flower and Herb Extracts: Phenolic Compounds, and Anti-edematous, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Popović, Višnja B; Tomić, Maja A; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Micov, Ana M; Milenković, Marina T; Petrović, Silvana D; Ušjak, Ljuboš J; Niketić, Marjan S

    2016-12-16

    Phenolic compounds and different biological activities of the dry methanol extracts of the flowers and the herb (aerial parts without flowers) of Laserpitium zernyi Hayek (Apiaceae) were investigated. The total phenolic contents in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. In both extracts, apigenin, luteolin, their 7-O-glucosides and chlorogenic acid were detected by HPLC. Identified phenolics were quantified in both extracts, except luteolin in L. zernyi herb extract. The extracts (p.o.) were tested for anti-edematous activity in a model of carrageenan (i.pl.) induced rat paw edema. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by FRAP assay and DPPH and 'OH radicals scavenging tests. Antimicrobial activity was investigated using broth microdilution test against five Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, as well as against two strains of Candida albicans. The polyphenol-richer flower extract exerted higher anti-edematous and antioxidant activities. The herb extract exhibited better antimicrobial effect against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while against other tested microorganisms the activity of both extracts was identical. Demonstrated biological activities of L. zernyi flower and herb extracts represent a good basis for their further investigation as potential new herbal medicinal raw materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  20. Improved absorption and bioactivity of active compounds from an anti-diabetic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L

    PubMed Central

    Ribnicky, David M; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Logendra, Sithes; Zuberi, Aamir; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI-5011) was shown to be hypoglycemic in animal models for Type 2 diabetes and contain at least 6 bioactive compounds responsible for its anti-diabetic properties. To evaluate the bioavailability of the active compounds, high fat dietary induced obese C57BL/6J male mice were gavaged with PMI-5011 at 500 mg/kg body weight, after 4 h of food restriction. Blood plasma samples (200 uL) were obtained after ingestion, and the concentrations of the active compound in the blood sera were measured by electrospray LC-MS and determined to be maximal 4–6 h after gavage. Formulations of the extract with bioenhancers/solubilizers were evaluated in vivo for hypoglycemic activity and their effect on the abundance of active compounds in blood sera. At doses of 50–500 mg/kg/day, the hypoglycemic activity of the extract was enhanced 3–5 fold with the bioenhancer Labrasol, making it comparable to the activity of the anti-diabetic drug metformin. When combined with Labrasol, one of the active compounds, 2′, 4′-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone, was at least as effective as metformin at doses of 200–300 mg/kg/day. Therefore, bioenhancing agents like Labrasol can be used with multi-component botanical therapeutics such as PMI-5011 to increase their efficacy and/or to reduce the effective dose. PMID:19084584

  1. Representativeness of extracts of offset paper packaging and analysis of the main odor-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Landy, Pascale; Nicklaus, Sophie; Sémon, Etienne; Mielle, Patrick; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-04-21

    Packagings often carry odors due to the support and printing inks. The aim of the investigation was to define a representative solvent-free extract of paper-based packaging materials printed by the offset process, for the identification of the odor-causing volatile compounds. Static headspace and solid-phase microextraction were the two applied extraction methods. Representativeness tests showed that the odor of the PDMS fiber extract gave satisfying odor similarities with the original packaging. The sample incubation was performed at 40 degrees C for 30 min, whereas the extraction time was 3 min at 40 degrees C. Extracts of both the nonprinted and printed papers of different batches were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. 4-Phenylcyclohexene was identified as the most potent compound contributing to the latex-like odor of the nonprinted paper. Among the 13 major odorants identified by mass spectrometry, 10 were aldehydes and ketones generated by oxidation of the printing ink resins. The ratio of odorants to interferences was too low for a possible detection of the key odorants by nonseparative techniques such as sensor arrays.

  2. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Green Propolis Extract and Meadowsweet Extract Against Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria: Importance in Would Care Compounding Preparations.

    PubMed

    Lupatini, Nogueira Rodrigo José; Danopoulos, Panagiota; Swikidisa, Rosita; Alves, Pinheiro Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural products in compounded wound care formulas is an exciting avenue to pursue for compounding pharmacists since these natural products may contain compounds that promote healing on their own. The use of these natural extracts as an alternative therapy for wound care may also provide several benefits, such as decreased inflammation, infection, side effects, and treatment costs. Thus far, several studies have demonstrated antimicrobial activity for various natural product extracts, including green propolis and meadowsweet. The antimicrobial properties of these extracts make them particularly interesting for wound care because the healing process is significantly delayed by bacterial infection and colonization at the site of injury. Therefore, to further investigate the antimicrobial properties of green propolis and meadowsweet extracts, we performed minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration assays against Staphylococcus aureus, a microorganism known to cause wound infections. The antimicrobial activity of green propolis and meadowsweet extracts was tested in vitro against a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus in brain heart infusion broth and Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Green propolis extract demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.25 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration of 1.25 mg/mL. In contrast, meadowsweet extract failed to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth at the highest concentration tested (30 mg/mL). Green propolis was more effective than meadowsweet extract at inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that the addition of green propolis extract in wound care formulas might be more beneficial for the treatment of wounds. Therefore, we propose that green propolis extract is a promising natural product for wound care formulations.

  3. Characterization of Chemical Compounds with Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities in Bougainvillea x buttiana Holttum and Standl, (var. Rose) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Abarca-Vargas, Rodolfo; Peña Malacara, Carlos F.; Petricevich, Vera L.

    2016-01-01

    Bougainvillea is widely used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat several diseases. This study was designed to characterize the chemical constituents of B. x buttiana extracts with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities using different solvents. The extraction solvents used were as follows: distilled water (dH2O), methanol (MeOH), acetone (DMK), ethanol (EtOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), dichloromethane (DCM), and hexane (Hex) (100%) at an extraction temperature of 26 °C. Analysis of bioactive compounds present in the B. x buttiana extracts included the application of common phytochemical screening assays, GC-MS analysis, and cytotoxicity and antioxidant assays. The results show that the highest extraction yield was observed with water and methanol. The maximum total phenolic content amount and highest antioxidant potential were obtained when extraction with methanol was used. With the exceptions of water and ethanol extractions, all other extracts showed cytotoxicity ranging between 31% and 50%. The prevailing compounds in water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone solvents were as follows: 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl (2), 2-propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydrophenyl)-(E)- (3), and 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (6). By contrast, the major components in the experiments using solvents such as EtOH, DMK, EtOAc, DCM, and Hex were n-hexadecanoic acid (8), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z) (12); 9-octadecenoic acid (E)- (13), and stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol (28). PMID:27918436

  4. Appraisal of biological activities and identification of phenolic compound of African marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract.

    PubMed

    Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Kiattisin, Kanokwan; Jantrawut, Pensak; Chansakaow, Sunee; Vejabhikul, Suwanna; Leelapornpisid, Pimporn

    2013-11-01

    The flowers of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L), a medicinal plant widely cultivated in Thailand, were subjected to evaluation for total phenolics, DPPH scavenging and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARs) assays as well as tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In preliminary studies, the ethyl acetate (EA) extract obtained by continuous extraction showed the highest activities with highest phenolic content among all extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of EA extract led to isolation of a flavonoid identified as quercetagetin. Interestingly, it was found that quercetagetin exhibited potent DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 of 3.70 μg/ml which is about 2-3 times higher activity than standard quercetin (IC50 5.07 μg/ml) and trolox (IC50 9.93 μg/ml). Moreover, it exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity on L-tyrosine (IC50 89.31 μg/ml), higher than α- and β-arbutins (IC50 157.77 and 222.35 μg/ml) and slightly higher (IC50 128.41 μg/ml) than ellagic acid (IC50 151.1 μg/ml) when using L-DOPA as substrate. Testing with skin fibroblasts, all the extracts and quercetagetin demonstrated no toxic effect. These finding strongly indicate that African marigold flower is a promising source of natural antioxidative and tyrosinase inhibitory substances with safe to skin.

  5. Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract

    PubMed Central

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ho, Yin Wan

    2011-01-01

    Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells. PMID:22016638

  6. Screening for lead compounds and herbal extracts with potential anti-influenza viral activity.

    PubMed

    Klaywong, Konrapob; Khutrakul, Gachagorn; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Petcharat, Nantawan; Leckcharoensuk, Porntippa; Ramasoota, Pongrama

    2014-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) contains a conserved RNA binding domain (RBD) that inhibits antiviral functions of host-innate immune response. Dimerization of NS1 forms a central groove and binds to double stranded (ds) RNA. This region might serve as a potential drug target. In this study, three dimensional structure model of NS1 RBD protein was constructed and virtual screening was performed to identify lead compounds that bound within and around the central groove. The virtual screening showed that 5 compounds bound within the central groove with binding energy ranging between -16.05 and -17.36 Kcal/mol. Two commercially available compounds, estradiol and veratridine, were selected for using in an in vitro screening assay. The results showed that neither of the compounds could inhibit the association between dsRNA and NS1 RBD protein. In addition, 34 herbal extracts were examined for their inhibitory effects. Five of them were able to inhibit association between NS1 RBD and dsRNA in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Four herbs, Terminalia belirica, Salacia chinensis, Zingiber montanum and Peltophorum pterocarpum, could reduce > 50% of infectivity of H5N1 in a cell-based assay, and it is worth further studying their potential use as source of antiviral drugs.

  7. In vitro biomonitoring in polar extracts of solid phase matrices reveals the presence of unknown compounds with estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Legler, J; Leonards, P; Spenkelink, A; Murk, A J

    2003-01-01

    Determination of estrogenic activity has so far mainly concentrated on the assessment of compounds in surface water and effluent. This study is one of the first to biomonitor (xeno-)estrogens in sediment, suspended particulate matter and aquatic organisms. The relatively polar acetone extracts from these solid phase matrices do not contain the well-known estrogenic compounds such as hormones, alkylphenols and phthalates. An in vitro 'estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression' (ER-CALUX) assay was applied to samples from various locations in the Netherlands. Estrogenic activity measured in polar fractions of particulate matter and sediment extracts ranged from below detection limit to up to 4.5 pmol estradiol equivalents (EEQ)/g dry weight. Estrogenic activity in freshwater river sediments was up to five times higher compared to sediments from large lakes and coastal locations. Tissue extracts EEQs were determined in bream (Abramis brama), flounder (Platichthysflesus), freshwater mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis). The highest biota EEQ levels were found in the freshwater zebra mussel (30 pmol EEQ/g lipid). One sample site showed greatly elevated EEQs in sediment and biota, which correlated with effects found in the wild populations of bream. The EEQ activity of the unknown compounds in the polar fraction mostly was much higher than the calculated EEQ levels based on known estrogens in the non-polar fraction (previously published data).

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review.

    PubMed

    Rahaiee, Somayeh; Moini, Sohrab; Hashemi, Maryam; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-04-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. These properties are basically related to its crocins, picrocrocin and safranal contents which have all demonstrated health promoting properties. The present review article highlights the phytochemical constituents (phenolic and flavonoid compounds, degraded carotenoid compounds crocins and crocetin) that are important in antioxidant activity of saffron extracts. However, the synergistic effect of all the bioactive components presence in saffron gave a significant antioxidant activity similar to vegetables rich in carotenoids. Our study provides an updated overview focused on the antioxidant activity of saffron related to its bioactive compounds to design the different functional products in food, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  9. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results

  10. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonoids, Tannins and Phenolic Compounds in Psychotria Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Formagio, Anelise Samara Nazari; Volobuff, Carla Roberta Ferreira; Santiago, Matheus; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Zefa Valdevina

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae) extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD) method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid). This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts. PMID:26785238

  12. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  13. Double-bed-type extraction needle packed with activated-carbon-based sorbents for very volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Samsudin, Emi Liana; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Takeuchi, Hayato; Shinki, Takumi; Kawakubo, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A novel needle-type sample preparation device was developed for the determination of very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs) in gaseous samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two types of activated-carbon-based sorbents, Carbopack X and a carbon molecular sieve (CMS), were investigated as the extraction medium. A double-bed-type extraction needle showed successful extraction and desorption performance for all investigated VVOCs, including acetaldehyde, isoprene, pentane, acetone, and ethanol. Sensitive and reliable determination of VVOCs was achieved by systematically optimizing several desorption conditions. In addition, the effects of sample humidity on the extraction and desorption of analytes were investigated with the needle-type extraction devices. Only the CMS packed extraction needle was adversely affected by sample humidity during the desorption process; on the other hand the double-bed-type extraction needle was unaffected by sample humidity. Finally, the developed double-bed-type extraction needle was successfully applied to the analysis of breath VVOCs of healthy subjects.

  14. Investigation of fruit peel extracts as sources for compounds with antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khonkarn, Ruttiros; Okonogi, Siriporn; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against human cell lines of fruit peel extracts from rambutan, mangosteen and coconut. The highest antioxidant activity was found from rambutan peel crude extract where the highest radical scavenging capacity via ABTS assay was from its ethyl acetate fraction with a TEAC value of 23.0mM/mg and the highest ferric ion reduction activity via FRAP assay was from its methanol fraction with an EC value of 20.2mM/mg. Importantly, using both assays, these fractions had a higher antioxidant activity than butylated hydroxyl toluene and vitamin E. It was shown that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel had the highest polyphenolic content with a gallic acid equivalent of 2.3mg/mL. The results indicate that the polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the observed antioxidant activity of the extracts. Interestingly, the hexane fraction of coconut peel showed a potent cytotoxic effect on KB cell line by MTT assay (IC(50)=7.7 microg/mL), and no detectable cytotoxicity toward normal cells. We concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel is a promising resource for potential novel antioxidant agents whereas the hexane fraction of coconut peel may contain novel anticancer compounds.

  15. Ethanolic extract of Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae) and its compound coelogin promote osteoprotective activity in ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Dixit, Manisha; Shukla, Priyanka; Kumari, Tejaswita; Bhandari, S P S; Narender, T; Singh, Divya; Arya, K R

    2014-10-15

    Coelogyne cristata Lindley (CC) family Orchidaceae is an Indian medicinal plant used for the treatment of fractured bones in folk-tradition of Kumaon region, Uttarakhand, India. In continuation of our drug discovery program, feeding of ethanolic extract to ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice led to significant restoration of trabecular micro architecture in both femoral and tibial bones, better bone quality and also devoid of any uterine estrogenicity. Subsequently, coelogin, a pure compound was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of C. cristata and evaluated in in vitro osteoblast cell cultures. Treatment of coelogin to osteoblasts led to enhanced ALP activity (a marker of osteoblast differentiation), mineral nodule formation and mRNA levels of osteogenic markers like BMP-2, Type 1 Collagen and RUNX-2. Based on these results, we propose that ethanolic extract of C. cristata and its pure compound coelogin have potential in the management of post menopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Isolation, identification, and antibacterial activity of chemical compounds from ethanolic extract of suji leaf (Pleomele angusifolia NE Brown)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faridah; Natalia; Lina, Maria; W, Hendig

    2014-03-01

    Suji (Pleomele angustifolia NE Brown) is one of the medicinal plants of the tribe of Liliaceae, empirically useful to treat coughs and respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) and pneumonia. In this study, ethanolic extract of suji leaves was tested its activity against bacteria that attacks the respiratory organs, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, using a paper disc diffusion and dilution agar method. These extracts have activity in inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis at a concentration of 8 mg and against S. pneumoniae at a concentration of 4 mg. The fractions were tested their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using paper disc diffusion method. The most active fraction was chosen based on the inhibition diameter. The fractions contained flavonoids, steroids, and essential oils. The precipitate isolated from the extraction process shows needle-shaped, white, cold and tasteless crystals. Moreover, the HPLC analysis of isolate revealed a single peak with a retention time of 7.183 minutes. The exact compounds in the isolate could not be determined but it was known the compounds contained the functional groups of alkene, alkane, C=O, -OH. Test results obtained from UV-Vis spectrophotometer provides maximum absorption at a wavelength of 203.0 nm.

  17. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  18. Effect of storage conditions on the biological activity of phenolic compounds of blueberry extract packed in glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Yi, Weiguang; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard

    2007-04-04

    Recent research suggests that blueberries are rich in total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Phenolic compounds are highly unstable and may be lost during processing, particularly when heat treatment is involved. There is no systematic study available providing information on the fate of phenolic compounds during storage and how that affects their biological activity. We provide a systematic evaluation of the changes observed in total polyphenols (TPP), total anthocyanins (TACY), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), phenolic acids, and individual anthocyanins of blueberry extract stored in glass bottles and the ability of blueberry extract to inhibit cell proliferation. The extract was stored at different temperatures (-20 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 23 +/- 1, and 35 +/- 1 degrees C). Two cultivars, Tifblue and Powderblue, were chosen for the study. The recoveries of TPP, TACY, and TEAC in blueberry extract after pressing and heating were approximately 25, approximately 29, and approximately 69%, respectively, for both cultivars. The recovery of gallic acid, catechin, and quercetin was approximately 25%. Ferulic acid was not detected in the final extract in both Tifblue and Powderblue cultivars. The recovery of peonidin, malvidin, and cyanidin glycosides was approximately 20% in the final extract in both cultivars. Losses due to storage were less when compared with initial losses due to processing. At -20 degrees C, no statistically significant loss of TPP, TACY, and TEAC was observed up to 30 days (P < 0.05). At 6 degrees C storage, there was a significant loss observed from 15 to 30 days. Similar results were obtained at 23 and 35 degrees C (P < 0.05). There was retention of more than 40% of ellagic and quercetin after 60 days at 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Anthocyanins were not detected after 60 days of storage at 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Significant retention (P < 0.05) was obtained for malvidin (42.8 and 25.8%) and peonidin (74.0 and 79.5%) after 60 days of storage at 23

  19. Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Korean Indigenous Mushroom Extracts and Isolation of an Active Compound from Phellinus baumii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Woong; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Hwang, Byung Soon; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Yoon-Ju; Woo, E-Eum; Kim, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a total of 335 samples of Korean native mushroom extracts as part of our lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor screening program. Among the mushroom-methanolic extracts we investigated, 35 exhibited an inhibitory activity greater than 30% against LOX at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Especially, Collybia maculata, Tylopilus neofelleus, Strobilomyces confusus, Phellinus gilvus, P. linteus, P. baumii, and Inonotus mikadoi exhibited relatively potent LOX inhibitory activities of 73.3%, 51.6%, 52.4%, 66.7%, 59.5%, 100.0%, and 85.2%, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of inoscavin A from the methanolic extract of P. baumii, which showed the most potent activity and was identified by spectroscopic methods. Specifically, inoscavin A exhibited potent LOX inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 6.8 µM. PMID:25071389

  20. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

    2013-08-15

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3β-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application.

  1. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly

  2. Bioassay-guided isolation and characterization of active antiplasmodial compounds from Murraya koenigii extracts against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is an overwhelming impact in the poorest countries in the world due to their prevalence, virulence and drug resistance ability. Currently, there is inadequate armoury of drugs for the treatment of malaria. This underscores the continuing need for the discovery and development of new effective and safe antimalarial drugs. To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of the leaf ethyl acetate extract of Murraya koenigii, bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation was employed for the isolation and purification of antimalarial compounds. The in vitro antimalarial activity was assayed by the erythrocytic stages of chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. The in vivo assay was done by administering mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK65) four consecutive daily doses of the extracts through oral route following Peter's 4-day curative standard test. The percentage suppression of parasitaemia was calculated for each dose level by comparing the parasitaemia in untreated control with those of treated mice. Cytotoxicity was determined against HeLa cells using MTT assay. Histopathology was studied in kidney, liver and spleen of isolated compound-treated Swiss albino mice. The leaf crude ethyl acetate extract of M. koenigii showed good in vitro antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The in vivo test of the leaf crude ethyl acetate extract (600 mg/kg) showed reduced malaria parasitaemia by 86.6% against P. berghei in mice. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaf ethyl acetate extract of M. koenigii led to the isolation of two purified fractions C3B2 (2.84 g) and C3B4 (1.97 g). The purified fractions C3B2 and C3B4 were found to be active with IC50 values of 10.5 ± 0.8 and 8.25 ± 0.2 μg/mL against P. falciparum, and in vivo activity significantly reduced parasitaemia by 82.6 and 88.2% at 100 mg/kg/body weight on day 4 against P. berghei, respectively

  3. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Hsun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Ying, How-Ting; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Shen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Yin-Ku; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2016-04-06

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1 : 2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26 μg/μL ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35 μg/μL and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8 μg/μL. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29 μM ± 3 and 47.82 μM ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

  5. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic compounds in diesel exhaust particulate extract responsible for aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontjens, Carol D.; Holmberg, Kristina; Westerholm, Roger N.; Rafter, Joseph J.

    Chemical fractions of a model diesel exhaust particulate extract, notably the fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (Fraction II), mono-nitro PAH (Fraction III), and dinitro-PAH (Fraction IV) have been shown to displace binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro[1,6-[ 3H

  6. Variation of antioxidant activity and the levels of bioactive compounds in lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bae, Haejin; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-10-15

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are a rich source of diverse bioactive compounds with potential health-promoting properties. This study investigated the extraction efficiency of five solvents on antioxidant activities from cayenne (CA408 and Mesilla), jalapeño (Ixtapa) and serrano (Tuxtlas) pepper cultivars. Freeze-dried peppers were extracted using a Soxhlet extractor with five solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and methanol:water (80:20). The levels of specific bioactive compounds (phenolics, capsaicinoids, carotenoids and flavonoids) were determined by HPLC and antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods. For all pepper cultivars tested, hexane extracts had the highest levels of capsaicinoids and carotenoids, but methanol extracts had the maximum levels of flavonoids. Hexane extracts showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and higher reducing power, and acetone extracts (from Mesilla pepper) had a high reducing power. All pepper extracts, except hexane, were effective in preventing deoxyribose degradation, and the inhibition was increased by high concentrations of extracts. The results of the present study indicated that, among the different measures of antioxidant activity, DPPH radical-scavenging activity was strongly correlated with total bioactive compounds (capsaicinoids, carotenoids, flavonoids and total phenolics) in pepper cultivars.

  7. A bioguided identification of the active compounds that contribute to the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of rosemary extract on colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Micol, Vicente; Carretero, Antonio Segura

    2015-06-01

    Rosemary extracts have exhibited potential cytostatic or cytotoxic effects in several cancer cell models but their bioactive compounds are yet to be discovered. In this work, the anticancer activity of a rosemary-leaf extract and its fractions were assayed to identify the phenolic compounds responsible for their antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects on a panel of human colon cancer cell lines. Bioguided fractionation of the rosemary-leaf extract was achieved by semi-preparative chromatography. The rosemary extract and the compounds in the fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Cellular viability in the presence of these fractions and the whole extract was determined after 24 or 48 h incubations by using an MTT assay. Fractions containing diterpenes or triterpenes were the most active but not as much as the whole extract. In conclusion, carnosic acid, carnosol, 12-methoxycarnosic acid, taxodione, hinokione and betulinic acid were the putative candidates that contributed to the observed antiproliferative activity of rosemary in human colon cancer cells. Whether the effects of the extract and fractions are only cytostatic or cytotoxic needs to be elucidated. Nevertheless, the comparative antiproliferative study on the fractions and whole extract revealed potential synergistic effects between several components in the extract that may deserve further attention.

  8. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L

    2011-01-01

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.

  9. Pharmacological activity of compounds extracted from persimmon peel (Diospyros kaki THUNB.).

    PubMed

    Fukai, Satomi; Tanimoto, Shinichi; Maeda, Aki; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Nomura, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Persimmon peels (Diospyros kaki THUNB.) are discarded during the production of dried fruit. The 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (8) which is component of persimmon peel had high antioxidant activity on the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase) assay. And (8) had higher tyrosinase inhibiting activity than that of arbutin using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. In addition, tyrosinase inhibiting activity of synthesized 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol glycoside (8a) was studied. (8a) had tyrosinase inhibiting activity, suggesting that (8a) has possibilities for ingredient of cosmetics that are possessed of whitening effect.

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Thermal Stability of Oleuropein and Related Phenolic Compounds of Olive Leaf Extract after Separation and Concentration by Salting-Out-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsoyannos, Evangelos; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula

    2014-04-08

    A fast, clean, energy-saving, non-toxic method for the stabilization of the antioxidant activity and the improvement of the thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds separated from olive leaf extract via salting-out-assisted cloud point extraction (CPE) was developed using Tween 80. The process was based on the decrease of the solubility of polyphenols and the lowering of the cloud point temperature of Tween 80 due to the presence of elevated amounts of sulfates (salting-out) and the separation from the bulk solution with centrifugation. The optimum conditions were chosen based on polyphenols recovery (%), phase volume ratio (Vs/Vw) and concentration factor (Fc). The maximum recovery of polyphenols was in total 95.9%; Vs/Vw was 0.075 and Fc was 15 at the following conditions: pH 2.6, ambient temperature (25 °C), 4% Tween 80 (w/v), 35% Na₂SO₄ (w/v) and a settling time of 5 min. The total recovery of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, at optimum conditions, was 99.8%, 93.0%, 87.6%, 99.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase (Vs) showed higher thermal stability (activation energy (Ea) 23.8 kJ/mol) compared to non-entrapped ones (Ea 76.5 kJ/mol). The antioxidant activity of separated polyphenols remained unaffected as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

  11. Reporter Gene-Facilitated Detection of Compounds in Arabidopsis Leaf Extracts that Activate the Karrikin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yueming K.; Flematti, Gavin R.; Smith, Steven M.; Waters, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins are potent germination stimulants generated by the combustion of plant matter. Treatment of Arabidopsis with karrikins triggers a signaling process that is dependent upon a putative receptor protein KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2). KAI2 is a homolog of DWARF 14 (D14), the receptor for endogenous strigolactone hormones. Genetic analyses suggest that KAI2 also perceives endogenous signal(s) that are not strigolactones. Activation of KAI2 by addition of karrikins to Arabidopsis plants induces expression of transcripts including D14-LIKE 2 (DLK2). We constructed the synthetic reporter gene DLK2:LUC in Arabidopsis, which comprises the firefly luciferase gene (LUC) driven by the DLK2 promoter. Here we describe a luminescence-based reporter assay with Arabidopsis seeds to detect chemical signals that can activate the KAI2 signaling pathway. We demonstrate that the DLK2:LUC assay can selectively and sensitively detect karrikins and a functionally similar synthetic strigolactone analog. Crucially we show that crude extracts from Arabidopsis leaves can also activate DLK2:LUC in a KAI2-dependent manner. Our work provides the first direct evidence for the existence of endogenous chemical signals that can activate the KAI2-mediated signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. This sensitive reporter system can now be used for the bioassay-guided purification and identification of putative endogenous KAI2 ligands or their precursors, and endogenous compounds that might modulate the KAI2 signaling pathway. PMID:27994609

  12. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity.

  13. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity. PMID:27008375

  14. Isolation and identification of acaricidal compounds in Eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract and determination of their acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xiang; Li, Shu-Hua; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Fang, Chun-Lin; Liu, Tian-Fei; He, Ran; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2014-06-16

    We used multiple silica gel column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography coupled with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR to separate and identify the active acaricidal ingredients in Eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract. The acaricidal activity of each compound was tested against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Three compounds had strong acaricidal activity against P. cuniculi in vitro. The insecticidal effect of 0.5% compound 9β-hydroxy-ageraphorone was better than the insecticidal effect of fenvalerate, and compounds 9-oxo-ageraphorone and 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibited higher insecticidal effects than 9β-hydroxy-ageraphorone. Thus, the E. adenophorum petroleum ether extract contains an effective composition of acaricides that could potentially be developed as a promising plant-origin acaricide.

  15. Antimicrobial activities of the CH2Cl2-CH3OH (1:1) extracts and compounds from the roots and fruits of Pycnanthus angolensis (Myristicaceae).

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Nono, Eric C N; Mkounga, Pierre; Marat, Kirk; Hultin, Philip G; Nkengfack, Augustin E

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed at evaluating the antimycobacterial, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the CH2Cl2-CH3OH (1:1) extracts and isolated compounds, namely 3,4-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-7,7'-epoxylignan (1), genkwainin (2), pycnanthulignene C (3), 4,5-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-2,7'-cycloligna-7,7'-diene (4), pycnanthulignene A (5) from the roots, and calycosin (6), biochanin A (7) and prunetin (8), from the fruits of Pycnanthus angolensis. The microplate alamar blue assay and the broth microdilution method were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentration of the samples. The H+-ATPase-mediated proton pumping assay was used to evaluate one of the possible mechanisms of action of the extracts and isolated compounds. The results of MIC determinations showed that the extract from roots was able to prevent the growth of all the studied organisms, including mycobacteria, fungi, and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. All tested compounds showed antimicrobial activities to different extents, compound 1 and 8 exhibiting the best antimicrobial spectrum, with 92.3% of the tested organisms being sensitive. The results obtained in this study also showed that the extracts as well as most of the compounds were able to inhibit the H(+)-ATPase activity. The overall results provided evidence that P. angolensis and some of its components might be potential sources of antimicrobial drugs against tuberculosis, bacterial and fungal diseases.

  16. Cytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of the Root Extract from the Mexican Species Linum scabrellum: Mechanism of Action of the Active Compound 6-Methoxypodophyllotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Alejandre-García, Ivonne; Álvarez, Laura; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; González-Maya, Leticia; Antúnez, Mayra; Salas-Vidal, Enrique; Díaz, J. Fernando; Marquina-Bahena, Silvia; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity and the chemical composition of the dichloromethane/methanol root extract of Linum scabrellum Planchon (Linaceae) were analyzed. Using NMR spectra and mass spectrometry analyses of the extract we identified eight main constituents: oleic acid (1), octadecenoic acid (2), stigmasterol (3), α-amyrin (4), pinoresinol (5), 6 methoxypodophyllotoxin (6), coniferin (7), and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8). By using the sulforhodamine B assay, an important cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines, HF6 colon (IC50 = 0.57 μg/mL), MCF7 breast (IC50 = 0.56 μg/mL), PC3 prostate (IC50 = 1.60 μg/mL), and SiHa cervical (IC50 = 1.54 μg/mL), as well as toward the normal fibroblasts line HFS-30 IC50 = 1.02 μg/mL was demonstrated. Compound 6 (6-methoxypodophyllotoxin) was responsible for the cytotoxic activity exhibiting an IC50 value range of 0.0632 to 2.7433 µg/mL against the tested cell lines. Cell cycle studies with compound 6 exhibited a cell arrest in G2/M of the prostate PC3 cancer cell line. Microtubule disruption studies demonstrated that compound 6 inhibited the polymerization of tubulin through its binding to the colchicine site (binding constant Kb = 7.6 × 106 M−1). A dose-response apoptotic effect was also observed. This work constitutes the first investigation reporting the chemical composition of L. scabrellum and the first study determining the mechanism of action of compound 6. PMID:26246833

  17. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  18. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  19. Brewery waste as a potential source of phenolic compounds: optimisation of the extraction process and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Vilches, Patxi; Angulo, Inmaculada; LLuis, Jaume; Fité, Benet; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto; Cruz, José Manuel

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports the development of an extraction process that allows selective recovery of polyphenols from a brewery waste stream. The antioxidant activity of this extract (EC50 = 0.23-0.3g/L) was very high, similar to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and higher than that of other synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Crude extracts exhibited a high level of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, when applied at concentrations of 1% and 3% (w/v). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities can probably be attributed to the major phenolic compounds, such as protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids and catechin. With this procedure, the waste polyphenols could be used as cheap source of natural compounds, with potential applications in the food and health sectors. Substitution of synthetic additives with safe and effective natural additives may be of further benefit to the food industry.

  20. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Hou, Yingying; Tang, Guosheng; Cai, Enbo; Liu, Shuangli; Yang, He; Zhang, Lianxue; Wang, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim was modeled using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to optimize three extraction variables, including ethanol concentration (X1), extraction time (X2), and ratio of aqueous ethanol to raw material (X3), for the achievement of high extraction yield of the phenolic compounds. The optimized conditions are X1 of 50% (v/v), X2 of 27.5 min, and X3 of 250 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield is 4.29 ± 0.033% (n = 3). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). And it indicates that the phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim possess significant antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis reveals that the main phenolic compound in the extract product was identified as gallic acid, catechin (Cianidanol), p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulaic acid, rutin, benzoic acid, and quercetin. PMID:25478287

  1. Protective Effect of Artemisia asiatica Extract and Its Active Compound Eupatilin against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Yeon; Lee, Dahae; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Jang, Dae Sik; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Su-Nam; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Kang, Ki Sung; Eom, Dae-Woon

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the renoprotective effect of an Artemisia asiatica extract and eupatilin in kidney epithelial (LLC-PK1) cells. Although cisplatin is effective against several cancers, its use is limited due to severe nephrotoxicity. Eupatilin is a flavonoid compound isolated from the Artemisia plant and possesses antioxidant as well as potent anticancer properties. In the LLC-PK1 cellular model, the decline in cell viability induced by oxidative stress, such as that induced by cisplatin, was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the A. asiatica extract and eupatilin. The increased protein expressions of phosphorylated JNK and p38 by cisplatin in cells were markedly reduced after A. asiatica extract or eupatilin cotreatment. The elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced by A. asiatica extract and eupatilin, and the elevated percentage of apoptotic cells after cisplatin treatment in LLC-PK1 cells was markedly decreased by cotreatment with A. asiatica extract or eupatilin. Taken together, these results suggest that A. asiatica extract and eupatilin could cure or prevent cisplatin-induced renal toxicity without any adverse effect; thus, it can be used in combination with cisplatin to prevent nephrotoxicity. PMID:26539226

  2. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less

    PubMed Central

    Ketsuwan, Nitinet; Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Kothan, Suchart; Singhatong, Supawatchara

    2017-01-01

    Vernonia cinerea (VC) Less has been proposed as a medicinal plant with interesting activities, such as an aid for smoking cessation worldwide. Despite its previous clinical success in smoking cessation by exhibiting reduced oxidative stress, it has not been approved. The aim of this study was to investigate various antioxidant activity and active compounds that have not been approved, including the protective activity in human red blood cells (RBCs), from the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of VC Less in vitro. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their active compounds: total tannin, five catechin (C) compounds (epicatechin gallate [ECG], C, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and (−)-epigallocatechin [EGC]), flavonoid, nitrite, nitrate, caffeine, and nicotine. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated in 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-treated RBCs. The results showed that the flower and leaf of VC Less had higher activity than the stem in scavenging DPPH radicals. The tannin content in the flower and leaf was higher than that in the stem. The leaf had the highest content of the five catechins (C, EC, EGCG, ECG, and EGC), the same as in the flavonoid, when compared to the stem and flower. Furthermore, the leaf extract had higher nitrate and nitrite than the stem. Nicotine content was found to be higher in the leaf when compared to the flower. In addition, the leaf showed protective activity in glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl, with a dose response in AAPH-oxidized RBCs, the same as in standard EGCG. Thus, this study concluded that radical scavenging and antioxidant compounds such as catechins, flavonoid, nitrate and nitrite, and nicotine are present in different VC Less parts and are included in the AAPH-oxidized RBC model. PMID

  3. In vitro 5-LOX inhibitory and antioxidant activities of extracts and compounds from the aerial parts of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Sumi; Jin, Khoo Teng; Nee, Ting Kang; Wiart, Christophe

    2012-06-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of crude extracts of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. and its isolated compounds. Separation and structure elucidation of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. were conducted using chromatographic and spectroscopic method. The antioxidant activities of the extracts in this study were determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assays meanwhile the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the 5-lipoxygenase assay. Seven known compounds quercetin 3-O-glucoside (1), naringenin 7-O-glucoside (2), seneciphylline-O-glucoside (3), chrysoeriol (4), retrorsine (5), adonifiline (6) and 5,4'-di-O-methyl alpinumisoflavone (7) were isolated from ethanol extract of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. The ethanol and water extracts of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. elicited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Amongst the isolated compounds quercetin 3-O-glucoside gave strong antioxidant activity and adonifiline strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase activity.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of the Oyster Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Identification of a New Antimicrobial Compound.

    PubMed

    Younis, Ahmed M; Wu, Fang-Sheng; El Shikh, Hussien H

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom that also has high medicinal values. In this study, P. ostreatus was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria. The freeze-dried fruiting body, broth from submerged culture, and mycelial biomass of P. ostreatus were extracted using alcohols and water as solvents. The extracts were then tested for their antimicrobial activity against the growth of fungi and bacteria. It was observed that the water extract from fruiting bodies had the strongest effect in inhibiting the growth of most fungi. The most sensitive test microfungi to the inhibition were Candida albicans, Cryptococcus humicola, and Trichosporon cutaneum, and the most sensitive test bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli. Water extracts from culture broth or mycelial biomass were moderately inhibitive to the growth of fungi and bacteria. The alcohol-based solvents from all samples had much less antimicrobial activity against most test microorganisms. An antimicrobial compound was purified from the water extracts of fruiting bodies with Sephadex G 100 column chromatography and characterized by infrared absorption spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopic analysis. We have identified this compound to be 3-(2-aminopheny1thio)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid. This purified compound had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 30 µg/mL and 20 µg/mL against the growth of fungi and bacteria, respectively.

  5. Ethanolic extracts and isolated compounds from small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana) with antihypertensive activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Wen, Chi-Luan; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extracts (EE) and compounds isolated from the small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana, VTT). The highest antiangiotensin-converting enzyme (anti-ACE) was found in stem-EE (IC50 was 69.5 μg/mL). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stem-EE effectively reduced blood pressure 24 h after administration of a single oral dose or when administered daily for 4 weeks. The isolated compounds, including (+)-vitisin A, ampelopsin C, and (+)-ε-viniferin, were shown to have anti-ACE and vasodilating effects against phenylephrine-induced tensions in an endothelium-intact aortic ring, with (+)-vitisin A being the most effective compound. Compared to control rats, SHRs showed significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h after a single oral dose of (+)-vitisin A (10 mg/kg) or captopril (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that the development of functional foods with VTT extracts may be beneficial for regulating blood pressure.

  6. Antifeedants against Hylobius abietis pine weevils: an active compound in extract of bark of Tilia cordata linden.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Per E; Eriksson, Carina; Sjödin, Kristina

    2005-05-01

    Linden (Tilia cordata) bark was shown to contain an antifeedant effective against the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis. Soxhlet extraction of inner and outer bark resulted in an extract that showed antifeedant activity in a microfeeding assay. The extract was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel using gradient elution with solvents of increasing polarity. The content of the fractions obtained was monitored by thin layer- and gas chromatography. Fractions of similar chemical composition were merged. Two of the 17 fractions showed antifeedant activity in the microfeeding assay. Nonanoic acid was identified in both of these fractions. Subsequent testing in the microfeeding assay showed that nonanoic acid possessed strong antifeedant activity against H. abietis adults.

  7. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes. PMID:24734110

  8. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and (1)H and (13)C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes.

  9. An efficient and economical MTT assay for determining the antioxidant activity of plant natural product extracts and pure compounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-07-23

    Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, singlet oxygen, and electrons in cellular redox reactions. The yellow MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] is reduced to a purple formazan by mitochondrial enzymes. NADPH is the basis of established in vitro cell viability assays. An antioxidant assay has been developed utilizing the redox reaction between MTT and selected natural product extracts and purified compounds. This simple, fast, and inexpensive MTT antioxidant assay is comparable with the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay and can be mechanized to achieve high throughput.

  10. Comparison of two extraction methods for evaluation of volatile constituents patterns in commercial whiskeys Elucidation of the main odour-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, M; Rodrigues, F; Perestrelo, R; Marques, J C; Câmara, J S

    2007-11-15

    An analytical procedure based on manual dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method and the conventional extraction method by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), were compared for their effectiveness in the extraction and quantification of volatile compounds from commercial whiskey samples. Seven extraction solvents covering a wide range of polarities and two SPME fibres coatings, has been evaluated. The highest amounts extracted, were achieved using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) by LLE method (LLE(CH2Cl2)) and using a CAR/PDMS fibre (SPME(CAR/PDMS)) in HS-SPME. Each method was used to determine the responses of 25 analytes from whiskeys and calibration standards, in order to provide sensitivity comparisons between the two methods. Calibration curves were established in a synthetic whiskey and linear correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.9929 for LLE(CH2Cl2) and 0.9935 for SPME(CAR/PDMS), for all target compounds. Recoveries greater than 80% were achieved. For most compounds, precision (expressed by relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) are very good, with R.S.D. values lower than 14.78% for HS-SPME method and than 19.42% for LLE method. The detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 19.03 microg L(-1) for SPME procedure and from 0.50 to 12.48 microg L(-1) for LLE. A tentative study to estimate the contribution of a specific compound to the aroma of a whiskey, on the basis of their odour activity values (OAV) was made. Ethyl octanoate followed by isoamyl acetate and isobutyl alcohol, were found the most potent odour-active compounds.

  11. Studies on the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of enzyme-assisted water extracts from Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Xu, Jianguo; Sun, Ye

    2009-12-01

    Enzyme-assisted water extracts (EWEDL) and ethanol extracts of Du-zhong leaves (EEDL) were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Fe(2+)-chelating assay, and inhibition ability of the linoleic acid peroxidation assay. In general, the antioxidant activity of Du-zhong leaf extracts increased with increasing concentration. Based on the two extracting methods with different antioxidative reactions, it was shown that the enzyme-assisted water extracting method was more effective for antioxidant extraction from Du-zhong leaves. By HPLC-MS analysis, the main phenolic compounds (geniposidic acid, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid) identified in EWEDL and EEDL were similar. EWEDL and EEDL had total phenolic contents of 13.84 +/- 0.11 and 14.72 +/- 0.14 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE) in each gram of extract, respectively. However, there was no positive correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of EWEDL and EEDL measured by the three different assays.

  12. Rapid screening and quantitative determination of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts of Myristica species and their in vitro antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Mahar, Rohit; Hasanain, Mohammad; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-11-15

    Efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS methods have been developed for the rapid screening and determination of bioactive compounds in different fruit parts of four Myristica species, viz., Myristica beddomeii, Myristica fragrans, Myristica fatua and Myristica malabarica. Twenty-one compounds were identified and characterized on the basis of their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation pattern using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Quantitative determination of five major bioactive compounds was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching by UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. Moreover, in vitro antiproliferative activity of these Myristica species was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines A549, DLD-1, DU145, FaDu and MCF-7 using SRB assay. Seventeen phytoconstituents were identified and reported for the first time from M. beddomeii and sixteen from M. fatua. Quantification result showed highest total content of five major bioactive compounds in mace of M. fragrans. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed potent activity in all investigated species except M. fragrans.

  13. Centrifugal partition extraction in the pH-zone-refining displacement mode: an efficient strategy for the screening and isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-10-15

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) was developed for the first time in the pH-zone-refining mode to fractionate a crude bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). The fractionation process was performed at a flow rate of 20mL/min using a biphasic solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the ascending mode. Sodium hydroxide (40mM) and trifluoroacetic acid (30mM) were used as retainer and displacer agents, respectively. In a single run of 67min, 3g of the initial crude extract were successfully separated into fractions selectively enriched in ionizable triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The antioxidant potential of the initial crude extract, isolated compounds and fraction pools was also evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical scavenging assay, providing an interesting view about the effect of the degree of substitution of ellagic acid derivatives on their radical scavenging activity. This study will demonstrate that centrifugal partition extraction used in the pH-zone-refining mode can be proposed as an efficient strategy for the rapid screening of natural phenolic compounds.

  14. Topical Niosome Gel of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Extract for Anti-inflammatory Activity Enhanced Skin Permeation and Stability of Compound D.

    PubMed

    Priprem, Aroonsri; Janpim, Khwanhatai; Nualkaew, Somsak; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2016-06-01

    An extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (ZC) was encapsulated in niosomes of which a topical gel was formed. (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol or compound D detected by a gradient HPLC was employed as the marker and its degradation determined to follow zero-order kinetics. Niosomes significantly retarded thermal-accelerated decomposition of compound D in the gel (p < 0.05) but did not change the activation energy of compound D. Niosomes enhanced in vitro permeation rate of compound D from the gel. Topical applications of ZC noisome gel gave a faster change in tail flick latency than piroxicam gel and hydrocortisone cream (p < 0.05) while there were insignificant differences in anti-inflammatory activity up to 6 h using croton oil-induced ear edema model in mice (p > 0.05). Thus, encapsulation of ZC extract in niosomes enhanced chemical stability and skin permeation with comparable topical anti-inflammatory effects to steroid and NSAID.

  15. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted.

  16. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Sitarek, Przemysław; Skała, Ewa; Wysokińska, Halina; Wielanek, Marzena; Szemraj, Janusz; Toma, Monika; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx). LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid). The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx) regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds.

  17. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sitarek, Przemysław; Skała, Ewa; Wysokińska, Halina; Wielanek, Marzena; Szemraj, Janusz; Toma, Monika; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx). LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid). The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx) regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds. PMID:26788249

  18. Diversity of odor-active compounds from local cultivars and wild accessions of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) revealed by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA).

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hironori; Ohe, Miho; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2013-03-01

    Some local cultivars and wilds of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) that grows wild in Northern Tohoku, Japan have good aromatic fruit. Iwateyamanashi may be valuable germplasms as a donor of odor compounds in breeding of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), because almost all Japanese pear cultivars have faint odor. Fruits odors from a local cultivar 'Sanenashi', a wild accession (i0830) in Iwateyamanashi, cultivars of 'Kosui' and 'La France' were characterized at first with comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). Application of AEDA, based on Gas chromatography/Olfactometry analysis (GC/O), on the odor concentration prepared from 'Sanenashi' indicated the presence of 33 odor-active compounds including methyl and ethyl esters, aldehydes and alcohol. The eleven odor compounds from 16 accessions of Iwateyamanashi showed various combinations and wide range of odor concentrations by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Especially 2 accessions of local cultivar 'Natsunashi' plotted in the highly ethyl ester group might be useful for Japanese pear breeding.

  19. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yukiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Hirai, Sachi; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-05-01

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of an ether extract prepared from beef extract (BE) and subsequent identification experiments led to the determination of seven aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-128. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the seven aroma compounds suggested that 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of BE. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of the four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted BE showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombination mixture and BE showed a high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been identified successfully.

  20. Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

  1. Extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds constitute a major class of plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and show a large structural diversity. These compounds occur as aglycones or glycosides, as monomers or constituting highly polymerized structures, or as free or matrix-bound compounds. Furthermore, they are not uniformly distributed in the plant and their stability varies significantly. This greatly complicates their extraction and isolation processes, which means that a single standardized procedure cannot be recommended for all phenolics and/or plant materials; procedures have to be optimized depending on the nature of the sample and the target analytes, and also on the object of the study. In this chapter, the main techniques for sample preparation, and extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds have been reviewed-from classical solvent extraction procedures to more modern approaches, such as the use of molecularly imprinted polymers or counter-current chromatography.

  2. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  3. In Vivo Anti-Candida Activity of Phenolic Extracts and Compounds: Future Perspectives Focusing on Effective Clinical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida species have increasingly deserved a special attention among the medical community. In spite of the presence of Candida species as a human commensal, alarming rates of local and systemic infections have been observed, varying from moderate to severe impact. Currently available antifungal drugs have progressively lost their effectiveness, pointing urgently the problem of the microorganisms with acquired-resistance. Natural matrices are secularly used for numerous purposes, being inclusive and highly effective as antimicrobials. Increasing evidence gives a particular emphasis to the contribution of phenolic extracts and related individual compounds. In vitro studies clearly confirm their prominent effects, but the confirmation through in vivo studies, including the involved mechanisms of action, is not so much deepened. Therefore, the present report aims to provide extensive knowledge about all these aspects, highlighting the most efficient phytochemical formulations, including therapeutic doses. Further studies need to be incited to deepen knowledge on this area, namely, focused on clinical trials to provide safer and more effective antimicrobials than the current ones. PMID:26380266

  4. Skin-mimetic chromatography for prediction of human percutaneous absorption of biologically active compounds occurring in medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Stepnik, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Irena

    2017-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to predict quantitatively human percutaneous absorption of chosen compounds commonly occurring in plants which can be used as medicinal extracts in the drug and beauty industries. The most important human percutaneous descriptors, i.e. logKp (logarithm of the water/skin partition coefficient) and logJmax (logarithm of the maximum flux of solutes penetrating the skin), of fatty acids and polyphenols were determined using both in vitro and in silico methods. For in vitro determination of human percutaneous absorption, micellar liquid chromatography based on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij35) was used. Human percutaneous absorption was characterized by entirely new QSAR/QRAR models based on retention, lipophilic, steric and electronic data as well as on the linear free energy relationship parameters. Many different correlations between human skin absorption and different physicochemical parameters were performed, e.g. the in silico estimated logKp value was correlated with the retention parameter logkw (logarithm of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water) from the systems imitating a cutaneous environment (R(2)  = 0.92). Moreover, the influence of lipophilicity on percutaneous absorption was examined. The obtained correlation was excellent (R(2)  = 0.95).

  5. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions.

  7. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Jo, Kyuhyung; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE) against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling)-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs) binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells. PMID:27657123

  8. In vitro modulation of Drimys winteri bark extract and the active compound polygodial on Salmo salar immune genes after exposure to Saprolegnia parasitica.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Torres, D; Gonçalves, A T; Ulloa, V; Martínez, R; Carrasco, H; Olea, A F; Espinoza, L; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Astuya, A

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of the aquaculture industry has global concerns with health management and control strategies to prevent and/or treat diseases and increase sustainability standards. Saprolegniosis is a disease caused by Saprolegnia parasitica, and is characterized by promoting an immunosuppression in the host. This study evaluated in vitro the extract and one active compound (polygodial) of Drimys winteri, a Chilean medicinal tree as a potential early immunostimulatory aid in Saprolegniosis control. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) head kidney cells (ASK-1) were incubated with both extract and pure polygodial before exposure to S. parasitica mycelium, and the expression of the immune-related genes interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interferon α (IFNα), and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) was evaluated. Both evidenced immunomodulatory capacities by increasing gene expressions. This immunomodulation related to a mitigatory action counteracting the immunosuppressing effects of S. parasitica. Despite that most immune-related genes were up-regulated, the down-regulation of MHCII, characteristic of S. parasitica infection, was lessened by pre-incubation with the compounds. This study provides the first insight on the potential of D. winteri bark extract as a possible immunomodulatory and defensive strategy against this oomycete infection in fish.

  9. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging.

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from Pinus morrisonicola Hay Needles by Supercritical Fluid and Identification of Possible Active Compounds by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Ching; Chang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Chih-Wei; Li, Wen-Wing; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Song, Tuzz-Ying

    2015-10-20

    Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hay, PM) needles have been used as folk medicine for their antihypertension and lipid-lowering effects. As supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is considered an ideal technique for the extraction of essential oil from plant materials, the present work investigated the optimal SFE conditions and the protective effects of different resulting fractions of PM needles on lipid peroxidation and foam cell production in macrophages. Nine PM needle extracts (PME1-9) were obtained in 1%-4% yields using different SFE conditions, of which PME1 had the lowest yield (1.1%) and PME3 the highest (3.9%). PME3 exhibited lower cytotoxic effects and stronger inhibition of lipid peroxidation and formation of foam cell in RAW 264.7 macrophages than those of other PME extracts. PME3-1 purified from PME3 by column and thin layer chromatography inhibited LDL oxidation more effectively than did PME3 in a cell-free system oxidized by Cu(2+). PME3-1 dose-dependently (25-100 μg/mL) decreased conjugated diene levels and foam cell formation induced by ox-LDL. GC/MS analyses revealed that 1-docosene, neophytadiene, and methyl abietate were increased 5.2-, 1.7- and 4.3-fold in PME3-1 relative to PME3. A new hydrocarbon compound, cedrane-8,13-diol, was identified in PME3-1. Overall, the present study demonstrates the optimal extraction conditions of SFE of PM and identifies the most potent antioxidant fractions and possible active compounds in PM.

  11. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  12. Bioactive compounds from Carissa opaca roots and xanthine oxidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions in different solvents

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Ramsha; Ahmed, Dildar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carissa opaca is known for its many ethnomedicinal uses. There was a need to study its bioactivities and identify its phytochemicals. Objective: The objective was to isolate and identify phytochemicals from roots of C. opaca and to evaluate xanthine oxidase (XO) and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of finely divided powder of roots of C. opaca was obtained by cold maceration, followed by its fractionation to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions. Phytochemicals screening was done by standard protocols. XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions were studied. The most active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to the column and thin layer chromatography to isolate its compounds, which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography comparison. Results: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity against both the enzymes with IC50 of 129 mg/mL and 4.9 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Chloroform fraction had IC50 of 154.2 mg/mL and 5.5 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC50 5.0 mg/mL). Hexane fraction showed good activity against alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited opposite trend against XO. The compounds isolated from ethyl acetate fraction included limonene, vanillin, lupeol, rutin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, Vitamin E, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, and 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester. Conclusions: Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots possess exploitable

  13. Extraction of mercaptobenzothiazole compounds from rubber products.

    PubMed

    Hansson, C; Bergendorff, O; Ezzelarab, M; Sterner, O

    1997-04-01

    At evaluation of contact dermatitis caused by solid material, patch testing is usually performed with the material as such and with extracts of it. In this study, optimization of the extraction technique monitored by quantitative HPLC analysis of the extracted haptens is described for mercaptobenzothiazole derivatives. Several solvents with different properties are included. Acetone has traditionally been a solvent widely used for the extraction of organic haptens from solid products. However, acetone and other ketones are not inert solvents. The rubber accelerators 2-(4-morpholinyl mercapto) benzothiazole (MMBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide (CBS) react with acetone, yielding 2 new compounds, which were isolated and characterised by NMR and MS. For the extraction of solid rubber products, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found to be a more suitable solvent which is unreactive to most common haptens.

  14. Identification of glabridin as a bioactive compound in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    PubMed

    Rebhun, John F; Glynn, Kelly M; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Licorice, the root and stolons of the Glycyrrhiza plant (Fabaceae), has been used for centuries as a food additive (sweetener), in cosmetics, and in traditional medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that licorice extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, one of the activating phytochemicals is glabridin. Glabridin was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist.

  15. Extraction of organic compounds from solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    Pyridine, benzene, cyclohexane, methylene chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and n-methylpyrrolidone have been compared for the extraction of polycyclic organic materials (POMs) from urban air, diesel, and stack particulate samples. Both sonic and Soxhlet techniques have been examined for both natural environmental particulates and particulates spiked with selected POMs. The extraction results vary for different polycyclic compounds adsorbed on different solid matrices, so no single solvent or extraction technique could be unambiguously recommended. However, comparative average results for 14 compounds spiked onto fly ash at 0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 ..mu..g/g showed pyridine to have 1.5 times more extraction efficiency than benzene. These and other reported results suggest that pyridine deserves more attention as an extractant for particulate samples. In separate tests, recoveries of POMs from fly ash were not improved by deactivation with aqueous solutions of ammonium hydroxide, thiocyanate and carbonate, and sodium nitrite prior to the extraction. 39 references, 5 tables.

  16. Characterization and quantification of the compounds of the ethanolic extract from Caesalpinia ferrea stem bark and evaluation of their mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wyrepkowski, Carlos César; Costa, Daryne Lu Maldonado Gomes da; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Vilegas, Wagner; De Grandis, Rone Aparecido; Resende, Flavia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-10-08

    Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn) in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  17. Impact of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in biological systems upon the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Triplaris gardneriana seeds.

    PubMed

    Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; de Almeida, Thiago Silva; de Medeiros, Jackeline Lima; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; Moreira, Thaís Borges; Maia, Ana Isabel Vitorino; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2017-04-01

    The most studied bioactive potential of phenolic compounds corresponds to antioxidant activity, which in turn, is associated with a reduction in the incidence of various human diseases. However, the total quantity of these bioactive substances in foods and medicinal preparations does not reflect the amount absorbed and metabolized by the body. The present study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of Triplaris gardneriana seeds ethanolic extract (EETg) by determination of phenolic composition and antioxidant activities before and after in vitro digestion as well as to estimate its bioavailability by chemical analysis of plasma and urine in animal models after oral administration. The bioaccessibility indexes of phenolic compounds in EETg were 48.65 and 69.28% in the presence and absence of enzymes, respectively. Among the identified phenolics classes, flavonoids, represented by galloylated procyanidins type B, proved to be more bioaccessible, 81.48 and 96.29% in the post-intestinal phase with and without enzymes, respectively. The oral administration in Wistar rats resulted in a significant decrease in plasma of the total antioxidant capacity, TAC, by FRAP assay 4h after beginning the experiment. For urine samples, an increase in TAC by DPPH and FRAP was observed from 1 and 4h after administration, respectively. UPLC-QTOF analysis of urine detected 2 metabolites originated from the degradation of phenolic compounds, i.e. hippuric acid and phenylacetil glycine. These results suggest that phenolic compounds in T. gardneriana are unstable under gastrointestinal conditions, being flavonoids the components with higher bioaccessibility; besides that, they showed limited bioavailability due to their rapid biotransformation and urinary elimination.

  18. Diversity of odor-active compounds from local cultivars and wild accessions of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) revealed by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA)

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hironori; Ohe, Miho; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2013-01-01

    Some local cultivars and wilds of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) that grows wild in Northern Tohoku, Japan have good aromatic fruit. Iwateyamanashi may be valuable germplasms as a donor of odor compounds in breeding of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), because almost all Japanese pear cultivars have faint odor. Fruits odors from a local cultivar ‘Sanenashi’, a wild accession (i0830) in Iwateyamanashi, cultivars of ‘Kosui’ and ‘La France’ were characterized at first with comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). Application of AEDA, based on Gas chromatography/Olfactometry analysis (GC/O), on the odor concentration prepared from ‘Sanenashi’ indicated the presence of 33 odor-active compounds including methyl and ethyl esters, aldehydes and alcohol. The eleven odor compounds from 16 accessions of Iwateyamanashi showed various combinations and wide range of odor concentrations by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Especially 2 accessions of local cultivar ‘Natsunashi’ plotted in the highly ethyl ester group might be useful for Japanese pear breeding. PMID:23641185

  19. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  20. Effect of Standardized Boesenbergia pandurata Extract and Its Active Compound Panduratin A on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seon Wook; Rhim, Dong-Bin; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    The skin plays a key role in protecting the body from the environment and from water loss. Cornified envelope (CE) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) are considered as the primary regulators of skin hydration and barrier function. The CE prevents loss of water from the body and is formed by cross-linking of several proteins. Among these proteins, filaggrin is an important protein because NMF is produced by the degradation of filaggrin. Proteases, including matriptase and prostasin, stimulate the generation of filaggrin from profilaggrin and caspase-14 plays a role in the degradation of filaggrin. This study elucidated the effects of an ethanol extract of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., known as fingerroot, and its active compound panduratin A on CE formation and filaggrin processing in HaCaT, human epidermal keratinocytes. B. pandurata extract (BPE) and panduratin A significantly stimulated not only CE formation but also the expression of CE proteins, such as loricrin, involucrin, and transglutaminase, which were associated with PPARα expression. The mRNA and protein levels of filaggrin and filaggrin-related enzymes, such as matriptase, prostasin, and caspase-14 were also up-regulated by BPE and panduratin A treatment. These results suggest that BPE and panduratin A are potential nutraceuticals which can enhance skin hydration and barrier function based on their CE formation and filaggrin processing. PMID:25866745

  1. Characterization of odor-active compounds in sweet-type Chinese rice wine by aroma extract dilution analysis with special emphasis on sotolon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Dong; Xu, Yan

    2013-10-09

    The aroma characteristics of sweet-type Chinese rice wine were studied by sensory analysis, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and quantitative analysis. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that a caramel-like note was the most distinctive characteristic for sweet-type Chinese rice wine. AEDA was carried out on the extract of a typical sweet-type Chinese rice wine sample. Thirty-nine odor-active regions were detected in the sample with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ≥8, and 37 of these were further identified. Among them, sotolon and 2- and 3-methylbutanol showed the highest FD factor of 1024, followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (tentatively identified), dimethyl trisulfide, 2-phenylethanol, and vanillin with a FD factor of 512. Sotolon was identified as a key aroma compound in Chinese rice wine for the first time. AEDA results indicated that sotolon (caramel-like/seasoning-like) was the potentially key contributor to the caramel-like descriptor of sweet-type Chinese rice wine. The concentration of sotolon in Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by Lichrolut-EN solid-phase extraction coupled with microvial insert large volume injection method. The content of sotolon ranged from 35.93 to 526.17 μg/L, which was above its odor threshold (9 μg/L) for all Chinese rice wine samples. The highest concentration of sotolon was found in the sweet-type Chinese rice wine, which highlighted the important aroma role of sotolon for this particular type of Chinese rice wine.

  2. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing.

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of solid-liquid and enzyme-assisted extraction of phenolic compound from three species of tropical Sargassum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita, M.; Deniel, M.; Widowati, I.; Radjasa, O. K.; Douzenel, P.; Bedoux, G.; Bourgougnon, N.

    2017-02-01

    Sargassum has been well acknowledged for the potential natural product of its phlorotannins. Solid-liquid extraction (SLE) is the most common method used to extract them. However, this method has some drawbacks such as low yield and toxic. An alternative ecofriendly method has been proposed, i.e. enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), proven to be more efficient. The aim is to compare the efficiency of SLE and EAE concerning their extraction yield, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. S. aquifolium, S. ilicifolium and S. polycystum were extracted using water, methanol, methanol 50%, and ethanol 75% and enzymes (Viscozyme and Protamex). Total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant activity via DPPH and FRAP analysis. This study implied that bioactivity of Sargassum extracted with enzymes is better compared to the one using organic solvents.

  4. Antiallergic Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Arctium lappa L. Undried Roots and Its Active Compound, Oleamide, in Regulating FcεRI-Mediated and MAPK Signaling in RBL-2H3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Woong-Suk; Lee, Sung Ryul; Jeong, Yong Joon; Park, Dae Won; Cho, Young Mi; Joo, Hae Mi; Kim, Inhye; Seu, Young-Bae; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-05-11

    The antiallergic potential of Arctium lappa L. was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, ICR mice, and RBL-2H3 cells. Ethanol extract (90%) of A. lappa (ALE, 100 μg/mL) inhibited the degranulation rate by 52.9%, determined by the level of β-hexosaminidase. ALE suppressed passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and attenuated anaphylaxis and histamine release in mice. To identify the active compound of ALE, we subsequently fractionated and determined the level of β-hexosaminidase in all subfractions. Oleamide was identified as an active compound of ALE, which attenuated the secretion of histamine and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in cells treated with compound 48/80 or A23187/phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Oleamide suppressed FcεRI-tyrosine kinase Lyn-mediated pathway, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK/SAPK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38-MAPKs). These results showed that ALE and oleamide attenuated allergic reactions and should serve as a platform to search for compounds with antiallergic activity.

  5. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  6. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins

    PubMed Central

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G.; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R.; Lightfoot, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction. PMID:26885655

  7. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Yanxiang; Huang, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    Asparagus residues were used as materials to obtain antioxidant compounds by solid-liquid extraction in this study. The effects of different extraction parameters including extraction solvents, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio on the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the extract from asparagus residues was evaluated by HPLC- ABTS · (+) and the bioactive components were identified by HPLC- MS/MS. The results showed that the extraction yield was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by solvent composition, extraction time and temperature. The appropriate parameters were preferred as extraction solvent of 50 % ethanol with liquid-solid ratio of 30:1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and time of 2 h. Antioxidant activity evaluation of the extract indicated flavonoids and phenolics were dominant bioactive compounds. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and isorhamnetin.

  8. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  9. Evaluation of spectrophotometric methods for screening of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and green honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) extracts for high levels of Bio-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Manley, Marena; Botha, Mariza

    2008-01-01

    The potential of UV spectrophotometry and an aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) colorimetric method to determine the dihydrochalcone (DHC) and mangiferin contents of green rooibos and honeybush (C. genistoides) extracts, respectively, was investigated. The DHC content of rooibos water extracts, determined using UV spectroscopy, correlated with the sum of the aspalathin and nothofagin contents as quantified using HPLC (r = 0.98). A correlation coefficient of 0.91 was obtained when correlating the mangiferin content of C. genistoides methanol extracts, determined by the AlCl(3) colorimetric method, with the results obtained by HPLC. Using the linear equations from the correlations it was possible to predict the DHC and mangiferin contents of extracts from the respective spectrophotometric measurements to a reasonable accuracy as an alternative to HPLC. The total polyphenol (TP) content of rooibos water extracts can also be determined using UV spectrophotometry and aspalathin as a standard (r = 0.99) as an alternative to the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The TP content of rooibos extracts correlated (r = 0.99) with its total antioxidant activity (TAA) as determined with the ABTS radical cation scavenging assay, but the TP content of C. genistoides water extracts is not a good indication of their TAA (r = 0.27). The aspalathin content of rooibos extracts correlated with their TAA (r = 0.96), but the mangiferin content of honeybush water extracts only gave a moderate correlation with their TAA (r = 0.75).

  10. Antiangiogenic Activity of Glycyrrhiza Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Qiu

    The bioactivity of extract of glycyrrhiza was detected by zebrafish antiangiogenic model after 70% ethanol extract of glycyrrhiza was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol. The inhibition of the extracts in antiangiogenic activity showed that the highest active components existed in ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza. The ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza was separated by polyamide column chromatography to obtain 7 fractions (Fr1-Fr7), which Fr5 and Fr6 showed antiangiogenic activity.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Standardized Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and Their Marker Compounds on Phagocytic Activity of Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Yuandani; Ilangkovan, Menaga; Mohamad, Hazni Falina; Husain, Khairana; Abdul Razak, Amirul Faiz

    2013-01-01

    The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1 µg/mL). There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells). The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7 µg/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4 µg/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9 µg/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute. PMID:23737840

  12. Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-03

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of phenolic extract from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. and identification of three phenolic compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengying; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xin Sheng; Shen, Bei; Yue, Wei; Wu, Qinan

    2013-09-09

    This study investigated the antioxidant potential and anti-fatigue effects of phenolics extracted from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. The in vitro antioxidant potentials, including scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power were evaluated. Antioxidant status in vivo was analyzed by SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and the MDA content in liver and kidneys of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The anti-fatigue effect was evaluated using an exhaustive swimming test, along with the determination of LDH, BUN and HG content. The phenolic extract possessed notable antioxidant effects on DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power. The mice which received the phenolic extract showed significant increases of SOD, CAT (except for in the kidney), GSH-Px activities, and a decrease of MDA content. The average exhaustive swimming time was obviously prolonged. Meanwhile, increase of LDH content and decrease of BUN content were observed after mice had been swimming for 15 min. The HG storage of mice was improved in the high and middle dose extract groups compared with the normal group. The contents of total phenols and gallic acid of the extract were determined. Three compounds in the extract were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-chroman-4-one, 5,7,4-trihydroxyflavanone and buddlenol E. These results suggest that the extract of E. ferox is a promising source of natural antioxidants and anti-fatigue material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  14. Screening of key antioxidant compounds of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) seed extract by combining online fishing/knockout, activity evaluation, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyu; Ge, Zhen-Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Ze; Li, Chun-Mei

    2014-10-08

    To figure out the key phenolic compounds accounting for the antioxidant effects of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) seed extract, online fishing/knockout method, activity evaluation assays, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis were used jointly for the first time. p-Coumaric acid-glycoside, (S)-flavogallonic acid, ellagic acid derivative, and methyl-ellagic acid glucopyranoside were first identified in longan seeds. In addition, our study revealed that ellagic acid as well as its derivative and p-coumaric acid-glycoside had important contribution to the potent antioxidant activity of longan seed extract, while gallic acid, corilagin, (S)-flavogallonic acid, methyl-ellagic acid glucopyranoside, and ethyl gallate showed very little contribution to the total antioxidant activity of longan seed extract. The combining use of the online fishing/knockout method, activity evaluation assays, FT-ICR-MS, and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis is a useful and simple strategy for screening of key bioactive compounds from complex extracts.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from lemon balm and peppermint leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Boričević, Ana; Borić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction (frequency, time, temperature) on the content of bioactive compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from fresh lemon balm and peppermint leaves. Total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, and radical scavenging capacity were determined. Moreover, the relationship between bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was studied by linear regression. A significant increase in all studied bioactive compounds during ultrasonic extraction for 5 to 20 min was found. With the classical extraction method, the highest amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined, and the maximum amounts of total chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined during 20 min ultrasonic extraction. The correlation analysis revealed a strong, positive relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds.

  16. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars.

  17. Profiling of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) extracts from different locations of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytochemicals and antioxidants from plant sources are of increasing interest to consumers because of their roles in the maintenance of human health. Most of the secondary metabolites of herbs are used in a number of pharmaceutical products. Methods Secondary metabolites composition and content of five flavonoids and three phenolic acids were evaluated and determined in Pandanus amaryllifolius extracts from three different locations of Malaysia by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay; The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Assay was employed to screen anticancer activity of extracts against MCF-7 cancer cell line. Results Highest value of total flavonoids (TF) and total phenolics (TP) was observed in pandan extract from Bachok locattion (1.87 mg/g DW and 6.72 mg/g DW) followed by Klang (1.32 mg/g DW; 5.07 mg/g DW) and Pontian (1.12 mg/g DW; 4.88 mg/g DW). Rutin just detected from Bachok location with value of 0.082 mg/g DW. High content of epicatechin (0.035 mg/g DW) and naringin (0.325 mg/g DW) were observed from Bachok location while, highest content of catechin (0.613 mg/g DW) and kaempferol (0.278 mg/g DW) was observed in pandan extract from Klang location. The extract of pandan from Bachok exhibited highest value of gallic acid (0.423 mg/g DW) and cinnamic acid (0.084 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid just detected from pandan extract of Bachok location with concentration of 0.281mg/g DW. Between studied locations Bachok exhibited highest value of DPPH (64.27%) and FRAP (517.2 μm of Fe (II)/g) activity followed by Klang (52.16%; 448.6 μm of Fe (II)/g) and Pontian (50.10%; 314.8 μm of Fe (II)/g). The preliminary screening showed pandan extracts from 3 locations possessed

  18. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and fast UHPLC-DAD-IT-TOF profiling of polyphenolic compounds extracted from green lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; var. Maravilla de Verano).

    PubMed

    Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Marzocco, Stefania; Adesso, Simona; Novellino, Tiziana; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-01-15

    Fresh cut vegetables represent a widely consumed food worldwide. Among these, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular on the market. The growing interest for this "healthy" food is related to the content of bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, that show many beneficial effects. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of polyphenols extracted from lettuce (var. Maravilla de Verano), in J774A.1 macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lettuce extract significantly decreased reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide release, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase-2 expression. A detailed quali/quantitative profiling of the polyphenolic content was carried out, obtaining fast separation (10 min), good retention time and peak area repeatability, (RSD% 0.80 and 8.68, respectively) as well as linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.999) and mass accuracy (⩽ 5 ppm). Our results show the importance in the diet of this cheap and popular food for his healthy properties.

  19. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound 1, 2- Benzene Dicarboxylic Acid, Mono 2- Ethylhexyl Ester Extracted from a Marine Derived Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kannabiran; Mani, Abirami; Jasmine, Subashini

    2014-01-01

    Marine Streptomyces are prolific producers of majority of bioactive secondary metabolites which are used in pharmaceutical industry as effective drugs against life threatening diseases. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compound 1, 2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, mono 2- ethylhexyl ester (DMEHE) from marine derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 was investigated against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) normal cell lines, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG 2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using MTT assay. The compound DMEHE exhibited IC 50 values of 42, 100, 250 and 500 µg/ ml against HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The effect of DMEHE on the growth of cancer cell lines was expressed as the % of viability. Cell viability was recorded as 67.7%, 78.14%, 82.23% and 96. 11% in HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, respectively. The results of the study conclude that the bioactive compound isolated from the potential isolate Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF- 7 cancer cell lines and low toxicity against normal HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines.

  20. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound 1, 2- Benzene Dicarboxylic Acid, Mono 2- Ethylhexyl Ester Extracted from a Marine Derived Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Kannabiran; Mani, Abirami; Jasmine, Subashini

    2014-01-01

    Marine Streptomyces are prolific producers of majority of bioactive secondary metabolites which are used in pharmaceutical industry as effective drugs against life threatening diseases. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compound 1, 2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, mono 2- ethylhexyl ester (DMEHE) from marine derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 was investigated against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) normal cell lines, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG 2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using MTT assay. The compound DMEHE exhibited IC 50 values of 42, 100, 250 and 500 µg/ ml against HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The effect of DMEHE on the growth of cancer cell lines was expressed as the % of viability. Cell viability was recorded as 67.7%, 78.14%, 82.23% and 96. 11% in HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, respectively. The results of the study conclude that the bioactive compound isolated from the potential isolate Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF- 7 cancer cell lines and low toxicity against normal HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines. PMID:25635251

  1. Natural compounds with anti-ageing activity.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-10-11

    Ageing is a complex molecular process driven by diverse molecular pathways and biochemical events that are promoted by both environmental and genetic factors. Specifically, ageing is defined as a time-dependent decline of functional capacity and stress resistance, associated with increased chance of morbidity and mortality. These effects relate to age-related gradual accumulation of stressors that result in increasingly damaged biomolecules which eventually compromise cellular homeostasis. Nevertheless, the findings that genetic or diet interventions can increase lifespan in evolutionarily diverse organisms indicate that mortality can be postponed. Natural compounds represent an extraordinary inventory of high diversity structural scaffolds that can offer promising candidate chemical entities in the major healthcare challenge of increasing health span and/or delaying ageing. Herein, those natural compounds (either pure forms or extracts) that have been found to delay cellular senescence or in vivo ageing will be critically reviewed and summarized according to affected cellular signalling pathways. Moreover, the chemical structures of the identified natural compounds along with the profile of extracts related to their bioactive components will be presented and discussed. Finally, novel potential molecular targets for screening natural compounds for anti-ageing activity, as well as the idea that anti-ageing interventions represent a systemic approach that is also effective against age-related diseases will be discussed.

  2. Antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from different Hibiscus sabdariffa accessions and simultaneous determination five major antioxidant compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Jiang, Hao; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit L; Yue, Yongde

    2014-12-17

    Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin) in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2) and Taiwan (No. 5). The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa.

  3. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  4. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  5. Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare L.: different performances regarding bioactivity and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-09-01

    Bioactivity of oregano methanolic extracts and essential oils is well known. Nonetheless, reports using aqueous extracts are scarce, mainly decoction or infusion preparations used for therapeutic applications. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic compounds of the infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extract of oregano were evaluated and compared. The antioxidant activity is related with phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids, since decoction presented the highest concentration of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds, followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. The samples were effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is important to address that the hydroalcoholic extract showed the highest efficacy against Escherichia coli. This study demonstrates that the decoction could be used for antioxidant purposes, while the hydroalcoholic extract could be incorporated in formulations for antimicrobial features. Moreover, the use of infusion/decoction can avoid the toxic effects showed by oregano essential oil, widely reported for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

  6. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Activity of Chamaecyparis obtusa Leaf Extract against the HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line and Investigation of the Bioactive Compound by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Youn; Lee, Seul-Gi; Oh, Taek-Joo; Lim, Sa Rang; Kim, So-Hyun; Lee, Hong Jin; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2015-10-02

    Chamaecyparis obtusa (CO) belongs to the Cupressaceae family, and it is found widely distributed in Japan and Korea. In this study, the anti-proliferative activities of the methanol and water extracts of CO leaves against a human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116) were investigated. The methanol extract of CO leaves, at a concentration of 1.25 µg/mL, exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HCT116 cells, while displaying no cytotoxicity against Chang liver cells. Comparative global metabolite profiling was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate statistical analysis, and it was revealed that anthricin was the major compound contributing to the anti-proliferative activity. The activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases played a key role in the apoptotic effect of the methanol extract of CO leaves in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the methanol extract and anthricin derived from CO leaves might be useful in the development of medicines with anti-colorectal cancer activity.

  7. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  8. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  9. Validated comprehensive analytical method for quantification of coenzyme A activated compounds in biological tissues by online solid-phase extraction LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Magnes, Christoph; Suppan, Maria; Pieber, Thomas R; Moustafa, Tarek; Trauner, Michael; Haemmerle, Guenter; Sinner, Frank M

    2008-08-01

    We report a robust, reliable, and comprehensive analytical method for the identification and quantification of the entire class of coenzyme A (CoA) activated substances, particularly short-, medium-, and long-chain acyl-CoAs derived from various biological tissues. This online SPE-LC/MS/MS-based method is characterized by a simple three-step sample preparation: (1) addition of buffer, organic solvents, and internal standards; (2) homogenization; and (3) centrifugation. The supernatant is injected directly into the SPE-LC/MS/MS system. Identification of CoA activated compounds is performed by accurate mass determination within the HPLC run. Method validation for short-, medium-, and long-chain acyl-CoA fatty acids revealed excellent quality. Accuracy was found to be between 87 and 107% and precision was between 0.1 and 12.8% in mouse skeletal muscle. The lower limit of quantification for all investigated compounds was well below 3.1% of estimated physiological levels in 200 mg of mouse tissue. Comparable results were obtained for mouse liver, mouse brown white adipose tissue and rat liver. For all investigated tissues, no matrix effect was observed.

  10. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  11. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabacı & Budak.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Agar, Osman Tuncay; Akaydin, Galip; Hayran, Mutlu; Demirci, Betul

    2015-06-22

    According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, α-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, α-bisabolon oxide A, β-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract.

  12. Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Exhibits a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Both an Oxazolone-Induced Contact Dermatitis Mouse Model and Compound 48/80-Treated HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Da-In; Choi, Jee-Young; Kim, Young Jee; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Shin, Hyong-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Background We developed an ethanol extract of peanut sprouts (EPS), a peanut sprout-derived natural product, which contains a high level of trans-resveratrol (176.75 µg/ml) and was shown to have potent antioxidant activity. Objective We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of EPS by measuring its antioxidant potential in skin. Methods The anti-inflammatory activity of EPS was tested using two models of skin inflammation: oxazolone (OX)-induced contact dermatitis in mice and compound 48/80-treated HaCaT cells. As biomarkers of skin inflammation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were measured. Results OX-induced contact dermatitis was suppressed markedly in mice that were treated with an ointment containing 5% EPS as evidenced by a decrease in the extent of scaling and thickening (p<0.05) and supported by a histological study. COX-2 (messenger RNA [mRNA] and protein) and NGF (mRNA) levels, which were upregulated in the skin of OX-treated mice, were suppressed markedly in the skin of OX+EPS-treated mice. Consistent with this, compound 48/80-induced expression of COX-2 (mRNA and protein) and NGF (mRNA) in HaCaT cells were suppressed by EPS treatment in a dose-dependent manner. As an inhibitor of NF-κB, IκB protein levels were dose-dependently upregulated by EPS. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed that EPS scavenged compound 48/80-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells. Conclusion EPS exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity via its anti-oxidant activity in both mouse skin and compound 48/80-treated HaCaT cells in vitro. Compound 48/80-treated HaCaT cells are a useful new in vitro model of skin inflammation. PMID:25834352

  13. Alkaline extraction of phenolic compounds from intact sorghum kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was employed to extract phenolic compounds from whole grain sorghum without decortication or grinding as determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). The alkaline extract ORAC values were more stable over 32 days compared to neutralized and freeze dri...

  14. Vacancy formation and extraction energies in semiconductor compounds and alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berding, M. A.; Sher, A.; Chen, A.-B.

    1990-01-01

    A model for calculating the extraction energies and vacancy-formation energies in diamond-cubic and zinc-blende semiconductors is developed on the basis of Harrison's (1980, 1983) tight-binding theory. The extraction energies provide a reference from which other final states of the removed atoms can be calculated. The results of calculations show that, in a given compound, the calculated extraction energies are larger for the anion than for the cation, with the difference between the cation and the anion being larger in the II-VI than in the III-V compounds. This is in agreement with experimental results.

  15. Microwave-assisted extraction of polycyclic aromatic compounds from coal.

    PubMed

    Kerst, M; Andersson, J T

    2001-08-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) from coal is shown to give the same pattern of compounds as Soxhlet extraction. MAE requires only 10 mL solvent and 10 min extraction time whereas Soxhlet uses 200 mL and takes 24 h. Although the yields were lower, dichloromethane (DCM) was preferred to pyridine, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), and NMP with CS2 because the pattern of the PACs is shown to be independent of solvent and DCM is a much more convenient solvent to work with.

  16. Licoricidin, an Active Compound in the Hexane/Ethanol Extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Inhibits Lung Metastasis of 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Kwon, Soo Jin; Lim, Soon Sung; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Licorice extracts containing glycyrrhizin exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. Because glycyrrhizin induces severe hypokalemia and hypertension, we prepared a hexane/ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (HEGU) that lacks glycyrrhizin, and showed that HEGU induces apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits migration of DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Our previous in vitro studies identified two active components in HEGU: isoangustone A, which induces apoptosis and G1 cycle arrest, and licoricidin, which inhibits metastasis. This study examined whether HEGU and licoricidin inhibit metastasis using the 4T1 mammary cancer model. Both HEGU and licoricidin treatment reduced pulmonary metastasis and the expression of CD45, CD31, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF-A in tumor tissues. Additionally, a decrease in protein expression of VEGF-R2, VEGF-C, VEGF-R3, and LYVE-1 was noted in tumor tissues of licoricidin-treated mice. Furthermore, the blood concentrations of MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGF-A were decreased in HEGU-treated mice. In vitro 4T1 cell culture results showed that both HEGU and licoricidin inhibited cell migration, MMP-9 secretion, and VCAM expression. The present study demonstrates that the licoricidin in HEGU inhibits lung metastasis of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, which may be mediated via inhibition of cancer cell migration, tumor angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:27314329

  17. Licoricidin, an Active Compound in the Hexane/Ethanol Extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Inhibits Lung Metastasis of 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, So Young; Kwon, Soo Jin; Lim, Soon Sung; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2016-06-14

    Licorice extracts containing glycyrrhizin exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. Because glycyrrhizin induces severe hypokalemia and hypertension, we prepared a hexane/ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (HEGU) that lacks glycyrrhizin, and showed that HEGU induces apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits migration of DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Our previous in vitro studies identified two active components in HEGU: isoangustone A, which induces apoptosis and G1 cycle arrest, and licoricidin, which inhibits metastasis. This study examined whether HEGU and licoricidin inhibit metastasis using the 4T1 mammary cancer model. Both HEGU and licoricidin treatment reduced pulmonary metastasis and the expression of CD45, CD31, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF-A in tumor tissues. Additionally, a decrease in protein expression of VEGF-R2, VEGF-C, VEGF-R3, and LYVE-1 was noted in tumor tissues of licoricidin-treated mice. Furthermore, the blood concentrations of MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGF-A were decreased in HEGU-treated mice. In vitro 4T1 cell culture results showed that both HEGU and licoricidin inhibited cell migration, MMP-9 secretion, and VCAM expression. The present study demonstrates that the licoricidin in HEGU inhibits lung metastasis of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, which may be mediated via inhibition of cancer cell migration, tumor angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis.

  18. Anti-α-glucosidase and Anti-dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Activities of Extracts and Purified Compounds from Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Wu, Wei-Hau; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2015-07-22

    Ethanol extracts (Et) from the stem (S) and leaf (L) of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) were used to investigate yeast α-glucosidase and porcine kidney dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activities. Both VTT-Et showed complete α-glucosidase inhibition at 0.1 mg/mL; VTT-S-Et and VTT-L-Et showed 26 and 11% DPP-IV inhibition, respectively, at 0.5 mg/mL. The VTT-Et interventions (20 and 50 mg/kg) resulted in improvements in impaired glucose tolerance of diet-induced obese rats. (+)-Hopeaphenol, (+)-vitisin A, and (-)-vitisin B were isolated from the ethyl acetate fractions of S-Et and showed yeast α-glucosidase inhibition (IC50 = 18.30, 1.22, and 1.02 μM) and porcine kidney DPP-IV inhibition (IC50 = 401, 90.75, and 15.3 μM) compared to acarbose (6.39 mM) and sitagliptin (47.35 nM), respectively. Both (+)-vitisin A and (-)-vitisin B showed mixed noncompetitive inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase and porcine kidney DPP-IV, respectively. These results proposed that VTT extracts might through inhibitions against α-glucosidase and DPP-IV improve the impaired glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats.

  19. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2010-01-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquus in vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

  20. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

    2010-06-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  2. Analysis of additivity and synergism in the anti-plasmodial effect of purified compounds from plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the search for antimalarials from ethnobotanical origin, plant extracts are chemically fractionated and biological tests guide the isolation of pure active compounds. To establish the responsibility of isolated active compound(s) to the whole antiplasmodial activity of a crude extract, the literature in this field was scanned and results were analysed quantitatively to find the contribution of the pure compound to the activity of the whole extract. It was found that, generally, the activity of isolated molecules could not account on their own for the activity of the crude extract. It is suggested that future research should take into account the “drugs beside the drug”, looking for those products (otherwise discarded along the fractionation process) able to boost the activity of isolated active compounds. PMID:21411016

  3. Analysis of additivity and synergism in the anti-plasmodial effect of purified compounds from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Deharo, Eric; Ginsburg, Hagai

    2011-03-15

    In the search for antimalarials from ethnobotanical origin, plant extracts are chemically fractionated and biological tests guide the isolation of pure active compounds. To establish the responsibility of isolated active compound(s) to the whole antiplasmodial activity of a crude extract, the literature in this field was scanned and results were analysed quantitatively to find the contribution of the pure compound to the activity of the whole extract. It was found that, generally, the activity of isolated molecules could not account on their own for the activity of the crude extract. It is suggested that future research should take into account the "drugs beside the drug", looking for those products (otherwise discarded along the fractionation process) able to boost the activity of isolated active compounds.

  4. Group extraction of organic compounds present in liquid samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, Vilhelm J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An extraction device is disclosed comprising a tube containing a substantially inert, chemically non-reactive packing material with a large surface area to volume ratio. A sample which consists of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid, is introduced into the tube. As the sample passes through the packing material it spreads over the material's large surface area to form a thin liquid film which is held on the packing material in a stationary state. A particular group or family of compounds is extractable from the sample by passing a particular solvent system consisting of a solvent and selected reagents through the packing material. The reagents cause optimum conditions to exist for the compounds of the particular family to pass through the phase boundary between the sample liquid and the solvent of the solvent system. Thus, the compounds of the particular family are separated from the sample liquid and become dissolved in the solvent of the solvent system. The particular family of compounds dissolved in the solvent, representing an extract, exits the tube together with the solvent through the tube's nozzle, while the rest of the sample remains on the packing material in a stationary state. Subsequently, a different solvent system may be passed through the packing material to extract another family of compounds from the remaining sample on the packing material.

  5. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-03

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources.

  6. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    PubMed

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  7. Subcritical water extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Jaime, L; Santoyo, S; Señoráns, F J; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In this work, extraction and characterization of compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga in red phase have been carried out. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE) has been combined with analytical techniques such as HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS and in vitro assays (i.e., for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity). The effect of the extraction temperature (50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) and solvent polarity has been studied in terms of yield and activity of the extracts. Results demonstrate that the extraction temperature has a positive influence in the extraction yield and antioxidant activity. Thus, the extraction yield achieved with this process was higher than 30% of dry weight at 200 degrees C as extraction temperature. Moreover, the extract obtained at 200 degrees C presented the highest antioxidant activity by far, while temperature does not seem to significatively affect the antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition was determined by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS. Short chain fatty acids turned out to be responsible of the antimicrobial activity, whereas the antioxidant activity was correlated to vitamin E (present exclusively in the 200 degrees C extract), together with simple phenols, caramelization products and possible Maillard reaction products obtained during the extraction at high temperatures.

  8. Study of the Effect of Surfactants on Extraction and Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Hemmaty, Syavash

    2013-01-01

    Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin–Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V) potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23472082

  9. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Ab Rahman, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested. PMID:25250382

  10. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  11. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  12. Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Extracts from Leaves of Some Malus domestica Cultivars: Antiradical and Antimicrobial Analysis of These Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Alina; Zgórka, Grażyna; Szykuła, Aleksandra; Franiczek, Roman; Żbikowska, Beata; Gamian, Andrzej; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In this study, methanol, ethyl acetate, water extracts, and precipitate were obtained from leaves of Malus domestica cultivars: Golden delicious, Jonagold, Elstar, Ligol, and Mutsu. Antiradical activity of these extracts was measured using the ABTS(+∙) radical, and antimicrobial activity was measured with the disk-diffusion method. Phenolic compounds were measured with the colorimetric method and identified with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest antiradical activity was observed for the Jonagold variety, and in particular strong activity was noted for ethyl acetate extracts. Antimicrobial activity was observed against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Candida glabrata. Particularly susceptible to the extracts activity appeared to be Staphylococcus aureus, but the growth of Candida glabrata was inhibited in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts. With the HPLC method we identified a high amount of phloridzin (above 500 mg per g of ethyl acetate extracts), lower amounts of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, and traces of p-hydroxybenzoic and chlorogenic acids. The contribution of phloridzin to antiradical activity of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts was very high (above 90%). In water extract the contribution of phloridzin was between 38.9 and 55.2%, chlorogenic acid 22.7 and 36.1%, and hyperoside 12.2 and 13.3%.

  13. Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Extracts from Leaves of Some Malus domestica Cultivars: Antiradical and Antimicrobial Analysis of These Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Alina; Zgórka, Grażyna; Szykuła, Aleksandra; Franiczek, Roman; Żbikowska, Beata; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, methanol, ethyl acetate, water extracts, and precipitate were obtained from leaves of Malus domestica cultivars: Golden delicious, Jonagold, Elstar, Ligol, and Mutsu. Antiradical activity of these extracts was measured using the ABTS+∙ radical, and antimicrobial activity was measured with the disk-diffusion method. Phenolic compounds were measured with the colorimetric method and identified with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest antiradical activity was observed for the Jonagold variety, and in particular strong activity was noted for ethyl acetate extracts. Antimicrobial activity was observed against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Candida glabrata. Particularly susceptible to the extracts activity appeared to be Staphylococcus aureus, but the growth of Candida glabrata was inhibited in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts. With the HPLC method we identified a high amount of phloridzin (above 500 mg per g of ethyl acetate extracts), lower amounts of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, and traces of p-hydroxybenzoic and chlorogenic acids. The contribution of phloridzin to antiradical activity of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts was very high (above 90%). In water extract the contribution of phloridzin was between 38.9 and 55.2%, chlorogenic acid 22.7 and 36.1%, and hyperoside 12.2 and 13.3%. PMID:28097143

  14. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds. PMID:24804249

  15. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  16. Methodologies for the extraction of phenolic compounds from environmental samples: new approaches.

    PubMed

    Mahugo Santana, Cristina; Sosa Ferrera, Zoraida; Esther Torres Padrón, M; Juan Santana Rodríguez, José

    2009-01-09

    Phenolic derivatives are among the most important contaminants present in the environment. These compounds are used in several industrial processes to manufacture chemicals such as pesticides, explosives, drugs and dyes. They also are used in the bleaching process of paper manufacturing. Apart from these sources, phenolic compounds have substantial applications in agriculture as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. However, phenolic compounds are not only generated by human activity, but they are also formed naturally, e.g., during the decomposition of leaves or wood. As a result of these applications, they are found in soils and sediments and this often leads to wastewater and ground water contamination. Owing to their high toxicity and persistence in the environment, both, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union have included some of them in their lists of priority pollutants. Current standard methods of phenolic compounds analysis in water samples are based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) while Soxhlet extraction is the most used technique for isolating phenols from solid matrices. However, these techniques require extensive cleanup procedures that are time-intensive and involve expensive and hazardous organic solvents, which are undesirable for health and disposal reasons. In the last years, the use of news methodologies such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) have increased for the extraction of phenolic compounds from liquid samples. In the case of solid samples, microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is demonstrated to be an efficient technique for the extraction of these compounds. In this work we review the developed methods in the extraction and determination of phenolic derivatives in different types of environmental matrices such as water, sediments and soils. Moreover, we present the new approach in the use of micellar media coupled with SPME process for the extraction of phenolic

  17. Application of ionic liquid for extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from plants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs), as green and designer solvents, have accelerated research in analytical chemistry. This review highlights some of the unique properties of ILs and provides an overview of the preparation and application of IL or IL-based materials to extract bioactive compounds in plants. IL or IL-based materials in conjunction with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) analytical technologies etc., have been applied successfully to the extraction or separation of bioactive compounds from plants. This paper reviews the available data and references to examine the advantages of IL and IL-based materials in these applications. In addition, the main target compounds reviewed in this paper are bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic effects and pharmacological activities. Based on the importance of the targets, this paper reviews the applications of ILs, IL-based materials or co-working with analytical technologies. The exploitation of new applications of ILs on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant samples is expected to increase.

  18. Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from XiLan olive fruit dreg.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ping; Zhong, Qiu-Ping; Li, Meng-Ying; Ma, Han-Ruo

    2015-08-01

    Olive fruit dreg (OFD), waste from olive softdrink processing, has caused disposal problems. Nevertheless, OFD is a good source of functional ingredients, such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from OFD by using subcritical water (SCW) extraction method, antioxidant activity of SCW extracts, and components of phenolic compounds by LC-MS. SCW extraction experiments were performed in a batch stainless steel reactor at temperatures ranging from 100 to 180 °C at residence time of 5 to 60 min, and at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:20 to 1:60. Higher recoveries of phenolic compounds [37.52 ± 0.87 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, dry weight (DW)] were obtained at 160 °C, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50, and extract time of 30 min than at 2 h extraction with methanol (1.21 ± 0.16 mg GAE/g DW), ethanol (0.24 ± 0.07 mg GAE/g DW), and acetone (0.34 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were significantly stronger than those in methanol extracts at the same concentration of total phenolic contents. LC-MS analysis results indicated that SCW extracts contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, homovanillic acid, gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and syringic acid. SCW at 160 °C, 30 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50 may be a good substitute of organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone to recover phenolic compounds from OFD.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Thymus daenensis methanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Mojab, Faraz; Poursaeed, Mahshid; Mehrgan, Hadi; Pakdaman, Shima

    2008-07-01

    Medicinal plants are potential of antimicrobial compounds. The present study deals with the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Thymus daenensis. Aerial parts of the plant were collected from Alvand mountainside (Hamadan, Iran) in May 2005, air-dried and extracted by methanol. The dried extract was redissolved in methanol to make a 100 mg/ml solution and then filtered. Antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negatives bacteria using disk diffusion technique. Blank paper disks were loaded with 40 microl of the methanol solution and then dried up. The impregnated disks were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar inoculated with bacterial suspension equal to 0.5 McFarland. The extract inhibited the growth Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Entrococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, but it showed no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The most significant effect was seen against S.aureus including MRSA, which are important nosocomial pathogens. MIC90 of the extract was determined against Gram-positive bacteria (3.12 mg/ml) and 11 MRSA strain (1.56 mg/ml).

  20. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Alejandra; Martínez, María Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Zúñiga, María Elvira

    2013-08-15

    We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT.

  1. Extraction of phenolic compounds from a Spodosol profile: an evaluation of three extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, G.F.; Boyd, S.A.; Mokma, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The authors extracted phenolic compounds from each horizon of a Spodosol profile using three extractants: 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 7.0 and 10.2, and 0.5 N sodium hydroxide at pH 13.4. Of 28 standard compounds evaluated seven phenolic compounds were identified: three carboxylic acids - protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids; two aldehydes - vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; and two cinnamic acids - trans p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The three most abundant compounds evaluated were protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid. The amounts of each phenolic compound extracted increased with increasing pH of the extractant except for protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid was extracted in the highest amounts by sodium pyrophosphate pH 10. The pyrophosphate (pH .10) extracts revealed that protocatechuic acid tended to accumulate in the B horizons, suggesting that it may play a role in the translocation of metal ions during podzolization. The two cinnamic acids, trans p-coumaric and ferulic, were extracted primarily by NaOH. The identification of these cinnamic derivatives in an NaOH extraction of roots separated from the B horizon suggested that their presence may be due to degradation of plant residues by NaOH. Pyrophosphate (pH 7) extracted only small amounts of phenolic compounds. The specificity of pyrophosphate (pH 10) in removing organic complexes of a possible pedogenic nature suggest that it was the better extractant. Sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) is recommended for use in future pedological studies of phenolic substances.

  2. Review of procedures used for the extraction of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-01-01

    Tropical plants are important sources of anti-cancer lead molecules. According to the US National Cancer Institute, out of the 3000 plants identified as active against cancer using in vitro studies, 70% are of tropical origin. The extraction of bioactive compounds from the plant materials is a fundamental step whose efficiency is critical for the success of drug discovery efforts. There has been no review published of the extraction procedures of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants and hence the following is a critical evaluation of such procedures undertaken prior to the use of these compounds in cancer cell line studies, during the last five years. It presents a comprehensive analysis of all approaches taken to extract anti-cancer compounds from various tropical plants. (Databases searched were PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar).

  3. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2015-06-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet.

  4. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects.

  5. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity.

  6. Study of Compounds for Activity against Leishmania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-27

    Comparative Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Compounds Against Leishmania Leishmania donovani and Leishmania Viannia braziliensis 7 IV. Zn vitro...Studies of Oligonucleotides Against Leishmania Leishmania donovani ............................................................ 9 Discussion...for several years in studies to identify new compounds for antileishmanial activity against both visceral (Lelshmania Leishmania donovani ) and

  7. [Organisms producing hypolipidemic compounds with antioxidant activity].

    PubMed

    Puzhevskaia, T O; Grammatikova, N E; Bibikova, M V; Katlinskiĭ, A V

    2009-01-01

    Complex compounds produced by fungal cultures of Lecanicilium and Beauveria with both high hypolipidemic and antioxydant activities were screened. Two fractions of the hypolipipidemic compounds with antioxidant activity of 95 and 75% in a dose of 25 mcg/ml were isolated.

  8. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.

  9. Compound fault diagnosis of gearboxes based on GFT component extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lu; Yu, Dejie

    2016-11-01

    Compound fault diagnosis of gearboxes is of great importance to the long-term safe operation of rotating machines, and the key is to separate different fault components. In this paper, the path graph is introduced into the vibration signal analysis and the graph Fourier transform (GFT) of vibration signals are investigated from the graph spectrum domain. To better extract the fault components in gearboxes, a new adjacency weight matrix is defined and then the GFT of simulation signals of the gear and the bearing with localized faults are analyzed. Further, since the GFT graph spectrum of the gear fault component and the bearing fault component are mainly distributed in the low-order region and the high-order region, respectively, a novel method for the compound fault diagnosis of gearboxes based on GFT component extraction is proposed. In this method, the nonzero ratios, which are introduced to analyze the eigenvectors auxiliary, and the GFT of a gearbox vibration signal, are firstly calculated. Then, the order thresholds for reconstructed fault components are determined and the fault components are extracted. Finally, the Hilbert demodulation analyses are conducted. According to the envelope spectra of the fault components, the faults of the gear and the bearing can be diagnosed respectively. The performance of the proposed method is validated by the simulation data and the experiment signals from a gearbox with compound faults.

  10. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide.

  11. Temperature-dependent kinetics of grape seed phenolic compounds extraction: experiment and model.

    PubMed

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Sovová, Helena; Planinić, Mirela; Tomas, Srećko

    2013-02-15

    The kinetics of a batch solid-liquid extraction of total phenolic compounds (PC) from milled grape seed (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Frankovka") using 50% ethanol at different extraction temperatures (25-80°C) was studied. The maximum yield of PC was 0.13 kg(GAE)/kg(db) after 200 min of extraction in agitated vessel at 80°C. A new model based on the assumptions of a first order kinetics mechanism for the solid-liquid extraction and a linear equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface was developed. The model involves the concept of broken and intact cells in order to describe two successive extraction periods: a very fast surface washing process followed by slow diffusion of phenolic compounds from grape seeds to the solvent. The proposed model is suited to fit experimental data and to simulate the extraction of phenolic compounds, which was confirmed by the correlation coefficient (r≥0.965), the root mean square error (RMSE≤0.003 kg(GAE)/kg(db)) and the mean relative deviation modulus (E≤2.149%). The temperature influenced both equilibrium partition coefficients of phenolic compounds and transport properties, which is manifested by a relatively high value of activation energy (23-24) kJ/mol and by values of effective diffusivity in seed particles.

  12. Anti-tumoral activity of native compound morelloflavone in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianfeng; Ai, Hongyan; Sun, Deke; Wu, Tao; He, Jian; Xu, Zhai; Ding, Li; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-tumoral activity of morelloflavone substances with different structures. We also studied the possible link between morelloflavone structure and its function. Various types of chromatographic techniques were used to isolate and screen morelloflavone substances from the extracts of gambogic tree trunk and the morelloflavone structures were identified by analytical techniques such as high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetism. Anti-tumoral activities of different compounds were investigated and the link between the antitumor activity and the structure of compound was exaimed. Our results showed that the isolated morelloflavone substances demonstrated a certain level of antitumor activity. The compound no. 1 had the strongest effect to inhibit glioma U87 and C6 cells followed by compound no. 2 while compound no. 5 was the weakest among them. We conducted a preliminary analysis on the structure-function relationship through the structure comparison and we concluded that the antitumor effects of morelloflavone substances with different structures were significantly different from each other. Thus, the glucose chain in C4 position of biflavone structure can enhance the antitumor activity of the compound in glioma cells. Additionally, the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in biflavone compounds may also play a role in enhancing the antitumor activity and inhibition rate. PMID:27900007

  13. Antioxidants, Enzyme Inhibitors, and Biogenic Compounds in Grain Extracts of Barleys.

    PubMed

    Maliar, Tibor; Slaba, Gabriela; Nemeček, Peter; Maliarová, Mária; Benková, Michaela; Havrlentová, Michaela; Ondrejovič, Miroslav; Kraic, Ján

    2015-11-01

    The content of biogenic compounds and the biological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-grain extracts was evaluated. The sufficiently large and heterogeneous set of barley genotypes (100 accessions) enabled the selection of special genotypes interesting for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. Barley genotypes with the highest contents of phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, biogenic thiols, and amines, radical-scavenging activity, as well as inhibitory activities of trypsin, thrombin, collagenase, urokinase, and cyclooxygenase were identified.

  14. Antileishmanial Activity of Compounds Isolated from Sassafras albidum.

    PubMed

    Pulivarthi, Divya; Steinberg, Kelly Marie; Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N

    2015-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania parasitic protozoa, which currently lacks efficient treatment. Natural products have shown promise as a potential source for antiprotozoal drugs. This work focuses on the antileishmanial potential of Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae) bark extract. The crude bark extract of S. albidum showed excellent antileishmanial activity with an IC50 value less than 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes of L. amazonensis. The chloroform stem bark extract of S. albidum was subjected to preparative column chromatography. Five compounds were isolated, purified by recrystallization, and identified as sesamin, spinescin, β-sitosterol, hexatriacontanal, and 1-triacontanol. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic screening were performed on these compounds. Sesamin exhibited the best activity against L. amazonensis with an IC50 of 15.8 μg/mL and was not cytotoxic to mouse macrophage cells (CC50 > 100 μg/mL).

  15. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pork soup stock by using an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yukiko; Osanai, Hiroki; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis of an extract prepared from pork stock and subsequent experiments led to the identification of 15 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 64-2048. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the 15 odor compounds suggested acetol, octanoic acid, δ-decalactone, and decanoic acid as the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of pork stock. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of these four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted pork stock showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombined mixture and pork stock showed strong similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been successfully identified.

  16. Determination the active compounds of herbal preparation by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application on the preclinical pharmacokinetics of pure ephedrine, single herbal extract of Ephedra, and a multiple herbal preparation in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju-Wen; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Lu, Chia-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-07-15

    The herbal preparation Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) is a popular traditional Chinese formulation that has been used for the treatment of coughs and fevers. The potential active components of MXGST are ephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid. The aim of this study was to develop a validated analytical method to measure these analytes in the herbal preparation MXGST using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to monitor m/z 166.1→148.1 for ephedrine ([M+H](+)), 475.2→163.0 for amygdalin ([M+NH4](+)), and 840.6→453.3 ([M+NH4](+)) for glycyrrhizic acid. The analytes were separated by a reverse phase C18 column (100×2.1mm, 2.6μm). The mobile phase consisted of 5mM ammonium acetate (0.1% formic acid) and 100% methanol (0.1% formic acid) with a linear gradient elution. Five brands of commercial pharmaceutical herbal products and a laboratory extract of MXGST were analyzed. Moreover, the modified UHPLC-MS/MS method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetics of ephedrine in rats from the following three sources: (1) pure ephedrine, (2) an herbal extract of Ephedra, and (3) an herbal preparation of MXGST. Plasma samples from rats were prepared by protein precipitation, evaporation and reconstitution. The pharmacokinetic data showed that pure ephedrine was absorbed significantly faster than ephedrine of the Ephedra extract or the MXGST herbal preparation. However, the elimination half-life of ephedrine administered as the pure compound was 93.9±8.07min, but for ephedrine from the Ephedra extract and the MXGST, the half-lives were 133±17 and 247±57.6min, respectively. The area under the concentration curves (AUC) did not show significant differences among the three groups. These data suggest that the rest of the herbal ingredients in the Ephedra extract and the MXGST may provide a compensation effect that reduces the peak concentration of ephedrine and prolongs the

  17. Ultrahigh pressure extraction of bioactive compounds from plants-A review.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun

    2017-04-13

    Extraction of bioactive compounds from plants is one of the most important research areas for pharmaceutical and food industries. Conventional extraction techniques are usually associated with longer extraction times, lower yields, more organic solvent consumption, and poor extraction efficiency. A novel extraction technique, ultrahigh pressure extraction, has been developed for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants, in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yields, and enhance the quality of extracts. The mild processing temperature of ultrahigh pressure extraction may lead to an enhanced extraction of thermolabile bioactive ingredients. A critical review is conducted to introduce the different aspects of ultrahigh pressure extraction of plants bioactive compounds, including principles and mechanisms, the important parameters influencing its performance, comparison of ultrahigh pressure extraction with other extraction techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The future opportunities of ultrahigh pressure extraction are also discussed.

  18. Glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of flavonoid compound and triterpenoid compound from Agrimonia Pilosa Ledeb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Chinese traditional medicine, Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (APL) exhibits great effect on treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however its mechanism is still unknown. Considering that T2DM are correlated with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, we investigated the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compound (FC) and triterpenoid compound (TC) from APL. Methods Entire plants of APL were extracted using 95% ethanol and 50% ethanol successively. The resulting extracts were partitioned and isolated by applying liquid chromatography using silica gel column and Sephadex LH 20 column to give FC and TC. The content of total flavonoids in FC and the content of total triterpenoids in TC were determined by using UV spectrophotometry. HPLC analysis was used to identify and quantify the monomeric compound in FC and TC. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were determined using the chromogenic method with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Antioxidant activities were assessed through three kinds of radical scavenging assays (DPPH radical, ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical) & β-carotene-linoleic acid assay. Results The results indicate FC is abundant of quercitrin, and hyperoside, and TC is abundant of 1β, 2β, 3β, 19α-tetrahydroxy-12-en-28-oic acid (265.2 mg/g) and corosolic acid (100.9 mg/g). The FC & the TC have strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 of 8.72 μg/mL and 3.67 μg/mL, respectively. We find that FC show competitive inhibition against α-glucosidase, while the TC exhibits noncompetitive inhibition. Furthermore, The FC exhibits significant radical scavenging activity with the EC50 values of 7.73 μg/mL, 3.64 μg/mL and 5.90 μg/mL on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical, respectively. The FC also shows moderate anti-lipid peroxidation activity with the IC50 values of 41.77 μg/mL on inhibiting β-carotene bleaching. Conclusion These results

  19. New Benzodioxole Compounds from the Root Extract of Astrodaucus persicus

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Saied; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    There are many efforts for identification of natural compounds from dietary or medicinal plants. Young roots and aerial parts of A. persicus have been used as food additive or salad vegetable in some parts of Iran. In this study, different fractions of the root extract of A. persicus were subjected for isolation and purification of secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of the roots was fractionated with hexane (HE), chloroform (CL), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME). Five novel compounds were isolated from HE, CL and EA using different chromatographic techniques and were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. Elucidated compounds with benzodioxole structure were characterized for the first time as 5-((propanoyl methyl)amino)-4,7-dimethoxybenzo[d][1,3]dioxole (1), 5-(3-ethyloxiran-2-yloxy)-4,7-dimethoxybenzo[d][1,3]dioxole (2), 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(propanonyl) benzo[d][1,3]dioxole (3), 4-ethoxybenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-6-carbaldehyde (4), and 4-(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-(3-propanyloxiran-2-yloxy)benzo[d][1,3]dioxole (5). PMID:28243288

  20. Bioassay guided isolation and identification of anti-Acanthamoeba compounds from Tunisian olive leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Sifaoui, Ines; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mejri, Mondher; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Jiménez, Antonio Ignacio; Valladares, Basilio; Lopez-Bazzocchi, Isabel; Abderabba, Manef; Piñero, José E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains are causative agents of Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) worldwide. The existence of the cyst stage complicates Acanthamoeba therapy as it is highly resistant to antibiotics and physical agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of Limouni olive leaf cultivar against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of this variety were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. The ethyl acetate extract of olive leaf was the most active showing an IC50 of 5.11±0.71μg/ml of dry extract. Bio-guided fractionation of this extract was conducted and led to the identification of three active compounds namely oleanolic and maslinic acids and oleuropein which could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against Acanthamoeba infections.

  1. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2014-10-23

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water-a "green" extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  2. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Vuong, Quan V.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.; Roach, Paul D.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water—a “green” extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers. PMID:26785235

  3. Study on antibacterial effect of medlar and hawthorn compound extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Nan, Yi; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Rong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluated the antibacterial effect of medlar and hawthorn compound extract in vitro. Water extract method and ethanol extraction method was adopted to prepare the compound extracts, and disc diffusion method and improved test tube doubling dilution method were used to conduct the antibacterial test on the two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, in vitro. The results showed that medlar and hawthorn compound extract was moderately sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus, while its inhibiting effect on Klebsiella pneumoniae was particularly significant, moreover, the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract was better than water extract. Medlar and hawthorn compounds had good antibacterial effect on the two pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Study of Compounds for Activity against Leishmania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-27

    Mrs. Barbara Harris, Miss Laura A. Lamb, and Miss Shannon Waits. tORZWORD Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the...antileishmanial activity against both visceral (Leishmania donovani) and cutaneous (Lebs-Qnia, braziliensis panamensis) leishmaniasis . Among the most promising...active compounds found against visceral leishmaniasis durinq these studies is the 8-aminoquinoline, WR06026. This compound is now undergoing clinical

  5. Extraction of organic compounds with room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2010-04-16

    Room temperature ionic liquids are novel solvents with a rather specific blend of physical and solution properties that makes them of interest for applications in separation science. They are good solvents for a wide range of compounds in which they behave as polar solvents. Their physical properties of note that distinguish them from conventional organic solvents are a negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and relatively high viscosity. They can form biphasic systems with water or low polarity organic solvents and gases suitable for use in liquid-liquid and gas-liquid partition systems. An analysis of partition coefficients for varied compounds in these systems allows characterization of solvent selectivity using the solvation parameter model, which together with spectroscopic studies of solvent effects on probe substances, results in a detailed picture of solvent behavior. These studies indicate that the solution properties of ionic liquids are similar to those of polar organic solvents. Practical applications of ionic liquids in sample preparation include extractive distillation, aqueous biphasic systems, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, matrix solvents for headspace analysis, and micellar extraction. The specific advantages and limitations of ionic liquids in these studies is discussed with a view to defining future uses and the need not to neglect the identification of new room temperature ionic liquids with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. The defining feature of the special nature of ionic liquids is not their solution or physical properties viewed separately but their unique combinations when taken together compared with traditional organic solvents.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D.; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M.; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A.; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M. M.; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y.

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

  7. Quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of phenolics isolated from different extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Pimenta Malagueta).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Patrícia L A; Nascimento, Talita C E S; Ramos, Natália S M; Silva, Girliane R; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Falcão, Rosângela E A; Moreira, Keila A; Porto, Ana L F; Silva, Tania M S

    2014-04-24

    This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.

  8. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  9. Hemagglutinating activity in phytopathogenic bacteria surface compounds.

    PubMed

    Serra, M T; Castresana, M C; Tejerina, G

    1987-01-01

    Extracellular components of plant pathogenic bacteria were obtained from their culture medium as well as from the whole cells by using NaCl 1 M, pH 6.0; 20% sucrose dissolved in 0.03 M Tris buffer, pH 8.0; or 0.05 M Na2EDTA. All the extracts from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli, Pseudomonas solanacearum, and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, were assayed for hemagglutinating activity on sheep, rabbit and chicken red blood cells (RBCs). The only active extracts were those obtained by NaCl treatment. They agglutinated sheep and rabbit erythrocytes. Extracts from E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica gave rise to the high agglutination titer on rabbit RBCs. These extracts had the lowest polysaccharide/protein ratio. E. carotovora subsp. carotovora extracts showed only a low titer (18.5 units). The agglutinating activity present in NaCl extracts of the bacteria tested was inhibited by different carbohydrates to various extent. Extracts from E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica appeared to be the most sensitive ones while those of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora least sensitive to the presence of sugar. It is suggested that hemagglutinins observed in plant pathogenic bacteria and those in plant host are similar and that both may, in some way, be involved in the plant-parasite relationship.

  10. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    PubMed

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation.

  11. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  12. Comparison between sample disruption methods and solid-liquid extraction (SLE) to extract phenolic compounds from Ficus carica leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, D Martins; Patão, R Ferreira; Coelho, A Varela; da Costa, C Teixeira

    2006-01-20

    Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) and matrix solid phase disruption (MSPD) were compared to solid-liquid extraction (SLE) for extraction of phenolic compounds from the Ficus carica leaves. Statistical treatment, ANOVA-single factor, was used to compare the extraction yields obtained by these methods, and for the majority of the extracted compounds, significantly higher yields were obtained by the solid disruption methods. Both solid disruption methods are faster and ecologically friendly, but the sea sand method was more reproducible (RSD < 5% for most compounds), and was also the least expensive method. Recoveries above 85% were obtained for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and psoralen using the sea sand extraction method.

  13. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  14. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants.

  15. Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Rocio I; Peñas, Elena; Torino, M Inés; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Dueñas, Montserrat; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-01

    The influence of solid (SSF) or liquid state fermentation (LSF) for 48 and 96 h on the production of water soluble extracts from kidney beans was investigated. SSF was carried out by Bacillus subtilis, whilst LSF was performed either by natural fermentation (NF) or by Lactobacillus plantarum strain (LPF). SSF extracts showed high soluble phenolic compound content (31-36 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (508-541 μg trolox equivalents/g), whilst LSF extracts exhibited potential antihypertensive activity due to their large γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content (6.8-10.6 mg/g) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity (>90%). Therefore, fermentation can be considered as a valuable process to obtain bioactive ingredients from kidney beans, which could encourage their utilisation in the formulation of added-value functional foods.

  16. Isolation of a new compound, 2-butanone 4-glucopyranoside 6'-O-gallate and other 8 compounds from the anti-inflammatory leave extracts of Memecylon edule Roxb.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Somsak; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Wongkrajang, Yuwadee; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    This present study was designed to isolate the compounds of Memecylon edule. The chemical compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, MS and NMR). The major isolated compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory activity. The methanolic extracts of M. edule leaves gave a new compound 2-butanone 4-glucopyranoside 6'-O-gallate (1) with eight known compounds, namely, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) (3), (2R, 3R)-dihydromyricetin-4'-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), myricetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (5), benzyl-(6-O-α-L arabinofuranosyl) O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), benzyl-(6-O-α-l-rhanmopyranosyl) O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), 2-phenylethyl-(6-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8) and methyl benzoate 2-(6-O-α-l-rhamnosyl)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9). All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. The major compounds (2, 3 and 5) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, M. edule was recognised to be a good source for phenolic compounds and these compounds may contribute to anti-inflammatory activity of the extract.

  17. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A.; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning procedures, the main components being the secoiridoids oleuropein and ligustroside. An acid hydrolysis pretreatment of olive wood samples before extractions did not improve the results. In the course of this study, two compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of olive wood collected during the olives' harvesting season and identified as (7′′R)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (1) and (7′′S)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (2). PMID:26904608

  18. Byrsonima fagifolia Niedenzu Apolar Compounds with Antitubercular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, C. T.; Sannomiya, M.; Pavan, F. R.; Leite, S. R. A.; Sato, D. N.; Franzblau, S. G.; Sacramento, L. V. S.; Vilegas, W.; Leite, C. Q. F.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of Byrsonima fagifolia leaves led to the isolation of active antitubercular compounds alkane dotriacontane (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC, 62.5 μg mL−1), triterpenoids as bassic acid (MIC = 2.5 μg mL−1), α-amyrin acetate (MIC = 62.5 μg mL−1), a mixture of lupeol, α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1) and a mixture of lupeol, and acetates of α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1). The antimycobacterial activity was determined by the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) and the structures of promising compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. This investigation constitutes the first report of a chemical and antitubercular study of apolar compounds from B. fagifolia Niedenzu (IK). PMID:19091782

  19. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  20. Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    gowri, S. Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S.; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.

  2. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Cosentino, Sofia; Viale, Silvia; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Esposito, Francesca; Tramontano, Enzo; Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria; Pintus, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer's disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods. PMID:27314007

  3. Endophytic fungal compounds active against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristiane B; de Oliveira, Djalma M; Hughes, Alice Fs; Kohlhoff, Markus; LA Vieira, Mariana; Martins Vaz, Aline B; Ferreira, Mariana C; Carvalho, Camila R; Rosa, Luiz H; Rosa, Carlos A; Alves, Tânia Ma; Zani, Carlos L; Johann, Susana; Cota, Betania B

    2015-07-01

    Infections with Cryptococcus are invasive mycoses associated with significant morbidity and mortality, mainly in immunosuppressed patients. Several drugs have been introduced to combat these opportunistic infections. However, resistance of this organism to antifungal drugs has increased, causing difficulties in the treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of ethanol extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from plants collected from different Brazilian ecosystems and to perform the fractionation of the most promising extract. Four-hundred fungal extracts were investigated by microdilution broth assays against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii at a concentration of 500 μg ml(-1). Among them, the extract of Mycosphaerella sp. UFMGCB 2032, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Eugenia bimarginata DC. (Myrtaceae) exhibited outstanding antifungal activity against C. neoformans and C. gattii, with MIC values of 31.2 μg ml(-1) and 7.8 μg ml(-1), respectively. The fractionation of this extract using liquid-liquid partitioning and semi-preparative HPLC afforded two eicosanoic acids with antifungal activity, compound 1, (2S,3R,4R)-(E)-2-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-14-oxoeicos-6,12-dienoic acid with MIC values ranging from 1.3-2.50 μg ml(-1), and compound 2, known as myriocin, with MIC values of 0.5 μg ml(-1) against C. neoformans and C. gattii. These compounds are reported for the first time in the Mycosphaerella genus.

  4. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  5. Selective enrichment in bioactive compound from Kniphofia uvaria by super/subcritical fluid extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Duval, Johanna; Destandau, Emilie; Pecher, Virginie; Poujol, Marion; Tranchant, Jean-François; Lesellier, Eric

    2016-05-20

    Nowadays, a large portion of synthetic products (active cosmetic and therapeutic ingredients) have their origin in natural products. Kniphofia uvaria is a plant from Africa which has proved in the past by in-vivo tests an antioxidant activity due to compounds present in roots. Recently, we have observed anthraquinones in K. uvaria seeds extracts. These derivatives are natural colorants which could have interesting bioactive potential. The aim of this study was to obtain an extract enriched in anthraquinones from K. uvaria seeds which mainly contains glycerides. First, the separation of the seed compounds was studied by using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the goal to provide a rapid quantification method of these bioactive compounds. A screening of numerous polar stationary phases was achieved for selecting the most suited phase to the separation of the four anthraquinones founded in the seeds. A gradient elution was optimized for improving the separation of the bioactive compounds from the numerous other families of major compounds of the extracts (fatty acids, di- and triglycerides). Besides, a non-selective and green Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was applied to seeds followed by a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The CPC system was optimized by using the Arizona phase system, to enrich the extract in anthraquinones. Two systems were selected to isolate the bioactive compounds from the oily extract with varied purity target. The effect of the injection mode for these very viscous samples was also studied. Finally, in order to directly apply a selective process of extraction to the seeds, the super/subcritical fluid extraction was optimized to increase the anthraquinone yield in the final extract, by studying varied modifier compositions and nature, as well as different temperatures and backpressures. Conditions suited to favour an enrichment factor bases on the ratio of anthraquinone and trilycerides extracted are

  6. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  7. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Guthrie, S; Xie, C Y; Mai, K; Lee, D Y; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1996-06-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion. This study was conducted to test the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route. An alcohol-preferring rat model, the selectively-bred P line of rats, was used for the study. All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids. Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments. When administered orally, none of these compounds affected the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Therefore, the reversal of alcohol preference produced by these compounds may be mediated via the CNS. Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

  8. In vitro antioxidant properties of crude extracts and compounds from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Balboa, Elena M; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andres; Falqué, Elena; Domínguez, Herminia

    2013-06-01

    Research on the bioactives from seaweeds has increased in recent years. Antioxidant activity is one of the most studied, due to the interest of these compounds both as preservatives and protectors against oxidation in food and cosmetics and also due to their health implications, mainly in relation to their potential as functional ingredients. Brown algae present higher antioxidant potential in comparison with red and green families and contain compounds not found in terrestrial sources. In vitro antioxidant chemical methods, used as a first approach to evaluate potential agents to protect from lipid oxidation in foods, confirmed that the brown algae crude extracts, fractions and pure components are comparatively similar or superior to synthetic antioxidants. Particular emphasis on the fucoidan and phlorotannin polymeric fractions is given, considering variations associated with the species, collection area, season, and extraction and purification technologies.

  9. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  10. Polysaccharides in Sipunculus nudus: Extraction condition optimization and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin; Dong, Lanfang; Tong, Tong; Wang, Qingchao; Xu, Mingzhu

    2017-02-01

    Marine organisms constitute unlimited resource of bioactive substances due to their high biodiversity and represent a valuable source of new compounds. This study optimized the alkali-extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of soluble polysaccharides from the body wall of Sipunculus nudus. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction duration, extraction temperature, and alkali concentration on the yield of S. nudus polysaccharides (SNP) were examined, according to which the optimal combination of extraction parameters was obtained by an orthogonal test. The relative influencing importance of different extraction parameters on the yield of SNP followed the order as solid-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > alkali concentration > extraction duration. The highest extraction yield, 1.98%, was achieved under an optimal extraction condition: temperature 60°C, solid-liquid ratio 1:6 g mL-1, duration 5 h, and alkali (NaOH) mass fraction 6%. The in vitro antioxidant activities examination showed that extracted SNP under this optimized condition had strong power in reducing certain hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging abilities. The promising results showed that extracted SNP could be a potent natural antioxidant.

  11. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokwon; Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

    2006-03-08

    A total of 18 organosulfur compounds originating from Petiveria alliacea L. roots have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. These represent compounds occurring in fresh homogenates as well as those present in various macerates, extracts and other preparations made from Petiveria alliacea. Of the compounds assayed, the thiosulfinates, trisulfides and benzylsulfinic acid were observed to be the most active, with the benzyl-containing thiosulfinates exhibiting the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The effect of plant sample preparation conditions on the antimicrobial activity of the extract is discussed.

  13. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    de Castilho, Adriana Lígia; da Silva, Juliana Paola Correa; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests’ plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and disk diffusion assay (DDA) using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™ and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 μg/mL), Diclinanona calycina (MIC ≤ 40 μg/mL) and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 μg/mL; MBC = 80 μg/mL) showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter) S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter) and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter) were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter) and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter) have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy. PMID:25477906

  14. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    PubMed

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  15. Ion-pair extraction of multi-OH compounds by complexation with organoboronate

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, L.A.; Chow, T.K.F.; King, C.J. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1994-08-01

    Ion-pair extraction with organoboronate has been investigated as a regenerable means of removal and recovery of multi -OH compounds from aqueous solution. The extractant utilized was 3-nitrophenylboronate (NPB[sup [minus

  16. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds. PMID:23509707

  17. Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds from Training Range and Army Ammunition Plant Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    sonic bath. The sonic bath extraction procedure was chosen in the 1980s in a study where four extraction methods or devices ( Soxhlet , sonic bath...ER D C/ CR R EL T R -0 6 -6 Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds from Training Range and Army Ammunition Plant Soils Platform...b or at or y Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CRREL TR-06-6 March 2006 Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds

  18. Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X F; Zhang, H X; Lo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

  19. Ovipositional responses of the pulse beetle, Bruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to extracts and compounds of Capparis decidua.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ravi K; Rohatgi, Leena; Chaubey, Mukesh K; Jain, Subhash C

    2006-12-27

    Extracts of Capparis decidua stems and flowers showed insecticidal and oviposition inhibitory activities against Bruchus chinensis. The LC50 values of these extracts were found to increase with the increase in the polarity of the extract at different exposure periods. For instance, after 96 h, the LC50 values were found to be 3.619, 7.319, and 10.151 microg for CD1, CD2, and CD3, respectively. Extract CD7 was effective only at higher doses. The toxicity was found to be dose- and time-dependent. The females laid lesser number of eggs, when exposed to sublethal doses of different extracts and pure compounds, as compared to control. The maximum oviposition deterrence index was found for extract CD1 followed in decreasing order by CD2, CD3, and CD7. From extract CD1, two compounds were isolated and characterized as triacontanol (C1) and 2-carboxy-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidine (C2). When the females were exposed to sublethal doses of these compounds, they laid lesser number of eggs as compared to the control. C2 was found to have a slightly greater oviposition inhibition effect than C1. From fraction CD7, one novel compound labeled as CDF1 has been isolated and identified as 6-(1-hydroxy-non-3-enyl)tetrahydropyran-2-one. CDF1 has also shown insecticidal and oviposition inhibitory activities against B. chinensis at low concentrations.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  1. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  2. Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.

  3. Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2009-06-01

    Previously, we studied the antioxidant potential of Chaga mushroom [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat] extracts and isolated several small (poly)phenolic compounds as the major antioxidant components in the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract. In the present study, these isolated phenolic ingredients together with several other types of Chaga extracts were examined for cytotoxic effects against normal (IMR90) and cancer (A549, PA-1, U937, and HL-60) cell lines. Results revealed decoctions from both the fruiting body (FB) and sclerotium (ST) parts of Chaga, especially the ST part, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, but the cytotoxicity appeared to be stronger against normal cells than cancer cells. The 80% MeOH ST extract also showed the same trend. On the other hand, the 80% MeOH extract of FB showed significant cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines without affecting normal cells, for example, the 50% lethal dose was 49.4 +/- 2.9 microg/mL for PA-1 cells versus 123.6 +/- 13.8 microg/mL for normal cells. The phenolic components isolated from the 80% MeOH extracts had markedly greater cancer cell toxicity than the extracts themselves. In particular, two out of seven compounds showed strong cytotoxicity towards several tumor cell lines without giving rise to significant cell toxicity toward normal cells. For example, the 50% lethal dose for 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone was 12.2 micromol/L in PA-1 cells but was 272.8 micromol/L in IMR90 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further revealed these phenolic ingredients have high potentiality for apoptosis induction in PA-1 cells.

  4. Analysis of phenolic compounds in Matricaria chamomilla and its extracts by UPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Haghi, G; Hatami, A; Safaei, A; Mehran, M

    2014-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a widely used medicinal plant possessing several pharmacological effects due to presence of active compounds. This study describes a method of using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detector for the separation of phenolic compounds in M. chamomilla and its crude extracts. Separation was conducted on C18 column (150 mm × 2 mm, 1.8 μm) using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 4% aqueous acetic acid at 25°C. The method proposed was validated for determination of free and total apigenin and apigenin 7-glucoside contents as bioactive compounds in the extracts by testing sensitivity, linearity, precision and recovery. In general, UPLC produced significant improvements in method sensitivity, speed and resolution. Extraction was performed with methanol, 70% aqueous ethanol and water solvents. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents ranged from 1.77 to 50.75 gram (g) of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g and 0.82 to 36.75 g quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 g in dry material, respectively. There was a considerable difference from 40 to 740 mg/100 g for apigenin and 210 to 1110 mg/100 g for apigenin 7-glucoside in dry material.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolite compound K after oral administration of Korean Red Ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ki

    2013-10-01

    Compound K is a major metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, which has various pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. However, previous studies have focused on the pharmacokinetics of a single metabolite or the parent compound and have not described the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in humans. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K, we performed an open-label, single-oral dose pharmacokinetic study using Korean Red Ginseng extract. We enrolled 10 healthy Korean male volunteers in this study. Serial blood samples were collected during 36 h after Korean Red Ginseng extract administration to determine plasma concentrations of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K. The mean maximum plasma concentration of compound K was 8.35±3.19 ng/mL, which was significantly higher than that of ginsenoside Rb1 (3.94±1.97 ng/mL). The half-life of compound K was 7 times shorter than that of ginsenoside Rb1. These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics, especially absorption, of compound K are not influenced by the pharmacokinetics of its parent compound, except the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration The delayed absorption of compound K support the evidence that the intestinal microflora play an important role in the transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  7. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from rice (Oryza sativa) grains.

    PubMed

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2016-02-01

    An analytical pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process has been studied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. A fractional factorial design (2(7-2)) with a centre point was used to optimize PLE parameters such as solvent composition (EtOAc in MeOH), extraction temperature, pressure, flushing, static extraction time, solvent-purge and sample weight. Extraction temperature, solvent and static extraction time were found to have a significant effect on the response value. The optimized method was validated for selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of a wide variety of rice grains. Seventeen phenolic compounds were detected in the sample and guaiacol, ellagic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Nonetheless, different species of rice show very varied compound diversity and levels of compounds in their grain compositions.

  8. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of extractives from Wedelia calendulacea.

    PubMed

    Mottakin, A K M; Chowdhury, R; Haider, M S; Rahman, K M; Hasan, C M; Rashid, M A

    2004-06-01

    The cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Wedelia calendulacea were assayed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and standardized disk diffusion method against 19 bacterial strains. Three diterpenes isolated from the plant were also evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activities. The LC50 for the crude extracts against the brine shrimp nauplii were found to be 4.59 microg/ml, 7.99 microg/ml and 14.88 microg/ml, respectively, whereas the positive control, vincristine sulfate showed an LC50 of 0.58 microg/ml. Among the crude extracts and pure compounds tested, (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid isolated from the chloroform extract showed the highest inhibitory activity against most of the bacterial strains with mean zone of inhibition of 10-21 mm at 200 microg/disc.

  9. Semipurified Ethyl Acetate Partition of Methanolic Extract of Melastoma malabathricum Leaves Exerts Gastroprotective Activity Partly via Its Antioxidant-Antisecretory-Anti-Inflammatory Action and Synergistic Action of Several Flavonoid-Based Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ismail Suhaimy, Noor Wahida; Noor Azmi, Ahmad Khusairi; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Cheema, Manraj Singh

    2017-01-01

    Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition. EAMM significantly (i) reduced the volume and acidity (free and total) while increasing the pH of gastric juice and enhanced the gastric wall mucus secretion when assessed using the pylorus ligation assay, (ii) increased the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity of the stomach tissue, (iii) lost its gastroprotective activity following pretreatment with N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; NO blocker) or carbenoxolone (CBXN; NP-SH blocker), (iv) exerted antioxidant activity against various in vitro oxidation assays, and (v) showed moderate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX-modulated pathway. In conclusion, EAMM exerts a remarkable NO/NP-SH-dependent gastroprotective effect that is attributed to its antisecretory and antioxidant activities, ability to stimulate the gastric mucus production and endogenous antioxidant system, and synergistic action of several gastroprotective-induced flavonoids. PMID:28168011

  10. Semipurified Ethyl Acetate Partition of Methanolic Extract of Melastoma malabathricum Leaves Exerts Gastroprotective Activity Partly via Its Antioxidant-Antisecretory-Anti-Inflammatory Action and Synergistic Action of Several Flavonoid-Based Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ismail Suhaimy, Noor Wahida; Noor Azmi, Ahmad Khusairi; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Omar, Maizatul Hasyima; Tohid, Siti Farah Md; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2017-01-01

    Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition. EAMM significantly (i) reduced the volume and acidity (free and total) while increasing the pH of gastric juice and enhanced the gastric wall mucus secretion when assessed using the pylorus ligation assay, (ii) increased the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity of the stomach tissue, (iii) lost its gastroprotective activity following pretreatment with N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; NO blocker) or carbenoxolone (CBXN; NP-SH blocker), (iv) exerted antioxidant activity against various in vitro oxidation assays, and (v) showed moderate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX-modulated pathway. In conclusion, EAMM exerts a remarkable NO/NP-SH-dependent gastroprotective effect that is attributed to its antisecretory and antioxidant activities, ability to stimulate the gastric mucus production and endogenous antioxidant system, and synergistic action of several gastroprotective-induced flavonoids.

  11. Extraction of valuable compounds from mangosteen pericarps by hydrothermal assisted sonication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmudah, Siti; Lestari, Sarah Duta; Shiddiqi, Qifni Yasa'Ash; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono, Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2015-12-01

    Valuable compounds, such as xanthone and phenolic compounds, from mangosteen pericarps was extracted by hydrothermal treatment at temperatures of 120-160 °C and pressures of 5 MPa using batch and semi-batch extractor. This method is a simple and environmentally friendly extraction method requiring no chemicals other than water. Under these conditions, there is possibility for the formation of phenolic compounds from mangosteen pericarps from decomposition of bounds between lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose via autohydrolysis. In order to increase the amount of extracted valuable compounds, sonication pre-treament was performed prior to the hydrothermal extraction process. 30 min of sonication pre-treatment could increase significantly the amount of xanthone and phenolic compounds mangosteen pericarps extraction. In batch-system, the xanthone recovery approach to 100 % at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min extraction time. Under semi-batch process, the total phenolic compounds in the extract was 217 mg/g sample at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min total extraction time. The results revealed that hydrothermal extraction assisted sonication pre-treatment is applicable method for the isolation of polyphenolic compounds from other types of biomass and may lead to an advanced plant biomass components extraction technology.

  12. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of environmental plants: activity of the leaf extracts from seashore plants.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Yonemori, S; Oyama, Y; Takeda, Y; Tanaka, T; Andoh, T; Shinohara, A; Nakata, M

    1999-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of 39 plant species was examined. These leaves were collected from the plants growing on subtropical seashores. The activity was evaluated by three kinds of assay methods, which included the DPPH radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid oxidation assay, and oxidative cell death assay. Two extracts from Excoecaria agallocha and Terminalia catappa showed remarkably potent activity in all assay systems. The HPLC analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of the same antioxidant and isolation work for the compound identified ellagic acid. The isolated ellagic acid showed strong antioxidant activity in the assay systems used.

  13. Influence of plasma-activated compounds on melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anser; Ashraf, Zaman; Kumar, Naresh; Rafiq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farukh; Park, Ji Hoon; Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, Seunghyun; Seo, Sung-Yum; Choi, Eun Ha; Attri, Pankaj

    2016-03-01

    Many organic chemists around the world synthesize medicinal compounds or extract multiple compounds from plants in order to increase the activity and quality of medicines. In this work, we synthesized new eugenol derivatives (ED) and then treated them with an N2 feeding gas atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to increase their utility. We studied the tyrosinase-inhibition activity (activity test) and structural changes (circular dichroism) of tyrosinase with ED and plasma activated eugenol derivatives (PAED) in a cell-free environment. Later, we used docking studies to determine the possible interaction sites of ED and PAED compounds with tyrosinase enzyme. Moreover, we studied the possible effect of ED and PAED on melanin synthesis and its mechanism in melanoma (B16F10) cells. Additionally, we investigated the structural changes that occurred in activated ED after plasma treatment using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hence, this study provides a new perspective on PAED for the field of plasma medicine.

  14. Influence of plasma-activated compounds on melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Anser; Ashraf, Zaman; Kumar, Naresh; Rafiq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farukh; Park, Ji Hoon; Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, SeungHyun; Seo, Sung-Yum; Choi, Eun Ha; Attri, Pankaj

    2016-03-02

    Many organic chemists around the world synthesize medicinal compounds or extract multiple compounds from plants in order to increase the activity and quality of medicines. In this work, we synthesized new eugenol derivatives (ED) and then treated them with an N2 feeding gas atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to increase their utility. We studied the tyrosinase-inhibition activity (activity test) and structural changes (circular dichroism) of tyrosinase with ED and plasma activated eugenol derivatives (PAED) in a cell-free environment. Later, we used docking studies to determine the possible interaction sites of ED and PAED compounds with tyrosinase enzyme. Moreover, we studied the possible effect of ED and PAED on melanin synthesis and its mechanism in melanoma (B16F10) cells. Additionally, we investigated the structural changes that occurred in activated ED after plasma treatment using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hence, this study provides a new perspective on PAED for the field of plasma medicine.

  15. Influence of plasma-activated compounds on melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Anser; Ashraf, Zaman; Kumar, Naresh; Rafiq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farukh; Park, Ji Hoon; Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, SeungHyun; Seo, Sung-Yum; Choi, Eun Ha; Attri, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Many organic chemists around the world synthesize medicinal compounds or extract multiple compounds from plants in order to increase the activity and quality of medicines. In this work, we synthesized new eugenol derivatives (ED) and then treated them with an N2 feeding gas atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to increase their utility. We studied the tyrosinase-inhibition activity (activity test) and structural changes (circular dichroism) of tyrosinase with ED and plasma activated eugenol derivatives (PAED) in a cell-free environment. Later, we used docking studies to determine the possible interaction sites of ED and PAED compounds with tyrosinase enzyme. Moreover, we studied the possible effect of ED and PAED on melanin synthesis and its mechanism in melanoma (B16F10) cells. Additionally, we investigated the structural changes that occurred in activated ED after plasma treatment using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hence, this study provides a new perspective on PAED for the field of plasma medicine. PMID:26931617

  16. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P < 0.05). Sausages treated with TA and DSE were found to have higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness values compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Addition of different phenolic compounds or extract did not influence the sensory color of sausages. Furthermore, sensory quality was also found to be superior in TA and CT treated sausages. Therefore, pure phenolic compounds (TA and CT) proved to be more effective in retaining microbial and sensorial qualities of camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C.

  17. Use of advanced techniques for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Tunisian olive leaves: phenolic composition and cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Taamalli, Amani; Arráez-Román, David; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Ruiz-Torres, Verónica; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Herrero, Miguel; Ibañez, Elena; Micol, Vicente; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    A comparison among different advanced extraction techniques such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), together with traditional solid-liquid extraction, was performed to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from leaves of six Tunisian olive varieties. Extractions were carried out at the best selected conditions for each technique; the obtained extracts were chemically characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(2)). As expected, higher extraction yields were obtained for PLE while phenolic profiles were mainly influenced by the solvent used as optimum in the different extraction methods. A larger number of phenolic compounds, mostly of a polar character, were found in the extracts obtained by using MAE. Best extraction yields do not correlate with highest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells, indicating that cytotoxicity is highly dependent on the presence of certain compounds in the extracts, although not exclusively on a single compound. Therefore, a multifactorial behavior is proposed for the anticancer activity of olive leaf compounds.

  18. Anti-HIV-1 activities of extracts and phenolics from Smilax china L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Xin; Qian, Jing-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Jiang, Ai-Ping; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Four extracts (EtOH, CHCl3, EtOAc, and BuOH) and five phenolics (dihydrokaempferol (1), resveratrol (2), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (3), dihydrokaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (4), oxyresveratrol (5)) from Smilax china L. was evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activities and cytotoxicity activities in vitro. All these extracts and phenolics showed lower or no cytotoxicity at a concentration ranged from 0.8 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL, but some showed potential anti-HIV-1 activities, that is, BuOH extract and compound 2 showed higher anti-HIV-1 activities than other extracts and compounds in the tested concentrations. EtOAc extract and compound 1 and 3 showed moderate anti-HIV-1 activities at a concentration higher than 4 μg/mL. In the end, the structure-activity relationship of four extracts and five phenolics was discussed.

  19. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses.

  20. Αntioxidant activity of Cynara scolymus L. and Cynara cardunculus L. extracts obtained by different extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Markaki, Panagiota; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Proestos, Charalampos

    2017-05-01

    Extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) and Cynara scolymus L. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and classical extraction (CE)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity. Moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. Results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction) displayed the highest TPC values (1.57 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) g(-1) fresh weight (fw)), the highest DPPH(•) scavenging activity (IC50; 0.91 mg ml(-1)) and the highest ABTS(•+) radical scavenging capacity (2.08 mg Trolox Equivalents (TE) g(-1) fw) compared to infusions and other extracts studied. Moreover, Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction technique proved to be more appropriate and effective for the extraction of antiradical and phenolic compounds.

  1. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  2. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, Hyeji; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong; Lee, Sang-Hyeon

    2010-02-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products.

  3. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, HyeJi; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products. PMID:20198204

  4. Optimisation of the extraction of phenolic compounds from apples using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Aline; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Zardo, Danianni Marinho; Demiate, Ivo Mottin; Nogueira, Alessandro; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi

    2014-04-15

    The extraction of phenolic compounds from apples was optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was conducted to analyse the effects of solvent concentration (methanol or acetone), temperature and time on the extraction of total phenolic content, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH). Analysis of the individual phenolics was performed by HPLC in optimal extraction conditions. The optimisation suggested that extraction with 84.5% methanol for 15 min, at 28 °C and extraction with 65% acetone for 20 min, at 10 °C were the best solutions for this combination of variables. RSM was shown to be an adequate approach for modelling the extraction of phenolic compounds from apples. Most of the experiments with acetone solutions extracted more bioactive compounds, and hence they had more antioxidant capacity, however, chlorogenic acid and phloridzin had higher yields (32.4% and 48.4%, respectively) in extraction with methanol.

  5. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Artemisia absinthium using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Saliha; Aybastıer, Onder; Işık, Esra

    2013-11-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Artemisia absinthium. The central composite design was employed, the extracts were characterised by the determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by Folin method and also total antioxidant capacities of extracts were determined by ABTS and CUPRAC methods. The phenolic compounds of A. absinthium at optimum extraction conditions were determined by HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions were determined as HCl concentration between 0.41 and 0.44mol/L, methanol volume between 55% and 59% (v/v), extraction temperature between 64 and 70°C, extraction time between 101 and 107min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of response surface methodology in optimising the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from A. absinthium.

  6. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  7. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  8. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-10-15

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  9. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  10. Comparison of volatile compounds in water- and oil-soluble annatto (Bixa orellana L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Cuspinera, Verónica; Lubran, Meryl B; Rankin, Scott A

    2002-03-27

    Annatto is a natural food colorant extracted from the seeds of the Bixa orellana L. plant. Annatto is used in Latin American cuisine to add a deep red color as well as distinctive flavor notes to fish, meat, and rice dishes. In the United States, annatto extracts are primarily used to impart orange/yellow hues to cheese and other dairy foods. The objective of this study was to identify and compare volatile compounds present in water- and oil-soluble annatto extracts. Volatile compounds were recovered using dynamic headspace-solvent desorption sampling and analyzed using GC-MS. Compounds were identified by comparison to a mass spectral database, Kovats indexes, and retention times of known standards. Of the 107 compounds detected, 56 compounds were tentatively identified and 51 were positively identified. Volatile profile differences exist between water- and oil- soluble extracts, and annatto extracts contain odorants with the potential to influence food aroma.

  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  13. Antiprotozoal and Antimycobacterial Activities of Pure Compounds from Aristolochia elegans Rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Meckes, Mariana; Tapia, Amparo; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of rhizomes from Aristolochia elegans. Some compounds of this extract were purified and tested against a group of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. We also evaluated their antiprotozoal activities. The hexane extract was active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv at a MIC = 100 μg mL−1; the pure compounds eupomatenoid-1, fargesin, and (8R,8′R,9R)-cubebin were active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC = 50 μg mL−1), while fargesin presented activity against three monoresistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and a MDR clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis (MIC < 50 μg mL−1). Both the extract and eupomatenoid-1 were very active against E. histolytica and G. lamblia (IC50 < 0.624 μg mL−1); in contrast, fargesin and (8R,8′R,9R)-cubebin were moderately active (IC50 < 275 μg mL−1). In this context, two compounds responsible for the antimycobacterial presented by A. elegans are fargesin and cubebin, although others may exert this activity also. In addition to the antimycobacterial activity, the hexane extract has important activity against E. histolytica and G. lamblia, and eupomatenoid-1 is one of the compounds responsible for the antiparasite activity. PMID:22454670

  14. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  15. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.

  16. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  17. Subcritical Water Technology for Enhanced Extraction of Biochemical Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Awaluddin, S. A.; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Izhar, Shamsul; Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Danquah, Michael K.; Harun, Razif

    2016-01-01

    Subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology has been used for the extraction of active compounds from different biomass materials with low process cost, mild operating conditions, short process times, and environmental sustainability. With the limited application of the technology to microalgal biomass, this work investigates parametrically the potential of subcritical water for high-yield extraction of biochemicals such as carbohydrates and proteins from microalgal biomass. The SWE process was optimized using central composite design (CCD) under varying process conditions of temperature (180–374°C), extraction time (1–20 min), biomass particulate size (38–250 μm), and microalgal biomass loading (5–40 wt.%). Chlorella vulgaris used in this study shows high volatile matter (83.5 wt.%) and carbon content (47.11 wt.%), giving advantage as a feedstock for biofuel production. The results showed maximum total carbohydrate content and protein yields of 14.2 g/100 g and 31.2 g/100 g, respectively, achieved under the process conditions of 277°C, 5% of microalgal biomass loading, and 5 min extraction time. Statistical analysis revealed that, of all the parameters investigated, temperature is the most critical during SWE of microalgal biomass for protein and carbohydrate production. PMID:27366748

  18. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    PubMed

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices.

  19. Extraction of berkelium (IV) by neutral organophosphorus compounds and high molecular weight amines

    SciTech Connect

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Milyukova, M.S.; Malikov, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of berkelium (IV) from inorganic acid solutions using neutral organophosphorus compounds and high molecular weight amines was studied. Distribution coefficients as a function of the nature and concentration of acid, extractant, organic solvent and oxidant were examined. The stoichiometry of Bk(IV) extraction has been studied and the composition of the extracted species has been determined. The data obtained allowed the authors to work out the extraction methods of separation and purification of berkelium from transplutonium elements, rare earths and several fission products using neutral organophosphorus compounds and high molecular weight amines. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Zhao, Yong-Ming; Tian, Ya-Ting; Yan, Chun-Lin; Guo, Chun-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%; solid-liquid ratio, 1 : 20; number of extractions, 2 times; extraction time, 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid was 6.13 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.17 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that high amounts of phenolic compounds can be extracted from I. helenium by ultrasound-assisted extraction technology. PMID:24089600

  1. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  2. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanol extract from Polygonum minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Noor Zarina Abd; Bunawan, Hamidun; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    A study was carried out to test the cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of methanolic extracts from the leaves and stem of Polygonum minus or kesum. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on Vero cells indicates the LC50 value for leaf extract towards the Vero cells was 875 mg/L and the LC50 value for stem extract was 95 mg/L. The LC50 values indidcate the non-cytotoxic effect of the extracts and worth for further testing. Antiviral test were carried out towards herpes simplex virus infected Vero cells using three concentration of extract which were equivalent to 1.0 LC50, 0.1 LC50 and 0.01 LC50. Three different treatments to detect antiviral activity were used. Mild antiviral activity of the stem extract was detected when cells were treated for 24 hours with plant extract before viral infection. This demonstrates the capability of the test compound to protect the cells from viral attachment and of the possible prophylactic effect of the P. minus stem methanol extract.

  3. Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds extracted from fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research in identifying new low-cost antioxidants having commercial potential. Fruits such as mango, banana, and those belonging to the citrus family leave behind a substantial amount of residues in the form of peels, pulp, seeds, and stones. Due to lack of infrastructure to handle a huge quantity of available biomass, lack of processing facilities, and high processing cost, these residues represent a major disposal problem, especially in developing countries. Because of the presence of phenolic compounds, which impart nutraceutical properties to fruit residues, such residues hold tremendous potential in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity, and antiageing activity have been reported for both natural as well as synthetic antioxidants. Special attention is focused on extraction of bioactive compounds from inexpensive or residual sources. The purpose of this review is to characterize different phenolics present in the fruit residues, discuss the antioxidant potential of such residues and the assays used in determination of antioxidant properties, discuss various methods for efficient extraction of the bioactive compounds, and highlight the importance of fruit residues as potential nutraceutical resources and biopreservatives.

  4. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Flythe, Michael D

    2014-03-27

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species.

  5. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells integrated with a compound electron extraction layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhong-Sheng; Wang, Qian-Kun; Li, Chi; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Pengfei; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We constructed an effective electron extraction layer (EEL) used for polymer solar cells by integrating one new kind of organic material of 4,4‧-(1,4-phenylene) bis(2-phenyl-6-p-tolylnicotinonitrile) (p-PPtNT) and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) used as a compound EEL (CEEL). The CEEL based device exhibits an ideal PCE of 4.15%, corresponding to an enhancement 220% in contrast to that of control device without EEL, which is also comparable to that of ZnO based device. Our analyses indicated that the remarkably improved PCE for CEEL based device is mainly ascribed to the Ohmic contact and the negligible electron extraction barrier at cathode/active layer by inserting CEEL.

  6. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION AND CONFIRMATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of multispectral identification techniques to samples from industrial and POTW wastewaters revealed identities of 63 compounds that had not been identified by empirical matching of mass spectra with spectral libraries. wenty-five of the compounds had not been found in...

  7. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    PubMed Central

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  8. Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of date plum persimmon ( Diospyros lotus L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Cheng, Ni; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Bini; Deng, Jianjun; Cao, Wei

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, phenolic compounds are extracted from the date plum persimmon fruits using water, methanol and acetone as solvents. Antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts are measured using four different tests, namely, DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, chelating and reducing power assays. All the extracts show dose dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing and chelating powers and moreover, they are well correlated with the total phenolic and total flavonoid substances, suggesting direct contribution of phenolic compounds to these activities. In further, the extracts are identified and quantified by HPLC-ECD. Results show that gallic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound, with amounts ranging between 45.49and 287.47 μg/g dry sample. Myricetin is the dominant flavonoid in all extracts. Its level varied from 2.75 μg/g dry sample in acetone extract to 5.28 μg/g dry sample in water extract. On the basis of the results obtained, the date plum persimmon fruits phenolic extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants owing to its significant antioxidant activities.

  9. Control of Bacillus cereus in foods by Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Leaf extract and its purified compound.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Dolah, Suhaila; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan

    2010-10-01

    Edible natural products, either standardized plant extracts or pure compounds, provide unlimited opportunities as safe new antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the antibacterial properties of ethanolic extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. leaves against Bacillus cereus. Preliminary screening to evaluate the activities of the extract used a paper disc diffusion method against 65 food isolates. The extract produced large inhibition zones in all isolates, ranging from 10 to 18 mm. The results were confirmed by MIC and MBC (16 to 64 and 32 to 256 μg/ml, respectively). Rhodomyrtone, a purified compound, exhibited MIC and MBC at 0.5 and at 2 to 8 μg/ml, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extract on vegetative cells and endospores of a representative B. cereus isolate (MIC=32 μg/ml) was assessed by enumerating viable cells at different time intervals up to 24 h. At 2 MICs and 4 MICs, a reduction in the viability of the bacterial cells and endospores was at least 3 log within 6 to 8 h and 2 h after incubation, respectively. Application of the extract in precooked rice and tuna steak demonstrated that after exposure to 16 MICs and 32 MICs, the numbers of viable cells and endospores in both model systems were reduced by at least 2 log within 12 and 6 h, respectively. Since the extract consistently produced remarkable activity against both cells and endospores, it could be used as an alternative food additive for controlling B. cereus without compromising food safety.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  11. Antityphoid and radical scavenging properties of the methanol extracts and compounds from the aerial part of Paullinia pinnata.

    PubMed

    Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Fodouop, Simeon Pc; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Tchoumboue, Joseph; Gatsing, Donatien

    2014-01-01

    Paullinia pinnata Linn (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant, locally used in the West Region of Cameroon for the treatment of typhoid fever. This work was designed to evaluate the antityphoid and antioxidant activities of the extracts and compounds of P. pinnata. The methanol extracts of the leaves and stems were tested for antityphoid and antioxidant activities. Compounds were isolated, and their structures elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data in conjuction with literature data and tested for the same activities. The leaf extract was also tested in vivo for its antityphoid potential in a Salmonella typhimurium-induced typhoid fever model in Wistar rats. Seven known compounds: methylinositol (1), β-sitosterol (2), friedelin (3), 3β-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)stigmast-5-ene (4), (3β)-3-O-(2'-Acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid (5), (3β,16α-hydroxy)-3-O-(2'-Acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl) echinocystic acid (6) and (3β,)-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1″-3')-2'-acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosyl]oleanolic acid (7) were isolated. Compounds 5 and 1 showed the highest antibacterial (MIC = 0.781-1.562 μg/ml) and DPPH radical scavenging (RSa50 = 19.27 ± 4.43 μg/ml) activities respectively. The maximum extract dose (446.00 mg/kg bw) had comparable activity with ciprofloxacin (7.14 mg/kg bw) and oxytetracycline (5 mg/kg bw). The extract induced significant dose-dependent increase of WBCs and lymphocytes. These results support the ethnomedicinal use of P. pinnata and its isolated Compounds could be useful in the standardization of antityphoid phytomedicine from it.

  12. Evaluation of the extraction efficiency of thermally labile bioactive compounds in Gastrodia elata Blume by pressurized hot water extraction and microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chin Chye; Tan, Swee Ngin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Hew, Choy Sin; Ong, Eng Shi

    2008-02-22

    Our earlier work showed that the stability of the bioactive compounds gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alcohol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume behaved differently with varying compositions of water-ethanol using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature. To have a better understanding of the extraction process of these thermally labile compounds under elevated temperature conditions, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods were proposed. PHWE and MAE showed that GA and VA could be extracted using pure water under optimized conditions of temperature and extraction time. The extraction efficiency of GA and VA by the proposed methods was found to be higher or comparable to heating under reflux using water. The marker compounds present in the plant extracts were determined by RP-HPLC. The optimized conditions were found to be different for the two proposed methods on extraction of GA and VA. The method precision (RSD, n=6) was found to vary from 0.92% to 3.36% for the two proposed methods on different days. Hence, PHWE and MAE methods were shown to be feasible alternatives for the extraction of thermally labile marker compounds present in medicinal plants.

  13. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  14. Nanoliposomal carriers for improvement the bioavailability of high - valued phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull extract.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Maherani, Behnoush

    2017-04-01

    In present study, nanoliposomes were prepared by thin hydration method with different concentrations of phenolic compounds (500, 750 and 1000ppm) of pure extract and lecithin (1, 2 and 3%w/w) and characterized by considering the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and morphology. The results showed that nanoliposome (90.39-103.78nm) had negative surface charge varied from -51.5±0.9 to -40.2±0.2mV with a narrow size distribution (PDI≈0.069-0.123). Nanoliposomes composed of 1% lecithin with 1000ppm of phenolic compounds had the highest EE (52.93%). The FTIR analysis indicated the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar zone of phospholipid and the OH groups of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds also increased phase transition temperature (Tc) of nanoliposomes (2.01-7.24°C). Moreover, nanoliposomes had considerable stability during storage. Consequently, liposome is an efficient carrier for protection and improving PGHE biofunctional actives in foodstuffs.

  15. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. This paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  16. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. The paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  17. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  18. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid–liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass–solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed. PMID:25516718

  19. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass.

    PubMed

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-12-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass-solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed.

  20. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  1. Antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from various spices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.

  2. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia.

    PubMed

    Mašković, Pavle; Solujić, Slavica; Mihailović, Vladimir; Mladenović, Milan; Cvijović, Milica; Mladenović, Jelena; Aćamović-Đoković, Gordana; Kurćubić, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the endemic plant species Kitaibelia vitifolia in inhibiting the growth of selected fungi and bacteria. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the broth dilution procedure for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). MICs were determined for eight selected indicator strains. The highest susceptibility to K. vitifolia ethanolic extract among the bacteria tested was exhibited by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (MIC=15.62 μg/mL), followed by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153 (MIC=31.25 μg/mL), and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 (MIC=62.50 μg/mL). Of the fungi, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC=15.62 μg/mL) showed the highest susceptibility, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 (MIC=31.25 μg/mL) had the lowest. Results showed that K. vitifolia extract possesses antioxidant activity, with total antioxidant capacity of 75.45±0.68 μg of ascorbic acid/g and 50% inhibition concentration values of 47.45±0.55 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, 35.35±0.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 95.25±0.52 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and 31.50±0.35 μg/mL for metal chelating activity. Total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, and gallotannins were 85.25±0.69 mg of gallic acid (GA)/g, 45.32±0.55 mg of rutin/g, 54.25±0.75 mg of GA/g, and 41.74±0.55 mg of GA/g, respectively. The phenolic composition of K. vitifolia extract was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the dominant phenolic compound of the extract.

  3. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    PubMed

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate.

  4. Antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier extract.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Delfan, Bahram; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Moradi, Nasim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Rashidipour, Marzieh

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had

  5. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    PubMed Central

    Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/mL for aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that leaf aqueous extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor, while ethanolic extract shows a competitive inhibition effect on mushroom tyrosinase using L-DOPA as substrate. In addition, the inhibitory effect of leaf extracts on tyrosinase activity and melanin production was examined in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as levels of melanin synthesis are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by extracts in cells treated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The effects are comparable, and sometimes even better, than that of kojic acid, a well known tyrosinase inhibitor used for reference. All these results suggest that E. characias could be a great source of the natural inhibitors from tyrosinase and has the potential to be used as a whitening agent in therapeutic fields. PMID:26500815

  6. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  7. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  8. Platelet anti-aggregation activities of compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Koo, Ja Yong; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Kang, Sam Sik; Bae, KiHwan; Kim, Yeong Sik; Yun-Choi, Hye Sook

    2010-10-01

    Cinnamomum cassia is a well-known traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. An extract of this plant showed both platelet anti-aggregation and blood anti-coagulation effects in preliminary testing. Among the 13 compounds obtained from this plant, eugenol (2), amygdalactone (4), cinnamic alcohol (5), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (7), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (8), and coniferaldehyde (9) showed 1.5-73-fold greater inhibitory effects than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation (50% inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀] = 3.8, 5.16, 31.2, 40.0, 16.9, and 0.82 μM, respectively, vs. 60.3 μM) and 6.3-730-fold stronger effect than ASA on U46619 (a thromboxane A₂ mimic)-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 3.51, 33.9, 31.0, 51.3, 14.6, and 0.44 μM, respectively, vs. 321 μM). The other compounds, coumarin (3), cinnamaldehyde (6), cinnamic acid (10), icariside DC (11), and dihydrocinnacasside (12), also inhibited (2.5 to four times greater than ASA) U46619-induced aggregation. In addition, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were 1.3-87 times more effective than ASA against epinephrine-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 1.86, 1.10, 37.7, 25.0, 16.8, 15.3, and 0.57 μM, respectively, vs. 50.0 μM). However, the 13 compounds were only very mildly effective against blood coagulation, if at all. In conclusion, compounds 2, 4, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory potencies than others on AA-, U46619-, and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Eugenol (2) and coniferaldehyde (9) were the two of the most active anti-platelet constituents of C. cassia.

  9. Comparison of accelerated methods for the extraction of phenolic compounds from different vine-shoot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Torre, M Pilar; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Pérez-Juan, Pedro M; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2012-03-28

    Most research on the extraction of high-priced compounds from vineyard/wine byproducts has traditionally been focused on grape seeds and skins as raw materials. Vine-shoots can represent an additional source to those materials, the characteristics of which could depend on the cultivar. A comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts from 18 different vineyard cultivars obtained by superheated liquid extraction (SHLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is here presented. The optimal working conditions for each type of extraction have been investigated by using multivariate experimental designs to maximize the yield of total phenolic compounds, measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and control hydroxymethylfurfural because of the organoleptic properties of furanic derivatives and toxicity at given levels. The best values found for the influential variables on each extraction method were 80% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at pH 3, 180 °C, and 60 min for SHLE; 140 W and 5 min microwave irradiation for MAE; and 280 W, 50% duty cycle, and 7.5 min extraction for USAE. SHLE reported better extraction efficiencies as compared to the other two approaches, supporting the utility of SHLE for scaling-up the process. The extracts were dried in a rotary evaporator, reconstituted in 5 mL of methanol, and finally subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane to remove nonpolar compounds that could complicate chromatographic separation. The methanolic fractions were analyzed by both LC-DAD and LC-TOF/MS, and the differences in composition according to the extraction conditions were studied. Compounds usually present in commercial wood extracts (mainly benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and aldehydes) were detected in vine-shoot extracts.

  10. Solventless extraction methods for immature fruits: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytoprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Katayama, Shigeru; Mitani, Takakazu; Ong, Eng Shi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2017-04-15

    In this study, extraction of immature fruits using an environmentally friendly pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) method was compared with the traditional reflux method. Extracts were tested for their polyphenol content using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and for their antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The highest amount of polyphenol was extracted from grape (stem) using PHWE at 100°C, or reflux extraction. This was followed by reflux extraction of grape (fruit). The results were similar for the ORAC assay. All samples extracted using PHWE at 100°C showed cytoprotective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. This study demonstrated that beneficial compounds can be extracted from immature fruits without the use of organic solvents. The utilization of beneficial compounds present in immature fruits can also contribute to the reduction in agriculture waste generated.

  11. In vitro growth inhibition by Hypericum extracts and isolated pure compounds of Paenibacillus larvae, a lethal disease affecting honeybees worldwide.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Javier; Crockett, Sara; Kunert, Olaf; Hammer, Elfe; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Bauer, Rudolf; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The in vitro inhibitory potential of 50 extracts from various species of the flowering plant genus Hypericum was investigated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test against Paenibacillus larvae, a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes American foulbrood (AFB), a lethal disease affecting honeybee brood worldwide. Of the tested extracts, 14 were identified as highly active against P. larvae as compared to the activity of the positive control, indicating the presence of highly potent antibacterial compounds in the extracts. Examination of these extracts using TLC and HPLC/MS analyses revealed the presence of acylphloroglucinol and filicinic-acid derivatives. Six pure compounds isolated from these extracts, viz., hyperforin (1), uliginosin B (2), uliginosin A (3), 7-epiclusianone (4), albaspidin AA (5), and drummondin E (6), displayed strong antibacterial activity against the vegetative form of P. larvae (MIC ranging from 0.168-220 μM). Incubation of P. larvae spores with the lipophilic extract of Hypericum perforatum and its main acylphloroglucinol constituent 1 led to the observation of significantly fewer colony forming units as compared to the negative control, indicating that the acylphloroglucinol scaffold represents an interesting lead structure for the development of new AFB control agents.

  12. Simultaneous extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata using microwave-assisted extraction combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Jifu; Li, Xueke; Guo, Ning

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata, a common herb and vegetable in China. The optimized parameters of MAE were: employing 50% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 400 W, temperature 70 °C, ratio of liquid/solid 30 mL/g and extraction time 2 min. Compared to conventional extraction methods, the optimized MAE can avoid the degradation of the phenolic compounds and simultaneously obtained the highest yields of all components faster with less consumption of solvent and energy. Six phenolic acids, six flavonoid glycosides and one coumarin were firstly identified. The phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC-DAD with good linearity, precision, and accuracy. The extract obtained by MAE showed significant antioxidant activity. The proposed method provides a valuable and green analytical methodology for the investigation of phenolic components in natural plants.

  13. Comparison of supercritical fluid and Soxhlet extractions for the isolation of nitro compounds from soils.

    PubMed

    Bajerová, Petra; Eisner, Ales; Jezová, Vera; Adam, Martin; Ventura, Karel

    2008-05-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2), a clean and rapid alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction, was investigated for the extraction of nitro compounds from soil samples. Quantitative extraction by SFE was accomplished at a pressure of 25 MPa and an extraction temperature of 60 degrees C, for 30 min in dynamic mode and using acetonitrile as modifier, and the results were comparable with those obtained by acetonitrile Soxhlet extraction (3 h) for all soil samples. Extracts from these two procedures were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Quantitative reproducibility for SFE extracts was acceptable (RSD 2-10%), and the quantity of solvent was reduced from 160 mL for Soxhlet extraction to 5 mL in the case of SFE.

  14. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  15. [Determination of isothiocyanates and related compounds in mustard extract and horseradish extract used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Hirata, Keiko; Suzuki, Kumi; Iida, Kenji; Ueta, Tadahiko; Kamata, Kunihiro

    2002-02-01

    Amounts of isothiocyanates and related compounds in a mustard extract and a horseradish extract for food additive use were determined by GC, after confirmation of the identity of GC peaks by GC/MS. Amounts of allyl isothiocyanate, which included that of allyl thiocyanate, because most of the allyl thiocyanate detected in the sample was assumed to have been formed from allyl isothiocyanate during GC analysis, were 97.6% and 85.4%, in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract, respectively. Total amounts of the identified isothiocyanates in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract were 98.5% and 95.4%, respectively. Allyl cyanide, a degradation product of allyl isothiocyanate, was found in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract at the levels of 0.57% and 1.73%, respectively. beta-Phenylethyl cyanide, a possible degradation product of beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate, and allyl sulfides were found in the horseradish extract, at the levels of 0.13% and 0.46%, respectively. Allylamine, which is another degradation product of allyl isothiocyanate, was determined after acetylation, and was found in the mustard extract and the horseradish extract at the levels of 8 micrograms/g and 67 micrograms/g, respectively.

  16. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Duraisamy; Kalaiselvi, Manokaran; Ravikumar, Ganesan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi; Uma, Chandrasekar

    2015-02-01

    Medicinal plants are at great interest to the researcher in the field of biotechnology, as most of the drug industries depend in medicinal plants for the production of pharmaceutical compounds. Plants are the traditional sources for many chemicals used as pharmaceutical biochemicals, fragrances, food colours and flavours in different countries especially in India. Most herbal medicines and their derivative products were often prepared from crude plant extracts, which comprise a complex mixture of different phytochemical constituents (plant secondary metabolites). The chemical features of these constituents differ considerably among different species. GC-MS method used for the analysis of the obtained extracts can be an interesting tool for testing the amount of some active principles in herbs used in cosmetic, drugs, pharmaceutical or food industry. The aim of this study was to carry out for identification of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GCMS analysis of ethanolic extract was done by standard protocol using the equipment Thermo GC-Trace Ultra Version: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various compounds like piperine, octodeconoic acids, hexadecanoic acid and squalene in the ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides. Hence, the Evolvulus alsinoides may have chemopreventive, anticancer, anti-microbial activity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity due to the presence of secondary metabolites in the ethanolic extract. Due to the presence of esters which can be used as a flavoring agent in food industries. These findings support the traditional use of Evolvulus alsinoides in various disorders. Further studies are needed to isolate active principle of the extract as well as to elucidate their exact mechanism of action in various disorders.

  17. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Luísa; Escapa, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Eliana; Fajardo, Alba; Aligué, Rosa; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Romano, Anabela

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical content and to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour. The extracts were rich in phenolic compounds, had considerable antioxidant activity, and reduced the viability of cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. The chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts were significantly affected by gender and cultivar. Female cultivar Galhosa had the highest levels of phenolic compounds, and the highest antioxidant activity. Extracts from the hermaphrodite trees and from the female cultivars Galhosa and Costela/Canela exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity. The most abundant compound was theophylline. The phenolic content was correlated to both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Our findings provide new knowledge about the health implications of consuming food supplemented with carob germ flour.

  18. Optimization of the extraction conditions of the volatile compounds from chili peppers by headspace solid phase micro-extraction.

    PubMed

    Junior, Stanislau Bogusz; de Marchi Tavares de Melo, Arlete; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2011-05-27

    A method involving headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and optimized to investigate the volatile composition of Capsicum chili peppers. Five SPME fibers were tested for extraction: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS-75μm), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-100μm), divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS-65μm), carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB-70μm), and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS-50/30μm), the last of which was shown to be the most efficient fiber to trap the volatile compounds. Optimization of the extraction conditions was carried out using multivariate strategies such as factorial design and response surface methodology. Eighty three compounds were identified by GC-MS when using the optimized extraction conditions, the majority of which were esters.

  19. Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae) extract and pure compound niga-ichigoside F1: wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Talita Dacroce; Thiesen, Liliani Carolini; de Oliveira Nunes, Maria Luisa; Broering, Milena Fronza; Donato, Marcos Paulo; Goss, Marina Jagielski; Petreanu, Marcel; Niero, Rivaldo; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Here, we evaluate the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects of methanolic crude extract obtained from aerial parts (leaves and branches) of Rubus imperialis Chum. Schl. (Rosaceae) and the pure compound niga-ichigoside F1. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in vivo and in vitro, and the healing effect was evaluated in surgical lesions in mice skin. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay and H2O2-induced oxidative stress were used to determine antioxidant activity. The efferocytosis activity was also determined. The data obtained show that the extract of R. imperialis promote reduction in the inflammatory process induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or carrageenan in the air pouch model; the effects could be reinforced by nitric oxide reduction in LPS-stimulated neutrophils, and an increase in the efferocytosis. The extract showed wound healing property in vitro and in vivo, scavenging activity for DPPH, and cytoprotection in the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in L929 cells. In addition, the compound niga-ichigoside F1 was able to reduce the NO secretion; however, it did not present wound-healing activity in vitro. Together, the data obtained point out the modulatory actions of R. imperialis extract on leukocyte migration to the inflamed tissue, the antioxidant, and the pro-resolutive activity. However, the R. imperialis anti-inflammatory activity may be mediated in parts by niga-ichigoside F1, and on wound healing do not correlated with niga-ichigoside F1.

  20. Microwave-assisted extraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient from solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Hoang, T H; Sharma, R; Susanto, D; Di Maso, M; Kwong, E

    2007-07-13

    The microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique has been evaluated for the extraction of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) from various solid dosage forms. Using immediate release tablets of Compound A as a model, optimization of the extraction method with regards to extraction solvent composition, extraction time and temperature was briefly discussed. Complete recovery of Compound A was achieved when samples were extracted using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent under microwave heating at a constant cell temperature of 50 degrees C for 5 min. The optimized MAE method was applied for content uniformity (single tablet extraction) and potency (multiple tablets extraction) assays of release and stability samples of two products of Compound A (5 and 25mg dose strength) stored at various conditions. To further demonstrate the applicability of MAE, the instrumental extraction conditions (50 degrees C for 5 min) were adopted for the extraction of montelukast sodium (Singulair) from various solid dosage forms using methanol-water (75:25, v/v) as the extraction solvent. The MAE procedure demonstrated an extraction efficiency of 97.4-101.9% label claim with the greatest RSD at 1.4%. The results compare favorably with 97.6-102.3% label claim with the greatest RSD at 2.9% obtained with validated mechanical extraction procedures. The system is affordable, user-friendly and simple to operate and troubleshoot. Rapid extraction process (7 min/run) along with high throughput capacity (up to 23 samples simultaneously) would lead to reduced cycle time and thus increased productivity.

  1. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen

    2014-04-30

    Executive Summary Simbol Materials studied various methods of extracting valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California, focusing on the extraction of lithium, manganese, zinc and potassium. New methods were explored for managing the potential impact of silica fouling on mineral extraction equipment, and for converting silica management by-products into commercial products.` Studies at the laboratory and bench scale focused on manganese, zinc and potassium extraction and the conversion of silica management by-products into valuable commercial products. The processes for extracting lithium and producing lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide products were developed at the laboratory scale and scaled up to pilot-scale. Several sorbents designed to extract lithium as lithium chloride from geothermal brine were developed at the laboratory scale and subsequently scaled-up for testing in the lithium extraction pilot plant. Lithium The results of the lithium studies generated the confidence for Simbol to scale its process to commercial operation. The key steps of the process were demonstrated during its development at pilot scale: 1. Silica management. 2. Lithium extraction. 3. Purification. 4. Concentration. 5. Conversion into lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products. Results show that greater than 95% of the lithium can be extracted from geothermal brine as lithium chloride, and that the chemical yield in converting lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products is greater than 90%. The product purity produced from the process is consistent with battery grade lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Manganese and zinc Processes for the extraction of zinc and manganese from geothermal brine were developed. It was shown that they could be converted into zinc metal and electrolytic manganese dioxide after purification. These processes were evaluated for their economic potential, and at the present time Simbol

  2. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Brain extraction using geodesic active contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Albert; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Tam, Roger; Traboulsee, Anthony

    2006-03-01

    Extracting the brain cortex from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head scans is an essential preprocessing step of which the accuracy greatly affects subsequent image analysis. The currently popular Brain Extraction Tool (BET) produces a brain mask which may be too smooth for practical use. This paper presents a novel brain extraction tool based on three-dimensional geodesic active contours, connected component analysis and mathematical morphology. Based on user-specified intensity and contrast levels, the proposed algorithm allows an active contour to evolve naturally and extract the brain cortex. Experiments on synthetic MRI data and scanned coronal and axial MRI image volumes indicate successful extraction of tight perimeters surrounding the brain cortex. Quantitative evaluations on both synthetic phantoms and manually labeled data resulted in better accuracy than BET in terms of true and false voxel assignment. Based on these results, we illustrate that our brain extraction tool is a robust and accurate approach for the challenging task of automatically extracting the brain cortex in MRI data.

  4. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  5. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  6. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds.

  7. Microextraction versus exhaustive extraction approaches for simultaneous analysis of compounds in wide range of polarity.

    PubMed

    Mirnaghi, Fatemeh S; Goryński, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-11-05

    This article discusses comparison of microextraction versus exhaustive extraction approaches for simultaneous extraction of compounds in wide range of polarity at low and high volumes of sample by comparing solid phase extraction (SPE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Here, both systems are discussed theoretically and evaluated based on experimental data. Experimental comparisons were conducted in terms of extraction recovery, sensitivity, and selectivity for the extraction of doping agent compounds (logP: 0.14-4.98), using C18 as the extraction phase. The extraction recovery of both systems was studied at different volumes of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The distribution constant of SPME in thin-film geometry (i.e., thin-film microextraction/TFME) as well as the retention factor and breakthrough volume for the SPE system were evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of polar and non-polar compounds. Using 1 mL of sample, the extraction recovery and sensitivity of the SPE system (100 mg sorbent) was comparable with that of TFME format of SPME (15 mg sorbent) for all analytes, with the exception of most polar compounds, due to the smaller amount of the extraction phase in SPME. Breakthrough in the SPE system was observed for more polar compounds in a 25 mL sample; however, this situation did not affect the quantitation of TFME, as this technique operates in equilibrium mode. Experimental values for breakthrough volume were in good match with the calculated theoretical values. Results indicate that the microextraction approach is more suitable for untargeted determinations, where the breakthrough volume cannot be determined prior to the experiment. In addition, when both methods are at optimum conditions, findings suggest that, despite the smaller volume of the extraction phase in TFME, the sensitivity of TFME can exceed that of SPE for samples where the target analytes vary substantially in polarity.

  8. Antiradical activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) extracts.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, Karel; Holubova, Pavla; Zima, Ales; Muselik, Jan; Dvorska, Margita

    2007-06-27

    Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decorative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substances. We identified and quantified acteoside (1) and isoacteoside (2) in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3) and diplacone (4) in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals.

  9. Antiulcerogenic Activity and Toxicity of Bauhinia holophylla Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Rozza, A. L.; Cesar, D. A. S.; Pieroni, L. G.; Saldanha, L. L.; Dokkedal, A. L.; De-Faria, F. M.; Souza-Brito, A. R. M.; Vilegas, W.; Takahira, R. K.; Pellizzon, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Bauhinia are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, and inflammation, among other conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiulcer effect of a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of B. holophylla. The chemical profile of the extract was determined by HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS. A dose-effect relation was constructed using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses and studies of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were performed in stomach samples. The involvement of SH compounds, NO, K+ATP channels, and α2-adrenergic receptors in the gastroprotective effect was evaluated. A toxicity study was performed with a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg. The extract was composed mainly of cyanoglucoside and flavonol-O-glycosides derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. SH compounds, NO release, K+ATP channel activation, and presynaptic α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation each proved to be involved in the antiulcer effect. The levels of GSH and activity of GR and GPx were increased, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were modulated. There was an antidiarrheal effect and there were no signs of toxicity. B. holophylla presents antiulcer activity mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuating the inflammatory response, without inducing side effects. PMID:25954316

  10. Mutagenic compounds in an extract from rutae herba (Ruta graveolens L.). I. Mutagenicity is partially caused by furoquinoline alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Paulini, H; Eilert, U; Schimmer, O

    1987-07-01

    Mutagenicity testing of a commercial extract from Rutae Herba (Tinctura Rutae) revealed a strong effect in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 without S9 mix. In the presence of S9 mix only a weak response was observed. Moderate mutagenic effects were detected with and without S9 mix using strain TA100. The extract used contained the furoquinoline alkaloids dictamnine, gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, pteleine and kokusaginine, as indicated by g.c. and g.c.-m.s. analysis. The pure compounds exhibited a mutagenic activity only in the presence of S9 mix in strain TA98 as well as in strain TA100, but their specific mutagenicity differed greatly in strain TA98. We conclude that the extract studied contains different mutagenic activities and that these are only partially due to the furoquinolines present in the extract.

  11. Selection of a suitable extraction method for mutagenic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Pasley, T.; Warren, S.; Zweidinger, R.; Watts, R.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction methods were evaluated for recovery of mutagneic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles. Soxhlet and sonication techniques were utilized with a variety of solvents to ascertain the effect of solvent choice, extraction methods, or dissolved gases in extraction solvents on the recovery of mutagenicity. Sonication extraction gave slightly less mass recovery than the Soxhlet method. Methanol extracted more mass than the other solvents with dichloromethane recovering the least. Dissolved gases were not found to have any effect, while mutagenicity was shown to be dependent upon solvent and extraction method. Soxhlet extraction with acetone and toluene/ethanol yielded the highest recovery of mutagenic activity; however, results indicated a solvent/solute interaction which chemically altered one or more extract components. Extraction employing dichloromethane and sonication was selected as a suitable method since this treatment appeared not to alter extracted compounds, and good recovery of mutagenicity was obtained. (Copyright (c) 1988 Gordon and Breach Science Publishers Inc.)

  12. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nitrogen oxide flux chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Part of the modification involved the development of methods to extract SVOCs from polyurethane foam (PUF), sand, and soil. Breakthroughs and extraction efficiencies were ...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Antrodia camphorata extracts against oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Antrodia camphorata Extracts against Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions. PMID:25144619

  15. Antifungal Properties of Crude Extracts, Fractions, and Purified Compounds from Bark of Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) against Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Mendes de Toledo, Cleyton Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia Regina; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal plant Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) is a common shrub in the Brazilian cerrado, in which crude extract showed antifungal activity in a preliminary study. In this work, the antifungal and cytotoxic properties of the crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from C. americana were evaluated against the standard yeast strains Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, clinical isolates, and fluconazole-resistant strains. The combinatory effects between subfractions and isolated compounds and effects on cell morphology, virulence factors, and exogenous ergosterol were also evaluated. The MIC obtained against the Candida species including fluconazole-resistant strain ranged from 15.3 to 31.3 µg/mL for crude extract, 3.9 to 15.6 µg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction, and 7.8 to 31.3 µg/mL for subfractions. The isolated compounds identified as 4′-O-methyl-catechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, and 4′-O-methyl-catechin-3-O-gallate showed lower antifungal activity than the crude extract and fractions (MIC ranging from 31.3 to 125.0 µg/mL). The addition of exogenous ergosterol to yeast culture did not interfere in the antifungal activity of the extract and its fractions. Synergistic antifungal activity was observed between subfractions and isolated compounds. The effects on virulence factors and the different mechanisms of action compared to fluconazole and nystatin suggest that this ethnomedicinal plant may be an effective alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:26347790

  16. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study

  18. Factors Affecting the Extraction of Intact Ribonucleic Acid from Plant Tissues Containing Interfering Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, H. John; Possingham, John V.

    1977-01-01

    Using conventional methods it is impossible to extract RNA as uncomplexed intact molecules from the leaves of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and from a number of woody perennial species that contain high levels of reactive phenolic compounds. A procedure involving the use of high concentrations of the chaotropic agent sodium perchlorate prevents the binding of phenolic compounds to RNA during extraction. Analyses of the phenolics present in plant tissues used in these experiments indicate that there is a poor correlation between the total phenolic content and the complexing of RNA. However, qualitative analyses suggest that proanthocyanidins are involved in the tanning of RNA during conventional extractions. PMID:16660134

  19. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients.

  20. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    PubMed

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients.

  1. Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2014-01-01

    The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 μg/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols. PMID:25320718

  2. Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2014-09-01

    The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 μg/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols.

  3. Simultaneous distillation-extraction of high-value volatile compounds from Cistus ladanifer L.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Salomé; Mendes, Adélio; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2007-02-19

    The present paper describes a procedure to isolate volatiles from rock-rose (Cistus ladanifer L.) using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). High-value volatile compounds (HVVC) were selected and the influence of the extraction conditions investigated. The effect of the solvent nature and extraction time on SDE efficiency was studied. The best performance was achieved with pentane in 1 h operation. The extraction efficiencies ranged from 65% to 85% and the repeatability varied between 4% and 6% (as a CV%). The C. ladanifer SDE extracts were analysed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The HS-SPME sampling conditions such as fiber coating, temperature, ionic strength and exposure time were optimized. The best results were achieved with an 85 microm polyacrylate fiber for a 60 min headspace extraction at 40 degrees C with 20% (w/v) of NaCl. For optimized conditions the recovery was in average higher than 90% for all compounds and the intermediate precision ranged from 4 to 9% (as CV %). The volatiles alpha-pinene (22.2 mg g(-1) of extract), 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone (6.1 mg g(-1) of extract), borneol (3.0 mg g(-1) of extract) and bornyl acetate (3.9 mg g(-1) of extract) were identified in the SDE extracts obtained from the fresh plant material.

  4. [Analysis of part of flavor compounds in wheat by headspace sorptive extraction-gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tongbo; Yan, Xiao; Lan, Xiaozheng

    2013-05-01

    A method has been established for the analysis of flavor compounds in wheat by headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE). The sorptive extraction bar was composed of a silicon rubber coating and a capillary glass with an inner iron rod. The silicon rubber coating was condensed inside a stainless steel mold from the silicon precursors with a sol-hot air vulcanization method. The coating of the extraction bar has a volume of about 87 microL and is thermally stable until 390 degrees C. The flavor compounds extracted by the bar were desorbed in a homemade thermal desorption unit (TDU) and introduced directly into a pre-column in a gas chromatograph for analysis. Experimental parameters for the extraction efficiency were optimized including extraction temperature and time, phase ratio and thermal desorption conditions. The standard wheat flour samples spiked with seven flavor compounds were analyzed under the optimized conditions, and showed good linear relationships (r > 0.9979), limits of detection (LOD) of 0.09 - 1.00 microg/kg, good recoveries (95% - 121%) and repeatabilities (relative standard deviations, RSD, 2.2% - 7.8%). By external calibration method, the absolute contents of the seven flavor compounds in a real wheat sample were determined. The method is rapid, simple with low limits of detection, and is applicable for the rapid quantitative analysis of the flavor compounds in wheat.

  5. Antiviral activities of coffee extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Uozaki, Misao; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime

    2008-06-01

    Both hot water extracts of coffee grinds and instant coffee solutions inhibited the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1, a representative enveloped DNA virus, when they were added to the culture medium of the virus-infected cells at a dose of one fifth the concentration suitable for drinking. The antiherpetic activity was independent of the suppliers (companies) of the coffee grinds and of the locations where the coffee beans were produced. Further characterization revealed that there are two different mechanisms, by which the coffee extracts exert inhibitory activities on the virus infection; (1) a direct inactivation of the infectivity of virus particle (i.e., a virucidal activity) and (2) the inhibition of progeny infectious virus formation at the late stage of viral multiplication in the infected cells. Caffeine, but not quinic acid and chlorogenic acid, inhibited the virus multiplication to some extent, but none of them showed the virucidal activity, suggesting that other component(s) in the coffee extracts must play a role in the observed antiviral activity. In addition, the coffee extracts inhibited the multiplication of poliovirus, a non-enveloped RNA virus, but showed no virucidal effect on this virus.

  6. Isolation and Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoid Compounds from Mahagony Seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursiti, S.; Supartono

    2017-02-01

    Flavonoid is one of the secondary metabolites compounds in mahogany seeds. Mahogany seeds can be used as an antimicrobial. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds against Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Bacillus cereus (B.cereus). Isolation of flavonoid compounds done step by step. First, the maceration using n-hexane, then with methanol. The methanol extract was dissolved in ethyl acetate and aquadest, then separated. Ethyl acetate extract evaporated Flavonoid compounds were. The testing of antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds using the absorption method. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds shows the inhibitory activity and provide clear zone against bacteria E.coli with value Inhibitory Regional Diameter 18.50 mm respectively, and 14.50 mm to the bacteria. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds have antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.cereus.

  7. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Pu; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-02-08

    The oil of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is used extensively in China as cooking oil. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antioxidant activity of tea seed oil and its active compounds. Of the five solvent extracts, methanol extract of tea seed oil exhibited the highest yield and the strongest antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Two peaks separated from the methanol extract by HPLC contributed the most significant antioxidant activity. These two peaks were further identified as sesamin and a novel compound: 2,5-bis-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-tetrahydro-furo [3,4-d][1,3]dioxine (named compound B) by UV absorption and characterized by MS, IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR techniques. Sesamin and compound B decreased H2O2-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species in red blood cells (RBCs), inhibited RBCs hemolysis induced by AAPH, and increased the lag time of conjugated dienes formation in human low-density lipoprotein. The results indicate that both compounds isolated from tea seed oil exhibit remarkable antioxidant activity. Apart from the traditional pharmacological effects of Camellia oleifera, the oil of tea seed may also act as a prophylactic agent to prevent free radical related diseases.

  8. Neuroprotective Properties of Compounds Extracted from Dianthus superbus L. against Glutamate-induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo-Ra; Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dianthus superbus L. has been used in Chinese herbal medicine as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent. Objective: In this study, we isolated ten bioactive compounds from D. superbus and evaluated their neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in the hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. Materials and Methods: New compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O (2’’,6’’-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (8), hydroferulic acid (9), and methyl hydroferulate (10), were isolated by bioactivity-guided separation. Structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, and two-dimensional NMR spectra, while their neuroprotective properties were evaluated by performing the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: D. superbus extract had a neuroprotective effect and isolated 10 compounds. Among the compounds, compounds 5 and 6 effectively protected HT22 cells against glutamate toxicity. Conclusion: In conclusion, the extract of D. superbus and compounds isolated from it exhibited neuroprotective properties, suggesting therapeutic potential for applications in neurotoxic diseases. SUMMARY D. superbus extract significantly protected on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cellsNew compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O(2’’,6’’-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3

  9. [Antibacterial activity of polyphenolic compounds isolated from plants of Geraniaceae and Rosaceae families].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, V S; Kuz'mina, L Iu; Melent'ev, A I; Shendel', G V

    2007-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in extracts of plants belonging to the families Geraniaceae (blood-red cranesbill, wood cranesbill, meadow cranesbill, and alfilaria) and Rosaceae (red raspberry, European dewberry, and tormentil) have been tested for their activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria of the genera Azotobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas. The bacteriostatic activity exhibited some species-related features and depended on the polarity of the extracting agent. The bacteriostatic activity of plant-derived phenolic compounds correlated with their antioxidant potential. The plants of the families Geraniaceae and Rosaceae offer promise as a source of raw material for isolation of polyphenolic compounds exhibiting bactericidal activity, including against opportunistic pathogens (B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus strains).

  10. Ionic surface active compounds in atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Sukhapan, Jariya; Brimblecombe, Peter

    2002-04-27

    Surfactants in the atmosphere have several potential roles in atmospheric chemistry. They can form films on aqueous surfaces, which lowers the surface tension and possibly delays water evaporation and gaseous transportation across the aqueous interface. They can also increase the solubility of organic compounds in the aqueous phase. Recently, the decrease of surface tension in cloud growing droplets has been suggested as relevant to increases in the number of droplets of smaller size, potentially enhancing cloud albedo. Natural surfactants in the lung aid gas transfer and influence the dissolution rate of aerosol particles, so surfactants in atmospheric aerosols, once inhaled, may interact with pulmonary surfactants. Ambient aerosols were collected from the edge of Norwich, a small city in a largely agricultural region of England, and analysed for surfactants. Methylene blue, a conventional dye for detecting anionic surfactants, has been used as a colorimetric agent. The concentration of surfactants expressed as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) is in the range of 6-170 pmol m(-3)(air). A negative correlation with chloride aerosol indicates that these surfactants are probably not the well-known surfactants derived from marine spray. A more positive correlation with aerosol nitrate and gaseous NOx supports an association with more polluted inland air masses. The surfactants found in aerosols seem to be relatively strong acids, compared with weaker acids such as the long-chain carboxylic acids previously proposed as atmospheric surfactants. Surfactants from the oxidation of organic materials (perhaps vegetation- or soil-derived) seem a likely source of these substances in the atmosphere.

  11. Profile and antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from 10 crabapples (Malus wild species).

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Shi, Junling; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-22

    Phenolic products are highly demanded by the food and cosmetics industries and consumers due to their high antioxidant activities. To evaluate the potential of crabapples (Malus wild species) in preparing phenolic extracts, fruits of 10 crabapples grown in China were separately extracted with 80% (v/v) ethanol and ethyl acetate and the phenolic profiles, polyphenol (PC) and flavonoid contents (FC), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were analyzed. Chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, hyperin, and phlorizin appeared as the major phenolic compounds in all phenolic extracts. Ethanol extracts had PC of 302.83-1265.94 mg GAE/100g and FC of 352.45-2351.74 mg RE/100g, being 4.17 and 4.49 times those obtained in ethyl acetate extracts and much higher than those previously reported in apples. Malus wild species appeared as rich sources of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity, especially when high chlorogenic acid and rutin contents are emphasized.

  12. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  13. Changes to Extractable Soil Amino Compounds Under Elevated CO2 and Ozone in an Aspen Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Zhang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Forests growing under elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and ozone exhibit changes to root and foliar chemistry and quality that are related to changes in physiology, N limitation, and leaf damage. Additionally, there are documented changes to the activity of some understory invertebrate populations, and a variety of responses to soil organic matter ranging from accrual in the upper few centimeters to loss of soil C and N over the upper 20 cm. Under such conditions, however, the cycling of specific amino compounds is poorly understood. Knowledge of the role that new plant N plays in supporting soil microbial populations and soil C and N dynamics is important to fully understand relationships between N limitation under elevated CO2-induced productivity increases and available organic N pools in soil. We investigated the composition and concentration of hydrolysable amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars) in litter, roots, soil, and earthworm fecal matter from the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites at Rhinelander, WI. Under elevated CO2 amino acids, when normalized to total N, exhibited change in both amount (decrease) and composition among roots (<2mm) with depth over the upper 25 cm, however, root amino acids showed only minor changes with depth in the ambient and ozone treatments. Ozonated rings exhibited a lower release of amino compounds (with respect to total N) compared to ambient and elevated CO2, which may suggest poorer quality input. For soil organic matter extractable amino acids (normalized to total soil N) exhibited changes similar to roots among the treatment. These results indicate that CO2 and ozone significantly influence amino compound dynamics in both soil and input which should impact the overall ability to decompose and preserve soils in such environments.

  14. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Results Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. Conclusions The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines. PMID:21429215

  15. Analysis of flavor compounds by GC/MS after liquid-liquid extraction from fruit juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuşa, F. D.; Moldovan, Z.; Schmutzer, G.; Magdaş, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Vlassa, M.

    2012-02-01

    In this work we describe a rapid method for analysis of volatile profiles of several commercial fruit juices using GC/MS instrument after liquid-liquid extraction. Volatile flavor compounds have been identified based on mass spectrum obtained in EI mode. This method allows to analyses a wide range of flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids) the procedure was rapid, simple and inexpensive. Moreover, by means of volatile compounds it could be possible to distinguish between juices of organic and conventional production and those with flavorings addition. More of 20 compounds were identified and quantified as relative chromatogram area taken on larges ion in mass spectrum.

  16. Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Vardanega, Renata; Santos, Diego T.; Meireles, M. Angela A.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification. PMID:25125880

  17. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  18. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of plant extract of Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, B Vishwanath; Tejaswini, M; Nishal, P; Pardhu, G; Shylaja, S; Kumar, Kranthi Ch

    2013-05-01

    Natural products continue to play an important role in the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. Several chemical compounds have been extracted and identified from its species known as Lantana camara (L .camara). The present study was designed for phytochemical analysis of L. camara and extraction of bioactive compound by HPLC. This also included the antimicrobial activity of the bioactive compound obtained by crude extract and the column extract. The study showed the presence of the bioactive component parthenin extracted from the HPLC analysis at a peak height of 10.3807 and it was showing antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and E. fecalis, crude (6.8 to 8.1 mm ) and column (4.0 to 6.2 mm) zone of inhibition.

  19. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128).

  20. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Sthéfane G.; Alves, Lucas F.; Pinto, Maria Eduarda A.; Oliveira, Graziela T.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Ribeiro, Rosy I. M. A.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Lima, Luciana A. R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity. PMID:25763039

  1. [Corrected Title: Solid-Phase Extraction of Polar Compounds from Water] Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Rutz, Jeffrey; Schultz, John

    2005-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) process has been developed for removing alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, amines, and other polar organic compounds from water. This process can be either a subprocess of a water-reclamation process or a means of extracting organic compounds from water samples for gas-chromatographic analysis. This SPE process is an attractive alternative to an Environmental Protection Administration liquid-liquid extraction process that generates some pollution and does not work in a microgravitational environment. In this SPE process, one forces a water sample through a resin bed by use of positive pressure on the upstream side and/or suction on the downstream side, thereby causing organic compounds from the water to be adsorbed onto the resin. If gas-chromatographic analysis is to be done, the resin is dried by use of a suitable gas, then the adsorbed compounds are extracted from the resin by use of a solvent. Unlike the liquid-liquid process, the SPE process works in both microgravity and Earth gravity. In comparison with the liquid-liquid process, the SPE process is more efficient, extracts a wider range of organic compounds, generates less pollution, and costs less.

  2. Biologically active proteins from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, B R

    2001-10-01

    The term "biologically active proteins" is almost redundant. All proteins produced by living creatures are, by their very nature, biologically active to some extent in their homologous species. In this review, a subset of these proteins will be discussed that are biologically active in heterologous systems. The isolation and characterization of novel proteins from natural product extracts including those derived from microorganisms, plants, insects, terrestrial vertebrates, and marine organisms will be reviewed and grouped into several distinct classes based on their biological activity and their structure.

  3. Antifungal activities of Hedychium essential oils and plant extracts against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fu...

  4. Characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf.

    PubMed

    Seo, Won Ho; Baek, Hyung Hee

    2009-12-23

    Aroma-active compounds from Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf were extracted by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid continuous extraction (LLCE), and hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS. 1-(3-Furyl)-4-methyl-1-pentanone (perilla ketone) was found to be the most abundant volatile compound, followed in order by (Z)-3-hexenol and 1-octen-3-ol. Perilla ketone comprised 81% (93 ppm), 84% (120 ppm), and 95% (490 ppm) of the volatile compounds obtained from SAFE, LLCE, and HD, respectively. Thirteen aroma-active compounds were detected by GC-O. Perilla ketone, 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-1-one (egoma ketone), and 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-2-penten-1-one (isoegoma ketone) were considered to be the characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla leaf. Perilla ketone, (Z)-3-hexenal (green), egoma ketone, and isoegoma ketone were the most intense aroma-active compounds in Korean perilla leaf. Other relatively intense odorants included (Z)-3-hexenol (green), (E)-2-hexenal (green), benzaldehyde (almond), 1-octen-3-one (metallic), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom), phenylacetaldehyde (honeysuckle), linalool (lemon), and beta-caryophyllene (woody).

  5. Simultaneous control of apparent extract and volatile compounds concentrations in low-malt beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2006-12-01

    Volatile compounds cause undesirable flavor when their concentrations exceed threshold values in beer fermentation. The objective of this study is to develop a system for controlling apparent extract concentration, which indicates the fermentation degree and which should be decreased below a targeted value at a fixed time under a constraint of tolerable amounts of volatile compounds. In beer fermentation, even though the production of volatile compounds is suppressed by maintaining a low fermentation temperature, a low temperature causes a delay in the control of apparent extract concentration. Volatile compound concentration was estimated on-line, and the simulation of apparent extract consumption and volatile compound production was performed. To formulate various beer tastes and conserve energy for attemperation, optimal temperature profiles were determined using a genetic algorithm (GA). The developed feedback control of the brewing temperature profile was successfully applied, and apparent extract and volatile compound concentrations at a fixed time reached their target concentrations. Additionally, the control technique developed in this study enables us to brew a wide variety of beers with different tastes.

  6. Needle-type extraction device for the purge and trap analysis of 23 volatile organic compounds in tap water.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Razak, Nurhafizza Abd; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Kawakubo, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiro; Jinno, Kiyokatsu

    2013-11-22

    We developed a rapid determination technique for trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tap water by introducing a novel needle-type extraction device coupled to a purge-and-trap method. To extract a wide range of VOCs, a new extraction needle containing particles of divinylbenzene and activated carbon was developed in this study. During the active sampling of the headspace gas in a glass vial by the extraction needle, pure N2 gas was used for purging the aqueous sample. After the optimization of several experimental parameters, such as the addition of the salt and conditions of dry purging and desorption, the extraction performance of the device and method was evaluated for 23 VOCs that are typically found in tap water samples. The quantification limits of the method were 0.6 μg/L for 1,1-dichloroethylene and less than 0.5 μg/L for other VOCs, with good repeatability being confirmed for all the target compounds. Taking advantage of the excellent recovery of VOCs, the determination of VOCs in real tap water samples was carried out successfully. Because the developed method does not require sample heating and/or cryogenic focusing, simple and rapid analyses can be performed along with satisfactory sensitivity for typical tap water samples.

  7. Characterization of hydroperoxides and carbonyl compounds obtained by lipoxygenase extracts of selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bisakowski, B; Perraud, X; Kermasha, S

    1997-08-01

    Partially purified lipoxygenase (LOX) extracts were obtained from Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the enzymatic extract of F. proliferatum showed the highest LOX activity while those of F. oxysporum and S. cerevisiae demonstrated only 27.8 and 16.5% of the activity at pH 8.0, and 61.2 and 9.7% of the enzyme activity at pH 10.0, respectively. The lowest LOX activity was that in the C. pyrenoidosa extract. The microbial enzymatic preparations were assayed with linoleic acid as substrate, which was bioconverted into 9- and 13-hydroperoxides (HPODEs) by all four extracts; in addition, the LOX activity in the F. oxysporum extract produced the 10- and 12-HPODEs from linoleic acid while that of the C. pyrenoidosa extract produced only the 10-HPODE. When assayed with the 9- and 13-HPODEs as substrates, the selected microbial extracts had secondary enzyme activities, one of which produced hexanal. The highest hexanal-producing activity was 1.51 and 1.39 nmol hexanol/mg protein/min in the F. proliferatum and C. pyrenoidosa extracts, respectively, while those of F. oxysporum and S. cerevisiae had approximately 15% of the HPODE-cleaving enzyme activity. The C. pyrenoidosa extract had the highest proportion of pentanone, which was produced at only one-fourth the concentration by the HPODE-cleaving enzyme activity in the three other microbial enzymatic extracts.

  8. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    PubMed

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO.

  9. Ionic-Liquid-Mediated Extraction and Separation Processes for Bioactive Compounds: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Sónia P M; E Silva, Francisca A; Quental, Maria V; Mondal, Dibyendu; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2017-02-02

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as promising media for the extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from the most diverse origins. This critical review offers a compilation on the main results achieved by the use of ionic-liquid-based processes in the extraction and separation/purification of a large range of bioactive compounds (including small organic extractable compounds from biomass, lipids, and other hydrophobic compounds, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and pharmaceuticals). ILs have been studied as solvents, cosolvents, cosurfactants, electrolytes, and adjuvants, as well as used in the creation of IL-supported materials for separation purposes. The IL-based processes hitherto reported, such as IL-based solid-liquid extractions, IL-based liquid-liquid extractions, IL-modified materials, and IL-based crystallization approaches, are here reviewed and compared in terms of extraction and separation performance. The key accomplishments and future challenges to the field are discussed, with particular emphasis on the major lacunas found within the IL community dedicated to separation processes and by suggesting some steps to overcome the current limitations.

  10. Encapsulation of bioactive compound from extracted jasmine flower using β-Cyclodextrin via electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmam., S.; Naim., M. N.; Ng., E.; Mokhtar, M. Nn; Abu Bakar, N. F.

    2016-06-01

    The ability of electrospray to encapsulate the bioactive compound extracted from Jasmine flower with β-Cyclodextrion (β-CD) without any thermal-assisted processing was demonstrated in this study. The extraction of Jasmine compound were conducted using sonicator at 70 000 Hz, for 10 minutes and followed by mixing of the filtered compound with β-CD. Then, the mixture was electrosprayed under a stable Taylor cone jet mode at the voltage of 4 - 5 kV, with flow rate of 0.2 ml/hour. The aluminum substrate that used for collecting the deposit was placed at 30 cm from the needle's tip to allow the occurrence of evaporation and droplet fission until the droplet transform to solid particles. Characteristics of solidified bioactive compound from Jasmine flower (non-encapsulated compound) and solidified bioactive compound with β-CD (encapsulated compound) were studied in this work. From SEM images, it can be observed that the particles size distribution of encapsulated compound deposits have better deposition array and did not aggregate with each other compared to the non-encapsulated compound. FE-SEM images of encapsulated compound deposits indicate more solid crystal looks while non-encapsulated compound was obtained in the porous form. The electrospray process in this work has successfully encapsulated the Jasmine compound with β-CD without any thermal-assisted process. The encapsulation occurrence was determined using FTIR analysis. Identical peaks that referred to the β-CD were found on the encapsulated compound demonstrated that most deposits were encapsulated with β-CD.

  11. Cardiotonic activity of methanolic extract of Saussurea lappa Linn roots.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Bashir, Sajid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir-Hayat; Manzoor, Rashida

    2013-11-01

    The cardiac activity of Saussurea lappa roots was evaluated in isolated perfused rabbit heart by the Langendorff's technique. Heart rate, contractility and coronary flow were determined in the presence of different concentrations of methanolic extract of Saussurea lappa, digoxin and diltiazem. The extract exhibited significant (p<0.01) positive inotropic effect at the first three doses (0.5/μg, 2.5/μg and 5.0/μg) while a significant negative chronotropic effect and coronary flow rates were observed at all the doses tested. These effects were comparable to the effects of digoxin and diltiazem. The increase in force of contraction with decrease in heart rate and coronary flow rates were also observed to be dose dependent as increase in the dose of test extract further enhanced the effects except contractility that started decreasing at higher doses. It is conceivable therefore, that Saussurea lappa roots contain certain pharmacologically active compounds that could be involved in the cardiotonic activity of the extract.

  12. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract from Pueraria mirifica.

    PubMed

    Sookvanichsilp, N; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Boonleang, C

    2008-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica and its extracts are widely used as the ingredient(s) in many rejuvenating products. Up to now, the extract of P. mirifica roots that has been used in most studies, is the alcoholic extract. In the present study, we investigated the estrogenic activity using uterotropic and MCF-7 cell proliferation models of the dichloromethane extract as well as the water extract which was obtained from partitioning the ethanolic extract. The results indicated that among the three extracts, i.e. the ethanolic extract (PM1), the water extract (PM2) and dichloromethane extract (PM3), PM3 exhibited the most potent estrogenic activity in both models, followed by PM1. The extracts produced uterotropic activity associated with the increase of water content while uterotropic activity of 17beta-estradiol was related to the increase of muscle mass. The two isoflavonoids, genistein and daidzein, were not the major active phytoestrogens involving the estrogenic activity of these extracts.

  13. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  14. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  15. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  16. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals.

  17. A two-stage extraction procedure for insensitive munition (IM) explosive compounds in soils.

    PubMed

    Felt, Deborah; Gurtowski, Luke; Nestler, Catherine C; Johnson, Jared; Larson, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new category of insensitive munitions (IMs) that are more resistant to detonation or promulgation from external stimuli than traditional munition formulations. The new explosive constituent compounds are 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazolone (NTO). The production and use of IM formulations may result in interaction of IM component compounds with soil. The chemical properties of these IM compounds present unique challenges for extraction from environmental matrices such as soil. A two-stage extraction procedure was developed and tested using several soil types amended with known concentrations of IM compounds. This procedure incorporates both an acidified phase and an organic phase to account for the chemical properties of the IM compounds. The method detection limits (MDLs) for all IM compounds in all soil types were <5 mg/kg and met non-regulatory risk-based Regional Screening Level (RSL) criteria for soil proposed by the U.S. Army Public Health Center. At defined environmentally relevant concentrations, the average recovery of each IM compound in each soil type was consistent and greater than 85%. The two-stage extraction method decreased the influence of soil composition on IM compound recovery. UV analysis of NTO established an isosbestic point based on varied pH at a detection wavelength of 341 nm. The two-stage soil extraction method is equally effective for traditional munition compounds, a potentially important point when examining soils exposed to both traditional and insensitive munitions.

  18. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds.

    PubMed

    Magwaza, Lembe Samukelo; Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Cronje, Paul J R; Landahl, Sandra; Ortiz, Jose Ordaz; Terry, Leon A

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds are time consuming. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds were developed by comparing three extraction solvent combinations (80:20 v/v ethanol:H2O; 70:29.5:0.5 v/v/v methanol:H2O:HCl; and 50:50 v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO):methanol) for effectiveness. Freeze-dried, rind powder was extracted in an ultrasonic water bath at 35°C for 10, 20, and 30 min. Phenolic compound quantification was done with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with diode array detector. Extracting with methanol:H2O:HCl for 30 min resulted in the optimum yield of targeted phenolic acids. Seven phenolic acids and three flavanone glycosides (FGs) were quantified. The dominant phenolic compound was hesperidin, with concentrations ranging from 7500 to 32,000 μg/g DW. The highest yield of FGs was observed in samples extracted, using DMSO:methanol for 10 min. Compared to other extraction methods, methanol:H2O:HCl was efficient in optimum extraction of phenolic acids. The limit of detection and quantification for all analytes were small, ranging from 1.35 to 5.02 and 4.51 to 16.72 μg/g DW, respectively, demonstrating HPLC quantification method sensitivity. The extraction and quantification methods developed in this study are faster and more efficient. Where speed and effectiveness are required, these methods are recommended.

  19. In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Taioba) Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Caxito, Marina L. C.; Correia, Rachell R.; Gomes, Anne Caroline C.; Justo, Graça; Coelho, Marsen G. P.; Sakuragui, Cássia M.; Kuster, Ricardo M.; Sabino, Katia C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott is a herb of the Araceae family, popularly known as taioba, which is consumed as food in some regions of Brazil, Africa, and Asia. This species has already been evaluated for the antifungal activities. However, based on its potential antitumor activity, the present study further aimed to examine the antitumor, as well as chelation, activity of X. sagittifolium leaf extract. Results showed that hydroethanolic extract of X. sagittifolium leaves (HEXs-L) exhibits cytotoxic effects against the immortalized line of human T-lymphocytic (Jurkat) and myelogenous (K562) leukemia cells, but not nontumor RAW 264.7 macrophages or NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. HEXs-L inhibited 50.3% of Jurkat cell proliferation, reducing by 20% cells in G2/M phase, but increasing cells in sub-G1 phase, thereby inducing apoptosis by 54%. In addition, HEXs-L inhibited NO production by 59%, as determined by Griess reaction, and chelated 93.8% of free Fe(II), as demonstrated by ferrozine assay. Phytochemical studies were carried out by ESI-MS, identifying apigenin di-C-glycosides as major compounds. Overall, this work revealed that leaf extract of Xanthosoma sagittifolium presented chelating activity and in vitro antitumor activity, arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis of leukemia cells, thus providing evidence that taioba leaves may have practical application in cancer therapy. PMID:26180533

  20. Estrogenic activity of a naringinase-treated extract of Sophora japonica cultivated in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Halawany, Ali M; Chung, Mi Hwa; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nishihara, Tsutomu; Hattori, Masao

    2010-02-01

    The naringinase-treated methanol extract of Sophora japonica L. (Fabaceae) seeds showed potent estrogen agonist activity. Through bioassay-guided isolation of the main active constituents from the naringinase-treated methanol extract of S. japonica, the aglycones genistein and kaempferol were found to be the main phytoestrogens in the naringinase-treated extract. In addition, kaempferol was nearly equipotent to genistein as an estrogen agonist. Concerning the compounds isolated from the untreated methanol extract, sophoricoside showed weak estrogenic activity on ERbeta only.

  1. Isolation and characterization of an utero-active compound from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Basilio, C M; Seyler, L; Bernstein, J; Castro de la Mata, R

    1989-12-01

    Crude extracts of Agave americana contain two utero-active compounds. One of these, tentatively named "Fraction B", has been purified to chromatographic homogeneity. Its pharmacological actions are similar to those of acetylcholine. However its chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities are different. Some chemical properties of fraction B are compatible with the structure of an acyl derivative of choline different from acetylcholine.

  2. Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

    2007-04-25

    Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  3. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

    2010-12-01

    Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. β-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Assessment of Antioxidant and Phenolic Compound Concentrations as well as Xanthine Oxidase and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Different Extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2011-01-01

    Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases, thus establishing a significant role for antioxidants in maintaining human health. Acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus were evaluated for their antioxidant activities against β-carotene-linoleic acid and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating abilities, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. In addition, the tyrosinase inhibitory effects and phenolic compound contents of the extracts were also analyzed. Methanol and acetone extracts of P. citrinopileatus showed stronger inhibition of β-carotene-linoleic acid compared to the hot water extract. Methanol extract (8 mg/mL) showed a significantly high reducing power of 2.92 compared to the other extracts. The hot water extract was more effective than the acetone and methanole extracts for scavenging DPPH radicals. The strongest chelating effect (92.72%) was obtained with 1.0 mg/mL of acetone extract. High performance liquid chromatography analysis detected eight phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin, and biochanin-A, in an acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5 : 1) solvent extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of P. citrinopileatus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22783067

  5. [Coordination compounds of Pd(II) with potential antitumor activity].

    PubMed

    González Vílchez, F; García Basallote, M; Benítez Ordóñez, J; Vilaplana Serrano, R

    1982-01-01

    The first results about the anti-neoplastic activity of Pd(II) ion coordinative compounds with complexones of the ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid type are described. The assays employing Ehrlich ascites cancer of the mouse show that the presence of substitutes in the ethylenediamine skeleton originates important changes of the activity of such compounds.

  6. Individual organic compounds in water extracts from podzolic soils of the Komi Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamrikova, E. V.; Punegov, V. V.; Gruzdev, I. V.; Vanchikova, E. V.; Vetoshkina, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    The contents of organic compounds in water extracts from organic horizons of loamy soils with different water contents from the medium taiga zone of the Komi Republic were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mass concentration of organic carbon in the extracts was in the range of 290-330 mg/dm3; the mass fraction of the carbon from the identified compounds was 0.5-1.9%. Hydrocarbons made up about 60% of the total identified compounds; acids and their derivatives composed less than 40%. Most of the acids (40-70%) were aliphatic hydroxy acids. The tendencies in the formation of different classes of organic compounds were revealed depending on the degree of the soil hydromorphism. The acid properties of the water-soluble compounds were studied by pK spectroscopy. Five groups of compounds containing acid groups with similar pKa values were revealed. The compounds containing groups with pKa < 4.0 were predominant. The increase in the surface wetting favored the formation of compounds with pKa 3.2-4.0 and 7.4-8.4.

  7. [Analysis on patent network of compound Danshen extracts built by Tasly].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zou, Wen-Jun; Wang, Peng-Long; Xu, Xin; Lei, Hai-Min

    2013-01-01

    Patent network of Chinese patent medicines is a patent group composed of several correlated patents around basic patents or core technologies characterized by traditional Chinese medicine technologies. With the clue of Tianjin Tasly Group's acquisition of seven compound Danshen patents characterized by extract feeds of Beijing Cairui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., we made an analysis on how Tasly builds a patent network themed on compound Danshen preparation products characterized by extract feeds, in hope of providing reference for other Chinese pharmaceutical enterprise to establish and improve key patent networks of traditional Chinese medicines.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Biological Activities of Extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; Lima, Fernanda Oliveira; Amaro de Carvalho, Camilo; Viana, Carine; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this work, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Brassica oleracea var. capitata extracts obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction are evaluated. The extracts obtained using the best extraction conditions were subjected to different hydrolysis conditions before their use in the biological tests. The crude and hydrolysed extracts were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with a mass detector. The use of ultrasound at 30 °C with 60% (by volume) solvent enabled obtaining a richer extract. All extracts had antioxidant activities against DPPH (13.0–80.0%), superoxide (35.2–63.2%) and peroxyl (89.3–99.5%) radicals, but the use of hydrolysed extracts considerably improved the antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activities only of the hydrolysed extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata were detected. It was confirmed that antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts can be considerably increased when hydrolysis is applied as a pretreatment to their extraction. PMID:27904339

  9. Investigation of extractable organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; German, Christopher R.

    2015-05-01

    The possibility that deep-sea hydrothermal vents may contain organic compounds produced by abiotic synthesis or by microbial communities living deep beneath the surface has led to numerous studies of the organic composition of vent fluids. Most of these studies have focused on methane and other light hydrocarbons, while the possible occurrence of more complex organic compounds in the fluids has remained largely unstudied. To address this issue, the presence of higher molecular weight organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids was assessed at three sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that span a range of temperatures (51 to >360 °C), fluid compositions, and host-rock lithologies (mafic to ultramafic). Samples were obtained at several sites within the Lucky Strike, Rainbow, and Lost City hydrothermal fields. Three methods were employed to extract organic compounds for analysis, including liquid:liquid extraction, cold trapping on the walls of a coil of titanium tubing, and pumping fluids through cartridges filled with solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents. The only samples to consistently yield high amounts of extractable organic compounds were the warm (51-91 °C), highly alkaline fluids from Lost City, which contained elevated concentrations of C8, C10, and C12n-alkanoic acids and, in some cases, trithiolane, hexadecanol, squalene, and cholesterol. Collectively, the C8-C12 acids can account for about 15% of the total dissolved organic carbon in the Lost City fluids. The even-carbon-number predominance of the alkanoic acids indicates a biological origin, but it is unclear whether these compounds are derived from microbial activity occurring within the hydrothermal chimney proximal to the site of fluid discharge or are transported from deeper within the system. Hydrothermal fluids from the Lucky Strike and Rainbow fields were characterized by an overall scarcity of extractable dissolved organic compounds. Trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons including

  10. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of extracts and secondary metabolites from Acacia cyanophylla

    PubMed Central

    Ghribia, Lotfi; Ghouilaa, Hatem; Omrib, Amel; Besbesb, Malek; Janneta, Hichem Ben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant potential and anti-acetycholinesterase activity of compounds and extracts from Acacia cyanophylla (A. cyanophylla). Methods Three polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of A. cyanophylla flowers. They have been identified as isosalipurposide 1, quercetin 2 and naringenin 3. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as ES-MS. The prepared extracts and the isolated compounds 1-3 were tested for their antioxidant activity using 1′-1′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging assays and reducing power. They have been also investigated for inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase using the microplate assay. Results In the DPPH test, the EtOAc extract of flowers exhibited the highest antioxidant effect (67.26 µg/mL). Isosalipurposide 1 showed a significant antiradical power against DPPH (81.9 µg/mL). All extracts showed a dose-dependent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In terms of the IC50 value, the butanolic extract (16.03 µg/mL) was the most potent sample. Isosalipurposide 1 was found to be active against AChE with an IC50 value of 52.04 µg/mL. Conclusions The results demonstrated the important antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pure compounds and extracts from A. cyanophylla. PMID:25183120

  11. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  12. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted hydroalcoholic extraction of phenolic compounds from walnut leaves using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nour, Violeta; Trandafir, Ion; Cosmulescu, Sina

    2016-10-01

    Context Walnut leaves are highly appreciated for their pharmacological effects and therapeutic properties which are mainly attributed to their high content of phenolic compounds. Objective This study optimizes ultrasound assisted hydroalcoholic extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from dried walnut leaves by the maximization of total phenolics content (TPC) and total flavanoids content (TFC) of the extracts. Materials and methods Optimal conditions with regard to ethanol concentration (X1: 12.17-95.83% v/v), extraction time (X2: 8.17-91.83 min) and liquid-to-solid ratio (X3: 4.96-25.04 v/w) were identified using central composite design combined with response surface methodology. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode-array detection was used to quantify phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, salicylic, ellagic and trans-cinnamic), flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin and quercetin) and juglone in the extracts. Results Liquid-to-solid ratio and ethanol concentration proved to be the primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency. The maximum predicted TPC, under the optimized conditions (61% ethanol concentration, 51.28 min extraction time and 4.96 v/w liquid-to-solid ratio) was 10125.4 mg gallic acid equivalents per liter while maximum TFC (2925 mg quercetin equivalents per liter) occurred at 67.83% ethanol concentration, 4.96 v/w liquid-to-solid ratio and 49.37 min extraction time. High significant correlations were found between antioxidant activity and both TPC (R(2 )=( )0.81) and TFC (R(2 )=( )0.78). Discussion and conclusion Extracts very rich in polyphenols could be obtained from walnut leaves by using UAE, aimed at preparing dietary supplements, nutraceuticals or functional food ingredients.

  13. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Goutam; Panda, Pritipadma; Rath, Meera; Pal, Abhisek; Sharma, Tripti; Das, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide, N, N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N, N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1H)Pyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4’-(1-methyl ethylidene) bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes. PMID:25598644

  14. Terpenoid bioactive compound from Streptomyces rochei (M32): taxonomy, fermentation and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Pazhanimurugan, Raasaiyah; Radhakrishnan, Manikkam; Shanmugasundaram, Thangavel; Gopikrishnan, Venugopal; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The present study emphasized the production of biologically active terpenoid compound from Streptomyces rochei M32, which was isolated from Western Ghats ecosystem, South India. The presence of resistant genes like mecA, vanA of Staphylococcus aureus and bla SHV, bla TEM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by molecular studies. The isolated compound from Streptomyces rochei M32 inhibited wide range of standard and clinical drug resistant pathogens and enteric pathogens. The rice bran supplemented basal medium influenced the active compound production on 8th day of fermentation and yielded 1875 mg of crude extract from 10 g of rice bran substrate. Purification and characterization of crude ethyl acetate extract was achieved by preparative thin layer chromatography. The active fraction was identified as terpenoid class compound by chemical screening. Based on the results of spectral studies (NMR, LC-MS, FTIR, etc.), the active compound was tentatively identified as 1, 19-bis (3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl) nonadeca-5, 14-diene-1, 8, 12, 19-tetraone with molecular weight 462.41 g/mol. Minimum inhibitory concentration value ranges between 7.6 and 31.2 µg/mL against test organisms was observed. The cytotoxicity results on cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line showed IC50 value of 2.034 µg/mL. The corresponding compound is not previously reported from any microbial resources.

  15. The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Motamedi, Hossein; Vafei, Mouzhan; Bakhtiari, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia fistula, is a flowering plant and a member of Fabaceae family. Its leaves are compound of 4 - 8 pairs of opposite leaflets. There are many Cassia species around the world which are used in herbal medicine. Objectives: This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-bacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula native to Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial inhibitory effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula was tested on 3 Gram positive: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and 5 Gram negative: Salmonella Typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis bacterial species using disc diffusion method at various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were measured by the tube dilution assay. Results: The extract of C. fistula was effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The most susceptible microorganisms to ethanolic and methanolic extracts were E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Also B. cereus and S. aureus showed the least sensitivity to ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of ethanolic extracts against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae were also determined. Conclusions: With respect to the obtained results and regarding to the daily increase of the resistant microbial strains to the commercial antibiotics, it can be concluded that these extracts can be proper candidates of antibacterial substance against pathogenic bacterial species especially S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. PMID:25147664

  16. Chemical transformations that yield compounds with distinct activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-07-14

    We have systematically searched for chemical changes that generate compounds with distinct biological activity profiles. For this purpose, activity profiles were generated for ∼42000 compounds active against human targets. Unique activity profiles involving multiple target proteins were determined, and all possible matched molecular pairs (MMPs) were identified for compounds representing these profiles. An MMP is defined as a pair of compounds that are distinguished from each other only at a single site such as an R group or ring system. For example, in an MMP, a hydroxyl group might be replaced by a halogen atom or a benzene ring by an amide group. From ∼37500 MMPs, more than 300 nonredundant chemical transformations were isolated that yielded compounds with distinct activity profiles. None of these transformations was found in pairs of compounds with overlapping activity profiles. These transformations were ranked according to the number of MMPs, the number of activity profiles, and the total number of targets that they covered. In many instances, prioritized transformations involved ring systems of varying complexity. All transformations that were found to switch activity profiles are provided to enable further analysis and aid in compound design efforts.

  17. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX EXTRACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Unidentified Organic Compounds. For target analytes, standards are purchased, extraction and clean-up procedures are optimized, and mass spectra and retention times for the chromatographic separation are obtained for comparison to the target compounds in environmental sample ...

  18. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Conventional Techniques.

    PubMed

    Pires, Claudia T A; de L Scodro, Regiane B; Brenzan, Mislaine A; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Siqueira, Vera L D; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Goncalves, Renata M; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany R; Cardoso, Rosilene F

    2016-01-01

    The conventional techniques used to extract natural products have many disadvantages, and alternative methods have been used, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-CO2). We compared the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and cytotoxicity of extracts and major pure compounds were obtained from the leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense by SFE-CO2, maceration and Soxhlet. Anti-M tuberculosis activity was evaluated by resazurin microtiter assay plate and cytotoxicity assay was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. The (-) mammea A/BB, (-) mammea B/BB, mammea B/BB cyclo D, ponnalide, mammea A/BA cyclo D, and amentoflavone were identified as the majority compounds. SFE-CO2, especially at 313 K and 10.92 MPa showed better yield for (-) mammea A/BB. Anti-M. tuberculosis activity (62.5 μg/mL) and cytotoxicity (Selectivity Index = 0.320-0.576) were similar for the three extracts. Mammea B/BB cyclo D had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 μg/mL, and ponnalide and mammea A/BA cyclo D had MICs > 250 μg/mL. The pure compounds isolated showed low Selectivity Index (< 0.09). SFE-CO2 may be more promising than conventional methods for the extraction of compound (-) mammea A/BB, which presented the best anti-M. tuberculosis activity in our previous study. This is important for current industrial requirements to obtain extracts from medicinal plants using clean technologies.

  19. Antifungal activity of extracts and prenylated coumarins isolated from Baccharis darwinii Hook & Arn. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Kurdelas, Rita R; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Gonzalez Sierra, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Zacchino, Susana; Enriz, Ricardo D; Freile, Monica L

    2010-07-13

    The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5'-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1), aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2) and 5'-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3). The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 microg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 microg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 microg/mL) against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii.

  20. Chemical composition and antidiabetic activity of Opuntia Milpa Alta extracts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Zheng, Chengjian; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan

    2010-12-01

    Three new compounds, 1-3, and 20 known compounds were isolated from the AcOEt and BuOH extract of edible Opuntia Milpa Alta. The petroleum ether extract was examined by GC and MS. A total of 26 compounds were identified, representing 95.6% of the total extract, phytosterol (36.03%) being the most abundant component, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (18.57%) represented the second largest group, followed by phytol (12.28%), palmitic acid, palmitate (13.54%), vitamin E (4.51%), and other compounds (7.47%). The effects of various extracts from edible Opuntia Milpa Alta (petroleum ether extract, AcOEt extract, BuOH extract, aqueous extract, H₂O parts) and the positive control (received dimethylbiguanide) were tested on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results indicated that all the treatment groups could significantly decrease blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice compared to the model control group (P<0.01), except the aqueous extract group (P<0.05). Especially, the petroleum ether extract group and the positive control group showed remarkable decrease of blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results indicate that the petroleum ether extract is the major hypoglycemic part in edible Opuntia Milpa Alta, which may be developed to a potential natural hypoglycemic functional ingredient.

  1. Subcritical water extraction of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity from oregano. Chemical and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Marin, F R; Herrero, M; Señorans, F J; Reglero, G; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

    2006-08-28

    In the present work, oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) are explored as natural source of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE), a new environmentally friendly technique, is employed as extraction procedure and HPLC coupled to DAD is used for the chemical characterization of the extracts. Moreover, the radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the determination of the total phenolic content (measured with the Folin test) are applied to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The extraction of antioxidants from oregano leaves by SWE is studied considering different temperatures (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) to investigate the selectivity of the process. The highest antioxidant activity is observed for the extract obtained at the highest temperature, 200 degrees C (EC(50) equal to 10 microg/ml). Moreover, the extraction yield was also the highest (54% dry weight) at these extraction conditions. The total phenolic content showed no differences among the different extracts, concluding that the amount of phenolic compounds extracted was similar but the type and structure of the phenolics was different, providing in this way different antioxidant activity. Some compounds could be tentatively identified, proposing some probable chemical structures for some of them, such as flavanones, dihydroflavonols, favonols and flavones.

  2. Study of the Gastroprotective Effect of Extracts and Semipurified Fractions of Chresta martii DC. and Identification of Its Principal Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Franco, E. S.; Mélo, M. E. B.; Jatobá, B. J. A.; Santana, A. L. B. D.; Silva, A. A. R.; Silva, T. G.; Nascimento, M. S.; Maia, M. B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Chresta martii (Asteraceae) is a species widely used by the population of the Xingu region of Sergipe, Brazil, in the form of a decoction (aerial parts) for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The study aims to assess the gastroprotective activity of organic extracts and semipurified fractions and identify the principal compounds present in C. martii responsible for such activity. The organic extracts (cyclohexane: ECCm, ethyl acetate: EACm, and ethanol: EECm) were obtained from the dried aerial parts (500 g) of C. martii. For evaluation of the gastroprotective activity of extracts (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; p.o.), male Swiss Webster mice (25–30 g) were used which had gastric ulcers induced by indomethacin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or ethanol (0.2 mL/animal; p.o.). Among the extracts evaluated, EACm exhibited significant (P < 0.05) gastroprotective activity in the models used. The fractionation of EACm was performed in a silica gel column 60 eluted with the following compounds: [chloroform—F1 yield (10%)], [chloroform/ethyl acetate (1/1)—F2 yield (6%)], [ethyl acetate—F3 yield (8%)], and [ethyl/methanol acetate (1/1)—F4 yield (5%)]. Of the fractions described above, the F1 (25 mg/kg; p.o.) had greater gastroprotective activity (P < 0.05) than that displayed by ranitidine (80 mg/kg; p.o.) in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The refractionation of F1 produced 23 subfractions and from these two yellow amorphous compounds were obtained by recrystallization, Rf: 0.46 and 0.31 (ethyl acetate : chloroform 5 : 5). The compounds isolated were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and identified as flavones: chrysoeriol (yield: 0.43%) and 3′,4′-dimethoxyluteolin (yield: 0.58%). Conclusion. Flavone 3′,4′-dimethoxyluteolin is the principal compound present in the species C. martii and is probably responsible for gastroprotective activity observed in this species. PMID:25866537

  3. Optimisation and validation of the microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains.

    PubMed

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2015-02-15

    A new microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method has been investigated for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. The experimental conditions studied included temperature (125-175°C), microwave power (500-1000W), time (5-15min), solvent (10-90% EtOAc in MeOH) and solvent-to-sample ratio (10:1 to 20:1). The extraction variables were optimised by the response surface methodology. Extraction temperature and solvent were found to have a highly significant effect on the response value (p<0.0005) and the extraction time also had a significant effect (p<0.05). The optimised MAE conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 185°C, microwave power 1000W, extraction time 20min, solvent 100% MeOH, and solvent-to-sample ratio 10:1. The developed method had a high precision (in terms of CV: 5.3% for repeatability and 5.5% for intermediate precision). Finally, the new method was applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of phenolic compounds in a wide variety of rice grains.

  4. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for the phenolic compounds extraction from artificial textile industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hermawan, Sari, Lelita Sakina

    2017-03-01

    Liquid waste in textile industry contains large amounts of dyes and chemicals which are capable of harming the environment and human health. It is due to liquid waste characteristics which have high BOD, COD, temperature, dissolved and suspended solid. One of chemical compound which might be harmful for environment when disposed in high concentration is phenol. Currently, Phenol compound in textile industrial waste has reached 10 ppm meanwhile maximum allowable phenol concentration is not more than 0.2 ppm. Otherwise, Phenol also has economic value as feedstock of plastic, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Furthermore, suitable method to separate phenol from waste water is needed. In this research, liquid - liquid extraction method was used with extraction time for 70 minutes. Waste water sample was then separated into two layers which are extract and raffinate. Thereafter, extract and raffinate were then tested by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to obtained liquid - liquid equilibrium data. Aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature, stirring speed and type of solvent to obtain distribution coefficient (Kd), phenol yield and correlation of Three-Suffix Margules model for the liquid - liquid extraction data equilibrium. The highest extraction yield at 80.43 % was found by using 70% methanol as solvent at extraction temperature 50 °C with stirring speed 300 rpm, coefficient distribution was found 216.334. From this research it can be concluded that Three-Suffix Margules Model is suitable to predict liquid - liquid equilibrium data for phenol system.

  5. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of Alchornea floribunda leaf extract, fractions and isolated bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Obasi, Okechukwu; Umeokoli, Blessing Ogechukwu; Ogbuatu, Peter; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Alchornea floribunda leaves are widely used in ethnomedicine for the management of immuno-inflammatory disorders. We investigated the in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity of the leaf extract, fractions and isolated compounds of A. floribunda. Materials and Methods: The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol leaf extract was subjected to several chromatographic separations to isolate compounds 1-4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. Oxidative stress was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Further analysis on the isolated phenolic compounds were done using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity tests. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05) elevations of catalase enzyme activity and a significant (p<0.05) reduction in serum malondialdehyde. The chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction led to the isolation of three flavans, (-) cathechin (1), (-) epicathechin (2), (+) epicathechin (3) and a flavanone, 2R, 3R dihydroquercitin (4). In hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, (-) epicathechin exhibited an EC50 value of 8 μg/ml, similar to the standard ascorbic acid (EC50 = 8 μg/ml). (-) epicathechin showed scavenging of DPPH radical with EC50 value of 19 μg/ml while in the FRAP assay, it had EC50 value of 46 μg/ml which was lower than that of the standard, ascobic acid (EC50 = 66 μg/ml). Conclusion: The medicinal uses of A. floribunda may be due to the antioxidant activities of its phenolic compounds. PMID:28265550

  6. In Vivo Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts and Protopine from the Fumaria schleicheri Herb

    PubMed Central

    Prokopenko, Yuliya; Tsyvunin, Vadim; Shtrygol’, Sergey; Georgiyants, Victoriya

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of several biologically active compounds from Fumaria schleicheri Soy.-Will. in anticonvulsant models. The flavonoid fraction, alkaloid fraction, individual alkaloid protopine, and polysaccharide-protein complex were isolated from the Fumaria schleicheri herb and studied along with Fumaria schleicheri dry extract in mice with pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. According to empirical results, the expressed anticonvulsant effect of Fumaria schleicheri dry extract depends on the synergism of biologically active compounds in herbal medicine, although some individual substances (mostly protopine and the protein-polysaccharide fraction) have shown moderate anti-seizure activity. PMID:28117320

  7. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  8. Optimization of Multistage Extraction of Olive Leaves for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds at Moderated Temperatures and Short Extraction Times

    PubMed Central

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Chatzilazarou, Archontoula; Katsoyannos, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL) by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid equivalents was obtained at pH 2, particle size 0.315 mm, solid-liquid ratio 1:7 and aqueous ethanol concentration 70% (v/v). The optimum duration time of each extraction stage and the operation temperature, were chosen based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of oleuropein (OLE), verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The optimum conditions for multistage extraction were 30 min total extraction time (10 min × 3 stages) at 85 °C. The 80% of the total yield of polyphenols was obtained at the 1st stage of the extraction. The total extraction yield of oleuropein was found 23 times higher (103.1 mg OLE/g dry weight (d.w.) OL) compared to the yield (4.6 mg OLE/g d.w. OL) obtained by the conventional extraction method (40 °C, 48 h). However, from an energetic and hence from an economical point of view it is preferable to work at 40 °C, since the total extraction yield of polyphenolic compounds was only 17% higher for a double increase in the operating temperature (i.e., 85 °C). PMID:28234304

  9. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungal spores in nutrient solution or bacteria in liquefied agar), allowing time for the microbes to gr...

  10. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  11. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM STANDARD REFERENCE SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an ongoing evaluation of new sample preparation techniques by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), especially those that minimize waste solvents, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of organic compounds from solid materials (or "matrices") was evaluated. Six...

  12. COMPARISON OF TWO FIELD SAMPLING PROCEDURES (EN CORE AND FIELD METHANOL EXTRACTION) FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ Lasagna technology was recently evaluated at a contaminated site at Offutt Air Force Base. The site was contaminated with low levels (< 30 mg/kg) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Originally, researchers planned to use field methanol extraction for both pre- and pos...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of selected herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Gowthamarajan, K; Kulkarni, T Giriraj; Mahadevan, N; Santhi, K; Suresh, B

    2002-01-01

    METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF OLEORESINS OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI HOOK: and aerial parts of Cytisus scoparius Linn. Were screened for antimicrobial activity against two bacterial strains-Bacillus subtilis (Gram Positive) and Escherichia coli (Gem negative), and two fungal strains - Candida albicans and crytococcus neoformans by two-fold serial dilution technique. The results showed that all the microorganisms used were sensitive to the extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for A. bidwilli were found to be 31.25 μg/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 500 μg/ml for all other organisms used in the study. In case of C. Scoparius, the MIC values were 250 μg/ml for B. Subtilis and 500 μg/ml for allthe other strains used. However, in comparison the ampicillin (MIC: 62.5 μg/ml), and Amphotericin-B (MIC: 125 μg/ml ), the activities of both the extracts were less except A. bidwilli against B.Subtilis.

  14. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    PubMed

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum

    PubMed Central

    Poonkothai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity. PMID:22557222

  16. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A; López, Víctor H; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán S; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-05-05

    Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO₂ produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  17. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A.; López, Víctor H.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán S.; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P.; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis. PMID:27164081

  18. Phenolic compounds with IL-6 inhibitory activity from Aster yomena.

    PubMed

    Kim, A Ryun; Jin, Qinglong; Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2014-07-01

    A new biflavonoid, named asteryomenin (1), as well as six known phenolic compounds, esculetin (2), 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-3-hydroxy methyl benzoate (3), caffeic acid (4), isoquercitrin (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6), and apigenin (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Aster yomena. The structures of compounds (1-7) were identified based on 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. For these isolates, the inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell was examined. Among these isolates, compounds 4 and 7 appeared to have potent inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell, while compounds 1-3 and 5-6 showed moderate activity.

  19. Highly sensitive electromembrane extraction for the determination of volatile organic compound metabolites in dried urine spot.

    PubMed

    Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Unyong; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kang, Wonjae; Kim, Da Som; Han, Sang Beom

    2015-10-16

    Electromembrane extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for determination of ten volatile organic compound metabolites in dried urine spot samples. The dried urine spot approach is a convenient and economical sampling method, wherein urine is spotted onto a filter paper and dried. This method requires only a small amount of sample, but the analysis sometimes suffers from low sensitivity, which can lead to analytical problems in the detection of minor components in samples. The newly developed dried urine spot analysis using electromembrane extraction exhibited improved sensitivity and extraction, and enrichment of the sample was rapidly achieved in one step by applying an electric field. Aliquots of urine were spotted onto Bond Elut DMS cards and dried at room temperature. After drying, the punched out dried urine spot was eluted with water. Volatile organic compound metabolites were extracted from the sample through a supported liquid membrane into an alkaline acceptor solution inside the lumen of a hollow fiber with the help of an electric potential. The optimum extraction conditions were determined by using design of experiments (fractional factorial design and response surface methodology). Satisfactory sensitivity was achieved and the limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were lower than the regulatory threshold limits. The method was validated by assessing the linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, reproducibility, stability, and matrix effects. The results were acceptable, and the developed method was successfully applied to biological exposure monitoring of volatile organic compound metabolites in fifty human urine samples.

  20. Hypoglycemic activity of leaf organic extracts from Smallanthus sonchifolius: Constituents of the most active fractions.

    PubMed

    Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Mercado, María I; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A; Sánchez, Sara S

    2010-04-29

    The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of five organic extracts and enhydrin obtained from yacon leaves. The main constituents of the most active fraction were identified. Five organic extracts and pure crystalline enhydrin were administered to normoglycemic, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were estimated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and dose optimization of each extract. We found that the methanol, butanol and chloroform extracts showed effective hypoglycemic activity at minimum doses of 50, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for further experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of each extract produced a slight lowering effect in the fasting blood glucose level of normal healthy rats, whereas each extract tempered significantly the hyperglycemic peak after food ingestion. Daily administration of each extract for 8 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals with an increase in the plasma insulin level. Phytochemical analysis of the most active fraction, the butanol extract, showed that caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids were significant components. Additionally, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of yacon leaves, was also effective to reduce post-prandial glucose and useful in the treatment of diabetic animals (minimum dose: 0.8mg/kg body weight). The results presented here strongly support the notion that the phenolic compounds above as well as enhydrin are important hypoglycemic principles of yacon leaves that could ameliorate the diabetic state.

  1. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract.

  2. Compounds Released from Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect on Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis and Their Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds detected in prehydrolyzates. When assayed in the presence of switchgrass prehydrolyzates against model substrates, activities of cellulase, betaglucosidase, and exoglucanase, were significantly reduced by at least 16%, 31.8%, and 57.8%, respectively, as compared to the control. A strong positive correlation between inhibition of betaglucosidase and concentration of glucose, acetic acid, and furans in prehydrolyzate was established. Exoglucanase inhibition correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and acetic acid. The prehydrolyzate, prepared at 160°C, 30 min, and 1% acid, was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) into six fractions; the inhibition effect of these fractions on betaglucosidase and exoglucanase was determined. The initial hydrolysis rate of cellobiose by betaglucosidase was significantly reduced by the CPC sugar-rich fraction; however, exoglucanase was deactivated by the CPC phenolic-rich fraction. Finally, biological activities of water-extracted compounds from sweetgum bark and their effect on cellulase was investigated. It was determined that 12% of solid content of the bark extract could be accounted by phenolic compounds with gallic acid identified as the most concentrated phytochemical. Sweetgum bark extract inhibited Staphylococcus

  3. Potato and mushroom polyphenol oxidase activities are differently modulated by natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; van Herk, Teunie; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Janssen, Renske H; Narh, Deborah L; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-08

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcome of such screening, this study compared the effect of 60 plant extracts on the activity of PPO from mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus , AbPPO) and PPO from potato ( Solanum tuberosum , StPPO). Some plant extracts had different effects on the two PPOs: an extract that inhibited one PPO could be an activator for the other. As an example of this, the mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) extract was investigated in more detail. In the presence of mate extract, oxygen consumption by AbPPO was found to be reduced >5-fold compared to a control reaction, whereas that of StPPO was increased >9-fold. RP-UHPLC-MS analysis showed that the mate extract contained a mixture of phenolic compounds and saponins. Upon incubation of mate extract with StPPO, phenolic compounds disappeared completely and saponins remained. Flash chromatography was used to separate saponins and phenolic compounds. It was found that the phenolic fraction was mainly responsible for inhibition of AbPPO and activation of StPPO. Activation of StPPO was probably caused by activation of latent StPPO by chlorogenic acid quinones.

  4. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jana; Schellenberg, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Different extraction methods for the subsequent gas chromatographic determination of the composition of essential oils and related compounds from marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) have been compared. The comparison was also discussed with regard to transformation processes of genuine compounds, particularly in terms of expenditure of time. Hydrodistillation is the method of choice for the determination of the essential oil content of plants. For investigating the composition of genuine essential oils and related, aroma-active compounds, hydrodistillation is not very useful, because of discrimination and transformation processes due to high temperatures and acidic conditions. With cold solvent extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, discrimination of high and non-volatile aroma-active components as well as transformation processes can be diminished, but non-aroma-active fats, waxes, or pigments are often extracted, too. As solid-phase microextraction is a solvent-free fully automizable sample preparation technique, this was the most sparing to sensitive components and the most time-saving method for the rapid determination of the aroma compounds composition in marjoram, caraway, sage, and thyme. Finally, solid-phase microextraction could be successfully optimized for the extraction of the aroma components from the plants for their subsequent gas chromatographic determination.

  5. Feasibility of Active Machine Learning for Multiclass Compound Classification.

    PubMed

    Lang, Tobias; Flachsenberg, Florian; von Luxburg, Ulrike; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-01-25

    A common task in the hit-to-lead process is classifying sets of compounds into multiple, usually structural classes, which build the groundwork for subsequent SAR studies. Machine learning techniques can be used to automate this process by learning classification models from training compounds of each class. Gathering class information for compounds can be cost-intensive as the required data needs to be provided by human experts or experiments. This paper studies whether active machine learning can be used to reduce the required number of training compounds. Active learning is a machine learning method which processes class label data in an iterative fashion. It has gained much attention in a broad range of application areas. In this paper, an active learning method for multiclass compound classification is proposed. This method selects informative training compounds so as to optimally support the learning progress. The combination with human feedback leads to a semiautomated interactive multiclass classification procedure. This method was investigated empirically on 15 compound classification tasks containing 86-2870 compounds in 3-38 classes. The empirical results show that active learning can solve these classification tasks using 10-80% of the data which would be necessary for standard learning techniques.

  6. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of phenolic rich extracts from white and red common beans.

    PubMed

    García-Lafuente, Ana; Moro, Carlos; Manchón, Noelia; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Alicia; Villares, Ana; Guillamón, Eva; Rostagno, Mauricio; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura

    2014-10-15

    According to epidemiological evidence, diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the incidence of several chronic diseases that share an inflammatory component. These protective effects are attributed, in part, to the occurrence of different antioxidant components, mainly phenolic compounds. Our aim was to characterise phenolic composition, and to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic rich extracts obtained from two kinds of common beans, white kidney beans (WKB) and round purple beans (RPB). Phenolic acids were the predominant component in WKB extracts, whereas RPB extracts presented higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, mainly catechin derivatives, proanthocyanidins and catechin glucoside. In addition, RPB extracts showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher anti-inflammatory activity by the reduction of NO production and cytokine mRNA expression of LPS stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that common bean extracts may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion.

  7. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012

  8. Antioxidative activities of volatile extracts from green tea, oolong tea, and black tea.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2003-12-03

    Antioxidative activities of volatile extracts from six teas (one green tea, one oolong tea, one roasted green tea, and three black teas) were investigated using an aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay and a conjugated diene assay. The samples were tested at levels of 20, 50, 100, and 200 micrograms/mL of dichloromethane. The results obtained from the two assays were consistent. All extracts except roasted green tea exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity in the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. A volatile extract from green tea exhibited the most potent activity in both assays among the six extracts. It inhibited hexanal oxidation by almost 100% over 40 days at the level of 200 micrograms/mL. The extract from oolong tea inhibited hexanal oxidation by 50% in 15 days. In the case of the extract from roasted green tea, the lowest antioxidative activity was obtained at the level of 200 micrograms/mL, suggesting that the extract from roasted green tea contained some pro-oxidants. The extracts from the three black teas showed slight anti- or proactivities in both assays. The major volatile constituents of green tea and roasted green tea extracts, which exhibited significant antioxidative activities, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major volatile chemicals with possible antioxidative activity identified were alkyl compounds with double bond(s), such as 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol (8.04 mg/kg), in the extract from green tea and heterocyclic compounds, such as furfural (7.67 mg/kg), in the extract from roasted green tea. Benzyl alcohol, which was proved to be an antioxidant, was identified both in a green tea extract (4.67 mg/kg) and in a roasted tea extract (1.35 mg/kg).

  9. Bio-guided optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of compounds from Annona glabra L. leaves using the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Sadao; Varela, Rosa M; Palma, Miguel; Molinillo, José M G; Lima, Inês S; Barroso, Carmelo G; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-07-01

    A bio-guided optimization of the extraction of bioactive components from Annona glabra leaves has been developed using the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay as the control method. The optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds using allelopathy results as target values has been carried out for the first time. A two-level fractional factorial experimental design was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The solvent was the extraction variable that had the most marked effect on the resulting bioactivity of the extracts in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay. Extraction time, extraction temperature and the size of the ultrasonic probe also influenced the bioactivity of the extracts. A larger scale extraction was carried out in the next step in the allelopathic study, i.e., the isolation of compounds from the bioactive extract and chemical characterization by spectroscopic techniques, including NMR. Eight compounds were isolated and identified from the active extracts, namely two steroids (β-sistosterol and stigmasterol), five diterpenes with the kaurane skeleton (ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, ent-19-methoxy-19-oxokauran-17-oic acid, annoglabasin B, ent-17-hydroxykaur-15-en-19-oic acid and ent-15β,16β-epoxy-17-hydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid) and the acetogenin asimicin. The most active compound was annoglabasin B, which showed inhibition with values of -95% at 10(-3) M, -87% at 5×10(-4) M and greater than -70% at 10(-4) M in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniela A; Salvador, Ana Augusta; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2013-04-10

    The possibility of increasing the aggregated value of the huge amount of residues generated by wineries around the world foment studies using the grape pomace - the residue from the wine production, composed by seed, skin and stems - to obtain functional ingredients. Nowadays, consumers in general prefer natural and safe products mainly for food and cosmetic fields, where the supercritical fluid extraction is of great importance due to the purity of the extracts provided. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the global extraction yield, the antimicrobial activity and the composition profile of Merlot and Syrah grape pomace extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and CO2 added with co-solvent at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures of 50 and 60 °C. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Soxhlet and by ultrasound-assisted leaching extraction methods. The main components from the extracts, identified by HPLC, were gallic acid, p-OH-benzoic acid, vanillic acid and epicatechin. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were evaluated using four strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi strains (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei). Despite lower extraction yield results, the supercritical fluid extracts presented the highest antimicrobial effectiveness compared to the other grape pomace extracts due to the presence of antimicrobial active compounds. Syrah extracts were less efficient against the microorganisms tested and Merlot extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Biological activities of lignin hydrolysate-related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siseon; Monnappa, Ajay Kalanjana; Mitchell, Robert J

    2012-05-01

    Lignin hydrolysates contain many different chemical species, including ferulic acid, coumaric acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde and furfural. From the perspective of biofuels, these compounds are problematic and can cause downstream loss of product if not removed prior to beginning the fermentative process. In contrast, a search for these compounds within the literature turns up many papers where the same compounds have beneficial properties pertaining to human health, including as antioxidants and in cancer prevention, or are involved in bacterial cell-to-cell signaling. Consequently, this article reviews the dual nature of these and other compounds found in lignin hydrolysates, highlighting both their detrimental and beneficial activities.

  12. Phenolic compounds responding to zinc and/or cadmium treatments in Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. extracts and biomass.

    PubMed

    Mongkhonsin, Bodin; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Hokura, Akiko; Nuengchamnong, Nitra; Maneechai, Suthira

    2016-12-01

    Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. is a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. In an in vivo system under controlled plant age, this research reveals that phenolic compounds and lignification play beneficial roles in protecting G. pseudochina from exposure to an excess of Zn and/or Cd, and Zn reduces Cd toxicity under the dual treatments. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values correspond to the metal dose-response curves. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) is used to characterize phenolic compounds and their glycosides, which could play roles in antioxidant activities and in the esterification of the cell wall, especially derivatives of p-coumaric and caffeic acid. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) imaging revealed that the accumulation of Zn and Cd in the cell wall involves flavonoid compounds. Low extractable pools of Cd and Zn in the leaf extracts indicate that these elements are tightly bound to the plant biomass structures. The bulk X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra indicate that Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) dominate with O and S ligands, which could be provided by cell walls, phenolic compounds, and sulphur protein. Consequently, the benefit of these results is to support the growth of G. pseudochina for phytoremediation in a Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated site.

  13. Molecular modeling and snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibition by phenolic compounds: Structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Iqbal; Alam, Mohammed A; Alam, Ozair; Nargotra, Amit; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Koul, Surrinder

    2016-05-23

    In our earlier study, we have reported that a phenolic compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde from Janakia arayalpatra root extract was active against Viper and Cobra envenomations. Based on the structure of this natural product, libraries of synthetic structurally variant phenolic compounds were studied through molecular docking on the venom protein. To validate the activity of eight selected compounds, we have tested them in in vivo and in vitro models. The compound 21 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde), 22 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and 35 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol) were found to be active against venom-induced pathophysiological changes. The compounds 20, 15 and 35 displayed maximum anti-hemorrhagic, anti-lethal and PLA2 inhibitory activity respectively. In terms of SAR, the presence of a formyl group in conjunction with a phenolic group was seen as a significant contributor towards increasing the antivenom activity. The above observations confirmed the anti-venom activity of the phenolic compounds which needs to be further investigated for the development of new anti-snake venom leads.

  14. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Phenolic Compounds and Proteins from Flaxseed Meal

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Bernardo Dias; Barreto, Daniel Weingart; Coelho, Maria Alice Zarur

    2013-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) meal, the main byproduct of the flaxseed oil extraction process, is composed mainly of proteins, mucilage, and phenolic compounds. The extraction methods of phenolics either commonly employed the use of mixed solvents (dioxane/ethanol, water/acetone, water/methanol, and water/ethanol) or are done with the aid of alkaline, acid, or enzymatic hydrolysis. This work aimed at the study of optimal conditions for a clean process, using renewable solvents and enzymes, for the extraction of phenolics and proteins from flaxseed meal. After a screening of the most promising commercial preparations based on different carbohydrases and proteases, a central composite rotatable design and a mixture design were applied, achieving as optimal results a solution containing 6.6 and 152 g kg−1 meal of phenolics and proteins, respectively. The statistical approach used in the present study for the enzyme-enhanced extraction of phenolics and proteins from the major flaxseed byproduct was effective. By means of the sequential experimental design methodology, the extraction of such compounds was increased 10-fold and 14-fold, when compared to a conventional nonenzymatic extraction. PMID:25969774

  15. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  16. Antiprotozoal, antimycobacterial, and anti-inflammatory evaluation of Cnidoscolus chayamansa (Mc Vaugh) extract and the isolated compounds.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Mariana Z; Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel A; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Rojas-Tomé, Irma S; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Jiménez-Arellanes, María A

    2017-02-18

    Cnidoscolus chayamansa is a medicinal and edible plant known as Chaya, is commonly used as an anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antibacterial agent and as a remedy for respiratory illness, gastrointestinal disorders, and vaginal infections related with the inflammation process. In this paper, we describe the plant's phytochemical analysis and biological activities (antimycobacterial, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and anti-inflammatory properties) of the CHCl3:MeOH (1:1) leaves extract and isolated compounds, as well as the acute and sub-acute toxic effects. Chemical identification of isolated compounds was performed by (1)H- and (13)C NMR spectra data. In vitro antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities were determined by disc diffusion and MABA assays, respectively; antiprotozoal test by means of the sub-culture test. Topical and systemic anti-inflammatory effects were tested by TPA and carrageenan assay on BALB/c mice. Moretenol, moretenyl acetate, kaempferol-3,7-dimethyl ether, and 5-hydroxy-7-3',4'-trimethoxyflavanone were the main compounds isolated. The CHCl3:MeOH extract showed antiprotozoal (IC50≤65.29μg/mL), antimycobacterial (MIC≤50μg/mL), and anti-inflammatory activities (ED50=1.66mg/ear and 467.73mg/kg), but was inactive against the bacterial strains tested. The LD50 for extract was >2g/kg. In the sub-acute toxicity test, the extract was administered at 1g/kg for 28days and did not cause lethality or any alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters; in addition, liver, kidney, and spleen histological analysis exhibited no structural changes. Moretenol and moretenyl acetate showed MIC=25μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and against four monoresistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Both compounds exhibited moderate activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (IC50≤71.70μg/mL). Kaempferol-3,7-dimethyl ether and 5-hydroxy-7-3',4'-trimethoxy-flavanone were more active than the extract against E

  17. Active Learning-Based Pedagogical Rule Extraction.

    PubMed

    Junqué de Fortuny, Enric; Martens, David

    2015-11-01

    Many of the state-of-the-art data mining techniques introduce nonlinearities in their models to cope with complex data relationships effectively. Although such techniques are consistently included among the top classification techniques in terms of predictive power, their lack of transparency renders them useless in any domain where comprehensibility is of importance. Rule-extraction algorithms remedy this by distilling comprehensible rule sets from complex models that explain how the classifications are made. This paper considers a new rule extraction technique, based on active learning. The technique generates artificial data points around training data with low confidence in the output score, after which these are labeled by the black-box model. The main novelty of the proposed method is that it uses a pedagogical approach without making any architectural assumptions of the underlying model. It can therefore be applied to any black-box technique. Furthermore, it can generate any rule format, depending on the chosen underlying rule induction technique. In a large-scale empirical study, we demonstrate the validity of our technique to extract trees and rules from artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, on 25 data sets of varying size and dimensionality. Our results show that not only do the generated rules explain the black-box models well (thereby facilitating the acceptance of such models), the proposed algorithm also performs significantly better than traditional rule induction techniques in terms of accuracy as well as fidelity.

  18. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta Schum) Extract

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta Schum, Zingiberaceae) has been evaluated for inhibitory activity on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity and expression of several pro-inflammatory genes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation showed that the most active COX-2 inhibitory compound in the extract was [6]-paradol. [6]-Shogaol, another compound from the extract, was the most active inhibitory compound in pro-inflammatory gene expression assays. In a rat paw edema model, the whole extract reduced inflammation by 49% at 1000 mg/kg. Major gingerols from the extract [6]-paradol, [6]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol reduced inflammation by 20, 25 and 38%. respectively when administered individually at a dose of 150 mg/kg. [6]-Shogaol efficacy was at the level of aspirin, used as a positive control. Grains of paradise extract has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity, which is in part due to the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme activity and expression of pro-inflammatory genes. PMID:25293633

  19. A single N-terminal cysteine in TRPV1 determines activation by pungent compounds from onion and garlic.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Héctor; Llorente, Itzel; Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; García-Villegas, Refugio; Munari, Mika; Gordon, Sharona E; Islas, León D; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2008-03-01

    Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels mediate sensory responses to irritant substances. Although it is well known that TRPA1 channels are activated by pungent compounds found in garlic, onion, mustard and cinnamon extracts, activation of TRPV1 by these extracts remains controversial. Here we establish that TRPV1 is activated by pungent extracts from onion and garlic, as well as by allicin, the active compound in these preparations, and participates together with TRPA1 in the pain-related behavior induced by this compound. We found that in TRPV1 these agents act by covalent modification of cysteine residues. In contrast to TRPA1 channels, modification of a single cysteine located in the N-terminal region of TRPV1 was necessary and sufficient for all the effects we observed. Our findings point to a conserved mechanism of activation in TRP channels, which provides new insights into the molecular basis of noxious stimuli detection.

  20. [Antibacterial activity of natural compounds - essential oils].

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Majerová, Michaela; Šudomová, Miroslava; Berchová, Kateřina

    2015-12-01

    Since the problem of bacterial resistance has become a serious problem worldwide, it was necessary to search for new active substances that can overcome the problem and enhance the treatment efficacy of bacterial infections. Numerous plant-derived essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activities. This review aimed to summarize the most promising essential oils that exhibited remarkable antibacterial activities against various bacterial infections, including staphylococcal infections, Helicobacter pylori infections, skin infections, tuberculosis infection and dental bacterial infection. The synergy effect of essential oils in combination with antibiotics, as well as their role in the treatment of bacterial infections have been discussed. Essential oils can be used as models for further studies in vivo and clinical trials.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of leaves and flowers extracts from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Ara, N; Nur, M H; Amran, M S; Wahid, M I I; Ahmed, M

    2009-01-01

    The research was conducted to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of leaves and flowers extract extracted from Lippia alba. Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Zones of inhibition were observed in disc diffusion for antibacterial screening against 4 Gram-positive pathogenic and 6 Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Among crude extracts chloroform extract showed good activity against all test organisms. A Large zone of inhibition was observed (18 mm) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In antifungal screening, the compound showed mild to moderate zones of inhibition against four tested organisms. A Large zone of inhibition was observed against Aspergillus niger (13 mm). Cytotoxic activities of crude extracts were determined using Brine shrimp lethality Bioassay and LC50 values of standard Vincristin sulphate as positive control, n-hexane and crude ethanol extracts were found to be 5, 15 and 20 microg mL(-1), respectively.

  2. Antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Dorta, E; González, M; Lobo, M G; Laich, F

    2015-11-26

    The antioxidant and antifungal (antiyeast) properties of mango (Mangifera indica) peel and seed by-products were investigated. Nine extracts were obtained using three cultivars and two extraction methods. Significant differences between cultivars and extraction methods were detected in their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The antifungal property was determined using agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays against 18 yeast species of the genera Candida, Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. All mango extracts showed antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were lower for seed than for peel extracts. MICs and MFCs ranged from values <0.1 to 5 and 5 to >30 mgGAE/mL, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between antifungal activity, the capacity to inhibit li