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Sample records for active contractile properties

  1. Motor units in incomplete spinal cord injury: electrical activity, contractile properties and the effects of biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Stein, R B; Brucker, B S; Ayyar, D R

    1990-10-01

    The electrical and contractile properties of hand muscles in a selected population of quadriplegic subjects were studied intensively before and after EMG biofeedback. Spontaneously active motor units and units that could only be slowly and weakly activated were observed in these subjects, in addition to units that were voluntarily activated normally. This suggests a considerable overlap of surviving motor neurons to a single muscle that are below, near or above the level of a lesion. Despite the common occurrence of polyphasic potentials and other signs of neuromuscular reinnervation, the average twitch tension of single motor units in hand muscles of quadriplegic subjects was not significantly different from that in control subjects. Nor did it increase after biofeedback training that typically increased the peak surface EMG by a factor of 2-5 times. The percentage of spontaneously active units was also constant. The surface EMG may be increased during biofeedback by using higher firing rates in motor units that can already be activated, rather than by recruiting previously unavailable motor units. PMID:2266370

  2. Contractile Function During Angiotensin-II Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Bamboye, Moradeke A.; Gondim, Antonio N.S.; Santos, Celio X.; Martin, Daniel; Ghigo, Alessandra; Perino, Alessia; Brewer, Alison C.; Ward, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Emilio; Lederer, W. Jonathan; Shah, Ajay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin system activation is a feature of many cardiovascular conditions. Activity of myocardial reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NADPH oxidase 2 or Nox2) is enhanced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and contributes to increased hypertrophy, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling. Recent studies found that Nox2-mediated reactive oxygen species production modulates physiological cardiomyocyte function. Objectives This study sought to investigate the effects of cardiomyocyte Nox2 on contractile function during increased Ang II activation. Methods We generated a cardiomyocyte-targeted Nox2-transgenic mouse model and studied the effects of in vivo and ex vivo Ang II stimulation, as well as chronic aortic banding. Results Chronic subpressor Ang II infusion induced greater cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic than wild-type mice but unexpectedly enhanced contractile function. Acute Ang II treatment also enhanced contractile function in transgenic hearts in vivo and transgenic cardiomyocytes ex vivo. Ang II–stimulated Nox2 activity increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake in transgenic mice, increased the Ca2+ transient and contractile amplitude, and accelerated cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation. Elevated Nox2 activity increased phospholamban phosphorylation in both hearts and cardiomyocytes, related to inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 activity. In a model of aortic banding–induced chronic pressure overload, heart function was similarly depressed in transgenic and wild-type mice. Conclusions We identified a novel mechanism in which Nox2 modulates cardiomyocyte SR Ca2+ uptake and contractile function through redox-regulated changes in phospholamban phosphorylation. This mechanism can drive increased contractility in the short term in disease states characterized by enhanced renin-angiotensin system activation. PMID:26184620

  3. Longitudinal decline of lower extremity muscle power in healthy and mobility-limited older adults: influence of muscle mass, strength, composition, neuromuscular activation and single fiber contractile properties

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kieran F.; Pasha, Evan; Doros, Gheorghe; Clark, David J.; Patten, Carolynn; Phillips, Edward M.; Frontera, Walter R.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the major physiological mechanisms that determine the age-related loss of lower extremity muscle power in two distinct groups of older humans. We hypothesized that after ~ 3 years of follow-up, mobility-limited older adults (mean age: 77.2 ± 4, n = 22, 12 females) would have significantly greater reductions in leg extensor muscle power compared to healthy older adults (74.1 ± 4, n = 26, 12 females). Methods Mid-thigh muscle size and composition were assessed using computed tomography. Neuromuscular activation was quantified using surface electromyography and vastus lateralis single muscle fibers were studied to evaluate intrinsic muscle contractile properties. Results At follow-up, the overall magnitude of muscle power loss was similar between groups: mobility-limited: −8.5% vs. healthy older: −8.8%, P > 0.8. Mobility-limited elders had significant reductions in muscle size (−3.8%, P< 0.01) and strength (−5.9%, P< 0.02), however, these parameters were preserved in healthy older (P ≥ 0.7). Neuromuscular activation declined significantly within healthy older but not in mobility-limited participants. Within both groups, the cross sectional areas of type I and type IIA muscle fibers were preserved while substantial increases in single fiber peak force ( > 30%), peak power (> 200%) and unloaded shortening velocity (>50%) were elicited at follow-up. Conclusion Different physiological mechanisms contribute to the loss of lower extremity muscle power in healthy older and mobility-limited older adults. Neuromuscular changes may be the critical early determinant of muscle power deficits with aging. In response to major whole muscle decrements, major compensatory mechanisms occur within the contractile properties of surviving single muscle fibers in an attempt to restore overall muscle power and function with advancing age. PMID:24122149

  4. Tensile Properties of Contractile and Synthetic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Kozaburo

    Tensile properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of synthetic and contractile phenotypes were determined using a newly developed tensile test system. Synthetic and contractile VSMCs were isolated from the rabbit thoracic aorta with an explant and an enzymatic digestion method, respectively. Each cell floated in Hanks' balanced salt solution of 37°C was attached to the fine tips of a pair of micropipettes with a cell adhesive and, then, stretched at the rate of 6µm/sec by moving one of the micropipettes with a linear actuator. Load applied to the cell was measured with a cantilever-type load cell; its elongation was determined from the distance between the micropipette tips using a video dimension analyzer. The synthetic and contractile VSMCs were not broken even at the tensile force of 2.4µN and 3.4µN, respectively. Their stiffness was significantly higher in contractile phenotype (0.17N/m) than in synthetic one (0.09N/m). The different tensile properties between synthetic and contractile cells are attributable to the differences in cytoskeletal structures and contractile apparatus.

  5. A quantitative analysis of contractility in active cytoskeletal protein networks.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Poul M; Koenderink, Gijsje H; Cuvelier, Damien; Dogic, Zvonimir; Koeleman, Bernard N; Brieher, William M; Field, Christine M; Mahadevan, L; Weitz, David A

    2008-04-15

    Cells actively produce contractile forces for a variety of processes including cytokinesis and motility. Contractility is known to rely on myosin II motors which convert chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into forces on actin filaments. However, the basic physical principles of cell contractility remain poorly understood. We reconstitute contractility in a simplified model system of purified F-actin, muscle myosin II motors, and alpha-actinin cross-linkers. We show that contractility occurs above a threshold motor concentration and within a window of cross-linker concentrations. We also quantify the pore size of the bundled networks and find contractility to occur at a critical distance between the bundles. We propose a simple mechanism of contraction based on myosin filaments pulling neighboring bundles together into an aggregated structure. Observations of this reconstituted system in both bulk and low-dimensional geometries show that the contracting gels pull on and deform their surface with a contractile force of approximately 1 microN, or approximately 100 pN per F-actin bundle. Cytoplasmic extracts contracting in identical environments show a similar behavior and dependence on myosin as the reconstituted system. Our results suggest that cellular contractility can be sensitively regulated by tuning the (local) activity of molecular motors and the cross-linker density and binding affinity. PMID:18192374

  6. Effect of gender on rat upper airway muscle contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Cantillon, D; Bradford, A

    1998-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea arises due to upper airway (UA) collapse which is normally counteracted by contraction of UA muscles such as the sternohyoids and geniohyoids. The disorder has a marked male predominance but the effect of gender on UA muscle contractile properties is unknown and these properties have not been compared for the sternohyoid and geniohyoid muscles in the same species. Isometric contractile characteristics were determined using strips of sternohyoid and geniohyoid muscle from male and female rats in Krebs solution at 30 degrees C. For both muscles, there were no differences between male and female contractile kinetics, twitch or tetanic tension, tension-length or tension-frequency relationship or endurance. In both males and females, sternohyoid twitch and tetanic tension was greater than geniohyoid. Sternohyoid endurance was less than geniohyoid but contractile kinetics, tension-length and tension-frequency relationships were similar. Therefore, gender does not affect UA muscle contractile properties and sternohyoid tension is greater and endurance less than that of the geniohyoid. PMID:9832233

  7. Contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content in type I and type II skeletal muscle fibres in active aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Lamboley, C R; Wyckelsma, V L; Dutka, T L; McKenna, M J; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content in mechanically skinned vastus lateralis muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) humans to investigate whether changes in muscle fibre properties contribute to muscle weakness in old age. In type II fibres of Old subjects, specific force was reduced by ∼17% and Ca2+ sensitivity was also reduced (pCa50 decreased ∼0.05 pCa units) relative to that in Young. S-Glutathionylation of fast troponin I (TnIf) markedly increased Ca2+ sensitivity in type II fibres, but the increase was significantly smaller in Old versus Young (+0.136 and +0.164 pCa unit increases, respectively). Endogenous and maximal SR Ca2+ content were significantly smaller in both type I and type II fibres in Old subjects. In fibres of Young, the SR could be nearly fully depleted of Ca2+ by a combined caffeine and low Mg2+ stimulus, whereas in fibres of Old the amount of non-releasable Ca2+ was significantly increased (by > 12% of endogenous Ca2+ content). Western blotting showed an increased proportion of type I fibres in Old subjects, and increased amounts of calsequestrin-2 and calsequestrin-like protein. The findings suggest that muscle weakness in old age is probably attributable in part to (i) an increased proportion of type I fibres, (ii) a reduction in both maximum specific force and Ca2+ sensitivity in type II fibres, and also a decreased ability of S-glutathionylation of TnIf to counter the fatiguing effects of metabolites on Ca2+ sensitivity, and (iii) a reduction in the amount of releasable SR Ca2+ in both fibre types. Key points Muscle weakness in old age is due in large part to an overall loss of skeletal muscle tissue, but it remains uncertain how much also stems from alterations in the properties of the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and amount of stored intracellular calcium in single muscle fibres of Old (70

  8. An Active Learning Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Lab Demonstrating Contractile and Kinetic Properties of Fast- and Slow-Twitch Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, S. I.; Arber, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that humans possess fast and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of approximately 50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic…

  9. Assessment of the Contractile Properties of Permeabilized Skeletal Muscle Fibers.

    PubMed

    Claflin, Dennis R; Roche, Stuart M; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Mendias, Christopher L; Brooks, Susan V

    2016-01-01

    Permeabilized individual skeletal muscle fibers offer the opportunity to evaluate contractile behavior in a system that is greatly simplified, yet physiologically relevant. Here we describe the steps required to prepare, permeabilize and preserve small samples of skeletal muscle. We then detail the procedures used to isolate individual fiber segments and attach them to an experimental apparatus for the purpose of controlling activation and measuring force generation. We also describe our technique for estimating the cross-sectional area of fiber segments. The area measurement is necessary for normalizing the absolute force to obtain specific force, a measure of the intrinsic force-generating capability of the contractile system. PMID:27492182

  10. Effects of nicotine on rat sternohyoid muscle contractile properties.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Ken D

    2006-02-28

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a major clinical disorder characterised by recurring episodes of pharyngeal collapse during sleep. At present, there remains no satisfactory treatment for OSA. Pharmacological therapies as a potential treatment for the disorder are an attractive option and include agents that increase the contractility of the pharyngeal muscles. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of nicotine on upper airway muscle contractile properties. In vitro isometric contractile properties were determined using strips of rat sternohyoid muscle in physiological salt solution containing nicotine (0-100 microg/ml) at 25 degrees C. Isometric twitch and tetanic tension, contraction time, half-relaxation time and tension-frequency relationship were determined by electrical field stimulation with platinum electrodes. Fatigue was induced by stimulation at 40 Hz with 300 ms trains at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 5 min. Nicotine at a concentration of 1 microg/ml was associated with a significant increase in sternohyoid muscle specific tension compared to control data. Dose-dependent increases in contractile tension were not observed. Nicotine had effects on tension-frequency relationship and endurance properties of the sternohyoid muscle at some but not all doses. A leftward shift in the tension-frequency relationship was observed at low stimulus frequencies (20-30 Hz) for nicotine at a concentration of 1 and 5 microg/ml and a significant increase in fatigue resistance was observed with nicotine at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. As fatigue of the upper airway muscles has been implicated in obstructive airway conditions, a pharmacological agent that improves muscle endurance may prove useful as a potential treatment for such disorders. Therefore, further studies of the effects of nicotinic agonists on upper airway function are warranted. PMID:15994135

  11. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant preserves contractile properties and mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Javadov, Sabzali; Jang, Sehwan; Rodriguez-Reyes, Natividad; Rodriguez-Zayas, Ana E.; Hernandez, Jessica Soto; Krainz, Tanja; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia associated with a loss of mass and activity of skeletal muscle. In addition to energy deprivation, increased mitochondrial ROS damage proteins and lipids in aged skeletal muscle. Therefore, prevention of mitochondrial ROS is important for potential therapeutic strategies to delay sarcopenia. This study elucidates the pharmacological efficiency of the new developed mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, XJB-5-131 (XJB) to restore muscle contractility and mitochondrial function in aged skeletal muscle. Male adult (5-month old) and aged (29-month old) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were treated with XJB for four weeks and contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibres and activity of mitochondrial ETC complexes were determined at the end of the treatment period. XJB-treated old rats showed higher muscle contractility associated with prevention of protein oxidation in both muscle homogenate and mitochondria compared with untreated counterparts. XJB-treated animals demonstrated a high activity of the respiratory complexes I, III, and IV with no changes in citrate synthase activity. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS play a causal role in muscle weakness, and that a ROS scavenger specifically targeted to mitochondria can reverse age-related alterations of mitochondrial function and improve contractile properties in skeletal muscle. PMID:26415224

  12. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant preserves contractile properties and mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Javadov, Sabzali; Jang, Sehwan; Rodriguez-Reyes, Natividad; Rodriguez-Zayas, Ana E; Soto Hernandez, Jessica; Krainz, Tanja; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter

    2015-11-24

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia associated with a loss of mass and activity of skeletal muscle. In addition to energy deprivation, increased mitochondrial ROS damage proteins and lipids in aged skeletal muscle. Therefore, prevention of mitochondrial ROS is important for potential therapeutic strategies to delay sarcopenia. This study elucidates the pharmacological efficiency of the new developed mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, XJB-5-131 (XJB) to restore muscle contractility and mitochondrial function in aged skeletal muscle. Male adult (5-month old) and aged (29-month old) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were treated with XJB for four weeks and contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibres and activity of mitochondrial ETC complexes were determined at the end of the treatment period. XJB-treated old rats showed higher muscle contractility associated with prevention of protein oxidation in both muscle homogenate and mitochondria compared with untreated counterparts. XJB-treated animals demonstrated a high activity of the respiratory complexes I, III, and IV with no changes in citrate synthase activity. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS play a causal role in muscle weakness, and that a ROS scavenger specifically targeted to mitochondria can reverse age-related alterations of mitochondrial function and improve contractile properties in skeletal muscle. PMID:26415224

  13. Human colonic smooth muscle: electrical and contractile activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, R C; Cote, K R; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J

    1986-01-01

    Extracellular electrical and contractile activities were recorded in vitro from strips of human colonic smooth muscle obtained at the time of surgery. Serosal electrical activity of longitudinally oriented strips from the taenia and intertaenial region was characterised by continuous oscillation at a frequency of 28 +/- 1/min. Contractions were marked electrically by a series of oscillations upon which spikes were superimposed. The electrical activity recorded from the submucosal surface of circularly oriented strips exhibited oscillations at 24 +/- 4/min, a frequency significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than that recorded from the serosal surface of similar preparations. The contractile force and frequency was dependent upon the part of the colon from which the strip originated; the most powerful contractions were recorded from strips of sigmoid colon. The contractile frequency of circularly oriented strips from the right colon was 6.3 +/- 0.6/min, significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that of strips from the left colon (3.4 +/- 0.3/min). Stretching these strips caused an increase in contractile frequency to that of the electrical oscillation. PMID:3699550

  14. Molecular effects of the myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil on contractile properties of skinned myocardium lacking cardiac myosin binding protein-C.

    PubMed

    Mamidi, Ranganath; Gresham, Kenneth S; Li, Amy; dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Stelzer, Julian E

    2015-08-01

    Decreased expression of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) in the myocardium is thought to be a contributing factor to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in humans, and the initial molecular defect is likely abnormal cross-bridge (XB) function which leads to impaired force generation, decreased contractile performance, and hypertrophy in vivo. The myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a pharmacological drug that specifically targets the myosin XB and recent evidence suggests that OM induces a significant decrease in the in vivo motility velocity and an increase in the XB duty cycle. Thus, the molecular effects of OM maybe beneficial in improving contractile function in skinned myocardium lacking cMyBP-C because absence of cMyBP-C in the sarcomere accelerates XB kinetics and enhances XB turnover rate, which presumably reduces contractile efficiency. Therefore, parameters of XB function were measured in skinned myocardium lacking cMyBP-C prior to and following OM incubation. We measured ktr, the rate of force redevelopment as an index of XB transition from both the weakly- to strongly-bound state and from the strongly- to weakly-bound states and performed stretch activation experiments to measure the rates of XB detachment (krel) and XB recruitment (kdf) in detergent-skinned ventricular preparations isolated from hearts of wild-type (WT) and cMyBP-C knockout (KO) mice. Samples from donor human hearts were also used to assess the effects of OM in cardiac muscle expressing a slow β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). Incubation of skinned myocardium with OM produced large enhancements in steady-state force generation which were most pronounced at low levels of [Ca(2+)] activations, suggesting that OM cooperatively recruits additional XB's into force generating states. Despite a large increase in steady-state force generation following OM incubation, parallel accelerations in XB kinetics as measured by ktr were not observed, and there was a significant OM

  15. Depressed phosphatidic acid-induced contractile activity of failing cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2003-01-10

    The effects of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known inotropic agent, on Ca(2+) transients and contractile activity of cardiomyocytes in congestive heart failure (CHF) due to myocardial infarction were examined. In control cells, PA induced a significant increase (25%) in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarbonate, blocked the positive inotropic action induced by PA, indicating that PA induces an increase in contractile activity and Ca(2+) transients through stimulation of PLC. Conversely, in failing cardiomyocytes there was a loss of PA-induced increase in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. PA did not alter resting cell length. Both diastolic and systolic [Ca(2+)] were significantly elevated in the failing cardiomyocytes. In vitro assessment of the cardiac sarcolemmal (SL) PLC activity revealed that the impaired failing cardiomyocyte response to PA was associated with a diminished stimulation of SL PLC activity by PA. Our results identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in failing cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for the depressed contractile function during CHF. PMID:12504106

  16. Redox regulation of muscle adaptations to contractile activity and aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide and nitric oxide are generated by skeletal muscle, and these species are increased by contractile activity. Mitochondria have long been assumed to play the primary role in generation of superoxide in muscle, but recent studies indicate that, during contractile activity, membrane-localized NADPH oxidase(s) rapidly generate(s) superoxide that plays a role in redox signaling. This process is important in upregulation of rapid and specific cytoprotective responses that aid maintenance of cell viability following contractile activity, but the overall extent to which redox signaling contributes to regulation of muscle metabolism and homeostasis following contractile activity is currently unclear, as is identification of key redox-sensitive protein targets involved in these processes. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have also been implicated in the loss of muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, although recent work has questioned whether oxidative damage plays a key role in these processes. A failure of redox signaling occurs in muscle during aging and may contribute to the age-related loss of muscle fibers. Whether such changes in redox signaling reflect primary age-related changes or are secondary to the fundamental mechanisms is unclear. For instance, denervated muscle fibers within muscles from aged rodents or humans appear to generate large amounts of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide that could influence adjacent innervated fibers. Thus, in this instance, a “secondary” source of reactive oxygen species may be potentially generated as a result of a primary age-related pathology (loss of neurons), but, nevertheless, may contribute to loss of muscle mass and function during aging. PMID:25792715

  17. Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression Upregulates Fibroblast Contractile Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Boris; Celetta, Giuseppe; Tomasek, James J.; Gabbiani, Giulio; Chaponnier, Christine

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate whether α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) plays a role in fibroblast contractility, we first compared the contractile activity of rat subcutaneous fibroblasts (SCFs), expressing low levels of α-SMA, with that of lung fibroblasts (LFs), expressing high levels of α-SMA, with the use of silicone substrates of different stiffness degrees. On medium stiffness substrates the percentage of cells producing wrinkles was similar to that of α-SMA–positive cells in each fibroblast population. On high stiffness substrates, wrinkle production was limited to a subpopulation of LFs very positive for α-SMA. In a second approach, we measured the isotonic contraction of SCF- and LF-populated attached collagen lattices. SCFs exhibited 41% diameter reduction compared with 63% by LFs. TGFβ1 increased α-SMA expression and lattice contraction by SCFs to the levels of LFs; TGFβ-antagonizing agents reduced α-SMA expression and lattice contraction by LFs to the level of SCFs. Finally, 3T3 fibroblasts transiently or permanently transfected with α-SMA cDNA exhibited a significantly higher lattice contraction compared with wild-type 3T3 fibroblasts or to fibroblasts transfected with α-cardiac and β- or γ-cytoplasmic actin. This took place in the absence of any change in smooth muscle or nonmuscle myosin heavy-chain expression. Our results indicate that an increased α-SMA expression is sufficient to enhance fibroblast contractile activity. PMID:11553712

  18. Procedures for rat in situ skeletal muscle contractile properties.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Esau, Shane P; Holash, R John; Fletcher, Jared R

    2011-01-01

    There are many circumstances where it is desirable to obtain the contractile response of skeletal muscle under physiological circumstances: normal circulation, intact whole muscle, at body temperature. This includes the study of contractile responses like posttetanic potentiation, staircase and fatigue. Furthermore, the consequences of disease, disuse, injury, training and drug treatment can be of interest. This video demonstrates appropriate procedures to set up and use this valuable muscle preparation. To set up this preparation, the animal must be anesthetized, and the medial gastrocnemius muscle is surgically isolated, with the origin intact. Care must be taken to maintain the blood and nerve supplies. A long section of the sciatic nerve is cleared of connective tissue, and severed proximally. All branches of the distal stump that do not innervate the medial gastrocnemius muscle are severed. The distal nerve stump is inserted into a cuff lined with stainless steel stimulating wires. The calcaneus is severed, leaving a small piece of bone still attached to the Achilles tendon. Sonometric crystals and/or electrodes for electromyography can be inserted. Immobilization by metal probes in the femur and tibia prevents movement of the muscle origin. The Achilles tendon is attached to the force transducer and the loosened skin is pulled up at the sides to form a container that is filled with warmed paraffin oil. The oil distributes heat evenly and minimizes evaporative heat loss. A heat lamp is directed on the muscle, and the muscle and rat are allowed to warm up to 37°C. While it is warming, maximal voltage and optimal length can be determined. These are important initial conditions for any experiment on intact whole muscle. The experiment may include determination of standard contractile properties, like the force-frequency relationship, force-length relationship, and force-velocity relationship. With care in surgical isolation, immobilization of the origin of the

  19. Maternal age effects on myometrial expression of contractile proteins, uterine gene expression, and contractile activity during labor in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew; Szyszka, Alexandra; Pauliat, Caroline; Clifford, Bethan; Daniel, Zoe; Cheng, Zhangrui; Wathes, Claire; McMullen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Advanced maternal age of first time pregnant mothers is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labor and significant risk of emergency cesarean section. We investigated the influence of maternal age on myometrial contractility, expression of contractile associated proteins (CAPs), and global gene expression in the parturient uterus. Female Wistar rats either 8 (YOUNG n = 10) or 24 (OLDER n = 10) weeks old were fed laboratory chow, mated, and killed during parturition. Myometrial strips were dissected to determine contractile activity, cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TAG) content, protein expression of connexin-43 (GJA1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and caveolin 1 (CAV-1). Maternal plasma concentrations of prostaglandins PGE2, PGF2α, and progesterone were determined by RIA. Global gene expression in uterine samples was compared using Affymetrix Genechip Gene 2.0 ST arrays and Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA). Spontaneous contractility in myometrium exhibited by YOUNG rats was threefold greater than OLDER animals (P < 0.027) but maternal age had no significant effect on myometrial CAP expression, lipid profiles, or pregnancy-related hormones. OLDER myometrium increased contractile activity in response to PGF2α, phenylephrine, and carbachol, a response absent in YOUNG rats (all P < 0.002). Microarray analysis identified that maternal age affected expression of genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, lipid transport and metabolism, steroid metabolism, tissue remodeling, and smooth muscle contraction. In conclusion YOUNG laboring rat myometrium seems primed to contract maximally, whereas activity is blunted in OLDER animals and requires stimulation to meet contractile potential. Further work investigating maternal age effects on myometrial function is required with focus on lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. PMID:25876907

  20. Contractile properties of muscle fibers from the deep and superficial digital flexors of horses

    PubMed Central

    Chase, P. B.; Hermanson, J. W.; Clark, A. N.; Brunet, N. M.; Bertram, J. E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Equine digital flexor muscles have independent tendons but a nearly identical mechanical relationship to the main joint they act upon. Yet these muscles have remarkable diversity in architecture, ranging from long, unipennate fibers (“short” compartment of DDF) to very short, multipennate fibers (SDF). To investigate the functional relevance of the form of the digital flexor muscles, fiber contractile properties were analyzed in the context of architecture differences and in vivo function during locomotion. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fiber type was studied, and in vitro motility assays were used to measure actin filament sliding velocity (Vf). Skinned fiber contractile properties [isometric tension (P0/CSA), velocity of unloaded shortening (VUS), and force-Ca2+ relationships] at both 10 and 30°C were characterized. Contractile properties were correlated with MHC isoform and their respective Vf. The DDF contained a higher percentage of MHC-2A fibers with myosin (heavy meromyosin) and Vf that was twofold faster than SDF. At 30°C, P0/CSA was higher for DDF (103.5 ± 8.75 mN/mm2) than SDF fibers (81.8 ± 7.71 mN/mm2). Similarly, VUS (pCa 5, 30°C) was faster for DDF (2.43 ± 0.53 FL/s) than SDF fibers (1.20 ± 0.22 FL/s). Active isometric tension increased with increasing Ca2+ concentration, with maximal Ca2+ activation at pCa 5 at each temperature in fibers from each muscle. In general, the collective properties of DDF and SDF were consistent with fiber MHC isoform composition, muscle architecture, and the respective functional roles of the two muscles in locomotion. PMID:20702801

  1. Activation-dependent contractility of rat hepatic lipocytes in culture and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Rockey, D C; Housset, C N; Friedman, S L

    1993-01-01

    Hepatic lipocytes are perisinusoidal cells that have been thought to be analogous to tissue pericytes, a cell type with purported vasoregulatory properties. However, we and others have recently demonstrated that lipocytes acquire markers of smooth muscle cells or myofibroblasts only after liver injury, via a process termed "activation." In this study, we document lipocyte contractility on collagen lattices and examine the importance of activation in this process. In culture, lipocytes became contractile only after spreading and activating, coincident with expression of smooth muscle alpha actin, a marker of activation (1990. Virchows Arch. B Cell Pathol. 59:349). After 5 d in culture, lipocytes induced rapid and sustained contraction of collagen lattices (to 43.7 +/- 2.3% of their original size 24 h after detachment). There was no contraction of lattices containing hepatocytes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intimate associations of lipocyte cell membranes and collagen fibrils. Reduction in cell volume during contraction was also prominent. Lattice contraction by lipocytes was proportional to cell number. Serum was a potent stimulator of lipocyte contraction, as were endothelin types 1, 2, and 3; the effect of serum and endothelin 1 were additive. Neither thrombin, angiotensin-II, serotonin, nor the cytokines PDGF and TGF beta induced contraction. Cytochalasin B treatment resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of contraction. As a test of the in vivo relevance of the culture findings, lipocytes were isolated from fibrotic animals and examined immediately after adherence. Whereas lipocytes from normal liver were initially compact, smooth muscle alpha actin negative and noncontractile, cells from animals with hepatic injury due to CCl4 displayed an activated appearance, expressed smooth muscle alpha actin, and were contractile immediately after adherence. Additionally, IFN-gamma, an agent which blocks lipocyte activation (1992. Hepatology. 16

  2. Detecting cardiac contractile activity in the early mouse embryo using multiple modalities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiann-Mun; Miranda, António M. A.; Bub, Gil; Srinivas, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    The heart is one of the first organs to develop during mammalian embryogenesis. In the mouse, it starts to form shortly after gastrulation, and is derived primarily from embryonic mesoderm. The embryonic heart is unique in having to perform a mechanical contractile function while undergoing complex morphogenetic remodeling. Approaches to imaging the morphogenesis and contractile activity of the developing heart are important in understanding not only how this remodeling is controlled but also the origin of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Here, we describe approaches for visualizing contractile activity in the developing mouse embryo, using brightfield time lapse microscopy and confocal microscopy of calcium transients. We describe an algorithm for enhancing this image data and quantifying contractile activity from it. Finally we describe how atomic force microscopy can be used to record contractile activity prior to it being microscopically visible. PMID:25610399

  3. Decrease of contractile properties and transversal stiffness of single fibers in human soleus after 7-day “dry” immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogneva, I. V.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Altaeva, E. G.; Fokina, N. M.; Kurushin, V. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2011-05-01

    The simulation model of "dry" immersion was used to evaluate the effects of plantar mechanical stimulation (PMS) and high frequency electromyostimulation (EMS) on the mechanical properties of human soleus fibers under the conditions of gravitational unloading. We examined contractile properties of single fibers by means of tensometry, transversal stiffness of sarcolemma and different areas of the contractile apparatus by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that there is a reduction of transversal stiffness in single muscle fibers under hypogravitational conditions. Application of different countermeasures could compensate this effect. Meanwhile pneumostimulation and electro stimulation act in quite different way. Therefore, pneumostimulation seems to be more effective. The data obtained can be considered as the evidence of the fact that such countermeasures as PMS and electromyostimulation influence on muscle fibers in quite different ways and PMS efficiency is likely to be higher. On the basis of our experimental data on transverse stiffness of mechanotransductional nodes and the contractile apparatus, we can assume that support stimulation allows prevention of destructive processes in muscle fibers. Electrostimulation seems to stimulate contractile activity only without suppression of impairment of the fiber mechanical properties.

  4. Influence of the Thyroid State on the Intrinsic Contractile Properties and Energy Stores of the Myocardium*

    PubMed Central

    Buccino, Robert A.; Spann, James F.; Pool, Peter E.; Sonnenblick, Edmund H.; Braunwald, Eugene

    1967-01-01

    The intrinsic contractile properties of isolated cat papillary muscles and myocardial high energy phosphate stores were examined at three levels of thyroid activity and correlated with hemodynamic measurements in the intact animal. In addition, the relationship of thyroid state to endogenous norepinephrine stores and myocardial responsiveness to certain inotropic interventions were studied. In muscles from hyperthyroid cats, the velocity of shortening and the rate of tension development were markedly augmented, while duration of active state was decreased, compared to euthyroid muscles. These findings occurred in the presence and absence of intact norepinephrine stores and over a wide range of temperature and contraction frequency. The opposite changes occurred in muscles from hypothyroid cats. Isometric tension was slightly higher in muscles from hyperthyroid and lower in muscles from hypothyroid cats. The inotropic response to both norepinephrine and strophanthidin varied inversely with the level of thyroid state and allowed all three groups of muscles to reach a common ceiling of isometric tension regardless of thyroid state. Creatine phosphate and adenosine triphosphate stores were intact at all three levels of thyroid state. Thus, the level of thyroid activity profoundly affects the intrinsic contractile state of cardiac muscle, independent of both norepinephrine stores and alterations in high energy phosphate stores, and, in addition, modifies the responsiveness of cardiac muscle to inotropic agents. Images PMID:6061742

  5. Plasticity of TOM complex assembly in skeletal muscle mitochondria in response to chronic contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Hood, David A

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the assembly of the TOM complex within skeletal muscle under conditions of chronic contractile activity-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Tom40 import into mitochondria was increased by chronic contractile activity, as was its time-dependent assembly into the TOM complex. These changes coincided with contractile activity-induced augmentations in the expression of key protein import machinery components Tim17, Tim23, and Tom22, as well as the cytosolic chaperone Hsp90. These data indicate the adaptability of the TOM protein import complex and suggest a regulatory role for the assembly of this complex in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:22142511

  6. Regulation of contractile vacuole formation and activity in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Du, Fei; Edwards, Kimberly; Shen, Zhouxin; Sun, Binggang; De Lozanne, Arturo; Briggs, Steven; Firtel, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    The contractile vacuole (CV) system is the osmoregulatory organelle required for survival for many free-living cells under hypotonic conditions. We identified a new CV regulator, Disgorgin, a TBC-domain-containing protein, which translocates to the CV membrane at the late stage of CV charging and regulates CV-plasma membrane fusion and discharging. disgorgin(-) cells produce large CVs due to impaired CV-plasma membrane fusion. Disgorgin is a specific GAP for Rab8A-GTP, which also localizes to the CV and whose hydrolysis is required for discharging. We demonstrate that Drainin, a previously identified TBC-domain-containing protein, lies upstream from Disgorgin in this pathway. Unlike Disgorgin, Drainin lacks GAP activity but functions as a Rab11A effector. The BEACH family proteins LvsA and LvsD were identified in a suppressor/enhancer screen of the disgorgin(-) large CV phenotype and demonstrated to have distinct functions in regulating CV formation. Our studies help define the pathways controlling CV function. PMID:18636095

  7. Grip force, EDL contractile properties, and voluntary wheel running after postdevelopmental myostatin depletion in mice.

    PubMed

    Personius, Kirkwood E; Jayaram, Aditi; Krull, David; Brown, Roger; Xu, Tianshun; Han, Bajin; Burgess, Kerri; Storey, Christopher; Shah, Bharati; Tawil, Rabi; Welle, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    There is no consensus about whether making muscles abnormally large by reducing myostatin activity affects force-generating capacity or the ability to perform activities requiring muscular endurance. We therefore examined grip force, contractile properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, and voluntary wheel running in mice in which myostatin was depleted after normal muscle development. Cre recombinase activity was induced to knock out exon 3 of the myostatin gene in 4-mo-old mice in which this exon was flanked by loxP sequences (Mstn[f/f]). Control mice with normal myostatin genes (Mstn[w/w]) received the same Cre-activating treatment. Myostatin depletion increased the mass of all muscles that were examined (gastrocnemius, quadriceps, tibialis anterior, EDL, soleus, triceps) by approximately 20-40%. Grip force, measured multiple times 2-22 wk after myostatin knockout, was not consistently greater in the myostatin-deficient mice. EDL contractile properties were determined 7-13 mo after myostatin knockout. Twitch force tended to be greater in myostatin-deficient muscles (+24%; P=0.09), whereas tetanic force was not consistently elevated (mean +11%; P=0.36), even though EDL mass was greater than normal in all myostatin-deficient mice (mean +36%; P<0.001). The force deficit induced by eccentric contractions was approximately twofold greater in myostatin-deficient than in normal EDL muscles (31% vs. 16% after five eccentric contractions; P=0.02). Myostatin-deficient mice ran 19% less distance (P<0.01) than control mice during the 12 wk following myostatin depletion, primarily because of fewer running bouts per night rather than diminished running speed or bout duration. Reduced specific tension (ratio of force to mass) and reduced running have been observed after muscle hypertrophy was induced by other means, suggesting that they are characteristics generally associated with abnormally large muscles rather than unique effects of myostatin deficiency. PMID

  8. Activity-induced regulation of myosin isoform distribution - Comparison of two contractile activity programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diffee, Gary M.; Caiozzo, Vince J.; Mccue, Samuel A.; Herrick, Robert E.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the role of specific types of contractile activity in regulating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in rodent soleus. A combination of hindlimb suspension (SN) and two programmed contractile training activity paradigms, either isometric contractile activity (ST-IM) or high-load slowly shortening isovelocity activity, were utilized. Both training paradigms increased muscle mass compared with SN alone. However, only ST-IM resulted in a partial prevention of the suspension-induced decrease in type I MHC. With the use of a fluorescently labeled antibody to type IIa MHC, the distribution of MHCs among fibers was examined immunohistochemically. In SN, the percentage of cells staining positive for type IIa MHC was increased but the staining intensity of the positively staining cells was unchanged compared with control cells. In the ST-IM soleus, the percentage of positively staining fibers was unchanged but the intensity of the positively staining cells was decreased compared with SN values. These results suggest that 1) isometric contractile activity is more effective than isovelocity activity in preventing suspension-induced shifts in soleus MHC distribution and 2) changes associated with both suspension and training occur in only a small number of fibers, with the majority of fibers apparently unresponsive to these interventions.

  9. Locomotion as an emergent property of muscle contractile dynamics.

    PubMed

    Biewener, Andrew A

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscles share many common, highly conserved features of organization at the molecular and myofilament levels, giving skeletal muscle fibers generally similar and characteristic mechanical and energetic properties; properties well described by classical studies of muscle mechanics and energetics. However, skeletal muscles can differ considerably in architectural design (fiber length, pinnation, and connective tissue organization), as well as fiber type, and how they contract in relation to the timing of neuromotor activation and in vivo length change. The in vivo dynamics of muscle contraction is, therefore, crucial to assessing muscle design and the roles that muscles play in animal movement. Architectural differences in muscle-tendon organization combined with differences in the phase of activation and resulting fiber length changes greatly affect the time-varying force and work that muscles produce, as well as the energetic cost of force generation. Intrinsic force-length and force-velocity properties of muscles, together with their architecture, also play important roles in the control of movement, facilitating rapid adjustments to changing motor demands. Such adjustments complement slower, reflex-mediated neural feedback control of motor recruitment. Understanding how individual fiber forces are integrated to whole-muscle forces, which are transmitted to the skeleton for producing and controlling locomotor movement, is therefore essential for assessing muscle design in relation to the dynamics of movement. PMID:26792341

  10. Contractile and electrical properties of sternohyoid muscle in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    McGuire, M; Dumbleton, M; MacDermott, M; Bradford, A

    2001-03-01

    1. The effects of diabetes on the electrical and contractile function of skeletal muscle are variable, depending on muscle fibre type distribution. The muscles of the upper airway have a characteristic fibre distribution that differs from previously studied muscles, but the effects of diabetes on upper airway muscle function are unknown. Normally, contraction of upper airway muscles, such as the sternohyoids, dilates and/or stabilizes the upper airway, thereby preventing its collapse. Diabetes is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea in which there is collapse of the upper airway due to failure of the upper airway musculature to maintain airway patency. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of diabetes on the electrical and contractile characteristics of upper airway muscle. 2. Rats were treated with vehicle (sodium citrate buffer; pH 4.5) or with streptozotocin to induce diabetes, confirmed by the presence of hyperglycaemia, and the contractile and electrical properties of the sternohyoid were compared in these two groups. Isometric contractile properties and membrane potentials were determined in isolated sternohyoid muscles in physiological saline solution at 25 degrees C. 3. Streptozotocin had no effect on sternohyoid muscle fatigue, the tension-frequency relationship or membrane potentials, but did increase contraction time, half-relaxation time, twitch tension and tetanic tension. 4. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes has no effect on sternohyoid muscle fatigue or the tension-frequency relationship, but does reduce contractile kinetics and increases force generation. These effects are not due to changes in resting membrane potential. These data are evidence that the association of sleep apnoea and diabetes is not due to effects on upper airway muscle contractile properties. PMID:11207673

  11. Active contractility and motor-driven effective interactions in a model cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Contractile forces are essential for many developmental processes involving cell shape change and tissue deformation. Recent experiments on reconstituted actomyosin network, the major component of the contractile machinery, have shown that active contractility occurs above a threshold motor concentration and within a window of cross-link concentration. We present a microscopic dynamic model that incorporates two essential aspects of actomyosin self-organization: the asymmetric load response of individual actin filaments and the correlated motor-driven events mimicking myosin-induced filament sliding. Using computer simulations, we examine how the concentration and susceptibility of motors contribute to their collective behavior and interplay with the network connectivity to regulate macroscopic contractility. Our model is shown to capture the formation and dynamics of contractile structures and agree with the observed dependence of active contractility on microscopic parameters. We further provide a theoretical framework to investigate the intricate interplay between local force generation, network connectivity and collective action of molecular motors. This framework is capable of accommodating both regular and heterogeneous pattern formation, arrested coarsening and macroscopic contraction in a unified manner. This work is supported by NSF via Grant PHY-0822283 and the Bullard-Welch Chair at Rice University.

  12. The effect of heat stress on skeletal muscle contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Locke, Marius; Celotti, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    An elevated heat-shock protein (HSP) content protects cells and tissues, including skeletal muscles, from certain stressors. We determined if heat stress and the elevated HSP content that results is correlated with protection of contractile characteristics of isolated fast and slow skeletal muscles when contracting at elevated temperatures. To elevate muscle HSP content, one hindlimb of Sprague-Dawley rats (21-28 days old, 70-90 g) was subjected to a 15 min 42 °C heat-stress. Twenty-four hours later, both extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles were removed, mounted in either 20 °C or 42 °C Krebs-Ringer solution, and electrically stimulated. Controls consisted of the same muscles from the contra-lateral (non-stressed) hindlimbs as well as muscles from other (unstressed) animals. Isolated muscles were twitched and brought to tetanus every 5 min for 30 min. As expected, HSP content was elevated in muscles from the heat-stressed limbs when compared with controls. Regardless of prior treatment, both EDL and soleus twitch tensions were lower at 42 °C when compared with 20 °C. In addition, when incubated at 42 °C, both muscles showed a drop in twitch tension between 5 and 30 min. For tetanic tension, both muscles also showed an increase in tension between 5 and 30 min when stimulated at 20 °C regardless of treatment but when stimulated at 42 °C no change was observed. No protective effect of an elevated HSP content was observed for either muscle. In conclusion, although heat stress caused an elevation in HSP content, no protective effects were conferred to isolated contracting muscles. PMID:24264930

  13. How to make rapid eye movements "rapid": the role of growth factors for muscle contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Feng, Cheng-Yuan; von Bartheld, Christopher S

    2011-03-01

    Different muscle functions require different muscle contraction properties. Saccade-generating extraocular muscles (EOMs) are the fastest muscles in the human body, significantly faster than limb skeletal muscles. Muscle contraction speed is subjected to plasticity, i.e., contraction speed can be adjusted to serve different demands, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control contraction speed. Therefore, we examined whether myogenic growth factors modulate contractile properties, including twitch contraction time (onset of force to peak force) and half relaxation time (peak force to half relaxation). We examined effects of three muscle-derived growth factors: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), cardiotrophin-1 (CT1), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In gain-of-function experiments, CT1 or GDNF injected into the orbit shortened contraction time, and IGF1 or CT1 shortened half relaxation time. In loss-of-function experiments with binding proteins or neutralizing antibodies, elimination of endogenous IGFs prolonged both contraction time and half relaxation time, while eliminating endogenous GDNF prolonged contraction time, with no effect on half relaxation time. Elimination of endogenous IGFs or CT1, but not GDNF, significantly reduced contractile force. Thus, IGF1, CT1, and GDNF have partially overlapping but not identical effects on muscle contractile properties. Expression of these three growth factors was measured in chicken and/or rat EOMs by real-time PCR. The "fast" EOMs express significantly more message encoding these growth factors and their receptors than skeletal muscles with slower contractile properties. Taken together, these findings indicate that EOM contractile kinetics is regulated by the amount of myogenic growth factors available to the muscle. PMID:21279379

  14. Contractile properties of skinned muscle fibres from young and adult normal and dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D A; Head, S I; Lynch, G S; Stephenson, D G

    1993-01-01

    1. Single muscle fibres were enzymatically isolated from the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of genetically dystrophic mdx and normal (C57BL/10) mice aged 3-6 or 17-23 weeks. 2. Fibres of both muscles were chemically skinned with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 (2% v/v). Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-activated contractile responses were recorded and comparisons were made between several contractile parameters of various fibre types of normal and dystrophic mice of similar age. 3. There were no significant differences in the following contractile parameters of skinned fibres of normal and mdx mice of the same age: sensitivity to activating Ca2+ (pCa50) or Sr2+ (pSr50) and differential sensitivity to the activating ions (pCa50-pSr50). However the maximum isometric tension (Po) and the frequency of myofibrillar force oscillations in EDL fast-twitch fibres of young mdx mice were significantly lower than those of soleus fast-twitch fibres of the same animals, or fast-twitch fibres (EDL or soleus) of normal mice. 4. Age-related differences were apparent in some contractile parameters of both normal and mdx mice. In particular the steepness of force-pCa and force-pSr curves increased with age in normal mice, yet decreased with age in fibres of mdx mice. 5. A fluorescent probe, ethidium bromide, which interchelates with DNA, was used with laser-scanning confocal microscopy to determine the distribution of myonuclei in fibres. Fibres isolated from either muscle type of normal animals displayed a characteristic peripheral spiral of myonuclei. Fibres from muscles of mdx mice displayed three major patterns of nuclear distribution; the normal peripheral spiral, long central strands of nuclei, and a mixture of these two patterns. 6. The contractile characteristics of mdx fibres were not markedly influenced by the nuclear distribution pattern in that there were no discernible differences in the major contractile parameters (the Hill coefficients nCa and nSr, which

  15. Effects of fatigue duration and muscle type on voluntary and evoked contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Behm, D G; St-Pierre, D M

    1997-05-01

    The effects of fatigue duration and muscle type on voluntary and evoked contractile properties were investigated with an isometric, intermittent, submaximal fatigue protocol. Four groups performed contractions of the plantar flexors and quadriceps at various intensities to produce long (LDF; 19 min 30 s)- and short-duration fatigue (SDF; 4 min 17 s). The LDF group had a significantly greater decrease in muscle activation than did the SDF group (12 vs. 5.8%) during recovery, although there was no difference in the impairment of maximum voluntary contraction force beyond 30 s of recovery. The significant decrease in the compound muscle action potential of the LDF group (M-wave amplitude; 14.7%) contrasted with the M-wave potentiation of the SDF group (15.7%), suggesting changes in membrane excitation may affect LDF. The quadriceps group performing contractions at 50% MVC experienced a smaller decrease in agonist electromyograph activity than did other groups, indicating both muscle and fatigue duration specificity. Impairments in excitation-contraction coupling were indicated by changes in quadriceps peak twitch and time to peak twitch while decreases in PF M-wave amplitudes suggested a disruption of membrane potentials. Results suggest that fatigue mechanisms may be duration (activation, half relaxation time) or muscle specific (electromyograph, twitch torque) or a combination of both (M wave, time to peak twitch torque). PMID:9134916

  16. Myonemal contraction of spirostomum. II. Some mechanical properties of the contractile apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, R B; Holberton, D V

    1975-06-01

    In several respects, notably the high velocity of shortening, Ca(2+) dependence, and ATP independence, contraction of Spirostomum resembles the spasmonemal mechanism of the peritrich ciliates. In this report further mechanical properties of the contractile apparatus are described that extend this comparison. The velocity-load characteristic is more appropriate to an elastomer than to a muscle where contraction force is load-dependent. Active tension is found to relate linearly to cell length for extensions up to and beyond resting length (1r), an elastic limit is reached around 1.5 1r. At resting length this tension, measured by the deformation of a glass microbalance, is similar to that predicted from consideration of the hydrodynamic forces normally resisting shortening. The tension-length relation for the unstimulated (passive) cell is also linear between 1r and the elastic limit, but is displaced from the active tension-length curve and is of reduced stiffness. Kinetic studies suggest that maximum tension and maximum velocity coincide. Calculations are presented that support a model of contraction in Spirostomum in which the myonemes behave as a mechanochemical engine powered directly by the chemical potential of Ca(2+). PMID:806604

  17. [Effects of endothelin on electrophysiological and contractile activity of guinea pig papillary muscles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, Y L; He, R R

    1997-04-01

    Effects of endothelin on electrophysiological activity and contractility were examined in guinea pig papillary muscle using intracellular microelectrode and contractile tension recording technique. The results indicated that ET-1 prolonged APD, especially PPD and increased the contractile tension in a dose-dependent manner. The ET-induced effects were not influenced by K+ channel blocker TEA, but inhibited by L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, ETA receptor selective antagonist BQ-123 and atriopeptin III in a concentration-dependent manner. It is suggested that the changes in electrophysiological activity and the positive inotropic effect induced by ET-1 in guinea pig muscles are due to the elevation of intracellular calcium, which may be mediated by ETA receptor. PMID:9812849

  18. Effects of genetic obesity on rat upper airway muscle and diaphragm contractile properties.

    PubMed

    van Lunteren, E

    1996-10-01

    The contractile properties of pharyngeal respiratory muscle are altered in sleep apnoea and in conditions associated with sleep apnoea, such as ageing. We hypothesized that the contractile properties of the pharyngeal musculature are also altered by obesity, another factor associated with sleep apnoea. Studies compared a pharyngeal muscle, the sternohyoid, with the diaphragm. These were chosen as representative muscles whose contraction has opposing effects on upper airway patency. Both muscles were removed from nine lean and nine obese male Zucker rats (a genetic model of obesity), and isometric contractile properties were studied in vitro at 37 degrees C. For the sternohyoid muscle, in obese compared to lean animals there were no significant differences in isometric contraction time (15.2 +/- 0.3 vs 14.2 +/- 0.6 ms, respectively), half-relaxation time (13.6 +/- 0.5 vs 12.6 +/- 0.9 ms, respectively), twitch-to-tetanic tension ratio (0.22 +/- 0.02 vs 0.24 +/- 0.02, respectively), force-frequency relationship, fatigue resistance (2 min fatigue index 0.20 +/- 0.03 vs 0.18 +/- 0.02, respectively), or maximal degree of force potentiation during repetitive stimulation (52 +/- 11 vs 74 +/- 20% increase, respectively). For the diaphragm, the only significant effect of obesity was a lowering of the twitch-to-tetanic tension ratio (0.25 +/- 0.01 vs 0.29 +/- 0.02, respectively). In obese, as in lean animals, the sternohyoid had faster isometric twitch kinetics, a larger degree of force potentiation, and lower resistance to fatigue, than the diaphragm. In lean, but not obese, animals the sternohyoid twitch-to-tetanic tension ratio was lower than and the force frequency relationship was located to the right of that of the diaphragm. In this study, genetic obesity in rats was not associated with any significant alterations in the contractile properties of the pharyngeal muscle, and only small changes in the relationship between the contractile properties of the sternohyoid and

  19. Phosphotyrosine-dependent targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinase in differentiated contractile vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Khalil, R A; Menice, C B; Wang, C L; Morgan, K G

    1995-06-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation has been linked to plasmalemmal targeting of src homology-2-containing proteins, activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, nuclear signaling, and proliferation of cultured cells. Significant tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase activities have also been reported in differentiated cells, but the signaling role of tyrosine-phosphorylated MAP kinase in these cells is unclear. The spatial and temporal relation between phosphotyrosine and MAP kinase immunoreactivity was quantified in differentiated contractile vascular smooth muscle cells by using digital imaging microscopy. An initial association of MAP kinase with the plasmalemma required upstream protein kinase C activity but occurred in a tyrosine phosphorylation-independent manner. Subsequent to membrane association, a delayed redistribution of MAP kinase, colocalizing with the actin-binding protein caldesmon, occurred in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. The apparent association of MAP kinase with the contractile proteins coincided with contractile activation. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation appears to target MAP kinase to cytoskeletal proteins in contractile vascular cells. This targeting mechanism may determine the specific destination and thereby the specialized function of MAP kinase in other phenotypes. PMID:7538916

  20. Investigations of the dual contractile/relaxant properties showed by antioquine in rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, M. D.; Lugnier, C.; Catret, M.; Anselmi, E.; Cortes, D.; D'Ocon, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. In the present study we assessed the activity of antioquine, a bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Pseudoxandra sclerocarpa, by examining its effects on the contractile activity of rat isolated aorta, specific binding of [3H]-(+)-cis-diltiazem, [3H]-nitrendipine and [3H]-prazosin to cerebral cortical membranes and the different molecular forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) isolated from bovine aorta. 2. Contractions in rat aorta induced by high concentrations of KCl (80 mM) and noradrenaline (1 microM) were inhibited by antioquine in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1 microM- 300 microM). The alkaloid appeared more potent against KCl-induced contractions. This inhibitory effect was observed at both 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C. 3. Paradoxically, at the highest concentration tested (300 microM) antioquine induced a contractile response of similar magnitude in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium, at 37 degrees C. This activity was greatly attenuated at 25 degrees C. Antioquine-induced contractions were not inhibited by prazosin (0.1 microM), nifedipine (1 microM) or diltiazem (100 microM). On the contrary, prazosin and nifedipine slightly increased the contractions in the presence of extracellular calcium. Papaverine (100 microM) partially inhibited the contractile response to antioquine both in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium. 4. At 25 degrees C, in Ca(2+)-free solution, antioquine (300 microM) did not modify the contractile response (phasic and tonic) evoked by noradrenaline, but increased the phasic contraction induced by caffeine. At 37 degrees C, the contraction elicited by antioquine made it impossible to observe the noradrenaline-induced one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358549

  1. Effects of estrogen on genioglossal muscle contractile properties and fiber-type distribution in chronic intermittent hypoxia rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hua; Huang, Yan; Shao, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by recurrent sleep-induced collapse of the upper airway. Genioglossus is an important pharyngeal dilator muscle that helps to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The effect of female hormones on pharyngeal dilator muscle activity may be one possible explanation for the differences observed in the prevalence of OSAHS between genders. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of estrogen on genioglossus activity in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Eight-wk-old female rats were ovariectomized or sham-operated, received 5-wk of estrogen replacement therapy, and/or were exposed to CIH. The contractile properties of the genioglossus were measured. ATPase staining was performed to determine the per cent fiber-type distribution and to measure the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers. Myosin heavy chain phenotypes were determined by gel electrophoresis. Chronic intermittent hypoxia reduced the contractile properties of the genioglossus muscle, decreased the CSA of type IIA fibers, and decreased the proportion of myosin heavy chain IIA, and ovariectomy exacerbated this effect. However, estrogen replacement can partially reverse the effect of CIH in ovariectomized rats. It is concluded that a low female hormone level and CIH may increase fatigue and alter genioglossus structure and function, and may compromise the maintenance of upper airway patency, while estrogen may help to reverse this effect. PMID:20121931

  2. Differential effects of peroxynitrite on contractile protein properties in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers of rat.

    PubMed

    Dutka, T L; Mollica, J P; Lamb, G D

    2011-03-01

    Oxidative modification of contractile proteins is thought to be a key factor in muscle weakness observed in many pathophysiological conditions. In particular, peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a potent short-lived oxidant, is a likely candidate responsible for this contractile dysfunction. In this study ONOO(-) or 3-morpholinosydnonimine (Sin-1, a ONOO(-) donor) was applied to rat skinned muscle fibers to characterize the effects on contractile properties. Both ONOO(-) and Sin-1 exposure markedly reduced maximum force in slow-twitch fibers but had much less effect in fast-twitch fibers. The rate of isometric force development was also reduced without change in the number of active cross bridges. Sin-1 exposure caused a disproportionately large decrease in Ca(2+) sensitivity, evidently due to coproduction of superoxide, as it was prevented by Tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic. The decline in maximum force with Sin-1 and ONOO(-) treatments could be partially reversed by DTT, provided it was applied before the fiber was activated. Reversal by DTT indicates that the decrease in maximum force was due at least in part to oxidation of cysteine residues. Ascorbate caused similar reversal, further suggesting that the cysteine residues had undergone S-nitrosylation. The reduction in Ca(2+) sensitivity, however, was not reversed by either DTT or ascorbate. Western blot analysis showed cross-linking of myosin heavy chain (MHC) I, appearing as larger protein complexes after ONOO(-) exposure. The findings suggest that ONOO(-) initially decreases maximum force primarily by oxidation of cysteine residues on the myosin heads, and that the accompanying decrease in Ca(2+) sensitivity is likely due to other, less reversible actions of hydroxyl or related radicals. PMID:21030671

  3. Regulation of airway contractility by plasminogen activators through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Taher; Yarovoi, Serge; Fanne, Rami Abu; Akkawi, Sa'ed; Jammal, Mahmud; Allen, Timothy Craig; Idell, Steven; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2010-12-01

    Reactive airway disease is mediated by smooth muscle contraction initiated through several agonist-dependent pathways. Activation of type 1 N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R1s) by plasminogen activators (PAs) has been linked to control of vascular tone, but their effect on airway smooth muscle contractility has not previously been studied to our knowledge. We observed that NMDA-R1s are expressed by human airway smooth muscle cells and constitutively inhibit the contraction of isolated rat tracheal rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach). Both tissue-type PA (tPA) and urokinase-type PA (uPA) bind to NMDA-R1 and reverse this effect, thereby enhancing Ach-induced tracheal contractility. Tracheal contractility initiated by Ach is reduced in rings isolated from tPA(-/-) and uPA(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. The procontractile effect of uPA or tPA was mimicked and augmented by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, l-NAME. uPA and tPA further enhanced the contractility of rings denuded of epithelium, an effect that was inhibited by the NMDA-R antagonist, MK-801. Binding of PAs to NMDA-R1 and the subsequent activation of the receptor were inhibited by PA inhibitor type 1, by a PA inhibitor type 1-derived hexapeptide that recognizes the tPA and uPA docking domains, as well as by specific mutations within the docking site of tPA. These studies identify involvement of PAs and NMDA-R1 in airway contractility, and define new loci that could lead to the development of novel interventions for reactive airway disease. PMID:20097831

  4. Elevated osmolytes in rainbow smelt: the effects of urea, glycerol and trimethylamine oxide on muscle contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, David J; Long, Gabrielle M; Gezzi, Nicole L; Modi, Parth M; Woluko, Kossivi N

    2016-04-01

    Rainbow smelt,Osmerus mordax, experience a wide range of temperatures in their native habitat. In response to cold, smelt express anti-freeze proteins and the osmolytes glycerol, trimethylamineN-oxide (TMAO) and urea to avoid freezing. The physiological influences of these osmolytes are not well understood. Urea destabilizes proteins, while TMAO counteracts the protein-destabilizing forces of urea. The influence of glycerol on muscle function has not been explored. We examined the effects of urea, glycerol and TMAO through muscle mechanics experiments with treatments of the three osmolytes at physiological concentrations. Experiments were carried out at 10°C. The contractile properties of fast-twitch muscle bundles were determined in physiological saline and in the presence of 50 mmol l(-1)urea, 50 mmol l(-1)TMAO and/or 200 mmol l(-1)glycerol in saline. Muscle exposed to urea and glycerol produced less force and displayed slower contractile properties. However, treatment with TMAO led to higher force and faster relaxation by muscle bundles. TMAO increased power production during cyclical activity, while urea and glycerol led to reduced oscillatory power output. When muscle bundles were exposed to a combination of the three osmolytes, they displayed little change in contraction kinetics relative to control, although power output under lower oscillatory conditions was enhanced while maximum power output was reduced. The results suggest that maintenance of muscle function in winter smelt requires a balanced combination of urea, glycerol and TMAO. PMID:26823101

  5. β-Citronellol, an alcoholic monoterpene with inhibitory properties on the contractility of rat trachea.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, T B; Ribeiro-Filho, H V; Lucetti, L T; Magalhães, P J C

    2016-02-01

    β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K(+)-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor

  6. β-Citronellol, an alcoholic monoterpene with inhibitory properties on the contractility of rat trachea

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, T.B.; Ribeiro-Filho, H.V.; Lucetti, L.T.; Magalhães, P.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor

  7. Inhibitory effect of pinaverium bromide on gastrointestinal contractile activity in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Z; Takahashi, I

    1981-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of 4-(6-bromoveratryl)-4-(2-[2-(6,6-dimethyl-2-norpinyl)-ethoxy]-ethyl)-morpholinium hydroxide (pinaverium bromide), a quaternary ammonium derivative, on the contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon was investigated in six conscious dogs. Gastrointestinal motor activity was monitored by means of chronically implanted force transducers. Pinaverium bromide was continuously administered i.v. for 30 min in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/h during both the digestive and interdigestive states. It was found that pinaverium bromide strongly inhibited gastrointestinal contractile activity during both the digestive and interdigestive states; contractions in the stomach were most strongly inhibited; however, those in the small and large bowels were also significantly inhibited. No significant side effects in the circulatory and respiratory systems and the gastrointestinal tract such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea were observed during and after the infusion of this agent. PMID:7197953

  8. PTP1B triggers integrin-mediated repression of myosin activity and modulates cell contractility

    PubMed Central

    González Wusener, Ana E.; González, Ángela; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Arregui, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell contractility and migration by integrins depends on precise regulation of protein tyrosine kinase and Rho-family GTPase activities in specific spatiotemporal patterns. Here we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B cooperates with β3 integrin to activate the Src/FAK signalling pathway which represses RhoA-myosin-dependent contractility. Using PTP1B null (KO) cells and PTP1B reconstituted (WT) cells, we determined that some early steps following cell adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin occurred robustly in WT cells, including aggregation of β3 integrins and adaptor proteins, and activation of Src/FAK-dependent signalling at small puncta in a lamellipodium. However, these events were significantly impaired in KO cells. We established that cytoskeletal strain and cell contractility was highly enhanced at the periphery of KO cells compared to WT cells. Inhibition of the Src/FAK signalling pathway or expression of constitutive active RhoA in WT cells induced a KO cell phenotype. Conversely, expression of constitutive active Src or myosin inhibition in KO cells restored the WT phenotype. We propose that this novel function of PTP1B stimulates permissive conditions for adhesion and lamellipodium assembly at the protruding edge during cell spreading and migration. PMID:26700725

  9. Rapid fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and cardiomyocytes yields electrically active, non-contractile hybrid cells

    PubMed Central

    Shadrin, Ilya Y.; Yoon, Woohyun; Li, Liqing; Shepherd, Neal; Bursac, Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac cell therapies involving bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have shown promising results, although their mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated direct interactions between hMSCs and cardiomyocytes in vitro. Using a genetic Ca2+ indicator gCaMP3 to efficiently label hMSCs in co-cultures with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), we determined that 25–40% of hMSCs (from 4 independent donors) acquired periodic Ca2+ transients and cardiac markers through spontaneous fusion with NRVMs. Sharp electrode and voltage-clamp recordings in fused cells showed action potential properties and Ca2+ current amplitudes in between those of non-fused hMSCs and NRVMs. Time-lapse video-microscopy revealed the first direct evidence of active fusion between hMSCs and NRVMs within several hours of co-culture. Application of blebbistatin, nifedipine or verapamil caused complete and reversible inhibition of fusion, suggesting potential roles for actomyosin bridging and Ca2+ channels in the fusion process. Immunostaining for Cx43, Ki67, and sarcomeric α-actinin showed that fused cells remain strongly coupled to surrounding NRVMs, but downregulate sarcomeric structures over time, acquiring a non-proliferative and non-contractile phenotype. Overall, these results describe the phenotype and mechanisms of hybrid cell formation via fusion of hMSCs and cardiomyocytes with potential implications for cardiac cell therapy. PMID:26159124

  10. Influence of prostaglandins and adrenoceptor agonists on contractile activity in the human cervix at term.

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1986-04-01

    The influence of prostaglandins as well as adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on contractile activity of isolated cervical smooth muscle from term pregnant women was studied. Prostaglandin E2 had an inhibitory effect at extremely low concentrations. Inhibition also was induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha, prostaglandin I2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, but at considerably higher concentrations. Contractions evoked by noradrenaline or phenylephrine were blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline acted as an inhibitor, whereas isoprenaline in most cases stimulated contractile activity. The inhibitory action of prostaglandins and especially the high sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 point to a physiologic role of these compounds for cervical dilatation and retraction. A predominance of alpha-adrenoceptors might be of importance for the maintenance of cervical competence during pregnancy. PMID:2870450

  11. Contractile properties of rat, rhesus monkey, and human type I muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widrick, J. J.; Romatowski, J. G.; Karhanek, M.; Fitts, R. H.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that skeletal muscle intrinsic maximal shortening velocity is inversely related to species body mass. However, there is uncertainty regarding the relationship between the contractile properties of muscle fibers obtained from commonly studied laboratory animals and those obtained from humans. In this study we determined the contractile properties of single chemically skinned fibers prepared from rat, rhesus monkey, and human soleus and gastrocnemius muscle samples under identical experimental conditions. All fibers used for analysis expressed type I myosin heavy chain as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allometric coefficients for type I fibers from each muscle indicated that there was little change in peak tension (force/fiber cross-sectional area) across species. In contrast, both soleus and gastrocnemius type I fiber maximal unloaded shortening velocity (Vo), the y-intercept of the force-velocity relationship (Vmax), peak power per unit fiber length, and peak power normalized for fiber length and cross-sectional area were all inversely related to species body mass. The present allometric coefficients for soleus fiber Vo (-0.18) and Vmax (-0.11) are in good agreement with published values for soleus fibers obtained from common laboratory and domesticated mammals. Taken together, these observations suggest that the Vo of slow fibers from quadrupeds and humans scale similarly and can be described by the same quantitative relationships. These findings have implications in the design and interpretation of experiments, especially those that use small laboratory mammals as a model of human muscle function.

  12. Effect of alterations in the thyroid state on the intrinsic contractile properties of isolated rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Herman K.; Spann, James F.; Braunwald, Eugene

    1970-01-01

    Contractile properties of soleus muscles isolated from 31 euthyroid (EU), 20 hyperthyroid (HT), and 18 myxedematous (MY) rats were studied in a myograph. At 100 stimuli/sec maximum isometric tension was essentially identical in EU (17.2 ±0.5 g/mm2) and HT (17.7 ±0.5 g/mm2) muscles, but was significantly depressed in MY muscles (11.5 ±0.7 g/mm2). The rate of tension development was increased in HT (103 ±4.5 g/sec per mm2) as compared to both EU (86.2 ±4.6 g/sec per mm2) and MY (38.4 ±2.2 g/sec per mm2) muscles, while the duration of the active state was shortened in HT (77.1 ±2.3 msec) as compared to EU (105.1 ±1.1 msec) muscles and was prolonged in MY muscles (153.3 ±6.0 msec). The mean rate of isometric relaxation was 26.5 ±4.9 g/mm2 per sec in EU muscles, more rapid in HT muscles (33.1 ±1.3 g/sec per mm2), and slower in MY muscles (16.0 ± g/mm2 per sec). The fusion frequency was greater in HT muscles, averaging 68.5 ±3.6 stimuli/sec compared to EU muscles (38.1 ±1.2 stimuli/sec) and to MY muscles (33.3 ±4.0 stimuli/sec). At 40 stimuli/sec tension averaged 16.4 ±0.8 g/mm2 in EU muscles while at the same frequency tension was reduced in HT muscle, averaging 14.2 ±0.5 g/mm2. All differences were significant (P < 0.01). In conclusion, HT and MY result in profound alterations in the intrinsic contractile properties of skeletal muscle. While tension in HT muscles is maintained in vitro at a stimulus frequency of 100 stimuli/sec, the reduction in duration of active state may lower tension in vivo by preventing complete fusion of contractile events. In MY tension is reduced as a consequence of the lowered intensity of the active state. These changes explain, at least in part, the weakness of muscle activity in both HT and MY. PMID:5443184

  13. Contractile effects of angiotensin peptides in rat aorta are differentially dependent on tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, G; Costuleanu, M; Slatineanu, S M; Costuleanu, N; Foia, L; Costuleanu, A

    2001-09-01

    It has been suggested that tyrosine kinase activity participates in the regulation of signal transduction associated with angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced pharmaco-mechanical coupling in rat aortic smooth muscle. We further tested the effects of genistein, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, and its inactive analogue, daidzein, on angiotensin I (Ang I), angiotensin III (Ang III) and angiotensin IV (Ang IV) contractions, as compared with those on Ang II. Genistein partially inhibited Ang II- and Ang I-induced contractions. The genistein-induced inhibition was more evident on Ang III and especially important on Ang IV contractile effects. Thus, Ang IV- and Ang III-induced contractions seem to be more dependent on tyrosine kinase activity than those evoked by Ang II or Ang I. Daidzein did not significantly affect the contractile effects of any of angiotensin peptides tested. These results clearly suggest that the inhibition of the action of angiotensin peptides actions by genistein is mediated by inhibition of endogenous tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, our data show that the type and/or intensity of tyrosine kinase activity is differentially associated with the contractile effects of different angiotensin peptides in rat aorta. Nifedipine, a blocker of membrane L-type Ca2+ channels, strongly inhibited Ang IV-induced contractions. At the same time, it significantly inhibited Ang III contractile effects as compared with Ang II and Ang I contractions. Meanwhile, we observed a close relationship between calcium influx and tyrosine kinase phosphorylation activity under the stimulatory effects of angiotensin peptides. Furthermore, genistein did not significantly influence the phasic contractions induced by angiotensin peptides in Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution. Thus, it appears that Ca2+ influx, rather than the release of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive stores, may play a major role in the contractile effects of angiotensin peptides in rat aorta via tyrosine kinase activation

  14. Contractile activity is required for Z-disc sarcomere maturation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Geach, Timothy J; Hirst, Elizabeth MA; Zimmerman, Lyle B

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomere structure underpins structural integrity, signaling, and force transmission in the muscle. In embryos of the frog Xenopus tropicalis, muscle contraction begins even while sarcomerogenesis is ongoing. To determine whether contractile activity plays a role in sarcomere formation in vivo, chemical tools were used to block acto-myosin contraction in embryos of the frog X. tropicalis, and Z-disc assembly was characterized in the paralyzed dicky ticker mutant. Confocal and ultrastructure analysis of paralyzed embryos showed delayed Z-disc formation and defects in thick filament organization. These results suggest a previously undescribed role for contractility in sarcomere maturation in vivo. genesis 53:299–307, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25845369

  15. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Inhibits Spontaneous Contractile Activity of Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Lobov, G I; Pan'kova, M N

    2016-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide dose-dependently inhibited spontaneous phase and tonic activity of smooth muscle strips from the capsule of isolated bovine mesenteric lymph nodes. Pretreatment with L-NAME, diclofenac, and methylene blue had practically no effect on the peptide-induced relaxation responses. In contrast, glibenclamide significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide. We suppose that the NO-dependent and cyclooxygenase signaling pathways are not involved in implementation of the inhibitory effects of atrial natriuretic peptide. ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels of the smooth muscle cell membrane are the last component in the signaling pathway leading to relaxation of smooth muscles of the lymph node capsule caused by atrial natriuretic peptide; activation of these channels leads to membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. PMID:27383173

  16. Adaptation of muscle gene expression to changes in contractile activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Babij, P.; Thomason, D. B.; Wong, T. S.; Morrison, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the existing literature regarding the effects of different types of physical activities on the gene expression of adult skeletal muscles leads us to conclude that each type of exercise training program has, as a result, a different phenotype, which means that there are multiple mechanisms, each producing a unique phenotype. A portion of the facts which support this position is presented and interpreted here. [Abstract translated from the original French by NASA].

  17. Suppression of contractile activity in the small intestine by indomethacin and omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Bhattarai, Deepa; Phan, Tri M; Dial, Elizabeth J; Uray, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat a number of conditions, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often used to prevent NSAID-induced gastric mucosal damage; however, the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal motility are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of a prototypical NSAID, indomethacin, either alone or in conjunction with the PPI omeprazole, on intestinal motility. Rats were randomly divided into four groups treated with vehicle, omeprazole, indomethacin, or a combination of indomethacin and omeprazole. Intestinal motility and transit were measured along with inflammatory mediators in the intestinal smooth muscle, markers of mucosal damage, and bacterial counts in the intestinal wall. Indomethacin, but not omeprazole, caused mucosal injury indicated by lower gut bleeding; however, both omeprazole and indomethacin suppressed contractile activity and frequency in the distal part of the small intestine. Cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce indomethacin-induced intestinal bleeding. Furthermore, although indomethacin caused increased inflammation as indicated by increased edema development and inflammatory mediators, cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce inflammation in the intestinal smooth muscle or prevent the increased bacterial count in the intestinal wall induced by indomethacin. We conclude that both NSAID and PPI treatment suppressed contractile activity in the distal regions of the small intestine. The suppression of intestinal contractility was associated with increased inflammation in both cases; however, indomethacin and omeprazole appear to affect intestinal motility by different mechanisms. PMID:25721304

  18. [Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist. PMID:21870511

  19. Changes in contractile properties of skinned single rat soleus and diaphragm fibres after chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Degens, Hans; Bosutti, Alessandra; Gilliver, Sally F; Slevin, Mark; van Heijst, Arno; Wüst, Rob C I

    2010-10-01

    Hypoxia may be one of the factors underlying muscle dysfunction during ageing and chronic lung and heart failure. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia per se affects contractile properties of single fibres of the soleus and diaphragm muscle. To do this, the force-velocity relationship, rate of force redevelopment and calcium sensitivity of single skinned fibres from normoxic rats and rats exposed to 4 weeks of hypobaric hypoxia (410 mmHg) were investigated. The reduction in maximal force (P(0)) after hypoxia (p=0.031) was more pronounced in type IIa than type I fibres and was mainly attributable to a reduction in fibre cross-sectional area (p=0.044). In type IIa fibres this was aggravated by a reduction in specific tension (p=0.001). The maximal velocity of shortening (V (max)) and shape of the force velocity relation (a/P(0)), however, did not differ between normoxic and hypoxic muscle fibres and the reduction in maximal power of hypoxic fibres (p=0.012) was mainly due to a reduction in P(0). In conclusion, chronic hypoxia causes muscle fibre dysfunction which is not only due to a loss of muscle mass, but also to a diminished force generating capacity of the remaining contractile material. These effects are similar in the soleus and diaphragm muscle, but more pronounced in type IIa than I fibres. PMID:20697736

  20. The characteristics of intrinsic complex micro-contractile activity in isolated strips of the rat bladder.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J I; Rouget, C; Palea, S; Granato, C; Birder, L; Korstanje, C

    2015-07-01

    In the resting and un-stimulated state, the bladder wall is not quiescent and discrete contractile events, microcontractions, can be recorded in almost all species. This activity contributes to the active element of compliance and to the basal resting tension. This intrinsic activity underpins the more complex phasic activity, non-voiding activity (NVA) that can be seen to increase progressively as the bladder is filled. The NVA represents the motor component of a motor sensory system that relays information to the CNS on bladder volume. Despite the importance of this intrinsic motor activity, little is known about the mechanisms involved in its generation and modulation. The present experiments were done on isolated hemi-bladders from normal rats and measurements made of the intrinsic motor activity. Detailed analysis of the resting state reveals the presence of discrete phasic contractile events, micro-contractions that range in amplitude from 0.1-0.6 mN. These events seem to occur randomly and the basal activity has the appearance of ‘noise’. An analysis of the frequency amplitude distribution of the contractile events, reveals that the total activity appears to be the sum of a number of discrete contractile units, each generating a phasic contraction about a specific mean value and with characteristic frequency. In a hemi-bladder, there are between 20-30 units generating the activity at rest. Using the timed integral of the activity (product of amplitude and frequency), it was noted that the activity was increased by the muscarinic agonist carbachol, but it was decreased by the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. Stretching the preparations also increased the activity. Using these observations, a simple model of the structural and functional organisation of the isolated rat bladder is proposed: the wall appears to be arranged into a number of discrete motor units acting independently. However, the activity can be stimulated or inhibited by pharmacological

  1. Chronology of UPR activation in skeletal muscle adaptations to chronic contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Memme, Jonathan M; Oliveira, Ashley N; Hood, David A

    2016-06-01

    The mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein responses (UPR(mt) and UPR(ER)) are important for cellular homeostasis during stimulus-induced increases in protein synthesis. Exercise triggers the synthesis of mitochondrial proteins, regulated in part by peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). To investigate the role of the UPR in exercise-induced adaptations, we subjected rats to 3 h of chronic contractile activity (CCA) for 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 days followed by 3 h of recovery. Mitochondrial biogenesis signaling, through PGC-1α mRNA, increased 14-fold after 1 day of CCA. This resulted in 10-32% increases in cytochrome c oxidase activity, indicative of mitochondrial content, between days 3 and 7, as well as increases in the autophagic degradation of p62 and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3A (LC3)-II protein. Before these adaptations, the UPR(ER) transcripts activating transcription factor-4, spliced X-box-binding protein 1, and binding immunoglobulin protein were elevated (1.3- to 3.8-fold) at days 1-3, while CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and chaperones binding immunoglobulin protein and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 were elevated at mRNA and protein levels (1.5- to 3.9-fold) at days 1-7 of CCA. The mitochondrial chaperones 10-kDa chaperonin, HSP60, and 75-kDa mitochondrial HSP, the protease ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit, and the regulatory protein sirtuin-3 of the UPR(mt) were concurrently induced 10-80% between days 1 and 7 To test the role of the UPR in CCA-induced remodeling, we treated animals with the endoplasmic reticulum stress suppressor tauroursodeoxycholic acid and subjected them to 2 or 7 days of CCA. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated CHOP and HSP70 protein induction; however, this failed to impact mitochondrial remodeling. Our data indicate that signaling to the UPR is rapidly activated following acute contractile activity, that this is

  2. Contractile activity of the bladder urothelium/lamina propria and its regulation by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Moro, Christian; Leeds, Charlotte; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2012-01-15

    In the bladder, nitric oxide (NO) is released from neuronal and non-neuronal sources, but its actions are unclear. Strips of urothelium plus lamina propria contract in response to agonists and develop spontaneous phasic contractions, and the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of NO on this activity. Isolated strips of urothelium/lamina propria from porcine bladder developed spontaneous contractions (3.5 ± 0.3 cycles/min) and contracted in response to carbachol and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA, 100 μM) had no effects on the tissues, but the NO donors diethylamine NONOate (DEANO, 100 μM) and nitroprusside (10 μM) caused relaxation, slowed the spontaneous rate of contractions and inhibited responses to carbachol. Maximum tonic contractions to carbachol were reduced by 17 ± 4% (P<0.001) and 35 ± 5% (P<0.001) by DEANO and nitroprusside respectively and the potency of carbachol was also reduced. Carbachol also increased the spontaneous frequency of contraction and these rate responses were again inhibited by DEANO and nitroprusside, but unaffected by L-NNA. Similarly, responses to EFS were significantly depressed (52-70%) by DEANO (P<0.05), but were unaffected by L-NNA. These data demonstrate spontaneous contractile activity and also nerve and agonist-induced tonic contractile activity within the urothelium and lamina propria. This activity is sensitive to depression by NO, but NO does not appear to be spontaneously released to influence this activity, nor does it appear to be released by muscarinic receptor stimulation. However the results suggest that in situations where NO production is increased, NO can influence the contractile activity of this tissue. PMID:22119378

  3. Contractile properties of rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle during reinnervation - Effects of testosterone and castration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeagle, S. P.; Mayer, R. F.; Max, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    The peroneal nerve of subject rats were crushed 1 cm from the muscle in order to examine the isometric contractile properties of skeletal muscle in the recovery sequency during reinnervation of normal, castrated, and testosterone-treated rats. The particular muscle studied was the extensor digitorum longus, with functional reinnervation first observed 8-9 days after nerve crush. No evidence was found that either castration or testosterone injections altered the process of reinnervation after the nerve crush, with the conclusion being valid at the 0.05 p level. The most reliable index of reinnervation was found to be the twitch:tetanus ratio, a factor of use in future studies of the reinnervation of skeletal muscle.

  4. [Contractile properties of skeletal muscles of rats after flight on "Kosmos-1887"].

    PubMed

    Oganov, V S; Skuratova, S A; Murashko, L M

    1991-01-01

    Contractile properties of skeletal muscles of rats were investigated using glycerinated muscle preparations that were obtained from Cosmos-1887 animals flown for 13 days (plus 2 days on the ground) and from rats that remained hypokinetic for 13 days on the ground. In the flow rats, the absolute mass of postural muscles remained unchanged while their relative mass increased; this may be attributed to their enhanced hydration which developed during the first 2 days after landing. Strength losses of the postural muscles were less significant than after previous flights. Comparison of the Cosmos-1887 and hypokinesia control data has shown that even 2-day exposure to 1 G after 13-day flight can modify drastically flight-induced changes. PMID:1870316

  5. Hindlimb immobilization - Length-tension and contractile properties of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Casts were placed around rat feet in plantar flexion position to immobilize the soleus muscle in a shortened position, while the other foot was fixed in dorsal flexion to set the extensor digitorum longus in a shortened position. The total muscular atrophy and contractile properties were measured at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after immobilization, with casts being replaced every two weeks. The slow twitch soleus and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis and longus muscles were excised after termination of the experiment. The muscles were then stretched and subjected to electric shock to elicit peak tetanic tension and peak tetanic tension development. Force velocity features of the three muscles were assayed in a series of afterloaded contractions and fiber lengths were measured from subsequently macerated muscle. All muscles atrophied during immobilization, reaching a new steady state by day 21. Decreases in fiber and sarcomere lengths were also observed.

  6. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  7. The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goats Palates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cleft palate goat model was used to study the contractile properties of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle which is responsible for the movement of the soft palate. In 15-25% of patients that undergo palatoplasty, residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) remains a problem and often require...

  8. High-definition spatiotemporal mapping of contractile activity in the isolated proximal colon of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Lentle, Roger G; Janssen, Patrick W M; Asvarujanon, Patchana; Chambers, Paul; Stafford, Kevin J; Hemar, Yacine

    2008-03-01

    Four types of contractile activity were identified and characterised in the isolated triple haustrated proximal colon of the rabbit using high-definition spatiotemporal mapping techniques. Mass peristalses were hexamethonium-sensitive deep circular contractions with associated taenial longitudinal contractile activity that occurred irregularly and propagated rapidly aborad, preceded by a zone of local lumen distension. They were sufficiently sustained for each event to occupy the length of the isolated colonic segment and the contraction persisted longer orally than aborally, the difference being more pronounced when lumen contents were viscous. Haustra were bounded by deep even-spaced ring contractions that progressed slowly aborad (haustral progression). Haustral formation and progression were hexamethonium-sensitive and coordinated across intertaenial domains. Ripples were hexamethonium-resistant phasic circular contractions that propagated predominantly orad at varying rates. In the presence of haustra, they were uncoordinated across intertaenial domains but were more coordinated when haustra were absent. Fast phasic contractions were relatively shallow hexamethonium-resistant contractions that propagated rapidly in a predominantly aborad direction. Fast phasic circular contractions were accompanied by taenial longitudinal muscle contractions which increased in amplitude prior to a mass peristaltic event and following the administration of hexamethonium. On the basis of the concurrence and interaction of these contractile activities, we hypothesise that dual pacemakers are present with fast phasic contractions being modulated by the interstitial cells of Cajal in the Auerbach's plexus (ICC-MY) while ripples are due to the submucosal ICC (ICC-SM). Further, that ICC-SM mediate the enteric motor neurons that generate haustral progression, while the intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM) mediate mass peristalsis. The orad movement of watery fluid was possibly due to ripples in

  9. Stress activated contractile wavefronts in the mechanically-excitable embryonic heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Kevin; Majkut, Stephanie; Discher, Dennis; Lubensky, Tom; Liu, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    The heart is a prime example of a robust, active system with behavior-the heart beat-that is extraordinarily well timed and coordinated. For more than half a century, electrical activity induced by ion release and diffusion has been argued to be the mechanism driving cardiac action. But recent work indicates that this phenomenon is also regulated by mechanical activity. In the embryonic avian heart tube, the speed of the contractile wavefront traversing the heart tube with each beat is measured to be a monotonic, linear function of tissue stiffness. Traditional electrical conduction models of excitation-contraction cannot explain this dependence; such a result indicates that the myocardium is mechanically excitable. Here, we extend this work by using experimental observations of stiffness-dependent behavior in isolated cardiomyocytes as an input to study contractile wavefronts in the tissue as a whole. We model the heart tube as an active, overdamped elastic network where the primary stress mediator is the extracellular matrix. Using this simple model, we explain experimental observations of the systolic wave and predict qualitatively new behavior.

  10. Functional insights into modulation of BKCa channel activity to alter myometrial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Lorca, Ramón A.; Prabagaran, Monali; England, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    The large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) is an important regulator of membrane excitability in a wide variety of cells and tissues. In myometrial smooth muscle, activation of BKCa plays essential roles in buffering contractility to maintain uterine quiescence during pregnancy and in the transition to a more contractile state at the onset of labor. Multiple mechanisms of modulation have been described to alter BKCa channel activity, expression, and cellular localization. In the myometrium, BKCa is regulated by alternative splicing, protein targeting to the plasma membrane, compartmentation in membrane microdomains, and posttranslational modifications. In addition, interaction with auxiliary proteins (i.e., β1- and β2-subunits), association with G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, such as those activated by adrenergic and oxytocin receptors, and hormonal regulation provide further mechanisms of variable modulation of BKCa channel function in myometrial smooth muscle. Here, we provide an overview of these mechanisms of BKCa channel modulation and provide a context for them in relation to myometrial function. PMID:25132821

  11. G-1-activated membrane estrogen receptors mediate increased contractility of the human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Maiti, K; Paul, J W; Read, M; Chan, E C; Riley, S C; Nahar, P; Smith, R

    2011-06-01

    Estrogens are key mediators of increased uterine contractility at labor. We sought to determine whether membrane-associated estrogen receptors, such as the recently described seven-transmembrane receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), mediated some of this effect. Using human myometrium obtained at term cesarean section before or after the onset of labor, we demonstrated the presence of GPR30 mRNA and protein using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. GPR30 receptor was localized to the cell membrane and often colocalized with calveolin-1. Using the specific estrogen membrane receptor agonist G-1 and myometrial explants, we showed that membrane receptor activation led to phosphorylation of MAPK and the actin-modifying small heat shock protein 27. Using myometrial strips incubated with G-1 or vehicle we demonstrated that estrogen membrane receptor activation increased the myometrial contractile response to oxytocin. These data suggest that activation of the plasma membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 likely participates in the physiology of the human myometrium during pregnancy and identifies it as a potential target to modify uterine activity. PMID:21427217

  12. Active self-polarization of contractile cells in asymmetrically shaped domains.

    PubMed

    Zemel, A; Safran, S A

    2007-08-01

    Mechanical forces generated by contractile cells allow the cells to sense their environment and to interact with other cells. By locally pulling on their environment, cells can sense and respond to mechanical features such as the local stress (or strain), the shape of a cellular domain, and the surrounding rigidity; at the same time, they also modify the mechanical state of the system. This creates a mechanical feedback loop that can result in self-polarization of cells. In this paper, we present a quantitative mechanical model that predicts the self-polarization of cells in spheroidally shaped domains, comprising contractile cells and an elastic matrix, that are embedded in a three-dimensional, cell-free gel. The theory is based on a generalization of the known results for passive inclusions in solids to include the effects of cell activity. We use the active cellular susceptibility tensor presented by Zemel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 128103 (2006)] to calculate the polarization response and hence the elastic stress field developed by the cells in the cellular domain. The cell polarization is analyzed as a function of the shape and the elastic moduli of the cellular domain compared with the cell-free surrounding material. Consistent with experiment, our theory predicts the development of a stronger contractile force for cells in a gel that is surrounded by a large, cell-free material whose elastic modulus is stiffer than that of the gel that contains the cells. This provides a quantitative explanation of the differences in the development of cellular forces as observed in free and fixed gels. In the case of an asymmetrically shaped (spheroidal) domain of cells, we show that the anisotropic elastic field within the domain leads to a spontaneous self-polarization of the cells along the long axis of the domain. PMID:17930063

  13. Regular exercise improves cardiac contractile activation by modulating MHC isoforms and SERCA activity in orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Vutthasathien, Pavarana; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2015-10-01

    Data from the trial known as Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations (TOM) has indicated an association between testosterone administration and a greater risk for adverse cardiovascular events. We therefore propose that regular exercise is a cardioprotective alternative that prevents detrimental changes in contractile activation when a deficiency in male sex hormones exists. Ten-week-old orchidectomized (ORX) rats were subjected to a 9-wk treadmill running program at moderate intensity starting 1 wk after surgery. Although exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was observed both in rats that underwent ORX and sham surgery, regular exercise enhanced cardiac myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and myosin light-chain 2 phosphorylation only in rats that underwent a sham operation. Although the rats that had sham surgery and and given exercise exhibited no change in maximum developed tension, regular running prevented the suppression of maximum active tension in the hearts of ORX rats. Regular exercise also prevented a shift in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms toward β-MHC, a reduction in sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity, and an increase in SERCA sensitivity in the hearts of ORX rats. Neither SERCA content nor its modulating component, phospholamban (PLB), was altered by exercise in either sham-operated or ORX rats. However, decreases in the phosphorylated Thr(17) form of PLB and the phosphorylated Thr(287) form of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the hearts of ORX rats were abolished after regular exercise. These results thus support the use of regular running as a cardioprotective alternative to testosterone replacement in hypogonadal conditions. PMID:26272317

  14. Adrenoceptor mechanisms in the regulation of contractile activity in the human cervix.

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Lindblom, B; Norström, A; Sahni, S

    1984-09-01

    The effects of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on the contractile activity of cervical strips from early pregnant and nonpregnant women were studied. Noradrenaline and the alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, had a stimulatory effect on smooth muscle activity. This response could be blocked totally by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine. Isoprenaline, known to be a beta-adrenoceptor agonist with some alpha-adrenoceptor activity, had stimulatory and inhibitory effects, whereas the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, terbutaline, exhibited a pure inhibitory action. The inhibitory effects of isoprenaline and terbutaline were totally blocked by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. In pregnant patients, the sensitivity to noradrenaline was significantly higher, and the inhibitory action of terbutaline was less pronounced, which indicated the predominance of alpha-receptor activity in the uterine cervix during pregnancy. PMID:6146956

  15. Nonequilibrium phase transitions, fluctuations and correlations in an active contractile polar fluid.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, Kripa; Rao, Madan

    2016-02-21

    We study the patterning, fluctuations and correlations of an active polar fluid consisting of contractile polar filaments on a two-dimensional substrate, using a hydrodynamic description. The steady states generically consist of arrays of inward pointing asters and show a continuous transition from a moving lamellar phase, a moving aster street, to a stationary aster lattice with no net polar order. We next study the effect of spatio-temporal athermal noise, parametrized by an active temperature TA, on the stability of the ordered phases. In contrast to its equilibrium counterpart, we find that the active crystal shows true long range order at low TA. On increasing TA, the asters dynamically remodel, concomitantly we find novel phase transitions characterized by bond-orientational and polar order upon "heating". PMID:26742682

  16. Ceramide-mediated depression in cardiomyocyte contractility through PKC activation and modulation of myofilament protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jillian N.; Chowdhury, Shamim A.K.; Warren, Chad M.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Wieczorek, David F.; Solaro, R. John; Wolska, Beata M.

    2015-01-01

    Although ceramide accumulation in the heart is considered a major factor in promoting apoptosis and cardiac disorders, including heart failure, lipotoxicity and ischemia-reperfusion injury, little is known about ceramide’s role in mediating changes in contractility. In the present study, we measured the functional consequences of acute exposure of isolated field stimulated adult rat cardiomyocytes to C6-ceramide. Exogenous ceramide treatment depressed the peak amplitude and the maximal velocity of shortening without altering intracellular calcium levels or kinetics. The inactive ceramide analog C6-dihydroceramide had no effect on myocyte shortening or [Ca2+]i transients. Experiments testing a potential role for C6-ceramide-mediated effects on activation of protein kinase C (PKC) demonstrated evidence for signaling through the calcium-independent isoform, PKCε. We employed 2 dimensional electrophoresis and anti-phospho-peptide antibodies to test whether treatment of the cardiomyocytes with C6-ceramide altered myocyte shortening via PKC dependent phosphorylation of myofilament proteins. Compared to controls, myocytes treated with ceramide exhibited increased phosphorylation of myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C), specifically at Ser273 and Ser302, and troponin I (cTnI) at sites apart from Ser23/24, which could be attenuated with PKC inhibition. We conclude that the altered myofilament response to calcium resulting from multiple sites of PKC-dependent phosphorylation contributes to contractile dysfunction that is associated with cardiac diseases in which elevations in ceramides are present. PMID:25280528

  17. The effects of hibernation on the contractile and biochemical properties of skeletal muscles in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    James, Rob S; Staples, James F; Brown, Jason C L; Tessier, Shannon N; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-07-15

    Hibernation is a crucial strategy of winter survival used by many mammals. During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, cycle through a series of torpor bouts, each lasting more than a week, during which the animals are largely immobile. Previous hibernation studies have demonstrated that such natural models of skeletal muscle disuse cause limited or no change in either skeletal muscle size or contractile performance. However, work loop analysis of skeletal muscle, which provides a realistic assessment of in vivo power output, has not previously been undertaken in mammals that undergo prolonged torpor during hibernation. In the present study, our aim was to assess the effects of 3 months of hibernation on contractile performance (using the work loop technique) and several biochemical properties that may affect performance. There was no significant difference in soleus muscle power output-cycle frequency curves between winter (torpid) and summer (active) animals. Total antioxidant capacity of gastrocnemius muscle was 156% higher in torpid than in summer animals, suggesting one potential mechanism for maintenance of acute muscle performance. Soleus muscle fatigue resistance was significantly lower in torpid than in summer animals. Gastrocnemius muscle glycogen content was unchanged. However, state 3 and state 4 mitochondrial respiration rates were significantly suppressed, by 59% and 44%, respectively, in mixed hindlimb skeletal muscle from torpid animals compared with summer controls. These findings in hindlimb skeletal muscles suggest that, although maximal contractile power output is maintained in torpor, there is both suppression of ATP production capacity and reduced fatigue resistance. PMID:23531815

  18. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Deficiency Exacerbates Aging-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Turdi, Subat; Fan, Xiujuan; Li, Ji; Zhao, Junxing; Huff, Anna F.; Du, Min; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with myocardial dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is unclear. AMPK, a key cellular fuel sensor for energy metabolism, is compromised with aging. This study examined the role of AMPK deficiency in aging-associated myocardial dysfunction. Young or old minwild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with overexpression of a mutant AMPK α2 subunit (kinase dead, KD) were used. AMPK α isoform activity, myocardial function and morphology were examined. DCF and JC-1 fluorescence probes were employed to quantify reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), respectively. KD mice displayed significantly reduced α2 but not α1 AMPK isoform activity at both ages with a greater effect at old age. Aging itself decreased α1 isoform activity. Cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ handling and SERCA2a levels were compromised with aging, the effects of which were exacerbated by AMPK deficiency. H&E staining revealed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with aging, which was more pronounced in KD mice. TEM micrographs displayed severe disruption of mitochondrial ultrastructure characterized by swollen, irregular shape and disrupted cristae in aged KD compared with WT mice. Aging enhanced ROS production and reduced ΔΨm, the effects of which were accentuated by AMPK deficiency. Immunoblotting data depicted unchanged Akt phosphorylation and a significant decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis cofactor PGC-1α in aged groups. AMPK deficiency but not aging decreased the phosphorylation of ACC and eNOS. Expression of membrane Glut4 and HSP90 was decreased in aged KD mice. Moreover, treatment of the AMPK activator metformin attenuated aging-induced cardiomyocyte contractile defects. Collectively, our data suggest a role for AMPK deficiency in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through disrupted mitochondrial function and ROS production. PMID:20477759

  19. Myosin Isoforms and Contractile Properties of Single Fibers of Human Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pacelli, Quirico F.; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Reggiani, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate fiber type distribution and contractile characteristics of Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM). Samples were collected from 18 young healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) through percutaneous fine needle muscle biopsy. The results showed a predominance of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) with 42% of MyHC 2A and 25% of MyHC 2X, while MyHC 1 represented only 33%. The unbalance toward fast isoforms was even greater in males (71%) than in females (64%). Fiber type distribution partially reflected MyHC isoform distribution with 28% type 1/slow fibers and 5% hybrid 1/2A fibers, while fast fibers were divided into 30% type 2A, 31% type A/X, 4% type X, and 2% type 1/2X. Type 1/slow fibers were not only less abundant but also smaller in cross-sectional area than fast fibers. During maximal isometric contraction, type 1/slow fibers developed force and tension significantly lower than the two major groups of fast fibers. In conclusion, the predominance of fast fibers and their greater size and strength compared to slow fibers reveal that LDM is a muscle specialized mainly in phasic and powerful activity. Importantly, such specialization is more pronounced in males than in females. PMID:23971027

  20. Relaxation of evoked contractile activity of isolated guinea-pig ileum by (+/-)-kavain.

    PubMed

    Seitz, U; Ameri, A; Pelzer, H; Gleitz, J; Peters, T

    1997-08-01

    Kava pyrones are the pharmacologically active compounds of Piper methysticum Forst. In the present study, the effect of the synthetic kava pyrone (+/-)-kavain was investigated on evoked contractile activity of isolated guinea-pig ileum. (+/-)-Kavain (1 microM-1 mM) dose-dependently reduced contractions of ileum evoked by carbachol (10 microM), by BAY K 8644 (0.3 microM), or by substance P (0.05 microM). (+/-)-Kavain also inhibited the contractile responses induced by raising the extracellular K+ concentration from 4 to 20 mM and by blocking the K+ channel by barium chloride (1 mM) or 4-aminopyridine (0.3 mM). After pre-incubation with 1 microM nifedipine, carbachol (1 microM) evoked 18.2 +/- 14.3% of contraction at control (i.e. prior pre-incubation with nifedipine). This remaining response was completely abolished by high concentrations of (+/-)-kavain (400 microM). After treatment of the longitudinal ileum strips with pertussis toxin (PTX), carbachol (1 microM) evoked 27.0 +/- 6.2% of the control response in untreated ileum. These contractions were also blocked by (+/-)-kavain (400 microM). However, (+/-)-kavain had no effect on the caffeine-induced (20 mM) contractions of ileum strips, which were permeabilized with digitonin or beta-escin. Moreover, it failed to affect Ca(2+)-evoked contractions of skinned muscles. These results suggest that the kava pyrone (+/-)-kavain may act in a non-specific musculotropic way on the smooth muscle membrane. PMID:9270372

  1. Oxytocin mediates the estrogen-dependent contractile activity of endothelin-1 in human and rabbit epididymis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Sandra; Morelli, Annamaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Marini, Mirca; Ferruzzi, Pietro; Mancina, Rosa; Crescioli, Clara; Mondaini, Nicola; Forti, Gianni; Ledda, Fabrizio; Maggi, Mario

    2005-08-01

    Epididymis is a sex steroid (androgen + estrogen)-sensitive duct provided with spontaneous motility, allowing sperm transport. We previously reported that the oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) mediates an estrogen-dependent increase in epididymal contractility. Because endothelin (ET)-1 also regulates epididymal motility, we tested its sex steroid dependence in a rabbit model. We demonstrated that estrogens up-regulate responsiveness to ET-1, which is reduced by blocking aromatase activity (letrozole, 2.5 mg/kg) or by triptorelin (2.9 mg/kg)-induced hypogonadism, whereas it is fully restored by estradiol valerate (3.3 mg/kg weekly) but not by testosterone enanthate (30 mg/kg weekly). However, changing sex steroid milieu did not affect either ET-1, its receptor gene, or protein expression. Two structurally distinct OTR-antagonists [(d(CH2)5(1), Tyr(Me)(2), Orn(8))-OT and atosiban] almost completely abolished ET-1 contractility, without competing for [125I]ET-1 binding, suggesting that OT/OTR partially mediates ET-1 action. Immunohistochemical studies in human and rabbit epididymis demonstrated that both OT and its synthesis-associated protein, neurophysin I, are expressed in the epithelial cells facing the muscular layer, suggesting local OT production. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a high abundance of OT transcripts in human epididymis. OT transcript was also originally detected and partially sequenced in rabbit epididymis. To verify whether ET-1 regulates OT release, we used rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures. These cells expressed a high density of [125I]ET-1 binding sites and responded to ET-1 with a dose-dependent OT release. Hence, we propose that an ET-1-induced OT/OTR system activation underlies the estrogen-dependent hyperresponsiveness to ET-1. These local sources might promote the spontaneous motility necessary for sperm transport. PMID:15860558

  2. [Effect of phenyl derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid phenybut on autorhythmic contractile activity of the portal vein].

    PubMed

    Ogluzdina, M V; Barabanova, V V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Usik, N V

    1998-01-01

    The phenyl derivative of the GABA phenybute exerts a direct regulating effect upon phasic and tonic components of the v.cava autorhythmical contractile activity in Wistar rats in media with an altered calcium contents, whereas no such effect occurred in hyper-potassium solution or against the background of verapamil blockade of the potential-dependent calcium channels. PMID:9612864

  3. Neuropeptide Y, its localization in the human cervix and possible effect on the contractile activity of cervix smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Dahlström, A

    1992-01-01

    Immunochemical methods were used to identify neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the cervical tissue of women at early and term pregnancy. NPY-containing fibers could not be demonstrated in the upper and lower uterine segments at term, but the cervical innervation persisted during labor. Moreover, NPY alone did not affect cervical contractile activity, although the stimulatory effect of noradrenaline was enhanced. PMID:1427420

  4. Contractile properties of synthetic cationic polypeptides in guinea-pig isolated trachea.

    PubMed Central

    Spina, D.; Goldie, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    1. The synthetic polypeptides, poly-L-arginine, poly-L-lysine and poly-D-lysine contract guinea-pig isolated trachea in a concentration-dependent, epithelium-independent manner. Indomethacin augmented the contractile response to poly-L-arginine. 2. The contractile response to poly-L-arginine was not significantly inhibited by nicardipine, a selective L-type calcium channel blocker or by the histamine H1-receptor antagonist, mepyramine nor significantly augmented by the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon. 3. The contractile response to poly-L-arginine was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by prior incubation of guinea-pig tracheal rings with a number of anionic polypeptides including, low molecular weight heparin, poly-L-aspartic acid and bovine serum albumin. 4. In vitro capsaicin-induced desensitization failed to attenuate the contractile response to poly-L-arginine, suggesting little, if any role for sensory neuropeptides in the functional response in the guinea-pig. 5. Synthetic polypeptides induce an epithelium-independent, charge-dependent contraction of guinea-pig isolated trachea. PMID:8012709

  5. The contractile properties of the medial gastrocnemius motor units innervated by L4 and L5 spinal nerves in the rat.

    PubMed

    Celichowski, Jan; Taborowska, Malwina

    2011-01-01

    When a muscle innervation originates from more than one spinal cord segment, the injury of one of the respective ventral roots evokes an overload, and alters the activity and properties of the remaining motor units. However, it is not well documented if the three types of motor units are equally represented within the innervating ventral roots. Single motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle were studied and their contractile properties as well as distribution of different types of motor units belonging to subpopulations innervated by axons in L4 and L5 ventral roots were analyzed. The composition of the three physiological types of motor units in the two subpopulations was similar. Force parameters were similar for motor units belonging to the two subpopulations. However, the twitch time parameters were slightly longer in L4 in comparison to L5 motor units although the difference was significant only for fast resistant to fatigue motor units. The force-frequency relationships in the two subpopulations of motor units were not different. Concluding, the two subpopulations of motor units in the studied muscle differ in the number of motor units, but contain similar proportions of the three physiological types of these units and their contractile properties are similar. Therefore, the injury of one ventral root evokes various degrees of muscle denervation, but is non-selective in relation to the three types of motor units. PMID:21846299

  6. RhoA GTPase Switch Controls Cx43-Hemichannel Activity through the Contractile System

    PubMed Central

    Hertens, Fréderic; Parys, Jan B.; Leybaert, Luc; Vereecke, Johan; Himpens, Bernard; Bultynck, Geert

    2012-01-01

    ATP-dependent paracrine signaling, mediated via the release of ATP through plasma membrane-embedded hemichannels of the connexin family, coordinates a synchronized response between neighboring cells. Connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels that are present in the plasma membrane need to be tightly regulated to ensure cell viability. In monolayers of bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCEC),Cx43-mediated ATP release is strongly inhibited when the cells are treated with inflammatory mediators, in particular thrombin and histamine. In this study we investigated the involvement of RhoA activation in the inhibition of hemichannel-mediated ATP release in BCEC. We found that RhoA activation occurs rapidly and transiently upon thrombin treatment of BCEC. The RhoA activity correlated with the onset of actomyosin contractility that is involved in the inhibition of Cx43 hemichannels. RhoA activation and inhibition of Cx43-hemichannel activity were both prevented by pre-treatment of the cells with C3-toxin as well as knock down of RhoA by siRNA. These findings provide evidence that RhoA activation is a key player in thrombin-induced inhibition of Cx43-hemichannel activity. This study demonstrates that RhoA GTPase activity is involved in the acute inhibition of ATP-dependent paracrine signaling, mediated by Cx43 hemichannels, in response to the inflammatory mediator thrombin. Therefore, RhoA appears to be an important molecular switch that controls Cx43 hemichannel openings and hemichannel-mediated ATP-dependent paracrine intercellular communication under (patho)physiological conditions of stress. PMID:22860057

  7. Measurement of contractile and electrical properties of single human thenar motor units in response to intraneural motor-axon stimulation.

    PubMed

    Westling, G; Johansson, R S; Thomas, C K; Bigland-Ritchie, B

    1990-10-01

    1. A method is described for measuring contractile properties of single human motor units. Conventional human microneurographic techniques were adapted to stimulate individual motor axons in the median nerve, with the use of negative current pulses and a tungsten microelectrode, while recording motor-unit electromyographic activity (EMG) and isometric force responses from the thenar muscles. 2. EMG signals were recorded from both proximal and distal thenar muscle surfaces. Force was recorded in two directions (thumb flexion and abduction). This allowed calculation of the direction and magnitude of resultant force exerted by each unit. 3. Data accepted as originating from a single unit satisfied all the traditional "all-or-none" criteria. Additional criteria also required the following: 1) a wide safety margin between the threshold for unit activation and the current intensity needed to elicit responses from other units; 2) that the characteristic direction in which each unit generated force did not change during the recording period; and 3) whenever F-responses were encountered, the second EMG waveform was identical to the first--a highly improbable event if more than one unit had been excited. 4. Respiration and blood pressure waves introduced baseline fluctuations that distorted the force measurements. These fluctuations were minimized by synchronizing stimuli to the pulse pressure cycle and resetting the baseline electronically just before stimulus onset. 5. Combining motor-axon stimulation at a site remote from the muscle with electronic resetting of the force baseline and delivery of stimuli at fixed intervals after the pulse pressure waves allowed the full time course of human motor-unit twitch and tetanic force and EMG signals to be recorded accurately without signal averaging. PMID:2258750

  8. Fast muscle in squid (Loligo pealei): contractile properties of a specialized muscle fibre type.

    PubMed

    Kier, William M; Curtin, Nancy A

    2002-07-01

    The contractile properties of the transverse muscle of the tentacles and the transverse muscle of the arms of the squid Loligo pealei were investigated using small muscle fibre bundle preparations. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the length of the thick myofilaments of the two muscle fibre types. The thick filament length of the cross-striated tentacle fibres was 0.81+/-0.08 microm (mean +/- S.D, N=51) while that of the obliquely striated arm muscle fibres was 7.41+/-0.44 microm (N=58). The difference in thick filament length of the two muscle types was predicted to result in a much higher shortening velocity of the tentacle muscle compared with the arm muscle. This was tested by investigating the force/velocity relationship for isotonic shortening of the two muscle types. Fitting Hill's equation to the results gave a maximum shortening velocity (V(max), the intercept on the velocity axis) of 15.4+/-1.0 L(0) s(-1) (mean +/- S.D., N=9) for the tentacle fibres and of 1.5+/-0.2 L(0) s(-1) (N=8) for the arm fibres, where L(0) is the length at which peak isometric force was recorded. The difference in thick filament length was also predicted to result in lower peak tension in the tentacle versus the arm muscle. For the tentacle, the mean peak tetanic tension during a brief isometric tetanus (0.2s) of 131+/-56 mN mm(-2) cross-sectional area (mean +/- S.D., N=12) was observed at a stimulus frequency of 80 Hz, whereas the mean peak tetanic tension of the arm fibres during a brief isometric tetanus (0.2s) was 468+/-91 mN mm(-2) (N=5) and was observed at a stimulus frequency of 160 Hz. The length/force relationships (expressed relative to L(0)) of the two muscle types were similar. The ratio of twitch force to peak tetanic force was 0.66 in the tentacle fibres, but only 0.03 in the arm fibres. PMID:12077167

  9. Cholinoceptor Activation Subserving the Effects of Interferon Gamma on the Contractility of Rat Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Sterin-Borda, Leonor; Rodriguez, Martin; de Bracco, Maria M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant rat interferon γ stimulated the contractility of isolated rat ileum at doses of 4–12 units/ml. Muscarinic cholinoceptors were involved, as treatment of the tissue with atropine prevented the contractile response of the ileum. Furthermore, interferon γ increased the affinity of carbachol for the cholinoceptors and did not change its maximum effect. Neurogenic pathways were also involved since pretreatment of ileum with hexamethonium, hemicholinium or tetrodotoxin impaired the contractile effect of interferon γ. In contrast to the action of exogenous carbachol, the effects of interferon γ are indirect. They appear to involve a G protein regulating phosphoinositide turnover and cytoskeletal structures since they could not be induced in ileum strips that were pretreated with pertussis toxin, phospholipase C inhibitors (2-nitro-carboxyphenyl, NN-diphenyl carbamate and neomycin), cytochalasine B or colchicine. PMID:18475595

  10. The Effect of Parietal Cell and Truncal Vagotomy on Gastric and Duodenal Contractile Activity of the Unanesthetized Dog

    PubMed Central

    Walker, G. Daly; Stewart, John J.; Bass, Paul

    1974-01-01

    The antral-duodenal contractile relationship was studied in control, after parietal cell vagotomy and truncal vagotomy conditions using extraluminal strain gage transducers. All conditions were investigated under interdigestive and digestive states and after insulin, bethanechol and histamine. After parietal cell vagotomy, there was minimal alteration of the antral-duodenal relationship in both the interdigestive and digestive states. The number and amplitude of contractions on both the antrum and duodenum (as reflected by a motility index) were not changed from control by the various stimulants. The one exception was that histamine markedly stimulated the duodenal contractile activity. In the truncal vagotomy condition, there was a total disruption of the antral-duodenal relationship in the interdigestive and digestive states. There was a significant decrease in the number and amplitude of contractions occurring on the antrum during the interdigestive and after insulin stimulation. Food was ineffective in stimulating the antrum in 2 of 3 dogs. In contrast, motor activity of the duodenum was minimally influenced by truncal vagotomy. In conclusion, parietal cell vagotomy has minimal disruptive effects on the antralduodenal relationship while truncal vagotomy reduces antral contractile activity. PMID:4835504

  11. Insoluble elastin reduces collagen scaffold stiffness, improves viscoelastic properties, and induces a contractile phenotype in smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alan J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-12-01

    Biomaterials with the capacity to innately guide cell behaviour while also displaying suitable mechanical properties remain a challenge in tissue engineering. Our approach to this has been to utilise insoluble elastin in combination with collagen as the basis of a biomimetic scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Elastin was found to markedly alter the mechanical and biological response of these collagen-based scaffolds. Specifically, during extensive mechanical assessment elastin was found to reduce the specific tensile and compressive moduli of the scaffolds in a concentration dependant manner while having minimal effect on scaffold microarchitecture with both scaffold porosity and pore size still within the ideal ranges for tissue engineering applications. However, the viscoelastic properties were significantly improved with elastin addition with a 3.5-fold decrease in induced creep strain, a 6-fold increase in cyclical strain recovery, and with a four-parameter viscoelastic model confirming the ability of elastin to confer resistance to long term deformation/creep. Furthermore, elastin was found to result in the modulation of SMC phenotype towards a contractile state which was determined via reduced proliferation and significantly enhanced expression of early (α-SMA), mid (calponin), and late stage (SM-MHC) contractile proteins. This allows the ability to utilise extracellular matrix proteins alone to modulate SMC phenotype without any exogenous factors added. Taken together, the ability of elastin to alter the mechanical and biological response of collagen scaffolds has led to the development of a biomimetic biomaterial highly suitable for cardiovascular tissue engineering. PMID:26431909

  12. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Jan David; Hu, Dongjian; Mittal, Nikhil; Kausel, Eduardo; van der Meer, Peter; Garakani, Arman; Domian, Ibrahim J

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening. PMID:26626178

  13. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kijlstra, Jan David; Hu, Dongjian; Mittal, Nikhil; Kausel, Eduardo; van der Meer, Peter; Garakani, Arman; Domian, Ibrahim J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening. PMID:26626178

  14. Diadenosine tetra- and pentaphosphates affect contractility and bioelectrical activity in the rat heart via P2 purinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Pustovit, Ksenia B; Kuzmin, Vladislav S; Abramochkin, Denis V

    2016-03-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates (Ap(n)As) are endogenously produced molecules which have been identified in various tissues of mammalian organism, including myocardium. Ap(n)As contribute to the blood clotting and are also widely accepted as regulators of blood vascular tone. Physiological role of Ap(n)As in cardiac muscle has not been completely elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of diadenosine tetra- (Ap4A) and penta- (Ap5A) polyphosphates on contractile function and action potential (AP) waveform in rat supraventricular and ventricular myocardium. We have also demonstrated the effects of A4pA and Ap5A in myocardial sleeves of pulmonary veins (PVs), which play a crucial role in genesis of atrial fibrillation. APs were recorded with glass microelectrodes in multicellular myocardial preparations. Contractile activity was measured in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Both Ap4A and Ap5A significantly reduced contractility of isolated Langendorff-perfused heart and produced significant reduction of AP duration in left and right auricle, interatrial septum, and especially in right ventricular wall myocardium. Ap(n)As also shortened APs in rat pulmonary veins and therefore may be considered as potential proarrhythmic factors. Cardiotropic effects of Ap4A and Ap5A were strongly antagonized by selective blockers of P2 purine receptors suramin and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS), while P1 blocker DPCPX was not effective. We conclude that Ap(n)As may be considered as new class of endogenous cardioinhibitory compounds. P2 purine receptors play the central role in mediation of Ap4A and Ap5A inhibitory effects on electrical and contractile activity in different regions of the rat heart. PMID:26680209

  15. [Contractile properties of fibers and cytoskeletal proteins of gerbil's hindlimb muscles after space flight].

    PubMed

    Lipets, E N; Ponomareva, E V; Ogneva, I V; Vikhliantsev, I M; Karaduleva, E V; Kratashkina, N L; Kuznetsov, S L; Podlubnaia, Z A; Shenkman, B S

    2009-01-01

    The work had the goal to compare the microgravity effects on gerbil's muscles-antagonists, m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior. The animals were exposed in 12-d space microgravity aboard Earth's artificial satellite "Foton-M3". Findings of the analysis of single skinned fibers contractility are 19.7% diminution of the diameter and 21.8% loss of the total contractive force of m. soleus fibers post flight. However, there was no significant difference in calcium sensitivity which agrees with the absence of changes in the relative content of several major cytoskeletal proteins (titin and nebulin ratios to heavy chains of myosin were identical in the flight and control groups) and a slight shifting of the myosin phenotype toward the "fast type" (9%, p < 0.05). These parameters were mostly unaffected by the space flight in m. tibialis anterior. To sum up, the decline of contractility and diminution of gerbil's myofibers after the space flight were less significant as compared with rats and did not impact the sytoskeletal protein ratios. PMID:19711860

  16. Constitutively active PKA regulates neuronal acetylcholine release and contractility of guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wenkuan; Li, Ning; Fernandes, Vitor S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2016-06-01

    Autonomic and somatic motor neurons that innervate the urinary bladder and urethra control the highly coordinated functions of the lower urinary tract, the storage, and the emptying of urine. ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the bladder. Here, we aimed to determine whether PKA regulates neuronal ACh release and related nerve-evoked detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions in the guinea pig urinary bladder. Isometric DSM tension recordings were used to measure spontaneous phasic and electrical field stimulation (EFS)- and carbachol-induced DSM contractions with a combination of pharmacological tools. The colorimetric method was used to measure ACh released by the parasympathetic nerves in DSM isolated strips. The pharmacological inhibition of PKA with H-89 (10 μM) increased the spontaneous phasic contractions, whereas it attenuated the EFS-induced DSM contractions. Intriguingly, H-89 (10 μM) attenuated the (primary) cholinergic component, whereas it simultaneously increased the (secondary) purinergic component of the nerve-evoked contractions in DSM isolated strips. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, eserine (10 μM), increased EFS-induced DSM contractions, and the subsequent addition of H-89 attenuated the contractions. H-89 (10 μM) significantly increased DSM phasic contractions induced by the cholinergic agonist carbachol. The inhibition of PKA decreased the neuronal release of ACh in DSM tissues. This study revealed that PKA-mediated signaling pathways differentially regulate nerve-evoked and spontaneous phasic contractions of guinea pig DSM. Constitutively active PKA in the bladder nerves controls synaptic ACh release, thus regulating the nerve-evoked DSM contractions, whereas PKA in DSM cells controls the spontaneous phasic contractility. PMID:27029424

  17. Constitutively active phosphatase inhibitor-1 improves cardiac contractility in young mice but is deleterious after catecholaminergic stress and with aging

    PubMed Central

    Wittköpper, Katrin; Fabritz, Larissa; Neef, Stefan; Ort, Katharina R.; Grefe, Clemens; Unsöld, Bernhard; Kirchhof, Paulus; Maier, Lars S.; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Dobrev, Dobromir; Eschenhagen, Thomas; El-Armouche, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatase inhibitor-1 (I-1) is a distal amplifier element of β-adrenergic signaling that functions by preventing dephosphorylation of downstream targets. I-1 is downregulated in human failing hearts, while overexpression of a constitutively active mutant form (I-1c) reverses contractile dysfunction in mouse failing hearts, suggesting that I-1c may be a candidate for gene therapy. We generated mice with conditional cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of I-1c (referred to herein as dTGI-1c mice) on an I-1–deficient background. Young adult dTGI-1c mice exhibited enhanced cardiac contractility but exaggerated contractile dysfunction and ventricular dilation upon catecholamine infusion. Telemetric ECG recordings revealed typical catecholamine-induced ventricular tachycardia and sudden death. Doxycycline feeding switched off expression of cardiomyocyte-restricted I-1c and reversed all abnormalities. Hearts from dTGI-1c mice showed hyperphosphorylation of phospholamban and the ryanodine receptor, and this was associated with an increased number of catecholamine-induced Ca2+ sparks in isolated myocytes. Aged dTGI-1c mice spontaneously developed a cardiomyopathic phenotype. These data were confirmed in a second independent transgenic mouse line, expressing a full-length I-1 mutant that could not be phosphorylated and thereby inactivated by PKC-α (I-1S67A). In conclusion, conditional expression of I-1c or I-1S67A enhanced steady-state phosphorylation of 2 key Ca2+-regulating sarcoplasmic reticulum enzymes. This was associated with increased contractile function in young animals but also with arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy after adrenergic stress and with aging. These data should be considered in the development of novel therapies for heart failure. PMID:20071777

  18. Electrical properties and fusion dynamics of in vitro membrane vesicles derived from separate parts of the contractile vacuole complex of Paramecium multimicronucleatum.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Kazuyuki; Tominaga, Takashi; Allen, Richard D; Naitoh, Yutaka

    2005-10-01

    vacuole pore. A slight membrane slackening seems to be an indispensable requirement for the contractile vacuole membrane to fuse with the plasma membrane at the pore. The contractile vacuole complex-derived membrane vesicle is a useful tool for understanding not only the biological significance of the contractile vacuole complex but also the molecular mechanisms of V-ATPase activity. PMID:16215222

  19. Thermal dependence of contractile properties of the aerobic locomotor muscle in the leopard shark and shortfin mako shark.

    PubMed

    Donley, Jeanine M; Shadwick, Robert E; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Syme, Douglas A

    2007-04-01

    The work loop technique was used to examine contractile properties of the red aerobic locomotor muscle (RM) in the ectothermic leopard shark Triakis semifasciata and endothermic shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus. The effects of axial position and temperature on the twitch kinetics, and the stimulus duration and phase producing maximum net positive work and power output were investigated. Contractile performance was measured over the temperature range of 15 to 25 degrees C for Triakis and 15 to 28 degrees C for Isurus at cycle frequencies (analogous to tailbeat frequencies) ranging from 0.25 to 3 Hz using muscle bundles isolated from anterior (0.4 L where L is total body length) and posterior (0.6-0.65 L) axial positions. Pairwise comparisons of twitch times for anterior and posterior muscle samples indicated that there were no significant differences related to body position, except in mako sharks at unphysiologically cool temperatures (<20 degrees C). We found no significant differences in optimal stimulus duration, phase, net work or power output between anterior and posterior bundles in each species. With increasing cycle frequency the stimulus duration yielding maximum power decreased while optimal phase occurred earlier. The cycle frequency at which peak power was generated in leopard shark RM was only affected slightly by temperature, increasing from about 0.6 to 1.0 Hz between 15 and 25 degrees C. In contrast, mako RM showed a much more dramatic temperature sensitivity, with the peak power frequency rising from <0.25 to 2.25 Hz between 15 and 28 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that the contractile properties of RM are functionally similar along the body in both species. In addition, our data identify a significant difference in the effect of temperature on net work and power output between these two shark species; at 15 degrees C muscle from the ectothermic leopard shark performs relatively well in comparison with mako, while at higher

  20. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; Blaser, C.; De La Cruz, L.; Gettelman, G. J.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  1. Effects of histamine on the contractile and electrical activity in isolated lymphatic vessels of the guinea-pig mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James L R; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2002-01-01

    The effect of histamine on the rate of lymphatic vessel constrictions and lymphatic smooth muscle membrane potential was examined in the guinea-pig mesentery. Histamine (0.01–5 μM) increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of constrictions in lymphatic vessels under intraluminal perfusion. This response was accompanied by a depolarization of the smooth muscle membrane potential, an increase in the activity of spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs), the proposed pacemaker for constrictions in these vessels, and an increase in the occurrence of action potentials. Responses to histamine were inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine (0.2 μM), but unaffected by NO synthase inhibition with NG-nitro L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 μM) and lysis of the endothelium. In about 50% of the vessels, a decrease in constriction frequency, STD activity and a smooth muscle hyperpolarization were observed in response to dimaprit (10 μM), suggesting the presence of H2 receptors. These vessels had also a significantly lower basal contractile rate. Lymphatic vessel pumping was not affected by R-α-methylhistamine (10–50 μM), ruling out a role for H3 receptor stimulation in the histamine response. The present results suggest a direct action of histamine on the lymphatic smooth muscle via stimulation of H1 (and in some vessels H2) receptors. H1 receptors enhance and H2 receptors slow down lymphatic pumping, the dominant effect being an increased contractile activity. Correlation of these effects with histamine-induced changes in membrane potential and STD activity suggests the involvement of these electrical changes in the initiation of the contractile response. PMID:12163355

  2. Nicotine enhances murine airway contractile responses to kinin receptor agonists via activation of JNK- and PDE4-related intracellular pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nicotine plays an important role in cigarette-smoke-associated airway disease. The present study was designed to examine if nicotine could induce airway hyperresponsiveness through kinin receptors, and if so, explore the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods Murine tracheal segments were cultured for 1, 2 or 4 days in serum-free DMEM medium in presence of nicotine (1 and 10 μM) or vehicle (DMSO). Contractile responses induced by kinin B1 receptor agonist, des-Arg9-bradykinin, and B2 receptor agonist, bradykinin, were monitored with myographs. The B1 and B2 receptor mRNA expressions were semi-quantified using real-time PCR and their corresponding protein expressions assessed with confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Various pharmacological inhibitors were used for studying intracellular signaling pathways. Results Four days of organ culture with nicotine concentration-dependently increased kinin B1 and B2 receptor-mediated airway contractions, without altering the kinin receptor-mediated relaxations. No such increase was seen at day 1 or day 2. The airway contractile responses to 5-HT, acetylcholine and endothelin receptor agonists remained unaffected by nicotine. Two different neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonists MG624 and hexamethonium blocked the nicotine-induced effects. The enhanced contractile responses were accompanied by increased mRNA and protein expression for both kinin receptors, suggesting the involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. Confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry showed that 4 days of nicotine treatment induced activation (phosphorylation) of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38. Inhibition of JNK with its specific inhibitor SP600125 abolished the nicotine-induced effects on kinin receptor-mediated contractions and reverted the enhanced receptor mRNA expression. Administration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (YM976 and theophylline

  3. Measurement of Contractile Activity in Small Animal's Digestive Organ by Carbon Nanotube-Based Force Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takeda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Koike, Kanako; Shimatani, Yuichi; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiya, Masahiro; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)-based force transducer designed to be embedded in the body of a live animal was fabricated and implanted into the stomach of a rat omit to measure contractile movement. The transducer comprised dispersed poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted multiwalled CNTs applied to a comb-like Au-electrode formed on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) sheet. The implanted rat was injected with acetylcholine to induce muscular contractions and changes in the resistance of the transducer were measured. Such changes arise owing to strain in the CNT network upon distortion. The measured resistance change was found to be proportional to the concentration of injected acetylcholine.

  4. Mouse embryonic stem cells irradiated with γ-rays differentiate into cardiomyocytes but with altered contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Rebuzzini, Paola; Fassina, Lorenzo; Mulas, Francesca; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Redi, Carlo Alberto; Di Liberto, Riccardo; Magenes, Giovanni; Adjaye, James; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2013-08-30

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for their derivation from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst represent a valuable in vitro model to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on early embryonic cellular response. Following irradiation, both human and mouse ESCs (mESCs) maintain their pluripotent status and the capacity to differentiate into embryoid bodies and to form teratomas. Although informative of the maintenance of a pluripotent status, these studies never investigated the capability of irradiated ESCs to form specific differentiated phenotypes. Here, for the first time, 5Gy-irradiated mESCs were differentiated into cardiomyocytes, thus allowing the analysis of the long-term effects of ionizing radiations on the differentiation potential of a pluripotent stem cell population. On treated mESCs, 96h after irradiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was first performed in order to determine whether the treatment influenced gene expression of the surviving mESCs. Microarrays analysis showed that only 186 genes were differentially expressed in treated mESCs compared to control cells; a quarter of these genes were involved in cellular differentiation, with three main gene networks emerging, including cardiogenesis. Based on these results, we differentiated irradiated mESCs into cardiomyocytes. On day 5, 8 and 12 of differentiation, treated cells showed a significant alteration (qRT-PCR) of the expression of marker genes (Gata-4, Nkx-2.5, Tnnc1 and Alpk3) when compared to control cells. At day 15 of differentiation, although the organization of sarcomeric α-actinin and troponin T proteins appeared similar in cardiomyocytes differentiated from either mock or treated cells, the video evaluation of the kinematics and dynamics of the beating cardiac syncytium evidenced altered contractile properties of cardiomyocytes derived from irradiated mESCs. This alteration correlated with significant reduction of Connexin 43 foci. Our results indicate that mESCs populations

  5. Modelling maternal obesity: the effects of a chronic high-fat, high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour in the rat.

    PubMed

    Muir, Ronan; Ballan, Jean; Clifford, Bethan; McMullen, Sarah; Khan, Raheela; Shmygol, Anatoly; Quenby, Siobhan; Elmes, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labour and emergency caesarean section, but the mechanisms are unknown. The present study investigated the effects of an adiposity-inducing high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet on uterine contractile-associated protein (CAP) expression and ex vivo uterine contractility in term non-labouring (TNL) and term labouring (TL) rats. Female rats were fed either control chow (CON n=20) or HFHC (n=20) diet 6 weeks before conception and during pregnancy. On gestational day 21 (TNL) or day 22 (TL) CON and HFHC (n=10) rats were killed to determine plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol and progesterone concentrations and collection of myometrium for contractility studies and expression of CAPs caveolin-1 (Cav-1), connexin-43 (CX-43) and it's phosphorylated form (pCX-43), oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). HFHC feeding increased visceral fat (P≤0.001), plasma cholesterol (P≤0.001) and triacylglycerol (P=0.039) concentrations. Stage of labour effected uterine expression of CAV-1 (P<0.02), pCX43 and COX-2 (both P<0.03). CAV-1 and pCX43 decreased but COX-2 increased with parturition. Significant diet- and labour-stage interactions were evident for CX-43 and pCX43 (P<0.03 and P<0.004 respectively). CX-43 decreased with TL in HFHC animals but was unaltered in CON. pCX-43 fell with labour in CON but remained high in HFHC. OXTR expression was significantly higher in HFHC compared with CON animals (P<0.03). Progesterone was higher in HFHC rats at term (P<0.014) but fell significantly with labour to similar concentrations as CON. Contractility studies identified synchronous contractions of stable amplitude in lean animals, but unstable asynchronous contractions with obesity. Uterine dose response to oxytocin was blunted during labour in HFHC rats with a log EC50 of -8.84 compared with -10.25 M in CON for integral activity (P<0.05). In conclusion, our adiposity model exhibits adverse effects on

  6. Modelling maternal obesity: the effects of a chronic high-fat, high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Ronan; Ballan, Jean; Clifford, Bethan; McMullen, Sarah; Khan, Raheela; Shmygol, Anatoly; Quenby, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labour and emergency caesarean section, but the mechanisms are unknown. The present study investigated the effects of an adiposity-inducing high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet on uterine contractile-associated protein (CAP) expression and ex vivo uterine contractility in term non-labouring (TNL) and term labouring (TL) rats. Female rats were fed either control chow (CON n=20) or HFHC (n=20) diet 6 weeks before conception and during pregnancy. On gestational day 21 (TNL) or day 22 (TL) CON and HFHC (n=10) rats were killed to determine plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol and progesterone concentrations and collection of myometrium for contractility studies and expression of CAPs caveolin-1 (Cav-1), connexin-43 (CX-43) and it's phosphorylated form (pCX-43), oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). HFHC feeding increased visceral fat (P≤0.001), plasma cholesterol (P≤0.001) and triacylglycerol (P=0.039) concentrations. Stage of labour effected uterine expression of CAV-1 (P<0.02), pCX43 and COX-2 (both P<0.03). CAV-1 and pCX43 decreased but COX-2 increased with parturition. Significant diet- and labour-stage interactions were evident for CX-43 and pCX43 (P<0.03 and P<0.004 respectively). CX-43 decreased with TL in HFHC animals but was unaltered in CON. pCX-43 fell with labour in CON but remained high in HFHC. OXTR expression was significantly higher in HFHC compared with CON animals (P<0.03). Progesterone was higher in HFHC rats at term (P<0.014) but fell significantly with labour to similar concentrations as CON. Contractility studies identified synchronous contractions of stable amplitude in lean animals, but unstable asynchronous contractions with obesity. Uterine dose response to oxytocin was blunted during labour in HFHC rats with a log EC50 of −8.84 compared with −10.25 M in CON for integral activity (P<0.05). In conclusion, our adiposity model exhibits adverse effects on

  7. A-272651, a nonpeptidic blocker of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, modulates bladder smooth muscle contractility and neuronal action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, C-C; Turner, S C; Zhang, X-F; Milicic, I; Parihar, A; Jinkerson, T; Wilkins, J; Buckner, S A; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa, KCa1.1) links membrane excitability with intracellular Ca2+ signaling and plays important roles in smooth muscle contraction, neuronal firing, and neuroendocrine secretion. This study reports the characterization of a novel BKCa channel blocker, 2,4-dimethoxy-N-naphthalen-2-yl-benzamide (A-272651). Experimental Approach: 86Rb+ efflux in HEK-293 cells expressing BKCa was measured. Effects of A-272651 on BKCa α- and BKCa αβ1-mediated currents were evaluated by patch-clamp. Effects on contractility were assessed using low-frequency electrical field stimulated pig detrusor and spontaneously contracting guinea pig detrusor. Effects of A-272651 on neuronal activity were determined in rat small diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Key Results: A-272651 (10 μM) inhibited 86Rb+ efflux evoked by NS-1608 in HEK-293 cells expressing BKCa currents. A-272651 concentration-dependently inhibited BKCa currents with IC50 values of 4.59 μM (Hill coefficient 1.04, measured at +40 mV), and 2.82 μM (Hill coefficient 0.89), respectively, for BKCa α and BKCa αβ1-mediated currents. Like iberiotoxin, A-272651 enhanced field stimulated twitch responses in pig detrusor and spontaneous contractions in guinea pig detrusor with EC50 values of 4.05±0.05 and 37.95±0.12 μM, respectively. In capsaicin-sensitive DRG neurons, application of A-272651 increased action potential firing and prolonged action potential duration. Conclusions and Implications: These data demonstrate that A-272651 modulates smooth muscle contractility and neuronal firing properties. Unlike previously reported peptide BKCa blockers, A-272651 represents one of the first small molecule BKCa channel blockers that could serve as a useful tool for further characterization of BKCa channels in physiological and pathological states. PMID:17519951

  8. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells. PMID:24445418

  9. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 increases mouse aortic vascular smooth muscle cell contractility through ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hardigan, Trevor; Spitler, Kathryn; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia

    2015-11-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system, is associated with vascular complications. However, whether activation of TLR3 alters vascular contractility is unknown. We, therefore, hypothesized that TLR3 activation augments vascular contractility and activates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contractile apparatus proteins. Male mice were treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C group, 14 days), a TLR3 agonist; control mice received saline (vehicle, 14 days). At the end of protocol, blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. Aortas were isolated and assessed for contractility experiments using a wire myograph. Aortic protein content was used to determine phosphorylated/total interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a downstream target of TLR3 signaling, and ERK1/2 using Western blot. We investigated the TLR3/IRF3/ERK1/2 signaling pathway and contractile-related proteins such as phosphorylated/total myosin light chain (MLC) and caldesmon (CaD) in aortic VSMC primary cultures. Poly I:C-treated mice exhibited (vs. vehicle-treated mice) (1) elevated systolic blood pressure. Moreover, Poly I:C treatment (2) enhanced aortic phenylephrine-induced maximum contraction, which was suppressed by PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), and (3) increased aortic levels of phosphorylated IRF3 and ERK1/2. Stimulation of mouse aortic VSMCs with Poly I:C resulted in increased phosphorylation of IRF3, ERK1/2, MLC, and CaD. Inhibition of ERK1/2 abolished Poly I:C-mediated phosphorylation of MLC and CaD. Our data provide functional evidence for the role of TLR3 in vascular contractile events, suggesting TLR3 as a potential new therapeutic target in vascular dysfunction and regulation of blood pressure. PMID:25724934

  10. The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goat Palates

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Michael C.; Weinzweig, Jeffrey; Panter, Kip E.; McClellan, W. Thomas; Caterson, Stefanie A.; Buchman, Steven R.; Faulkner, John A.; Yu, Deborah; Cederna, Paul S.; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Inherent differences in the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle of cleft palates before palatoplasty may play a role in persistent postrepair velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Contractile properties of LVP muscle fibers were analyzed from young (2-month) normal (YNP), young congenitally cleft (YCP) and again on the same YCP subjects 6 months after palatoplasty, mature repaired palate (MRP). The cross-sectional area and rate of force development (ktr) were measured. Specific force (sF0) and normalized power (nPmax) were calculated. Using ktr to determine fiber type composition, YNP was 44% type 1 and 56% type 2, while YCP was 100% type 2. Two MRP subjects shifted to 100% type 1; 1 demonstrated increased resistance to fatigue. No differences in sF0 were observed. nPmax increased with presence of type 2 fibers. The persistent state of type 2 fibers following palatoplasty leads to increased fatigue in the LVP of MRP subjects and may cause VPI symptoms. PMID:18216514

  11. Influence of the contractile properties of muscle on motor unit firing rates during a moderate-intensity contraction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P; Mosier, Eric M; Miller, Jonathan D

    2016-08-01

    It is suggested that firing rate characteristics of motor units (MUs) are influenced by the physical properties of the muscle. However, no study has correlated MU firing rates at recruitment, targeted force, or derecruitment with the contractile properties of the muscle in vivo. Twelve participants (age = 20.67 ± 2.35 yr) performed a 40% isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the leg extensors that included linearly increasing, steady force, and decreasing segments. Muscle biopsies were collected with myosin heavy chain (MHC) content quantified, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the vastus lateralis. The EMG signal was decomposed into the firing events of single MUs. Slopes and y-intercepts were calculated for 1) firing rates at recruitment vs. recruitment threshold, 2) mean firing rates at steady force vs. recruitment threshold, and 3) firing rates at derecruitment vs. derecruitment threshold relationships for each subject. Correlations among type I %MHC isoform content and the slopes and y-intercepts from the three relationships were examined. Type I %MHC isoform content was correlated with MU firing rates at recruitment (y-intercepts: r = -0.577; slopes: r = 0.741) and targeted force (slopes: r = 0.853) vs. recruitment threshold and MU firing rates at derecruitment (y-intercept: r = -0.597; slopes: r = 0.701) vs. derecruitment threshold relationships. However, the majority of the individual MU firing rates vs. recruitment and derecruitment relationships were not significant (P > 0.05) and, thus, revealed no systematic pattern. In contrast, MU firing rates during the steady force demonstrated a systematic pattern with higher firing rates for the lower- than higher-threshold MUs and were correlated with the physical properties of MUs in vivo. PMID:27146989

  12. Inhibition of cerebrovascular raf activation attenuates cerebral blood flow and prevents upregulation of contractile receptors after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Late cerebral ischemia carries high morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the subsequent cerebral ischemia which is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signal pathway. We hypothesize that SAH initiates cerebrovascular ERK1/2 activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The raf inhibitor will inhibit the molecular events upstream ERK1/2 and may provide a therapeutic window for treatment of cerebral ischemia after SAH. Results Here we demonstrate that SAH increases the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 in cerebral vessels and reduces the neurology score in rats in additional with the CBF measured by an autoradiographic method. The intracisternal administration of SB-386023-b, a specific inhibitor of raf, given 6 h after SAH, aborts the receptor changes and protects the brain from the development of late cerebral ischemia at 48 h. This is accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cerebrovascular SMC. SAH per se enhances contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and angiotensin II (Ang II), upregulates ETB, 5-HT1B and AT1 receptor mRNA and protein levels. Treatment with SB-386023-b given as late as at 6 h but not at 12 h after the SAH significantly decreased the receptor upregulation, the reduction in CBF and the neurology score. Conclusion These results provide evidence for a role of the ERK1/2 pathway in regulation of expression of cerebrovascular SMC receptors. It is suggested that raf inhibition may reduce late cerebral ischemia after SAH and provides a realistic time window for therapy. PMID:22032648

  13. Constitutive activation of myosin-dependent contractility sensitizes glioma tumor-initiating cells to mechanical inputs and reduces tissue invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sophie Y.; Ulrich, Theresa A.; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; MacKay, Joanna L.; Lin, Jung-Ming G.; Martuscello, Regina T.; Jundi, Musa A.; Reynolds, Brent A.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) perpetuate tumor growth, enable therapeutic resistance, and drive initiation of successive tumors. Virtually nothing is known about the role of mechanotransductive signaling in controlling TIC tumorigenesis, despite the recognized importance of altered mechanics in tissue dysplasia and the common observation that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness strongly regulates cell behavior. To address this open question, we cultured primary human glioblastoma (GBM) TICs on laminin-functionalized ECMs spanning a range of stiffnesses. Surprisingly, we found that these cells were largely insensitive to ECM stiffness cues, evading the inhibition of spreading, migration, and proliferation typically imposed by compliant ECMs. We hypothesize that this insensitivity may result from insufficient generation of myosin-dependent contractile force. Indeed, we found that both pharmacologic and genetic activation of cell contractility through RhoA GTPase, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), or myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) restored stiffness-dependent spreading and motility, with TICs adopting the expected rounded and non-motile phenotype on soft ECMs. Moreover, constitutive activation of RhoA restricted three-dimensional invasion in both spheroid implantation and transwell paradigms. Orthotopic xenotransplantation studies revealed that control TICs formed tumors with classical GBM histopathology including diffuse infiltration and secondary foci, whereas TICs expressing a constitutively active mutant of RhoA produced circumscribed masses and yielded a 30% enhancement in mean survival time. This is the first direct evidence that manipulation of mechanotransductive signaling can alter the tumor-initiating capacity of GBM TICs, supporting further exploration of these signals as potential therapeutic targets and predictors of tumor initiating capacity within heterogeneous tumor cell populations. PMID:25634210

  14. Age- and exercise-related sympathetic activity in untrained volunteers, trained athletes and patients with impaired left-ventricular contractility.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Schmid, P; Keul, J

    1984-11-01

    To study the influence of training, aging and left-ventricular contractility on the sympathetic nervous system, responses of plasma catecholamines and density of adrenoreceptors on intact blood cells were evaluated in 21 dynamically trained subjects, 8 statically trained weight lifters, 15 healthy young and 15 old control subjects, and 55 post-infarction patients. Plasma catecholamines are indicators of the overall sympathetic tone, while the density of adrenoreceptors is a cellular indicator of the sensitivity to catecholamines. Static and dynamic training result in lower catecholamine response at identical work loads during incremental ergometric tests. Higher density of beta 2 receptors on intact leucocytes and higher sensitivity to isoproterenol are seen in the dynamically trained test subjects. Higher density of alpha 2 receptors on intact thrombocytes is found in the weight lifters. Despite the training-dependent control of the sympathetic activity bradycardia occurs only in endurance-trained subjects, indicating an additionally increased vagal control. The exercise-related tachycardia of the weight lifters, on the other hand, points to an insufficient vagal control of the cardiac sinus rate. Decrease of physical fitness, as related to aging, a deficit in physical training and impaired left-ventricular contractility are connected with a higher sympathetic activity at identical work loads and a lower beta-receptor density on intact blood cells and, in cardiac patients, on myocardial cells as well (Bristow et al. 1982). Changes in the sympathetic system may amplify the age- and disease-dependent decrease of the cardiac function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6526026

  15. Mechanistic Heterogeneity in Contractile Properties of α-Tropomyosin (TPM1) Mutants Associated with Inherited Cardiomyopathies*

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Tejas M.; Haque, Farah; Gangadharan, Binnu; Sunitha, Margaret S.; Mukherjee, Souhrid; Anandhan, Swetha; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Mukundan, Namita; Jambekar, Amruta; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Sommese, Ruth F.; Nag, Suman; Spudich, James A.; Mercer, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent known causes of primary cardiomyopathies are mutations in the genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. Among those are 30 single-residue mutations in TPM1, the gene encoding α-tropomyosin. We examined seven mutant tropomyosins, E62Q, D84N, I172T, L185R, S215L, D230N, and M281T, that were chosen based on their clinical severity and locations along the molecule. The goal of our study was to determine how the biochemical characteristics of each of these mutant proteins are altered, which in turn could provide a structural rationale for treatment of the cardiomyopathies they produce. Measurements of Ca2+ sensitivity of human β-cardiac myosin ATPase activity are consistent with the hypothesis that hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are hypersensitive to Ca2+ activation, and dilated cardiomyopathies are hyposensitive. We also report correlations between ATPase activity at maximum Ca2+ concentrations and conformational changes in TnC measured using a fluorescent probe, which provide evidence that different substitutions perturb the structure of the regulatory complex in different ways. Moreover, we observed changes in protein stability and protein-protein interactions in these mutants. Our results suggest multiple mechanistic pathways to hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Finally, we examined a computationally designed mutant, E181K, that is hypersensitive, confirming predictions derived from in silico structural analysis. PMID:25548289

  16. Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Congenital Cleft Palates and Normal Palates of Spanish Goats

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Michael C.; Weinzweig, Jeffrey; Kuzon, William M.; Panter, Kip E.; Buchman, Steven R.; Faulkner, John A.; Yu, Deborah; Cederna, Paul S.; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Analysis of the composition of muscle fibers constituent to a cleft palate could provide significant insight into the cause of velopharyngeal inadequacy. The authors hypothesized that levator veli palatini muscle dysfunction inherent to cleft palates could affect the timing and outcome of cleft palate repair. Methods Single, permeabilized muscle fibers from levator veli palatini muscles of three normal (n = 19 fibers) and three chemically induced congenital cleft palates (n = 21 fibers) of 14-month-old goats were isolated, and contractile properties were evaluated. The maximum isometric force and rate constants of tension redevelopment (ktr) were measured, and the specific force and normalized power were calculated for each fiber. Results The ktr measures indicate that cleft fibers are predominantly fast-fatigable; normal fibers are slow fatigue-resistant: after a 10-minute isometric contraction, fibers from cleft palates had a loss of force 16 percent greater than that from normal palates (p = 0.0001). The cross-sectional areas of the fibers from cleft palates (2750 ± 209 μm2) were greater (p = 0.05) than those from normal palates (2226 ± 143 μm2). Specific forces did not differ between the two groups. Maximum normalized power of fibers from cleft palates (11.05 ± 1.82 W/l) was greater (p = 0.0001) than fibers from normal palates (1.60 ± 0.12 W/l). Conclusions There are clear physiologic differences in single muscle fibers from cleft palates and normal palates: cleft palate fibers are physiologically fast, have greater fatigability, and have greater power production. Detection of functional and/or fiber type differences in muscles of cleft palates may provide preoperative identification of a patient's susceptibility to velopharyngeal inadequacy and permit early surgical intervention to correct this clinical condition. PMID:17440342

  17. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  18. Effect of a 17 day spaceflight on contractile properties of human soleus muscle fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widrick, J. J.; Knuth, S. T.; Norenberg, K. M.; Romatowski, J. G.; Bain, J. L.; Riley, D. A.; Karhanek, M.; Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Costill, D. L.; Fitts, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    1. Soleus biopsies were obtained from four male astronauts 45 days before and within 2 h after a 17 day spaceflight. 2. For all astronauts, single chemically skinned post-flight fibres expressing only type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) developed less average peak Ca2+ activated force (Po) during fixed-end contractions (0.78 +/- 0. 02 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03 mN) and shortened at a greater mean velocity during unloaded contractions (Vo) (0.83 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.02 fibre lengths s-1) than pre-flight type I fibres. 3. The flight-induced decline in absolute Po was attributed to reductions in fibre diameter and/or Po per fibre cross-sectional area. Fibres from the astronaut who experienced the greatest relative loss of peak force also displayed a reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity. 4. The elevated Vo of the post-flight slow type I fibres could not be explained by alterations in myosin heavy or light chain composition. One alternative possibility is that the elevated Vo resulted from an increased myofilament lattice spacing. This hypothesis was supported by electron micrographic analysis demonstrating a reduction in thin filament density post-flight. 5. Post-flight fibres shortened at 30 % higher velocities than pre-flight fibres at external loads associated with peak power output. This increase in shortening velocity either reduced (2 astronauts) or prevented (2 astronauts) a post-flight loss in fibre absolute peak power (microN (fibre length) s-1). 6. The changes in soleus fibre diameter and function following spaceflight were similar to those observed after 17 days of bed rest. Although in-flight exercise countermeasures probably reduced the effects of microgravity, the results support the idea that ground-based bed rest can serve as a model of human spaceflight. 7. In conclusion, 17 days of spaceflight decreased force and increased shortening velocity of single Ca2+-activated muscle cells expressing type I MHC. The increase in shortening velocity greatly reduced the impact

  19. Effect of a 17 day spaceflight on contractile properties of human soleus muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Widrick, J J; Knuth, S T; Norenberg, K M; Romatowski, J G; Bain, J L W; Riley, D A; Karhanek, M; Trappe, S W; Trappe, T A; Costill, D L; Fitts, R H

    1999-01-01

    Soleus biopsies were obtained from four male astronauts 45 days before and within 2 h after a 17 day spaceflight. For all astronauts, single chemically skinned post-flight fibres expressing only type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) developed less average peak Ca2+ activated force (Po) during fixed-end contractions (0.78 ± 0.02 vs. 0.99 ± 0.03 mN) and shortened at a greater mean velocity during unloaded contractions (Vo) (0.83 ± 0.02 vs. 0.64 ± 0.02 fibre lengths s−1) than pre-flight type I fibres. The flight-induced decline in absolute Po was attributed to reductions in fibre diameter and/or Po per fibre cross-sectional area. Fibres from the astronaut who experienced the greatest relative loss of peak force also displayed a reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity. The elevated Vo of the post-flight slow type I fibres could not be explained by alterations in myosin heavy or light chain composition. One alternative possibility is that the elevated Vo resulted from an increased myofilament lattice spacing. This hypothesis was supported by electron micrographic analysis demonstrating a reduction in thin filament density post-flight. Post-flight fibres shortened at 30 % higher velocities than pre-flight fibres at external loads associated with peak power output. This increase in shortening velocity either reduced (2 astronauts) or prevented (2 astronauts) a post-flight loss in fibre absolute peak power (μN (fibre length) s−1). The changes in soleus fibre diameter and function following spaceflight were similar to those observed after 17 days of bed rest. Although in-flight exercise countermeasures probably reduced the effects of microgravity, the results support the idea that ground-based bed rest can serve as a model of human spaceflight. In conclusion, 17 days of spaceflight decreased force and increased shortening velocity of single Ca2+-activated muscle cells expressing type I MHC. The increase in shortening velocity greatly reduced the impact that impaired force

  20. Distinct roles of L- and T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in regulation of lymphatic vessel contractile activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stewart; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Lymph drainage maintains tissue fluid homeostasis and facilitates immune response. It is promoted by phasic contractions of collecting lymphatic vessels through which lymph is propelled back into the blood circulation. This rhythmic contractile activity (i.e. lymphatic pumping) increases in rate with increase in luminal pressure and relies on activation of nifedipine-sensitive voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs). Despite their importance, these channels have not been characterized in lymphatic vessels. We used pressure- and wire-myography as well as intracellular microelectrode electrophysiology to characterize the pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of L-type and T-type VDCCs in rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels and evaluated their particular role in the regulation of lymphatic pumping by stretch. We complemented our study with PCR and confocal immunofluorescence imaging to investigate the expression and localization of these channels in lymphatic vessels. Our data suggest a delineating role of VDCCs in stretch-induced lymphatic vessel contractions, as the stretch-induced increase in force of lymphatic vessel contractions was significantly attenuated in the presence of L-type VDCC blockers nifedipine and diltiazem, while the stretch-induced increase in contraction frequency was significantly decreased by the T-type VDCC blockers mibefradil and nickel. The latter effect was correlated with a hyperpolarization. We propose that activation of T-type VDCCs depolarizes membrane potential, regulating the frequency of lymphatic contractions via opening of L-type VDCCs, which drive the strength of contractions. PMID:25326448

  1. Upregulation of contractile endothelin type B receptors by lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles in rat cerebral arteries via activation of MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-11-15

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases the risk of stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Endothelin system plays key roles in the pathogenesis of stroke. The present study was designed to examine if lipid-soluble (dimethyl sulfoxide-soluble) cigarette smoke particles (DSP) induces upregulation of contractile endothelin type B (ET{sub B}) receptors in rat cerebral arteries and if activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) mediate the upregulation of contractile endothelin receptors in the cerebral arteries. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum free medium for 24 h in the presence of DSP with or without specific inhibitors: MEK specific (U0126), p38 specific (SB202190), JNK specific (SP600125), NF-{kappa}B specific (BMS-345541) or (IMD-0354), transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D), or translation blocker (cycloheximide). Contractile responses to the ET{sub B} receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of the ET{sub B} receptors were studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results show that organ culture per se induced transcriptional upregulation of contractile ET{sub B} receptors in the cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. This upregulation was further increased at the translational level by addition of DSP to the organ culture, but this increase was not seen by addition of nicotine or water-soluble cigarette smoke particles to the organ culture. The increased upregulation of contractile ET{sub B} receptors by DSP was abrogated by U0126, SP600125, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide, suggesting that the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process include activation of MEK and JNK MAPK-mediated transcription and translation of new contractile ET{sub B} receptors. Thus, the MAPK-mediated upregulation of contractile ET{sub B

  2. ATP-independent contractile proteins from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoblauch, Michael; Noll, Gundula A.; Müller, Torsten; Prüfer, Dirk; Schneider-Hüther, Ingrid; Scharner, Dörte; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Peters, Winfried S.

    2003-09-01

    Emerging technologies are creating increasing interest in smart materials that may serve as actuators in micro- and nanodevices. Mechanically active polymers currently studied include a variety of materials. ATP-driven motor proteins, the actuators of living cells, possess promising characteristics, but their dependence on strictly defined chemical environments can be disadvantagous. Natural proteins that deform reversibly by entropic mechanisms might serve as models for artificial contractile polypeptides with useful functionality, but they are rare. Protein bodies from sieve elements of higher plants provide a novel example. sieve elements form microfluidics systems for pressure-driven transport of photo-assimilates throughout the plant. Unique protein bodies in the sieve elements of legumes act as cellular stopcocks, by undergoing a Ca2+-dependent conformational switch in which they plug the sieve element. In living cells, this reaction is probably controlled by Ca2+-transporters in the cell membrane. Here we report the rapid, reversible, anisotropic and ATP-independent contractility in these protein bodies in vitro. Considering the unique biological function of the legume 'crystalloid' protein bodies and their contractile properties, we suggest to give them the distinctive name forisome ('gate-body'; from the Latin foris, the wing of a gate).

  3. Mediation by the same muscarinic receptor subtype of phasic and tonic contractile activities in the rat isolated portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffendorf, M.; Van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of several agonists on the phasic and tonic contractile responses to muscarinic receptor stimulation have been investigated in the rat portal vein in vitro. 2. Neither chemical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine nor the presence of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, influenced the spontaneous or the stimulated myogenic activity of the portal vein. 3. Indomethacin and NG-nitro-L-arginine were used to investigate the influence of vasoactive factors in this preparation. They slightly increased the frequency and the amplitude of the spontaneous myogenic activity of the portal vein, respectively. NG-nitro-L-arginine but not indomethacin enhanced the maximal phasic response to carbachol. Both indomethacin and NG-nitro-L-arginine failed to influence the tonic response to carbachol. 4. Muscarinic agonists increased phasic activity according to the rank order of potency: acetylcholine > muscarine > methacholine > carbachol > aceclidine > bethanechol. These effects were superimposed on a sustained contracture at higher concentrations. Oxotremorine was more potent than arecoline in increasing the mechanical phasic activity, without inducing a sustained contracture. Pilocarpine and McN A343 were weak agonists, producing submaximal effects only on phasic activity. 5. The muscarinic antagonists AF-DX116, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP), P-fluorohexahydrosiladiphenidol (pFHHSiD) and pirenzepine antagonized the phasic and tonic mechanical responses to carbachol. Although the tonic contracture was slightly more sensitive to all antagonists studied, the rank order of potency: 4-DAMP > pFHHSiD > pirenzepine > AF-DX 116 was the same for both types of responses, which is indicative of a M3-receptor subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8428203

  4. Effects of fast and slow patterns of tonic long-term stimulation on contractile properties of fast muscle in the cat.

    PubMed

    Eerbeek, O; Kernell, D; Verhey, B A

    1984-07-01

    at the high rates needed for a maximum tetanic contraction. The results are discussed in relation to problems concerning the long-term effects of motoneuronal activity patterns on the contractile properties of their muscle units. PMID:6747905

  5. Protein kinase C activation disrupts epithelial apical junctions via ROCK-II dependent stimulation of actomyosin contractility

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I; Samarin, Stanislav N; Bachar, Moshe; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2009-01-01

    Background Disruption of epithelial cell-cell adhesions represents an early and important stage in tumor metastasis. This process can be modeled in vitro by exposing cells to chemical tumor promoters, phorbol esters and octylindolactam-V (OI-V), known to activate protein kinase C (PKC). However, molecular events mediating PKC-dependent disruption of epithelial cell-cell contact remain poorly understood. In the present study we investigate mechanisms by which PKC activation induces disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in a model pancreatic epithelium. Results Exposure of HPAF-II human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell monolayers to either OI-V or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate caused rapid disruption and internalization of AJs and TJs. Activity of classical PKC isoenzymes was responsible for the loss of cell-cell contacts which was accompanied by cell rounding, phosphorylation and relocalization of the F-actin motor nonmuscle myosin (NM) II. The OI-V-induced disruption of AJs and TJs was prevented by either pharmacological inhibition of NM II with blebbistatin or by siRNA-mediated downregulation of NM IIA. Furthermore, AJ/TJ disassembly was attenuated by inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) II, but was insensitive to blockage of MLCK, calmodulin, ERK1/2, caspases and RhoA GTPase. Conclusion Our data suggest that stimulation of PKC disrupts epithelial apical junctions via ROCK-II dependent activation of NM II, which increases contractility of perijunctional actin filaments. This mechanism is likely to be important for cancer cell dissociation and tumor metastasis. PMID:19422706

  6. C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Induces Anti-contractile Effect Dependent on Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and NPR-B Activation in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Pernomian, Laena; Prado, Alejandro F.; Silva, Bruno R.; Azevedo, Aline; Pinheiro, Lucas C.; Tanus-Santos, José E.; Bendhack, Lusiane M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the role of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation in C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta isolated from septic rats. Methods and Results: Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery was used to induce sepsis in male rats. Vascular reactivity was conducted in rat aorta and resistance mesenteric artery (RMA). Measurement of survival rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma nitric oxide, specific protein expression, and localization were evaluated. Septic rats had a survival rate about 37% at 4 h after the surgery, and these rats presented hypotension compared to control-operated (Sham) rats. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was decreased in sepsis. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) induced anti-contractile effect in aortas. Plasma nitric oxide was increased in sepsis. Nitric oxide-synthase but not natriuretic peptide receptor-B expression was increased in septic rat aortas. C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C, protein kinase-Cα mRNA, and basal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ROS production were lower in septic rats. Phenylephrine and CNP enhanced ROS production. However, stimulated ROS production was low in sepsis. Conclusion: CNP induced anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine contraction in aortas from Sham and septic rats that was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation. PMID:27445832

  7. Increased CCT-eta expression is a marker of latent and active disease and a modulator of fibroblast contractility in Dupuytren's contracture.

    PubMed

    Satish, Latha; O'Gorman, David B; Johnson, Sandra; Raykha, Christina; Gan, Bing Siang; Wang, James H-C; Kathju, Sandeep

    2013-07-01

    Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder of unknown etiology characterized by a scar-like contracture that develops in the palm and/or digits. We have previously reported that the eta subunit of the chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide (CCT-eta) is increased in fibrotic wound healing, and is essential for the accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to determine if CCT-eta is similarly implicated in the aberrant fibrosis seen in DC and to investigate the role of CCT-eta in the behavior of myo/fibroblasts in DC. Fibroblasts were obtained from DC-affected palmar fascia, from adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia in the same DC patients (PF), and from non-DC palmar fascial tissues in patients undergoing carpal tunnel (CT) release. Inherent contractility in these three populations was examined using fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs) and by cell traction force microscopy. Expression of CCT-eta and α-SMA protein was determined by Western blot. The effect of CCT-eta inhibition on the contractility of DC cells was determined by deploying an siRNA versus CCT-eta. DC cells were significantly more contractile than both matching palmar fascial (PF) cells and CT cells in both assays, with PF cells demonstrating an intermediate contractility in the FPCL assay. Whereas α-SMA protein was significantly increased only in DC cells compared to PF and CT cells, CCT-eta protein was significantly increased in both PF and DC cells compared to CT cells. siRNA-mediated depletion of CCT-eta inhibited the accumulation of both CCT-eta and α-SMA protein in DC cells, and also significantly decreased the contractility of treated DC cells. These observations suggest that increased expression of CCT-eta appears to be a marker for latent and active disease in these patients and to be essential for the increased contractility exhibited by these fibroblasts. PMID:23292503

  8. Depolarization-induced contractile activity of smooth muscle in calcium-free solution.

    PubMed

    Mangel, A W; Nelson, D O; Rabovsky, J L; Prosser, C L; Connor, J A

    1982-01-01

    In calcium-free solution, strips of cat intestinal muscle developed slow, rhythmic electrical potential changes that triggered contractions. Some strips failed to develop spontaneous electrical activity in calcium-free solution but responded with contractions to depolarization by direct electrical stimulation or by treatment with barium chloride, potassium chloride, or acetylcholine. Similar results were obtained with segments of cat stomach, colon, esophagus, bladder, uterus, and vena cava, as well as with rabbit vena cava. In calcium-free saline, rat small intestinal muscle showed fast electrical activity with accompanying development of a tetanuslike contraction. After 60 min in calcium-free solution, cat small intestinal muscle retained 17.7% of its original concentration of calcium. It is concluded that in some smooth muscles, depolarization-triggered release of intracellular calcium does not require an associated influx of calcium. PMID:7058877

  9. Effect of previous strength training episode and retraining on facilitation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and contractile properties after long-term detraining in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sukho; Hong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of previous strength training and retraining following long-term cessation of exercise on muscle mass and contractile properties. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged eight weeks were randomly assigned one of the four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), training (TR), and retraining (RT). The training regimen consisted of climbing ladder 5×3 sets, once every third day for eight weeks with weight attached to the tail. The weight carried during each training session was initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. The rats in DT were detained for 20 weeks followed by eight weeks strength training. The rats in the both TR and RT groups underwent eight weeks training. DT was age matched new training group while RT was retraining group after 20 weeks of detraining. Soleus, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscles were harvested in order to measure the weight, and in situ contractile properties of FHL were measured including specific twitch tension (Spt) and specific tetanic tension (Spo). TR showed significant increase in muscle mass compared to CON (P<0.05). DT and RT showed significant increase in muscle mass when compared to all other groups (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in Spt and Spo among the groups. The present study showed that previous strength training facilitates retraining-induced muscle hypertrophy following long-term cessation of exercise. PMID:27162768

  10. Effect of previous strength training episode and retraining on facilitation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and contractile properties after long-term detraining in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukho; Hong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Kijeong

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of previous strength training and retraining following long-term cessation of exercise on muscle mass and contractile properties. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged eight weeks were randomly assigned one of the four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), training (TR), and retraining (RT). The training regimen consisted of climbing ladder 5×3 sets, once every third day for eight weeks with weight attached to the tail. The weight carried during each training session was initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. The rats in DT were detained for 20 weeks followed by eight weeks strength training. The rats in the both TR and RT groups underwent eight weeks training. DT was age matched new training group while RT was retraining group after 20 weeks of detraining. Soleus, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscles were harvested in order to measure the weight, and in situ contractile properties of FHL were measured including specific twitch tension (Spt) and specific tetanic tension (Spo). TR showed significant increase in muscle mass compared to CON (P<0.05). DT and RT showed significant increase in muscle mass when compared to all other groups (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in Spt and Spo among the groups. The present study showed that previous strength training facilitates retraining-induced muscle hypertrophy following long-term cessation of exercise. PMID:27162768

  11. The action of caffeine on the activation of the contractile mechanism in straited muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lüttgau, H C; Oetliker, H

    1968-01-01

    1. The effect of caffeine on the initiation of isometric tension in isolated twitch muscle fibres of the frog was recorded with a mechano-electrical transducer.2. In Ringer solution as well as in solutions containing 95 mM-K(2)SO(4), caffeine (6-10 mM) caused reversible contractures. Tension of maximal potassium contractures was reached with a half-time of 2-4 sec.3. Caffeine caused a shift to lower potassium concentrations of the S-shaped curve which relates peak tension to log. [K](o) or membrane potential. In subthreshold concentrations of caffeine (1.5 mM) the potassium concentration at which half of maximal tension was reached shifted from 30 to 16 mM-K (-39 to -53 mV).4. In the ;steady state' the ability of fibres to develop tension is related to log. [K](o) or membrane potential by an S-shaped curve whose half value shifted from 28 to 45 mM-K (-41 to -29 mV) when 1.5 mM caffeine was applied.5. Fibres were most sensitive to caffeine at membrane potentials between -50 and -20 mV.6. The mechanical activity caused by caffeine was ;stabilized' by an increase in [Ca](o) or [Mg](o) resembling the stabilizing action of these ions on potassium contractures or on the sodium permeability of excitable membranes.7. Tetracaine in low concentrations (0.04-0.1 mM) increased the threshold for mechanical activation and shortened the plateau of potassium contractures. Higher concentrations (1-2 mM) suppressed mechanical activity completely.8. Tetracaine, 0.04 mM, was sufficient to suppress tension caused by a 100 times stronger concentration of caffeine. With higher concentrations of caffeine the inhibitory action of tetracaine could be reversed.9. Fibres which were immersed in subthreshold concentrations of caffeine either in Ringer solution or in a solution with 95 mM-K(2)SO(4) developed a strong contracture after a sudden drop in temperature from 20 to 1-3 degrees C.10. The fast activation of the whole cross-section of the muscle fibre caused by caffeine and its dependence

  12. Length adaptation of smooth muscle contractile filaments in response to sustained activation.

    PubMed

    Stålhand, Jonas; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2016-05-21

    Airway and bladder smooth muscles are known to undergo length adaptation under sustained contraction. This adaptation process entails a remodelling of the intracellular actin and myosin filaments which shifts the peak of the active force-length curve towards the current length. Smooth muscles are therefore able to generate the maximum force over a wide range of lengths. In contrast, length adaptation of vascular smooth muscle has attracted very little attention and only a handful of studies have been reported. Although their results are conflicting on the existence of a length adaptation process in vascular smooth muscle, it seems that, at least, peripheral arteries and arterioles undergo such adaptation. This is of interest since peripheral vessels are responsible for pressure regulation, and a length adaptation will affect the function of the cardiovascular system. It has, e.g., been suggested that the inward remodelling of resistance vessels associated with hypertension disorders may be related to smooth muscle adaptation. In this study we develop a continuum mechanical model for vascular smooth muscle length adaptation by assuming that the muscle cells remodel the actomyosin network such that the peak of the active stress-stretch curve is shifted towards the operating point. The model is specialised to hamster cheek pouch arterioles and the simulated response to stepwise length changes under contraction. The results show that the model is able to recover the salient features of length adaptation reported in the literature. PMID:26925813

  13. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial Tom40 channel in skeletal muscle from aged animals and its adaptability to chronic contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Adhihetty, Peter J; Hood, David A

    2010-06-01

    Evidence exists that mitochondrial content and/or function is reduced in muscle of aging individuals. The purposes of this study were to investigate the contribution of outer membrane protein import and assembly processes to this decline and to determine whether the assembly process could adapt to chronic contractile activity (CCA). Tom40 assembly into the translocases of the outer membrane (TOM complex) was measured in subsarcolemmal mitochondria obtained from young (6 mo old) and aged (36 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway animals. While the initial import of Tom40 did not differ between young and aged animals, its subsequent assembly into the final approximately 380 kDa complex was 2.2-fold higher (P < 0.05) in mitochondria from aged compared with young animals. This was associated with a higher abundance of Tom22, a protein vital for the assembly process. CCA induced a greater initial import and subsequent assembly of Tom40 in mitochondria from young animals, resulting in a CCA-induced 75% increase (P < 0.05) in Tom40 within mitochondria. This effect of CCA was attenuated in mitochondria from old animals. These data suggest that the import and assembly of proteins into the outer membrane do not contribute to reduced mitochondrial content or function in aged animals. Indeed, the greater assembly rate in mitochondria from aged animals may be a compensatory mechanism attempting to offset any decrements in mitochondrial content or function within aged muscle. Our data also indicate the potential of CCA to contribute to increased mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle through changes in the outer membrane import and assembly pathway. PMID:20107041

  14. Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, James A.; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Pal, Rituraj; Rodney, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase) have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2), we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS in isolated FDB fibers. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production in the diaphragm. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased diaphragm function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function. PMID:25653619

  15. Thermal stress and Ca-independent contractile activation in mammalian skeletal muscle fibers at high temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, K W

    1994-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the isometric tension was examined in chemically skinned, glycerinated, rabbit Psoas, muscle fibers immersed in relaxing solution (pH approximately 7.1 at 20 degrees C, pCa approximately 8, ionic strength 200 mM); the average rate of heating/cooling was 0.5-1 degree C/s. The resting tension increased reversibly with temperature (5-42 degrees C); the tension increase was slight in warming to approximately 25 degrees C (a linear thermal contraction, -alpha, of approximately 0.1%/degree C) but became more pronounced above approximately 30 degrees C (similar behavior was seen in intact rat muscle fibers). The extra tension rise at the high temperatures was depressed in acidic pH and in the presence of 10 mM inorganic phosphate; it was absent in rigor fibers in which the tension decreased with heating (a linear thermal expansion, alpha, of approximately 4 x 10(-5)/degree C). Below approximately 20 degrees C, the tension response after a approximately 1% length increase (complete < 0.5 ms) consisted of a fast decay (approximately 150.s-1 at 20 degrees C) and a slow decay (approximately 10.s-1) of tension. The rate of fast decay increased with temperature (Q10 approximately 2.4); at 35-40 degrees C, it was approximately 800.s-1, and it was followed by a delayed tension rise (stretch-activation) at 30-40.s-1. The linear rise of passive tension in warming to approximately 25 degrees C may be due to increase of thermal stress in titin (connectin)-myosin composite filament, whereas the extra tension above approximately 30 degrees C may arise from cycling cross-bridges; based on previous findings from regulated actomyosin in solution (Fuchs, 1975), it is suggested that heating reversibly inactivates the troponin-tropomyosin control mechanism and leads to Ca-independent thin filament activation at high temperatures. Additionally, we propose that the heating-induced increase of endo-sarcomeric stress within titin-myosin composite filament makes the

  16. Spontaneous Formation of a Globally Connected Contractile Network in a Microtubule-Motor System.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Ishihara, Shuji; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-26

    Microtubule (MT) networks play key roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and cell motility. These functions of MT networks occur through interactions between MTs and various associated proteins, notably motor proteins that bundle and slide MTs. Our objective in this study was to address the question of how motors determine the nature of MT networks. We conducted in vitro assays using homotetrameric kinesin Eg5, a motor protein involved in the formation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. The mixing of Eg5 and MTs produced a range of spatiotemporal dynamics depending on the motor/filament ratio. Low motor/filament ratios produced globally connected static MT networks with sparsely distributed contractile active nodes (motor-accumulating points with radially extending MTs). Increasing the motor/filament ratio facilitated the linking of contractile active nodes and led to a global contraction of the network. When the motor/filament ratio was further increased, densely distributed active nodes formed local clusters and segmented the network into pieces with their strong contractile forces. Altering the properties of the motor through the use of chimeric Eg5, which has kinesin-1 heads, resulted in the generation of many isolated asters. These results suggest that the spatial distribution of contractile active nodes determines the dynamics of MT-motor networks. We then developed a coarse-grained model of MT-motor networks and identified two essential features for reproducing the experimentally observed patterns: an accumulation of motors that form the active nodes necessary to generate contractile forces, and a nonlinear dependency of contractile force on motor densities. Our model also enabled us to characterize the mechanical properties of the contractile network. Our study provides insight into how local motor-MT interactions generate the spatiotemporal dynamics of macroscopic network structures. PMID:27463139

  17. Evidence of changes to skeletal muscle contractile properties during the initiation of disease in the ageing guinea pig model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    initiation in the ageing guinea pig model of OA is not associated with overt quadriceps muscle atrophy but instead is coincident with altered expression of mRNAs associated with quadriceps skeletal muscle contractile properties (specifically fast-twitch MHC IIX). PMID:24472412

  18. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein on prostaglandin release from cultured maternal decidua and on contractile activity of human myometrium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, F; Benedetto, C; Florio, P; D'Ambrogio, G; Genazzani, A D; Marozio, L; Vale, W

    1995-10-01

    Human placenta and uterine tissues are sites of production and local action of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The recent evidence that CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP), a protein that blocks CRF-induced pituitary ACTH release, is produced by placental tissues suggested the present study to investigate the effects of CRF-BP on prostaglandin release and contractile activity of myometrial strips. Primary cultures of decidual cells were prepared using tissue collected from healthy women undergoing cesarean delivery at term. Mechanical and enzymatic cell dispersions were carried out, and experiments were performed 24-28 h after cell plating. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in cultured medium was measured by RIA. Myometrial strips were obtained from the upper edge of the uterine incision during elective cesarean section at term. Dissected free of connective tissue, strips were mounted in a 30-mL two-chamber organ bath containing oxygenated Tyrode's buffer (37 C) and connected to a two-channel isometric smooth muscle transducer. Cultured decidual cells collected at term significantly increased the release of PGE2 in the presence of CRF (P < 0.01). The addition of CRF-BP did not significantly modify PGE2 release, but completely reversed the effect of CRF. When human myometrial strips were incubated in the presence of CRF and PGF2 alpha, a significant increase in contractile activity was observed (P < 0.01); preincubation with CRF-BP prevented the increased contractile activity induced by CRF. The present data show that CRF-BP is able to counteract the biological effect of CRF on human pregnancy endometrium and myometrium and suggest that CRF-BP may be a regulatory protein that plays a role in the local function of uterine tissues during pregnancy. PMID:7559899

  19. Effects of divalent cations and La3+ on contractility and ecto-ATPase activity in the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Ziganshin, A U; Ziganshina, L E; Hoyle, C H; Burnstock, G

    1995-01-01

    1. Several cations (Ba2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and La3+, all as chloride salts, 1-1000 microM) were tested in the guinea-pig urinary bladder for their ability to: (i) modify contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), ATP, alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-meATP), carbachol (CCh), and KCl; (ii) affect ecto-ATPase activity. 2. Ba2+ (10-1000 microM) concentration-dependently potentiated contractile responses evoked by EFS (4-16 Hz), ATP (100 microM), alpha,beta-meATP (1 microM), CCh (0.5 microM), and KCl (30 mM). Ni2+ at concentrations of 1-100 microM also potentiated contractility of the urinary bladder, but at concentrations tested its effect was not concentration-dependent. Cu2+ at a concentration of 10 microM and Cd2+ at a concentration of 1 microM potentiated responses to all stimuli, except KCl. Ni2+ at a concentration of 1000 microM and Cd2+ at a concentration of 100 microM inhibited contractions evoked by all stimuli, and at a concentration of 1000 microM Cd2+ abolished any contractions. Responses to ATP and alpha,beta-meATP were selectively inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+ or La3+, each at a concentration of 1 mM. 3. Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and La3+ (100-1000 microM) concentration-dependently inhibited ecto-ATPase activity in the urinary bladder smooth muscle preparations, while Ba2+ and Mn2+ were without effect, and Cd2+ and Co2+ caused significant inhibition only at a concentration of 1000 microM. 4. There was no correlation between the extent of ecto-ATPase inhibition and the effect on contractile activity of any of the cations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7735690

  20. Metronidazole and 5-aminosalicylic acid enhance the contractile activity of histaminergic agonists on the guinea-pig isolated ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Winbery, S.L.; Barker, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of metronidazole and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on histamine receptor-effector systems in the small intestine and right atrium of the guinea pig were studied. In an apparently all-or-none manner, both caused a sinistral shift in dose-response curves for the phasic component of the contractile response to histamine at H1 receptors on the ileum. In the presence of either, the EC50 value for histamine was reduced from 0.07 to about 0.03 microM. Similarly, in an apparently all-or-none fashion, both produced an elevation in the dose-response curve for the actions of dimaprit at H2-receptors in the ileum; the response to all doses was increased about 30% with no significant change in the EC50 value. Metronidazole and 5-ASA did not alter dose-response curves for the tonic contractile response to histamine or curves generated by the cumulative addition of histamine. Also, neither altered the positive chronotropic response on isolated right atria or the phasic contractile response on isolated segments of jejunum and duodenum to histamine or dimaprit. Likewise, neither altered dose-response curves for the direct action of carbamylcholine at muscarinic receptors or for the indirect actions of dimethylphenylpiperazinium on the ileum. The effects of 5-ASA or metronidazole on the response to histamine could be prevented as well as reversed by scopolamine or tetrodotoxin. The results suggest that metronidazole and 5-ASA enhance the actions of histamine and dimaprit on the ileum by an action on myenteric plexus neurons.

  1. The Masticatory Contractile Load Induced Expression and Activation of Akt1/PKBα in Muscle Fibers at the Myotendinous Junction within Muscle-Tendon-Bone Unit

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Yüksel; Klinz, Franz J.; Moghbeli, Mehrnoush; Addicks, Klaus; Raab, Wolfgang H. -M.; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The cell specific detection of enzyme activation in response to the physiological contractile load within muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for understanding of the mechanical forces transmission from muscle cells via tendon to the bone. The hypothesis that the physiological mechanical loading regulates activation of Akt1/PKBα at Thr308 and at Ser473 in muscle fibers within muscle-tendon-bone unit was tested using quantitative immunohistochemistry, confocal double fluorescence analysis, and immunoblot analysis. In comparison to the staining intensities in peripheral regions of the muscle fibers, Akt1/PKBα was detected with a higher staining intensity in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) areas. In muscle fibers at the MTJ areas, Akt1/PKBα is dually phosphorylated at Thr308 and Ser473. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that contractile load generated by masticatory muscles induces local domain-dependent expression of Akt1/PKBα as well as activation by dually phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 in muscle fibers at the MTJ areas within muscle-tendon-bone unit. PMID:20454577

  2. Effects of 9-deoxo-16,16-dimethyl-9-methylene PGE2 on muscle contractile activity and collagen synthesis in the human cervix.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Lindblom, B; Christensen, N J

    1985-03-01

    The in vitro effects of a stable PGE-analogue (9-deoxo-16,16-dimethyl-9-methylene PGE2 (9-methylene PGE2) on human cervical tissue was investigated. The influence of the analogue on collagen biosynthesis was studied by measuring the incorporation of 3H-proline, while smooth muscle effects were evaluated by isometric recording of contractile activity. The specimens were obtained by needle biopsy from women in early and late pregnancy and from nonpregnant women of fertile age. 9-methylene PGE2 compared with controls increased the incorporation of 3H-proline in the secretory phase and before the 9th week of pregnancy, whereas radiolabelling was decreased in the follicular phase, in the 9th-12th week and at term. With respect to incorporation of 3H-proline,9-methylene PGE2 was equipotent to PGE2. 9-methylene PGE2 inhibited spontaneous contractile activity in early as well as in late pregnancy but increased muscular activity in nonpregnant patients. The inhibitory effects of the analogue was similar to that of PGE2 but the natural compound was considerably more potent in this respect. PMID:4001435

  3. Mechanochemical actuators of embryonic epithelial contractility.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; Vijayraghavan, Deepthi S; Song, Jiho; Jackson, Timothy R; Joshi, Sagar D; Messner, William C; Davidson, Lance A; LeDuc, Philip R

    2014-10-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of cell contractility coordinates cell shape change to construct tissue architecture and ultimately directs the morphology and function of the organism. Here we show that contractility responses to spatially and temporally controlled chemical stimuli depend much more strongly on intercellular mechanical connections than on biochemical cues in both stimulated tissues and adjacent cells. We investigate how the cell contractility is triggered within an embryonic epithelial sheet by local ligand stimulation and coordinates a long-range contraction response. Our custom microfluidic control system allows spatiotemporally controlled stimulation with extracellular ATP, which results in locally distinct contractility followed by mechanical strain pattern formation. The stimulation-response circuit exposed here provides a better understanding of how morphogenetic processes integrate responses to stimulation and how intercellular responses are transmitted across multiple cells. These findings may enable one to create a biological actuator that actively drives morphogenesis. PMID:25246549

  4. Activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel by ROS contributes to ER stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction: involvement of CHOP through Wnt.

    PubMed

    Shen, M; Wang, L; Wang, B; Wang, T; Yang, G; Shen, L; Wang, T; Guo, X; Liu, Y; Xia, Y; Jia, L; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and cardiac contractile dysfunction (CCD). However, the molecular machinery that mediates cardiac ER stress and subsequent cell death remains to be fully deciphered, which will hopefully provide novel therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we establish tunicamycin-induced model of cardiomyocyte ER stress, which effectively mimicks pathological stimuli to trigger CCD. Tunicamycin activates volume-sensitive outward rectifying Cl(-) currents. Blockade of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channel by 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl(-) channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl(-) channel blocker, improves cardiac contractility, which correlates with suppressed ER stress through inhibiting the canonical GRP78/eIF2α/ATF4 and XBP1 pathways, and promotes survival of cardiomyocytes by inverting tunicamycin-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. VSOR activation of tunicamycin-treated cardiomyocytes is attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of ROS/VSOR in mediating ER stress and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes via the CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of VSOR Cl(-) channel blockers against ER stress-associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:25412307

  5. Activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel by ROS contributes to ER stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction: involvement of CHOP through Wnt

    PubMed Central

    Shen, M; Wang, L; Wang, B; Wang, T; Yang, G; Shen, L; Wang, T; Guo, X; Liu, Y; Xia, Y; Jia, L; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and cardiac contractile dysfunction (CCD). However, the molecular machinery that mediates cardiac ER stress and subsequent cell death remains to be fully deciphered, which will hopefully provide novel therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we establish tunicamycin-induced model of cardiomyocyte ER stress, which effectively mimicks pathological stimuli to trigger CCD. Tunicamycin activates volume-sensitive outward rectifying Cl− currents. Blockade of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channel by 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl− channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl− channel blocker, improves cardiac contractility, which correlates with suppressed ER stress through inhibiting the canonical GRP78/eIF2α/ATF4 and XBP1 pathways, and promotes survival of cardiomyocytes by inverting tunicamycin-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. VSOR activation of tunicamycin-treated cardiomyocytes is attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of ROS/VSOR in mediating ER stress and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes via the CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of VSOR Cl− channel blockers against ER stress-associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:25412307

  6. Spatial differences of cellular origins and in vivo hypoxia modify contractile properties of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: lessons for arterial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hall, S M; Soueid, A; Smith, T; Brown, R A; Haworth, S G; Mudera, V

    2007-01-01

    Tissue engineering of functional arteries is challenging. Within the pulmonary artery wall, smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) have site-specific developmental and functional phenotypes, reflecting differing contractile roles. The force generated by PASMCs isolated from the inner 25% and outer 50% of the media of intrapulmonary elastic arteries from five normal and eight chronically hypoxic (hypertensive) 14 day-old piglets was quantified in a three-dimensional (3D) collagen construct, using a culture force monitor. Outer medial PASMCs from normal piglets exerted more force (528 +/- 50 dynes) than those of hypoxic piglets (177 +/- 42 dynes; p < 0.01). Force generation by inner medial PASMCs from normal and hypoxic piglets was similar (349 +/- 35 and 239 +/- 60 dynes). In response to agonist (thromboxane) stimulation, all PASMCs from normal and hypoxic piglets contracted, but the increase in force generated by outer and inner hypoxic PASMCs (ranges 13-72 and 14-56 dynes) was less than by normal PASMCs (ranges 27-154 and 34-159 dynes, respectively; p < 0.05 for both). All hypoxic PASMCs were unresponsive to antagonist (sodium nitroprusside) stimulation, all normal PASMCs relaxed (range - 87 to - 494 dynes). Myosin heavy chain expression by both hypoxic PASMC phenotypes was less than normal (p < 0.05 for both), as was the activity of focal adhesion kinase, regulating contraction, in hypoxic inner PASMCs (p < 0.01). Chronic hypoxia resulted in the development of abnormal PASMC phenotypes, which in collagen constructs exhibited a reduction in contractile force and reactivity to agonists. Characterization of the mechanical response of spatially distinct cells and modification of their behaviour by hypoxia is critical for successful tissue engineering of major blood vessels. PMID:18038419

  7. Maternal Nutrient Restriction Alters Ca2+ Handling Properties and Contractile Function of Isolated Left Ventricle Bundles in Male But Not Female Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robyn M.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight below the 10th centile, may be caused by maternal undernutrition, with evidence that IUGR offspring have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are an integral messenger for several steps associated with excitation-contraction coupling (ECC); the cascade of events from the initiation of an action potential at the surface membrane, to contraction of the cardiomyocyte. Any changes in Ca2+ storage and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), or sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+ may underlie the mechanism linking IUGR to an increased risk of CVD. This study aimed to explore the effects of maternal nutrient restriction on cardiac function, including Ca2+ handling by the SR and force development by the contractile apparatus. Juvenile Long Evans hooded rats born to Control (C) and nutrient restricted (NR) dams were anaesthetized for collection of the heart at 10–12 weeks of age. Left ventricular bundles from male NR offspring displayed increased maximum Ca2+-activated force, and decreased protein content of troponin I (cTnI) compared to C males. Furthermore, male NR offspring showed a reduction in rate of rise of the caffeine-induced Ca2+ force response and a decrease in the protein content of ryanodine receptor (RYR2). These physiological and biochemical findings observed in males were not evident in female offspring. These findings illustrate a sex-specific effect of maternal NR on cardiac development, and also highlight a possible mechanism for the development of hypertension and hypertrophy in male NR offspring. PMID:26406887

  8. Cardiac Contractility Structure-Activity Relationship and Ligand-Receptor Interactions; the Discovery Of Unique and Novel Molecular Switches in Myosuppressin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Leander, Megan; Bass, Chloe; Marchetti, Kathryn; Maynard, Benjamin F.; Wulff, Juan Pedro; Ons, Sheila; Nichols, Ruthann

    2015-01-01

    Peptidergic signaling regulates cardiac contractility; thus, identifying molecular switches, ligand-receptor contacts, and antagonists aids in exploring the underlying mechanisms to influence health. Myosuppressin (MS), a decapeptide, diminishes cardiac contractility and gut motility. Myosuppressin binds to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins. Two Drosophila melanogaster myosuppressin receptors (DrmMS-Rs) exist; however, no mechanism underlying MS-R activation is reported. We predicted DrmMS-Rs contained molecular switches that resembled those of Rhodopsin. Additionally, we believed DrmMS-DrmMS-R1 and DrmMS-DrmMS-R2 interactions would reflect our structure-activity relationship (SAR) data. We hypothesized agonist- and antagonist-receptor contacts would differ from one another depending on activity. Lastly, we expected our study to apply to other species; we tested this hypothesis in Rhodnius prolixus, the Chagas disease vector. Searching DrmMS-Rs for molecular switches led to the discovery of a unique ionic lock and a novel 3–6 lock, as well as transmission and tyrosine toggle switches. The DrmMS-DrmMS-R1 and DrmMS-DrmMS-R2 contacts suggested tissue-specific signaling existed, which was in line with our SAR data. We identified R. prolixus (Rhp)MS-R and discovered it, too, contained the unique myosuppressin ionic lock and novel 3–6 lock found in DrmMS-Rs as well as transmission and tyrosine toggle switches. Further, these motifs were present in red flour beetle, common water flea, honey bee, domestic silkworm, and termite MS-Rs. RhpMS and DrmMS decreased R. prolixus cardiac contractility dose dependently with EC50 values of 140 nM and 50 nM. Based on ligand-receptor contacts, we designed RhpMS analogs believed to be an active core and antagonist; testing on heart confirmed these predictions. The active core docking mimicked RhpMS, however, the antagonist did not. Together, these data were consistent with the unique ionic lock, novel 3–6 lock

  9. Cardiac contractility structure-activity relationship and ligand-receptor interactions; the discovery of unique and novel molecular switches in myosuppressin signaling.

    PubMed

    Leander, Megan; Bass, Chloe; Marchetti, Kathryn; Maynard, Benjamin F; Wulff, Juan Pedro; Ons, Sheila; Nichols, Ruthann

    2015-01-01

    Peptidergic signaling regulates cardiac contractility; thus, identifying molecular switches, ligand-receptor contacts, and antagonists aids in exploring the underlying mechanisms to influence health. Myosuppressin (MS), a decapeptide, diminishes cardiac contractility and gut motility. Myosuppressin binds to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins. Two Drosophila melanogaster myosuppressin receptors (DrmMS-Rs) exist; however, no mechanism underlying MS-R activation is reported. We predicted DrmMS-Rs contained molecular switches that resembled those of Rhodopsin. Additionally, we believed DrmMS-DrmMS-R1 and DrmMS-DrmMS-R2 interactions would reflect our structure-activity relationship (SAR) data. We hypothesized agonist- and antagonist-receptor contacts would differ from one another depending on activity. Lastly, we expected our study to apply to other species; we tested this hypothesis in Rhodnius prolixus, the Chagas disease vector. Searching DrmMS-Rs for molecular switches led to the discovery of a unique ionic lock and a novel 3-6 lock, as well as transmission and tyrosine toggle switches. The DrmMS-DrmMS-R1 and DrmMS-DrmMS-R2 contacts suggested tissue-specific signaling existed, which was in line with our SAR data. We identified R. prolixus (Rhp)MS-R and discovered it, too, contained the unique myosuppressin ionic lock and novel 3-6 lock found in DrmMS-Rs as well as transmission and tyrosine toggle switches. Further, these motifs were present in red flour beetle, common water flea, honey bee, domestic silkworm, and termite MS-Rs. RhpMS and DrmMS decreased R. prolixus cardiac contractility dose dependently with EC50 values of 140 nM and 50 nM. Based on ligand-receptor contacts, we designed RhpMS analogs believed to be an active core and antagonist; testing on heart confirmed these predictions. The active core docking mimicked RhpMS, however, the antagonist did not. Together, these data were consistent with the unique ionic lock, novel 3-6 lock, transmission

  10. Changes in the profile of NO synthases affect coronary blood flow autoregulation and myocardial contractile activity during restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Solodkov, A P; Lazuko, S S; Knyazev, E N; Nechaev, I N; Krainova, N A

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of autoregulation of the coronary blood flow and contractile activity of the myocardium in the presence of inhibitors of constitutive and inducible NO synthases was studied in rats exposed to 6-h restraint stress. Intracoronary administration of S-methylisothiourea (10 μmol/liter), but not L-NAME (60 μmol/liter) fully prevented post-stress increase in the volume coronary blood flow rate, intensity of heart perfusion, and reduction of ventricular developed pressure at all levels of perfusion pressure. Real-time PCR showed 6-fold increased expression of inducible NO-synthase mRNA in the heart tissue against the background of unchanged expression of neuronal and endothelial NO synthases and 2-3-fold elevated content of transcripts of stress-inducible genes Hspa1a and Hspbp1. It was shown that the hypotension of coronary vessels and reduced contractile function of the myocardium are related to NO production by inducible NO synthase in endotheliocytes of coronary vessels and cardiomyocytes. PMID:25430647

  11. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    SciTech Connect

    An, Steven S.; Kim, Jina; Ahn, Kwangmi; Trepat, Xavier; Drake, Kenneth J.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Biswal, Shyam

    2009-05-15

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  12. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand (3H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ((3H)CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that (3H) CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for (3H) CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific (3H)CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid).

  13. Skeletal muscle morphology and contractile function in relation to muscle denervation in diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brendan; Kimpinski, Kurt; Doherty, Timothy J.; Rice, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) on muscle contractile properties in humans, and how these changes are related to alterations in muscle morphology and denervation. Patients with DPN (n = 12) were compared with age- and sex-matched controls (n = 12). Evoked and voluntary contractile properties, including stimulated twitch responses and maximal voluntary contractions, of the dorsiflexor muscles were assessed using an isometric ankle dynamometer. Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) of the tibialis anterior (TA) were performed via quantitative electromyography and decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging. Peak tibialis anterior (TA) cross-sectional area (CSA; cm2), and relative proportion of contractile to noncontractile tissue (%) was determined from magnetic resonance images. Patients with DPN demonstrated decreased strength (−35%) and slower (−45%) dorsiflexion contractile properties for both evoked and voluntary contractions (P < 0.05). These findings were not accounted for by differences in voluntary activation (P > 0.05) or antagonist coactivation (P > 0.05). Additionally, patients with DPN were weaker when strength was normalized to TA total CSA (−30%; P < 0.05) or contractile tissue CSA (−26%; P < 0.05). In the DPN patient group, TA MUNEs were negatively related to both % noncontractile tissue (P < 0.05; r = 0.72) and twitch half-relaxation time (P < 0.05; r = 0.60), whereas no relationships were found between these variables in controls (P > 0.05). We conclude that patients with DPN demonstrated reduced strength and muscle quality as well as contractile slowing. This process may contribute to muscle power loss and functional impairments reported in patients with DPN, beyond the loss of strength commonly observed. PMID:24356519

  14. Dielectrophoretically aligned carbon nanotubes to control electrical and mechanical properties of hydrogels to fabricate contractile muscle myofibers.

    PubMed

    Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ahadian, Samad; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Kaji, Hirokazu; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2013-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis is used to align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels in a facile and rapid manner. Aligned GelMA-CNT hydrogels show higher electrical properties compared with pristine and randomly distributed CNTs in GelMA hydrogels. The muscle cells cultured on these materials demonstrate higher maturation compared with cells cultured on pristine and randomly distributed CNTs in GelMA hydrogels. PMID:23798469

  15. Effects of chronic growth hormone hypersecretion on intrinsic contractility, energetics, isomyosin pattern, and myosin adenosine triphosphatase activity of rat left ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Timsit, J; Riou, B; Bertherat, J; Wisnewsky, C; Kato, N S; Weisberg, A S; Lubetzki, J; Lecarpentier, Y; Winegrad, S; Mercadier, J J

    1990-01-01

    We studied papillary muscle mechanics and energetics, myosin phenotype, and ATPase activities in left ventricles from rats bearing a growth hormone (GH)--secreting tumor. 18 wk after tumor induction, animals exhibited a dramatic increase in body weight (+101% vs. controls) but no change in the ventricular weight/body weight ratio. The maximum isometric force of papillary muscles normalized per cross-sectional area rose markedly (+42%, P less than 0.05 vs. controls), whereas the maximum unloaded shortening velocity did not change. This was observed despite a marked isomyosin shift towards V3 (32 +/- 5% vs. 8 +/- 2% in controls, P less than 0.001). Increased curvature of the force-velocity relationship (+64%, P less than 0.05 vs. controls) indicated that the muscles contracted more economically, suggesting the involvement of V3 myosin. Total calcium- and actin-activated myosin ATPase activities assayed on quickly frozen left ventricular sections were similar in tumor-bearing rats and in controls. After alkaline preincubation, these activities only decreased in tumor-bearing rats, demonstrating that V3 enzymatic sites were involved in total ATPase activity. These data demonstrate that chronic GH hypersecretion in the rat leads to a unique pattern of myocardial adaptation which allows the muscle to improve its contractile performance and economy simultaneously, thanks to myosin phenoconversion and an increase in the number of active enzymatic sites. Images PMID:2143510

  16. Effects of regular exercise training on skeletal muscle contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is critical to movement and one's ability to perform daily tasks, such as eating and walking. One objective of this article is to review the contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle and single fibers, with particular emphasis on the cellular events that control or rate limit the important mechanical properties. Another important goal of this article is to present the current understanding of how the contractile properties of limb skeletal muscle adapt to programs of regular exercise.

  17. Different changes in contractile and histochemical properties of reinnervated and regenerated slow soleus muslces of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, E; Melichna, J A; Herbrychová, A; Stichová, J

    1976-07-30

    The changes in contraction time (CT) and histochemical muscle fibre pattern are compared with respect to ATPase activity of the slow soleus muscle of the guniea-pig during regeneration in free grafts and reinnervation after nerve interruption. Interruption of the nerve by crushing at birth results first in prolongation of CT which later returns to normal (control) values. A homogeneous fibre pattern is established related to the homogeneity of the motor units constituting the muscle. In the regenerating muscle CT and muscle fibre pattern of the graft repeat the changes during postnatal development, i.e. CT shows progressive prolongation accompanied by transformation of a heterogeneous (fibres of high and low ATPase activity) to a homogeneous (fibres of low activity only) fibre pattern. However, the regenerating muscle also shows an initial phase with slow CT. Thus the changes in reinnervation and regeneration of the muscle after birth differ, the reinnervated muscle revealing only prolongation, the regenerated muscle a temporary shortening followed by prolongation, i.e. a biphasic development of CT. PMID:134353

  18. Effects of Cardiac Troponin I Mutation P83S on Contractile Properties and the Modulation by PKA-Mediated Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanhua; Lindert, Steffen; Oxenford, Lucas; Tu, An-Yue; McCulloch, Andrew D; Regnier, Michael

    2016-08-25

    cTnI(P82S) (cTnI(P83S) in rodents) resides at the I-T arm of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and was initially identified as a disease-causing mutation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, later studies suggested this may not be true. We recently reported that introduction of an HCM-associated mutation in either inhibitory-peptide (cTnI(R146G)) or cardiac-specific N-terminus (cTnI(R21C)) of cTnI blunts the PKA-mediated modulation on myofibril activation/relaxation kinetics by prohibiting formation of intrasubunit contacts between these regions. Here, we tested whether this also occurs for cTnI(P83S). cTnI(P83S) increased both Ca(2+) binding affinity to cTn (KCa) and affinity of cTnC for cTnI (KC-I), and eliminated the reduction of KCa and KC-I observed for phosphorylated-cTnI(WT). In isolated myofibrils, cTnI(P83S) maintained maximal tension (TMAX) and Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension (pCa50). For cTnI(WT) myofibrils, PKA-mediated phosphorylation decreased pCa50 and sped up the slow-phase relaxation (especially for those Ca(2+) conditions that heart performs in vivo). Those effects were blunted for cTnI(P83S) myofibrils. Molecular-dynamics simulations suggested cTnI(P83S) moderately inhibited an intrasubunit interaction formation between inhibitory-peptide and N-terminus, but this "blunting" effect was weaker than that with cTnI(R146G) or cTnI(R21C). In summary, cTnI(P83S) has similar effects as other HCM-associated cTnI mutations on troponin and myofibril function even though it is in the I-T arm of cTnI. PMID:27150586

  19. [Magnetic-laser influence on the system of nitric oxide and contractile activity of smooth muscles of rat aorta under hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, S M; Baziliuk, O V; Kotsiuruba, A V; Korkach, Iu P; Sahach, V F

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted on three groups of rats: Group I included Wistar rats with normal blood pressure (first control group); group II - rats with genetically determined hypertension (second control group); group Ill - rats with genetically determined hypertension under the influence ofmagnetic-laser power (study group). For the low-intensively magnetic-laser influence (MLI) we have used device MIT-MT, Ukraine, which was designed for the treatment of low-frequency magnetic field using optical flow blue and red ranges of spectrum. The MLI duration was 15 minutes for the blue range, and 25 minutes for the red one. Biochemical studies included the determination of the activity of isoenzymes of NO-synthase: constitutive (cNOS) and inducible (iNOS), the content of free hemoglobin, stable metabolites of NO, namely nitrite - (NO2(-)) and nitrate - (NO3(-)) anions, resistance to acid hemolysis of red blood cells. The contractile activity of smooth muscles of the aorta was measured. We found that magnetic-laser exposure of rats with genetically determined hypertension in the red (630 nm) and blue (470 nm wavelength) optical range even after a single session leads to an increased synthesis of nitric oxide in the blood plasma. Our data sindicate that the most effective in the intensification of endogenous nitric oxide (increase of NO2(-) and reduction of NO3(-)) and endothelium-dependent responses of aorta in rats with genetically determined hypertension was a ten-day course of the magnetic-laser exposure in the optical flow of the blue spectral range. Also, after 10 sessions of magnetic-laser exposure in rats from the above specified spectrum a stabilization of erythrocyte membranes was observed. PMID:23530412

  20. Activation of Pax7-positive cells in a non-contractile tissue contributes to regeneration of myogenic tissues in the electric fish S. macrurus.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christopher M; Martindale, Mark Q; Tapscott, Stephen J; Unguez, Graciela A

    2012-01-01

    The ability to regenerate tissues is shared across many metazoan taxa, yet the type and extent to which multiple cellular mechanisms come into play can differ across species. For example, urodele amphibians can completely regenerate all lost tissues, including skeletal muscles after limb amputation. This remarkable ability of urodeles to restore entire limbs has been largely linked to a dedifferentiation-dependent mechanism of regeneration. However, whether cell dedifferentiation is the fundamental factor that triggers a robust regeneration capacity, and whether the loss or inhibition of this process explains the limited regeneration potential in other vertebrates is not known. Here, we studied the cellular mechanisms underlying the repetitive regeneration of myogenic tissues in the electric fish S. macrurus. Our in vivo microinjection studies of high molecular weight cell lineage tracers into single identified adult myogenic cells (muscle or noncontractile muscle-derived electrocytes) revealed no fragmentation or cellularization proximal to the amputation plane. In contrast, ultrastructural and immunolabeling studies verified the presence of myogenic stem cells that express the satellite cell marker Pax7 in mature muscle fibers and electrocytes of S. macrurus. These data provide the first example of Pax-7 positive muscle stem cells localized within a non-contractile electrogenic tissue. Moreover, upon amputation, Pax-7 positive cells underwent a robust replication and were detected exclusively in regions that give rise to myogenic cells and dorsal spinal cord components revealing a regeneration process in S. macrurus that is dependent on the activation of myogenic stem cells for the renewal of both skeletal muscle and the muscle-derived electric organ. These data are consistent with the emergent concept in vertebrate regeneration that different tissues provide a distinct progenitor cell population to the regeneration blastema, and these progenitor cells

  1. Effects of flavone on the contractile activity of the circular smooth muscle of the rabbit middle colon in vitro.

    PubMed

    Benabdallah, Hassiba; Gharzouli, Kamel

    2015-08-01

    The circular smooth muscles of the middle colon of the rabbit generate giant contractions of high amplitude and low frequency. Flavone, at various concentrations, reduces the giant contractions and the tonic contraction induced by 10 µM carbachol and 80 mM KCl. The contractions induced by dequalinium and tetraethylammonium are reduced by flavone (30 µM). At 100 µM, flavone decreases the contraction induced by 100 µM methylene blue and 1mM orthovanadate. These results suggest that flavone inhibit the giant contractions by (1) inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, (2) activation of guanyl cyclase, (3) opening of K(+) channels and (4) inhibition of tyrosines kinases. PMID:25895637

  2. On the origin of rhythmic contractile activity of the esophagus in early achalasia, a clinical case study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Hong; Wang, Xuan-Yu; Liu, Louis W. C.; Yu, Wenzhen; Yu, Yuanjie; Zhao, Liang; Huizinga, Jan D.

    2013-01-01

    A patient with early achalasia presented spontaneous strong rhythmic non-propulsive contractions at ~7/min, independent of swallows. Our aim was to evaluate characteristics of the rhythmic contractions, provide data on the structure of pacemaker cells in the esophagus and discuss a potential role for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the origin of rhythmicity. We hypothesize that intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM) are the primary pacemaker cells. The frequency but not the amplitude of the rhythmic contractions was inhibited by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor drotaverine consistent with cAMP inhibiting pacemaker currents in ICC-IM. The frequency increased by wet swallows but not dry swallows, consistent with stretch causing increase in slow wave frequency in ICC-IM. New studies on archival material showed that ICC-IM were present throughout the human esophageal musculature and were not diminished in early achalasia. Although ICC-IM exhibited a low density, they were connected to PDGFRα-positive fibroblast-like cells with whom they formed a dense gap junction coupled network. Nitrergic innervation of ICC was strongly diminished in early achalasia because of the loss of nitrergic nerves. It therefore appears possibly that ICC-IM function as pacemaker cells in the esophagus and that the network of ICC and PDGFRα-positive cells allows for coupling and propagation of the pacemaker activity. Loss of nitrergic innervation to ICC in achalasia may render them more excitable such that its pacemaker activity is more easily expressed. Loss of propagation in achalasia may be due to loss of contraction-induced aboral nitrergic inhibition. PMID:23734090

  3. Differential contractile actions of reactive oxygen species on rat aorta: selective activation of ATP receptor by H2O2.

    PubMed

    Shen, J Z; Zheng, X F; Kwan, C Y

    2000-04-14

    This study aims to examine the effects of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the resting tension of endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings. In these preparations, H2O2 (30 microM) induced a fast and transient contraction, which could be abolished by pretreatment of catalase (800 U/ml), but not affected by superoxide anion scavenger, superoxide dismutase (SOD; 150 U/ml) or the hydroxyl free radical scavenger, DMSO/mannitol (each 3 mM). In contrast, pyrogallol, a putative superoxide anion donor, induced a biphasic contraction, which could be abolished by SOD, but not by catalase or DMSO/mannitol. Unlike H2O2 and pyrogallol, Vitamin C(VitC)/Fe2+ (each 100 microM), a commonly used hydroxyl radical-generating system, triggered a tonic contraction which could be prevented by DMSO/mannitol, but not by SOD or catalase. Interestingly, H2O2-induced contraction could be concentration-dependently (10-100 microM) inhibited by suramin and reactive blue-2 (RB-2), two widely used ATP receptor antagonists. On the other hand, suramin or RB-2, at concentration up to 100 microM, affected neither pyrogallol nor VitC/Fe2+-induced contraction. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that different ROS could contract rat aorta with different mechanisms of action, and H2O2 elicits a transient contraction probably as a result of the ATP receptor activation. PMID:10823352

  4. Human lymphatic vessel contractile activity is inhibited in vitro but not in vivo by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Telinius, Niklas; Mohanakumar, Sheyanth; Majgaard, Jens; Kim, Sukhan; Pilegaard, Hans; Pahle, Einar; Nielsen, Jørn; de Leval, Marc; Aalkjaer, Christian; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Boedtkjer, Donna Briggs

    2014-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are widely prescribed anti-hypertensive agents. The commonest side-effect, peripheral oedema, is attributed to a larger arterial than venous dilatation causing increased fluid filtration. Whether CCB treatment is detrimental to human lymphatic vessel function and thereby exacerbates oedema formation is unknown. We observed that spontaneous lymphatic contractions in isolated human vessels (thoracic duct and mesenteric lymphatics) maintained under isometric conditions were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations (nanomolar) of the CCB nifedipine while higher than therapeutic concentrations of verapamil (micromolar) were necessary to inhibit activity. Nifedipine also inhibited spontaneous action potentials measured by sharp microelectrodes. Furthermore, noradrenaline did not elicit normal increases in lymphatic vessel tone when maximal constriction was reduced to 29.4 ± 4.9% of control in the presence of 20 nmol l−1 nifedipine. Transcripts for the L-type calcium channel gene CACNA1C were consistently detected from human thoracic duct samples examined and the CaV1.2 protein was localized by immunoreactivity to lymphatic smooth muscle cells. While human lymphatics ex vivo were highly sensitive to nifedipine, this was not apparent in vivo when nifedipine was compared to placebo in a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial: conversely, lymphatic vessel contraction frequency was increased and refill time was faster despite all subjects achieving target nifedipine plasma concentrations. We conclude that human lymphatic vessels are highly sensitive to nifedipine in vitro but that care must be taken when extrapolating in vitro observations of lymphatic vessel function to the clinical situation, as similar changes in lymphatic function were not evident in our clinical trial comparing nifedipine treatment to placebo. PMID:25172950

  5. Human lymphatic vessel contractile activity is inhibited in vitro but not in vivo by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Telinius, Niklas; Mohanakumar, Sheyanth; Majgaard, Jens; Kim, Sukhan; Pilegaard, Hans; Pahle, Einar; Nielsen, Jørn; de Leval, Marc; Aalkjaer, Christian; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Boedtkjer, Donna Briggs

    2014-11-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are widely prescribed anti-hypertensive agents. The commonest side-effect, peripheral oedema, is attributed to a larger arterial than venous dilatation causing increased fluid filtration. Whether CCB treatment is detrimental to human lymphatic vessel function and thereby exacerbates oedema formation is unknown. We observed that spontaneous lymphatic contractions in isolated human vessels (thoracic duct and mesenteric lymphatics) maintained under isometric conditions were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations (nanomolar) of the CCB nifedipine while higher than therapeutic concentrations of verapamil (micromolar) were necessary to inhibit activity. Nifedipine also inhibited spontaneous action potentials measured by sharp microelectrodes. Furthermore, noradrenaline did not elicit normal increases in lymphatic vessel tone when maximal constriction was reduced to 29.4 ± 4.9% of control in the presence of 20 nmol l(-1) nifedipine. Transcripts for the L-type calcium channel gene CACNA1C were consistently detected from human thoracic duct samples examined and the CaV1.2 protein was localized by immunoreactivity to lymphatic smooth muscle cells. While human lymphatics ex vivo were highly sensitive to nifedipine, this was not apparent in vivo when nifedipine was compared to placebo in a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial: conversely, lymphatic vessel contraction frequency was increased and refill time was faster despite all subjects achieving target nifedipine plasma concentrations. We conclude that human lymphatic vessels are highly sensitive to nifedipine in vitro but that care must be taken when extrapolating in vitro observations of lymphatic vessel function to the clinical situation, as similar changes in lymphatic function were not evident in our clinical trial comparing nifedipine treatment to placebo. PMID:25172950

  6. Altered energy state reversibly controls smooth muscle contractile function in human saphenous vein during acute hypoxia-reoxygenation: Role of glycogen, AMP-activated protein kinase, and insulin-independent glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Pyla, Rajkumar; Pichavaram, Prahalathan; Fairaq, Arwa; Park, Mary Anne; Kozak, Mark; Kamath, Vinayak; Patel, Vijay S; Segar, Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Hypoxia is known to promote vasodilation of coronary vessels through several mediators including cardiac-derived adenosine and endothelium-derived prostanoids and nitric oxide. To date, the impact of endogenous glycogen depletion in vascular smooth muscle and the resultant alterations in cellular energy state (e.g., AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK) on the contractile response to G protein-coupled receptor agonists (e.g., serotonin, 5-HT) has not yet been studied. In the present study, ex vivo exposure of endothelium-denuded human saphenous vein rings to hypoxic and glucose-deprived conditions during KCl-induced contractions for 30 min resulted in a marked depletion of endogenous glycogen by ∼80% (from ∼1.78 μmol/g under normoxia to ∼0.36 μmol/g under hypoxia). Importantly, glycogen-depleted HSV rings, which were maintained under hypoxia/reoxygenation and glucose-deprived conditions, exhibited significant increases in basal AMPK phosphorylation (∼6-fold ↑) and 5-HT-induced AMPK phosphorylation (∼19-fold ↑) with an accompanying suppression of 5-HT-induced maximal contractile response (∼68% ↓), compared with respective controls. Exposure of glycogen-depleted HSV rings to exogenous D-glucose, but not the inactive glucose analogs, prevented the exaggerated increase in 5-HT-induced AMPK phosphorylation and restored 5-HT-induced maximal contractile response. In addition, the ability of exogenous D-glucose to rescue cellular stress and impaired contractile function occurred through GLUT1-mediated but insulin/GLUT4-independent mechanisms. Together, the present findings from clinically-relevant human saphenous vein suggest that the loss of endogenous glycogen in vascular smooth muscle and the resultant accentuation of AMPK phosphorylation by GPCR agonists may constitute a yet another mechanism of metabolic vasodilation of coronary vessels in ischemic heart disease. PMID:26212549

  7. Contractile network models for adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Guthardt Torres, P; Bischofs, I B; Schwarz, U S

    2012-01-01

    Cells sense the geometry and stiffness of their adhesive environment by active contractility. For strong adhesion to flat substrates, two-dimensional contractile network models can be used to understand how force is distributed throughout the cell. Here we compare the shape and force distribution for different variants of such network models. In contrast to Hookean networks, cable networks reflect the asymmetric response of biopolymers to tension versus compression. For passive networks, contractility is modeled by a reduced resting length of the mechanical links. In actively contracting networks, a constant force couple is introduced into each link in order to model contraction by molecular motors. If combined with fixed adhesion sites, all network models lead to invaginated cell shapes, but only actively contracting cable networks lead to the circular arc morphology typical for strongly adhering cells. In this case, shape and force distribution are determined by local rather than global determinants and thus are suited to endow the cell with a robust sense of its environment. We also discuss nonlinear and adaptive linker mechanics as well as the relation to tissue shape. PMID:22400597

  8. Contractile network models for adherent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthardt Torres, P.; Bischofs, I. B.; Schwarz, U. S.

    2012-01-01

    Cells sense the geometry and stiffness of their adhesive environment by active contractility. For strong adhesion to flat substrates, two-dimensional contractile network models can be used to understand how force is distributed throughout the cell. Here we compare the shape and force distribution for different variants of such network models. In contrast to Hookean networks, cable networks reflect the asymmetric response of biopolymers to tension versus compression. For passive networks, contractility is modeled by a reduced resting length of the mechanical links. In actively contracting networks, a constant force couple is introduced into each link in order to model contraction by molecular motors. If combined with fixed adhesion sites, all network models lead to invaginated cell shapes, but only actively contracting cable networks lead to the circular arc morphology typical for strongly adhering cells. In this case, shape and force distribution are determined by local rather than global determinants and thus are suited to endow the cell with a robust sense of its environment. We also discuss nonlinear and adaptive linker mechanics as well as the relation to tissue shape.

  9. Elastomeric contractile actuators for hand rehabilitation splints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Mannini, Andrea; De Rossi, Danilo

    2008-03-01

    The significant electromechanical performances typically shown by dielectric elastomer actuators make this polymer technology particularly attractive for possible active orthoses for rehabilitation. Folded contractile actuators made of dielectric elastomers were recently described as a simple configuration, suitable to easily implement linear contractile devices. This paper describes an application of folded actuators for so-called hand splints: they consist of orthotic systems for hand rehabilitation. The dynamic versions of the state-of-the-art splints typically include elastic bands, which exert a passive elastic resistance to voluntary elongations of one or more fingers. In order to provide such splints with the possibility of electrically modulating the compliance of the resistive elements, the substitution of the passive elastic bands with the contractile actuators is here described. The electrical activation of the actuators is used to vary the compliance of the system; this enables modulations of the force that acts as an antagonist to voluntary finger movements, according to programmable rehabilitation exercises. The paper reports results obtained from the first prototype implementations of such a type of system.

  10. Muscarinic Receptor Activation Affects Pulmonary Artery Contractility in Sheep: The Impact of Maturation and Chronic Hypoxia on Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Function.

    PubMed

    Giang, Michael; Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G; Nguyen, Dan; Paez, Ricardo; Blum Johnston, Carla; Kim, Joon; Brunnell, Alexander; Blood, Quintin; Goyal, Ravi; Longo, Lawrence D; Wilson, Sean M

    2016-06-01

    Giang, Michael, Demosthenes G. Papamatheakis, Dan Nguyen, Ricardo Paez, Carla Blum Johnston, Joon Kim, Alexander Brunnell, Quintin Blood, Ravi Goyal, Lawrence D. Longo, and Sean M. Wilson. Muscarinic receptor activation affects pulmonary artery contractility in sheep: the impact of maturation and chronic hypoxia on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function. High Alt Med Biol. 17:122-132, 2015.-Muscarinic receptor activation in the pulmonary vasculature can cause endothelium-dependent vasodilation and smooth muscle-dependent vasoconstriction. Chronic hypoxia (CH) can modify both of these responses. This study aimed to assess the combined influence of CH and maturation on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent muscarinic-induced vasoreactivity. This was accomplished by performing wire myography on endothelium-intact or endothelium-disrupted pulmonary arterial rings isolated from normoxic or CH fetal and adult sheep. In endothelium-intact arteries, vasodilation was evaluated using cumulative bradykinin doses in phenylephrine and carbachol precontracted pulmonary arterial segments; and vasoconstriction was examined using cumulative doses of carbachol following bradykinin predilation. Effects of nonselective (atropine) and selective M1 (pirenzepine), M2 (AFDX116), and M3 (4-DAMP and Dau5884) muscarinic receptor antagonists were assessed in disrupted arteries. In normoxic arteries, bradykinin relaxation was twofold greater in the adult compared to fetus, while carbachol contraction was fourfold greater. In adult arteries, CH increased bradykinin relaxation and carbachol contraction. In vessels with intact endothelium, maturation and CH augmented maximal response and efficacy for carbachol constriction and bradykinin relaxation. Approximately 50%-80% of adult normoxic and CH endothelium-disrupted arteries contracted to acetylcholine, while ∼50% of fetal normoxic and ∼10% of CH arteries responded. Atropine reduced carbachol

  11. Maternal Age and Contractility of Human Myometrium in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crankshaw, Denis J; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Crosby, David A; Morrison, John J

    2015-10-01

    There is controversy as to whether maternal age exerts an influence on the contractility of human myometrium in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine a series of functional contractile parameters of human myometrium in vitro, over a broad range of maternal ages. Myometrial tissue specimens were obtained at cesarean delivery from 32 women with maternal ages ranging from 28 to 52 years. Using in vitro recordings, a number of contractile parameters including maximal amplitude, mean contractile force, time to maximal amplitude, maximum rate of rise, and occurrence of simple and complex (biphasic and multiphasic) contractions were examined for spontaneous and induced contractile activity. The relationship between maternal age and individual parameters was evaluated using linear regression analysis. For all contractile parameters examined, for both spontaneous and induced contractions, no significant correlation was observed with maternal age between 28 and 52 years. The mean maximum amplitude values for spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions were 23 ± 3 and 43 ± 5 mN, respectively. The mean contractile forces for spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions were 1.5 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.9 mN, respectively. There was no variation in the proportion of biphasic or multiphasic contractions with maternal age. These results indicate there is no significant functional impairment of uterine contractility and no lack in responsiveness of myometrium in vitro, in the older mother. These findings do not support the concept that there may be a biological basis for dysfunctional labor or increased cesarean delivery rates in older parturients. PMID:25759369

  12. Effect of exercise training and myocardial infarction on force development and contractile kinetics in isolated canine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Canan, Benjamin D; Haizlip, Kaylan M; Xu, Ying; Monasky, Michelle M; Hiranandani, Nitisha; Milani-Nejad, Nima; Varian, Kenneth D; Slabaugh, Jessica L; Schultz, Eric J; Fedorov, Vadim V; Billman, George E; Janssen, Paul M L

    2016-04-15

    It is well known that moderate exercise training elicits a small increase in ventricular mass (i.e., a physiological hypertrophy) that has many beneficial effects on overall cardiac health. It is also well known that, when a myocardial infarction damages part of the heart, the remaining myocardium remodels to compensate for the loss of viable functioning myocardium. The effects of exercise training, myocardial infarction (MI), and their interaction on the contractile performance of the myocardium itself remain largely to be determined. The present study investigated the contractile properties and kinetics of right ventricular myocardium isolated from sedentary and exercise trained (10-12 wk progressively increasing treadmill running, begun 4 wk after MI induction) dogs with and without a left ventricular myocardial infarction. Exercise training increased force development, whereas MI decreased force development that was not improved by exercise training. Contractile kinetics were significantly slower in the trained dogs, whereas this impact of training was less or no longer present after MI. Length-dependent activation, both evaluated on contractile force and kinetics, was similar in all four groups. The control exercise-trained group exhibited a more positive force-frequency relationship compared with the sedentary control group while both sedentary and trained post-MI dogs had a more negative relationship. Last, the impact of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol resulted in a similar increase in force and acceleration of contractile kinetics in all groups. Thus, exercise training increased developed force but slowed contractile kinetics in control (noninfarcted animals), actions that were attenuated or completely absent in post-MI dogs. PMID:26823341

  13. Acute pergolide exposure stiffens engineered valve interstitial cell tissues and reduces contractility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Capulli, Andrew K; MacQueen, Luke A; O'Connor, Blakely B; Dauth, Stephanie; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    Medications based on ergoline-derived dopamine and serotonin agonists are associated with off-target toxicities that include valvular heart disease (VHD). Reports of drug-induced VHD resulted in the withdrawal of appetite suppressants containing fenfluramine and phentermine from the US market in 1997 and pergolide, a Parkinson's disease medication, in 2007. Recent evidence suggests that serotonin receptor activity affected by these medications modulates cardiac valve interstitial cell activation and subsequent valvular remodeling, which can lead to cardiac valve fibrosis and dysfunction similar to that seen in carcinoid heart disease. Failure to identify these risks prior to market and continued use of similar drugs reaffirm the need to improve preclinical evaluation of drug-induced VHD. Here, we present two complimentary assays to measure stiffness and contractile stresses generated by engineered valvular tissues in vitro. As a case study, we measured the effects of acute (24 h) pergolide exposure to engineered porcine aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) tissues. Pergolide exposure led to increased tissue stiffness, but it decreased both basal and active contractile tone stresses generated by AVIC tissues. Pergolide exposure also disrupted AVIC tissue organization (i.e., tissue anisotropy), suggesting that the mechanical properties and contractile functionality of these tissues are governed by their ability to maintain their structure. We expect further use of these assays to identify off-target drug effects that alter the phenotypic balance of AVICs, disrupt their ability to maintain mechanical homeostasis, and lead to VHD. PMID:27174867

  14. Effects of traumatic brain injury on intestinal contractility

    PubMed Central

    OLSEN, A. B.; HETZ, R. A.; XUE, H.; AROOM, K. R.; BHATTARAI, D.; JOHNSON, E.; BEDI, S.; COX, C. S.; URAY, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer from gastrointestinal dysfunction including intolerance to enteral feedings. However, it is unclear how TBI affects small intestinal contractile activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if TBI affects intestinal smooth muscle function. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury (TBI). Sham animals underwent a similar surgery but no injury (SHAM). Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after TBI and intestinal smooth muscle tissue was collected for measurement of contractile activity and transit, NF-kB activity, and cytokine levels. Brains were collected after sacrifice to determine volume loss due to injury. Key Results Contractile activity decreased significantly in ileum, but not jejunum, in the TBI group 7 days after injury compared with SHAM. Brain volume loss increased significantly 7 days after injury compared with 3 days and correlated significantly with the contractile activity 1 day after injury. In the intestinal smooth muscle, NF-kB activity increased significantly in the TBI group 3 and 7 days after injury vs SHAM. Wet to dry weight ratio, indicating edema, also increased significantly in the TBI group. Interleukin- 1α, -1β, and -17 increased significantly in the TBI group compared with SHAM. Conclusions & Inferences Traumatic brain injury causes a delayed but significant decrease in intestinal contractile activity in the ileum leading to delayed transit. The decreased intestinal contractile activity is attributed to secondary inflammatory injury as evidenced by increased NF-kB activity, increased edema, and increased inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal smooth muscle. PMID:23551971

  15. Histochemical localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and its influence on contractile activity in the non-pregnant and pregnant human cervix.

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B; Dahlström, A

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied by immunofluorescence in cervical tissue of non-pregnant and pregnant women. VIP was localized in connection with blood vessels as well as among collagen fibres and smooth muscle cells. No difference was observed between non-pregnant and term pregnant women. The effect of VIP on cervical contractility was tested on isolated strips by superfusion in a tissue chamber. VIP inhibited contractions at 10(-8)-10(-6) M concentration, strips from term pregnant women responding more frequently at the lower concentration. It is suggested that VIP-containing neurons of the human cervix remain intact throughout pregnancy until term. PMID:2571549

  16. Human cerebrovascular contractile receptors are upregulated via a B-Raf/MEK/ERK-sensitive signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cerebral ischemia results in a rapid increase in contractile cerebrovascular receptors, such as the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 1B (5-HT1B), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1), and endothelin type B (ETB) receptors, in the vessel walls within the ischemic region, which further impairs local blood flow and aggravates tissue damage. This receptor upregulation occurs via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We therefore hypothesized an important role for B-Raf, the first signaling molecule in the pathway. To test our hypothesis, human cerebral arteries were incubated at 37°C for 48 h in the absence or presence of a B-Raf inhibitor: SB-386023 or SB-590885. Contractile properties were evaluated in a myograph and protein expression of the individual receptors and activated phosphorylated B-Raf (p-B-Raf) was evaluated immunohistochemically. Results 5-HT1B, AT1, and ETB receptor-mediated contractions were significantly reduced by application of SB-590885, and to a smaller extent by SB-386023. A marked reduction in AT1 receptor immunoreactivity was observed after treatment with SB-590885. Treatment with SB-590885 and SB-386023 diminished the culture-induced increase of p-B-Raf immunoreactivity. Conclusions B-Raf signaling has a key function in the altered expression of vascular contractile receptors observed after organ culture. Therefore, specific targeting of B-Raf might be a novel approach to reduce tissue damage after cerebral ischemia by preventing the previously observed upregulation of contractile receptors in smooth muscle cells. PMID:21223556

  17. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andrew D; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801

  18. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801

  19. Changes of contractile responses due to simulated weightlessness in rat soleus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhammari, A.; Noireaud, J.; Léoty, C.

    1994-08-01

    Some contractile and electrophysiological properties of muscle fibers isolated from the slow-twitch soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats were compared with those measured in SOL muscles from suspended rats. In suspendede SOL (21 days of tail-suspension) membrane potential (Em), intracellular sodium activity (aiNa) and the slope of the relationship between Em and log [K]o were typical of fast-twitch muscles. The relation between the maximal amplitude of K-contractures vs Em was steeper for control SOL than for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. After suspension, in SOL muscles the contractile threshold and the inactivation curves for K-contractures were shifted to more positive Em. Repriming of K-contractures was unaffected by suspencion. The exposure of isolated fibers to perchlorate (ClO4-)-containing (6-40 mM) solutions resulted ina similar concentration-dependent shift to more negative Em of activation curves for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. On exposure to a Na-free TEA solution, SOL from control and suspended rats, in contrast to EDL muscles, generated slow contractile responses. Suspended SOL showed a reduced sensitivity to the contracture-producing effect of caffeine compared to control muscles. These results suggested that the modification observed due to suspension could be encounted by changes in the characteristics of muscle fibers from slow to fast-twitch type.

  20. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.

  1. THE CONTRACTILE PROCESS IN THE CILIATE, STENTOR COERULEUS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, B.; Pitelka, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The structural basis for the function of microtubules and filaments in cell body contractility in the ciliate Stentor coeruleus was investigated. Cells in the extended state were obtained for ultrastructural analysis by treatment before fixation with a solution containing 10 mM EGTA, 50–80 mM Tris, 3 mM MgSO4, 7.5 mM NH4Cl, 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.1). The response of Stentor to changes in the divalent cation concentrations in this solution suggests that Ca+2 and Mg+2 are physiologically important in the regulation of ciliate contractility. The generation of motive force for changes in cell length in Stentor resides in two distinct longitudinal cortical fiber systems, the km fibers and myonemes. Cyclic changes in cell length are associated with (a) the relative sliding of parallel, overlapping microtubule ribbons in the km fibers, and (b) a distinct alteration in the structure of the contractile filaments constituting the myonemes. The microtubule and filament systems are distinguished functionally as antagonistic contractile elements. The development of motive force for cell extension is accomplished by active microtubule-to-microtubule sliding generated by specific intertubule bridges. Evidence is presented which suggests that active shortening of contractile filaments, reflected in a reversible structural transformation of dense 4-nm filaments to tubular 10–12-nm filaments, provides the basis for rapid cell contraction. PMID:4633444

  2. Proteome dynamics during contractile and metabolic differentiation of bovine foetal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chaze, T; Meunier, B; Chambon, C; Jurie, C; Picard, B

    2009-07-01

    Contractile and metabolic properties of bovine muscles play an important role in meat sensorial quality, particularly tenderness. Earlier studies based on Myosin heavy chain isoforms analyses and measurements of glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities have demonstrated that the third trimester of foetal life in bovine is characterized by contractile and metabolic differentiation. In order to complete this data and to obtain a precise view of this phase and its regulation, we performed a proteomic analysis of Semitendinosus muscle from Charolais foetuses analysed at three stages of the third trimester of gestation (180, 210 and 260 days). The results complete the knowledge of important changes in the profiles of proteins from metabolic and contractile pathways. They provide new insights about proteins such as Aldehyde dehydrogenase family, Enolase, Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, Troponin T or Myosin light chains isoforms. These data have agronomical applications not only for the management of beef sensorial quality but also in medical context, as bovine myogenesis appears very similar to human one. PMID:22444818

  3. Deletion of the UT receptor gene results in the selective loss of urotensin-II contractile activity in aortae isolated from UT receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Behm, David J; Harrison, Stephen M; Ao, Zhaohui; Maniscalco, Kristeen; Pickering, Susan J; Grau, Evelyn V; Woods, Tina N; Coatney, Robert W; Doe, Christopher P A; Willette, Robert N; Johns, Douglas G; Douglas, Stephen A

    2003-05-01

    1 Urotensin-II (U-II) is among the most potent mammalian vasoconstrictors identified and may play a role in the aetiology of essential hypertension. Currently, only one mouse U-II receptor (UT) gene has been cloned. It is postulated that this protein is solely responsible for mediating U-II-induced vasoconstriction. 2 This hypothesis has been investigated in the present study, which assessed basal haemodynamics and vascular reactivity to hU-II in wild-type (UT((+/+))) and UT receptor knockout (UT((-/-))) mice. 3 Basal left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes/pressures, stroke volumes, mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, cardiac outputs and ejection fractions in UT((+/+)) mice and in UT((-/-)) mice were similar. 4 Relative to UT((+/+)) mouse isolated thoracic aorta, where hU-II was a potent spasmogen (pEC(50)=8.26+/-0.08) that evoked relatively little vasoconstriction (17+/-2% 60 mM KCl), vessels isolated from UT((-/-)) mice did not respond to hU-II. However, in contrast, the superior mesenteric artery isolated from both the genotypes did not contract in the presence of hU-II. Reactivity to unrelated vasoconstrictors (phenylephrine, endothelin-1, KCl) and endothelium-dependent/independent vasodilator agents (carbachol, sodium nitroprusside) was similar in the aorta and superior mesenteric arteries isolated from both the genotypes. 5 The present study is the first to directly link hU-II-induced vasoconstriction with the UT receptor. Deletion of the UT receptor gene results in loss of hU-II contractile action with no 'nonspecific' alterations in vascular reactivity. However, as might be predicted based on the limited contractile efficacy recorded in vitro, the contribution that hU-II and its receptor make to basal systemic haemodynamics appears to be negligible in this species. PMID:12770952

  4. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  5. Dietary Nitrate and Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Andrew R; Peterson, Linda R

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients suffer from exercise intolerance that diminishes their ability to perform normal activities of daily living and hence compromises their quality of life. This is due largely to detrimental changes in skeletal muscle mass, structure, metabolism, and function. This includes an impairment of muscle contractile performance, i.e., a decline in the maximal force, speed, and power of muscle shortening. Although numerous mechanisms underlie this reduction in contractility, one contributing factor may be a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Consistent with this, recent data demonstrate that acute ingestion of NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice, a source of NO via the NO synthase-independent enterosalivary pathway, markedly increases maximal muscle speed and power in HF patients. This review discusses the role of muscle contractile dysfunction in the exercise intolerance characteristic of HF, and the evidence that dietary NO3 (-) supplementation may represent a novel and simple therapy for this currently underappreciated problem. PMID:27271563

  6. Ex Vivo Assessment of Contractility, Fatigability and Alternans in Isolated Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Ho; Brotto, Leticia; Lehoang, Oanh; Brotto, Marco; Ma, Jianjie; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Described here is a method to measure contractility of isolated skeletal muscles. Parameters such as muscle force, muscle power, contractile kinetics, fatigability, and recovery after fatigue can be obtained to assess specific aspects of the excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) process such as excitability, contractile machinery and Ca2+ handling ability. This method removes the nerve and blood supply and focuses on the isolated skeletal muscle itself. We routinely use this method to identify genetic components that alter the contractile property of skeletal muscle though modulating Ca2+ signaling pathways. Here, we describe a newly identified skeletal muscle phenotype, i.e., mechanic alternans, as an example of the various and rich information that can be obtained using the in vitro muscle contractility assay. Combination of this assay with single cell assays, genetic approaches and biochemistry assays can provide important insights into the mechanisms of ECC in skeletal muscle. PMID:23149471

  7. Spiral waves on a contractile tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesin, L.; Ambrosi, D.

    2011-02-01

    In a healthy cardiac tissue, electric waves propagate in the form of a travelling pulse, from the apex to the base, and activate the contraction of the heart. Defects in the propagation can destabilize travelling fronts and originate possible new periodic solutions, as spiral waves. Spiral waves are quite stable, but the interplay between currents and strain can distort the periodic pattern, provided the coupling is strong enough. In this paper we investigate the stability of spiral waves on a contractile medium in a non-standard framework, in which the electrical potential dictates the active strain (not stress) of the muscle. The role of conducting and contracting fibers is included in the model and periodic boundary conditions are adopted. A correlation analysis allows to evaluate numerically the range of stability of the parameters for the spiral waves, depending on the strain of the contracted fibers and on the magnitude of the stretch activated current.

  8. Properties of stellar activity cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    The current photometric datasets, that span decades, allow for studying long-term magentic cycles on active stars. Complementary Ca H&K observations give information also on the cycles of normal solar-like stars, which have significantly smaller, and less easily detectable, spots. In recent years, high precision space-based observations, for example from the Kepler satellite, have allowed also to study the sunspot-like spot sizes in other stars. In this talk I will review what is known about the properties of the cyclic stellar activity in other stars than our Sun, and also discuss the future prospects in this field.

  9. Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, F. Aura; Daugherty, Stephanie L.; de Groat, William C.; Birder, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to

  10. Amplification of AngII-dependent cell contraction by glyoxal: implication of cell mechanical properties and actomyosin activity.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Julie; Simard, Elie; Froehlich, Ulrike; Grandbois, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Glyoxal (GO), a highly reactive metabolite of glucose, is associated with diabetic vascular complications via the formation of advanced glycation end-products. Considering its ability to react with proteins' amino acids and its crosslinking potential, we suggest that GO affects cellular mechanical functions such as contractility. Therefore, we tested the effects of GO on cellular contractile response following AngII stimulation of human embryonic kidney cells over-expressing the AT1 receptor (HEK 293 AT1aR). Prior to cell stimulation with AngII, cells exposed to GO exhibited carboxymethyllysine-adduct formation and an increase in cellular stiffness, which could be prevented by pre-treatment with aminoguanidine. The time-dependent cellular contractile response to AngII was measured by monitoring cell membrane displacement by atomic force atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by quantifying myosin light chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) via immunoblotting. Interestingly, short-term GO exposure increased by 2.6 times the amplitude of cell contraction induced by AngII and this was also associated with a sustained rise in p-MLC. This increased response to AngII induced by GO appears to be linked to its glycation potential, as aminoguanidine pre-treatment prevented this increased cellular mechanical response. Our results also suggest that GO could have an impact on ROCK activity, as ROCK inhibition with Y-27632 blocked the enhanced contractile response (p = 0.011) measured under GO conditions. Together, these results indicate that GO enhances the cellular response to AngII and modifies cellular mechanical properties via a mechanism that relies on its glycation potential and on the activation of the ROCK-dependent pathway. PMID:24503653

  11. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products Signaling Interferes with the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Contractile Phenotype and Function.

    PubMed

    Simard, Elie; Söllradl, Thomas; Maltais, Jean-Sébastien; Boucher, Julie; D'Orléans-Juste, Pédro; Grandbois, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood glucose concentrations promote reactions between glucose and proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGE). Circulating AGE in the blood plasma can activate the receptor for advanced end-products (RAGE), which is present on both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). RAGE exhibits a complex signaling that involves small G-proteins and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), which lead to increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. While RAGE signaling has been previously addressed in endothelial cells, little is known regarding its impact on the function of VSMC. Therefore, we hypothesized that RAGE signaling leads to alterations in the mechanical and functional properties of VSMC, which could contribute to complications associated with diabetes. We demonstrated that RAGE is expressed and functional in the A7r5 VSMC model, and its activation by AGE significantly increased NF-κB activity, which is known to interfere with the contractile phenotype of VSMC. The protein levels of the contraction-related transcription factor myocardin were also decreased by RAGE activation with a concomitant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of transgelin (SM-22α), a regulator of VSMC contraction. Interestingly, we demonstrated that RAGE activation increased the overall cell rigidity, an effect that can be related to an increase in myosin activity. Finally, although RAGE stimulation amplified calcium signaling and slightly myosin activity in VSMC challenged with vasopressin, their contractile capacity was negatively affected. Overall, RAGE activation in VSMC could represent a keystone in the development of vascular diseases associated with diabetes by interfering with the contractile phenotype of VSMC through the modification of their mechanical and functional properties. PMID:26248341

  12. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products Signaling Interferes with the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Contractile Phenotype and Function

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Elie; Söllradl, Thomas; Maltais, Jean-Sébastien; Boucher, Julie; D’Orléans-Juste, Pédro; Grandbois, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood glucose concentrations promote reactions between glucose and proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGE). Circulating AGE in the blood plasma can activate the receptor for advanced end-products (RAGE), which is present on both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). RAGE exhibits a complex signaling that involves small G-proteins and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), which lead to increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. While RAGE signaling has been previously addressed in endothelial cells, little is known regarding its impact on the function of VSMC. Therefore, we hypothesized that RAGE signaling leads to alterations in the mechanical and functional properties of VSMC, which could contribute to complications associated with diabetes. We demonstrated that RAGE is expressed and functional in the A7r5 VSMC model, and its activation by AGE significantly increased NF-κB activity, which is known to interfere with the contractile phenotype of VSMC. The protein levels of the contraction-related transcription factor myocardin were also decreased by RAGE activation with a concomitant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of transgelin (SM-22α), a regulator of VSMC contraction. Interestingly, we demonstrated that RAGE activation increased the overall cell rigidity, an effect that can be related to an increase in myosin activity. Finally, although RAGE stimulation amplified calcium signaling and slightly myosin activity in VSMC challenged with vasopressin, their contractile capacity was negatively affected. Overall, RAGE activation in VSMC could represent a keystone in the development of vascular diseases associated with diabetes by interfering with the contractile phenotype of VSMC through the modification of their mechanical and functional properties. PMID:26248341

  13. The effects of space flight on the contractile apparatus of antigravity muscles: implications for aging and deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, K M; Caiozzo, V J; Haddad, F; Baker, M J; Herrick, R E

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the unloading of skeletal muscle, as occurring during exposure to space flight, exerts a profound effect on both the mass (cross sectional area) of skeletal muscle fibers and the relative expression of protein isoforms comprising the contractile system. Available information suggests that slow (type I) fibers, comprising chiefly the antigravity muscles of experimental animals, in addition to atrophying, undergo alterations in the type of myosin heavy chain (MHC) expressed such that faster isoforms become concomitantly expressed in a sub-population of slow fibers when insufficient force-bearing activity is maintained on the muscle. Consequently, these transformations in both mass and myosin heavy chain phenotype could exert a significant impact on the functional properties of skeletal muscle as manifest in the strength, contractile speed, and endurance scope of the muscle. To further explore these issues, a study was performed in which young adult male rats were exposed to zero gravity for six days, following which, the antigravity soleus muscle was examined for a) contractile properties, determined in situ and b) isomyosin expression, as studied using biochemical, molecular biology, and histochemical/immunohistochemical techniques. PMID:11538774

  14. The effects of space flight on the contractile apparatus of antigravity muscles: implications for aging and deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Baker, M. J.; Herrick, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the unloading of skeletal muscle, as occurring during exposure to space flight, exerts a profound effect on both the mass (cross sectional area) of skeletal muscle fibers and the relative expression of protein isoforms comprising the contractile system. Available information suggests that slow (type I) fibers, comprising chiefly the antigravity muscles of experimental animals, in addition to atrophying, undergo alterations in the type of myosin heavy chain (MHC) expressed such that faster isoforms become concomitantly expressed in a sub-population of slow fibers when insufficient force-bearing activity is maintained on the muscle. Consequently, these transformations in both mass and myosin heavy chain phenotype could exert a significant impact on the functional properties of skeletal muscle as manifest in the strength, contractile speed, and endurance scope of the muscle. To further explore these issues, a study was performed in which young adult male rats were exposed to zero gravity for six days, following which, the antigravity soleus muscle was examined for a) contractile properties, determined in situ and b) isomyosin expression, as studied using biochemical, molecular biology, and histochemical/immunohistochemical techniques.

  15. Cortical actin regulation modulates vascular contractility and compliance in veins

    PubMed Central

    Saphirstein, Robert J; Gao, Yuan Z; Lin, Qian Qian; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The literature on arterial mechanics is extensive, but far less is known about mechanisms controlling mechanical properties of veins. We use here a multi-scale approach to identify subcellular sources of venous stiffness. Portal vein tissue displays a severalfold decrease in passive stiffness compared to aortic tissues. The α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) increased tissue stress and stiffness, both attenuated by cytochalasin D (CytoD) and PP2, inhibitors of actin polymerization and Src activity, respectively. We quantify, for the first time, cortical cellular stiffness in freshly isolated contractile vascular smooth muscle cells using magnetic microneedle technology. Cortical stiffness is significantly increased by PE and CytoD inhibits this increase but, surprisingly, PP2 does not. No detectable change in focal adhesion size, measured by immunofluorescence of FAK and zyxin, accompanies the PE-induced changes in cortical stiffness. Probing with phospho-specific antibodies confirmed activation of FAK/Src and ERK pathways and caldesmon phosphorylation. Thus, venous tissue stiffness is regulated both at the level of the smooth muscle cell cortex, via cortical actin polymerization, and by downstream smooth muscle effectors of Src/ERK signalling pathways. These findings identify novel potential molecular targets for the modulation of venous capacitance and venous return in health and disease. Key points Most cardiovascular research focuses on arterial mechanisms of disease, largely ignoring venous mechanisms. Here we examine ex vivo venous stiffness, spanning tissue to molecular levels, using biomechanics and magnetic microneedle technology, and show for the first time that venous stiffness is regulated by a molecular actin switch within the vascular smooth muscle cell in the wall of the vein. This switch connects the contractile apparatus within the cell to adhesion structures and facilitates stiffening of the vessel wall, regulating blood flow return

  16. Cellular membranes that undergo cyclic changes in tension: Direct measurement of force generation by an in vitro contractile vacuole of Paramecium multimicronucleatum.

    PubMed

    Tani, T; Allen, R D; Naitoh, Y

    2001-02-01

    The contractile vacuole of the fresh water protozoan Paramecium is a membrane-bound vesicle that expels excess cytosolic water, acquired osmotically, through its periodic exocytotic activity. The in vitro contractile vacuole, isolated in a small amount of cytosol from the Paramecium cell and confined under mineral oil, showed periodic rounding and slackening at regular intervals for an extended time. The contractile vacuole rounded against the cytosol-mineral oil boundary tension. The tension at the surface of the contractile vacuole is, therefore, assumed to increase during the rounding phase. We first estimated the tension relative to the boundary tension from the degree of compression of the contractile vacuole by the boundary. We then determined the absolute value for the tension at the surface of the contractile vacuole from the degree of bending of an elastic carbon fiber microcantilever (8 microm thick; 2 mm long), whose free end was placed at the surface of an in vitro contractile vacuole. The tension was found to increase to its maximum value of approximately 5 mN m(-)(1) when the contractile vacuole rounded. This value was more than 35 times higher than that for the slackened contractile vacuole. Electron micrographs of conventional thin sections of chemically fixed in vitro contractile vacuoles as well as those of in vivo contractile vacuoles obtained from rapid frozen and cryosubstituted cells revealed the lack of any ultrastructural evidence for the presence of a fibrous network system surrounding the contractile vacuole. Thus we conclude that the mechanism(s) by which tension is developed at the surface of the contractile vacuole membrane resides in the contractile vacuole membrane itself. We propose a hypothesis that periodic changes in the spontaneous curvature of the contractile vacuole's lipid bilayer membrane is involved in the periodic development of higher contractile vacuole membrane tension. The isolated CV promises to be an excellent model

  17. The novel β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron reduces carbachol-induced contractile activity in detrusor tissue from patients with bladder outflow obstruction with or without detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Svalø, Julie; Nordling, Jørgen; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Korstanje, Cees; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2013-01-15

    β(3)-Adrenoceptors are major players in detrusor relaxation and have been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. We determined the effects of mirabegron (YM178), a novel β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, on carbachol-induced tone in isolated human detrusor preparations from patients with bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) with and without detrusor overactivity (DO), and from patients with normal bladder function. We compared the effects to those of isoprenaline, a non-selective β-adrenoceptor agonist. Detrusor specimens were obtained from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing cystoscopy and from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy/cystectomy (in total 33 donors). Detrusor contractility was evaluated by organ bath studies and strips were incubated with carbachol (1μM) to induce and enhance tension. Both mirabegron and isoprenaline reduced carbachol-induced tone in tissues from all groups. Isoprenaline decreased tension with higher potency than mirabegron in normal, BOO and BOO+DO detrusor strips with pIC(50) values of 7.49 ± 0.16 vs. 6.23 ± 0.26 (P=0.0002), 6.89 ± 0.34 vs. 6.04 ± 0.31 (P=0.01), and 6.57 ± 0.20 vs. 5.41 ± 0.08 (P<0.0001, n=4), respectively. The maximal relaxant effect of isoprenaline and mirabegron in the normal, BOO and BOO+DO detrusor was 37.7 ± 14.4% and 36.1 ± 23.3%, 14.4 ± 12.2% vs. 33.4 ± 21.0% and 18.3 ± 10.0% vs. 28.3 ± 12.2% (n=4, P>0.05), respectively. Mirabegron and isoprenaline reduced carbachol-induced tone in both normal bladders and obstructed bladder with and without DO. Isoprenaline had higher potency than mirabegron, but the efficacy of mirabegron effect was the same as that of isoprenaline. PMID:23246623

  18. Three-dimensional mapping of mechanical activation patterns, contractile dyssynchrony and dyscoordination by two-dimensional strain echocardiography: Rationale and design of a novel software toolbox

    PubMed Central

    De Boeck, Bart WL; Kirn, Borut; Teske, Arco J; Hummeling, Ralph W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Cramer, Maarten J; Prinzen, Frits W

    2008-01-01

    echocardiographic deformation data into a 3-D model by dedicated software allows a comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal distribution patterns of myocardial dyssynchrony, of the global left ventricular deformation and of newer indices that may better reflect myocardial dyscoordination and/or impaired ventricular contractile efficiency. The potential value of such an analysis is highlighted in two dyssynchronous pathologies that impose particular challenges to deformation imaging. PMID:18513412

  19. Actomyosin contractility spatiotemporally regulates actin network dynamics in migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, Kennedy Omondi; Adachi, Taiji; Sunaga, Junko; Hojo, Masaki

    2009-11-13

    Coupling interactions among mechanical and biochemical factors are important for the realization of various cellular processes that determine cell migration. Although F-actin network dynamics has been the focus of many studies, it is not yet clear how mechanical forces generated by actomyosin contractility spatiotemporally regulate this fundamental aspect of cell migration. In this study, using a combination of fluorescent speckle microscopy and particle imaging velocimetry techniques, we perturbed the actomyosin system and examined quantitatively the consequence of actomyosin contractility on F-actin network flow and deformation in the lamellipodia of actively migrating fish keratocytes. F-actin flow fields were characterized by retrograde flow at the front and anterograde flow at the back of the lamellipodia, and the two flows merged to form a convergence zone of reduced flow intensity. Interestingly, activating or inhibiting actomyosin contractility altered network flow intensity and convergence, suggesting that network dynamics is directly regulated by actomyosin contractility. Moreover, quantitative analysis of F-actin network deformation revealed that the deformation was significantly negative and predominant in the direction of cell migration. Furthermore, perturbation experiments revealed that the deformation was a function of actomyosin contractility. Based on these results, we suggest that the actin cytoskeletal structure is a mechanically self-regulating system, and we propose an elaborate pathway for the spatiotemporal self-regulation of the actin cytoskeletal structure during cell migration. In the proposed pathway, mechanical forces generated by actomyosin interactions are considered central to the realization of the various mechanochemical processes that determine cell motility. PMID:19665125

  20. Cardiac-specific overexpression of metallothionein rescues nicotine-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Guo, Rui; Han, Xuefeng; Zhu, Baocheng; Ren, Jun

    2011-04-10

    Cigarette smoking is a devastating risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and nicotine is believed the main toxin component responsible for the toxic myocardial effects of smoking. Nonetheless, neither the precise mechanism of nicotine-induced cardiac dysfunction nor effective treatment is elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of heavy metal scavenger metallothionein on myocardial geometry and mechanical function following nicotine exposure. Adult male friend virus B (FVB) wild-type and metallothionein mice were injected with nicotine (2 mg/kg/d) intraperitoneally for 10 days. Mechanical and intracellular Ca²+ properties were examined. Myocardial histology (cross-sectional area and fibrosis) was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. Oxidative stress and apoptosis were measured by fluoroprobe 5-(6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H₂DCFDA) fluorescence and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Nicotine exposure failed to affect the protein abundance of metallothionein. Our data revealed reduced echocardiographic contractile capacity (fractional shortening), altered cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca²+ properties including depressed peak shortening amplitude, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, resting and electrically-stimulated rise in intracellular Ca²+, as well as prolonged duration of relengthening and intracellular Ca²+ clearance in hearts from nicotine-treated FVB mice, the effect of which was ameliorated by metallothionein. Biochemical and histological findings depicted overt accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis without any change in myocardial cross-sectional area following nicotine treatment, which was mitigated by metallothionein. Taken together, our findings suggest the antioxidant metallothionein may reconcile short-term nicotine exposure

  1. Chronic Contractile Dysfunction without Hypertrophy Does Not Provoke a Compensatory Transcriptional Response in Mouse Hearts.

    PubMed

    Matkovich, Scot J; Grubb, David R; McMullen, Julie R; Woodcock, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Diseased myocardium from humans and experimental animal models shows heightened expression and activity of a specific subtype of phospholipase C (PLC), the splice variant PLCβ1b. Previous studies from our group showed that increasing PLCβ1b expression in adult mouse hearts by viral transduction was sufficient to cause sustained contractile dysfunction of rapid onset, which was maintained indefinitely in the absence of other pathological changes in the myocardium. We hypothesized that impaired contractility alone would be sufficient to induce a compensatory transcriptional response. Unbiased, comprehensive mRNA-sequencing was performed on 6 biological replicates of rAAV6-treated blank, PLCβ1b and PLCβ1a (closely related but inactive splice variant) hearts 8 weeks after injection, when reduced contractility was manifest in PLCβ1b hearts without evidence of induced hypertrophy. Expression of PLCβ1b resulted in expression changes in only 9 genes at FDR<0.1 when compared with control and these genes appeared unrelated to contractility. Importantly, PLCβ1a caused similar mild expression changes to PLCβ1b, despite a complete lack of effect of this isoform on cardiac contractility. We conclude that contractile depression caused by PLCβ1b activation is largely independent of changes in the transcriptome, and thus that lowered contractility is not sufficient in itself to provoke measurable transcriptomic alterations. In addition, our data stress the importance of a stringent control group to filter out transcriptional changes unrelated to cardiac function. PMID:27359099

  2. Chronic Contractile Dysfunction without Hypertrophy Does Not Provoke a Compensatory Transcriptional Response in Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, David R.; McMullen, Julie R.; Woodcock, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Diseased myocardium from humans and experimental animal models shows heightened expression and activity of a specific subtype of phospholipase C (PLC), the splice variant PLCβ1b. Previous studies from our group showed that increasing PLCβ1b expression in adult mouse hearts by viral transduction was sufficient to cause sustained contractile dysfunction of rapid onset, which was maintained indefinitely in the absence of other pathological changes in the myocardium. We hypothesized that impaired contractility alone would be sufficient to induce a compensatory transcriptional response. Unbiased, comprehensive mRNA-sequencing was performed on 6 biological replicates of rAAV6-treated blank, PLCβ1b and PLCβ1a (closely related but inactive splice variant) hearts 8 weeks after injection, when reduced contractility was manifest in PLCβ1b hearts without evidence of induced hypertrophy. Expression of PLCβ1b resulted in expression changes in only 9 genes at FDR<0.1 when compared with control and these genes appeared unrelated to contractility. Importantly, PLCβ1a caused similar mild expression changes to PLCβ1b, despite a complete lack of effect of this isoform on cardiac contractility. We conclude that contractile depression caused by PLCβ1b activation is largely independent of changes in the transcriptome, and thus that lowered contractility is not sufficient in itself to provoke measurable transcriptomic alterations. In addition, our data stress the importance of a stringent control group to filter out transcriptional changes unrelated to cardiac function. PMID:27359099

  3. Role of L-type Ca(2+) channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum and Rho kinase in rat basilar artery contractile properties in a new model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco; Muñoz-Sánchez, María Ángeles; Vilches-Arenas, Angel; Porras-González, Cristina; Castellano, Antonio; Ureña, Juan; González-Montelongo, María del Carmen

    2015-09-01

    We have previously described that L-type Ca(2+) channels' (LTCCs) activation and metabotropic Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) regulate RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) activity and sustained arterial contraction. We have investigated whether this signaling pathway can be altered in a new experimental model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For this purpose, arterial reactivity was evaluated on days 1 to 5 after surgery. A significant increase of basal tone, measured 4 and 60min after normalization, was observed on day 5 after SAH and at 60min on days 2 and 3 after SAH. This phenomenon was suppressed with LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors. We have also studied arterial rings vasoreactivity in response to high K(+) solutions. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the phasic component of the high K(+)-induced contraction between sham and SAH groups, whereas a significant increase in the sustained contraction was observed on day 5 after SAH. This latter component was sensitive to fasudil, and selectively reduced by low nifedipine concentration, and phospholipase C and SR-ATPase inhibitors. Therefore, our data suggest that the metabotropic function of LTCCs is potentiated in SAH. Our results could provide a new strategy to optimize the pharmacological treatment of this pathological process. PMID:25937251

  4. Effect of 23-day muscle disuse on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ properties and contractility in human type I and type II skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Lamboley, C R; Wyckelsma, V L; Perry, B D; McKenna, M J; Lamb, G D

    2016-08-01

    Inactivity negatively impacts on skeletal muscle function mainly through muscle atrophy. However, recent evidence suggests that the quality of individual muscle fibers is also altered. This study examined the effects of 23 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content in individual skinned muscle fibers. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were taken from six young healthy adults prior to and following ULLS. After disuse, the endogenous SR Ca(2+) content was ∼8% lower in type I fibers and maximal SR Ca(2+) capacity was lower in both type I and type II fibers (-11 and -5%, respectively). The specific force, measured in single skinned fibers from three subjects, decreased significantly after ULLS in type II fibers (-23%) but not in type I fibers (-9%). Western blot analyses showed no significant change in the amounts of myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and MHC IIa following the disuse, whereas the amounts of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 1 (SERCA1) and calsequestrin increased by ∼120 and ∼20%, respectively, and the amount of troponin I decreased by ∼21%. These findings suggest that the decline in force and power occurring with muscle disuse is likely to be exacerbated in part by reductions in maximum specific force in type II fibers, and in the amount of releasable SR Ca(2+) in both fiber types, the latter not being attributable to a reduced calsequestrin level. Furthermore, the ∼3-wk disuse in human elicits change in SR properties, in particular a more than twofold upregulation in SERCA1 density, before any fiber-type shift. PMID:27365282

  5. Disordered actomyosin networks are sufficient to produce cooperative and telescopic contractility.

    PubMed

    Linsmeier, Ian; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Oakes, Patrick W; Jung, Wonyeong; Kim, Taeyoon; Murrell, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    While the molecular interactions between individual myosin motors and F-actin are well established, the relationship between F-actin organization and actomyosin forces remains poorly understood. Here we explore the accumulation of myosin-induced stresses within a two-dimensional biomimetic model of the disordered actomyosin cytoskeleton, where myosin activity is controlled spatiotemporally using light. By controlling the geometry and the duration of myosin activation, we show that contraction of disordered actin networks is highly cooperative, telescopic with the activation size, and capable of generating non-uniform patterns of mechanical stress. We quantitatively reproduce these collective biomimetic properties using an isotropic active gel model of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and explore the physical origins of telescopic contractility in disordered networks using agent-based simulations. PMID:27558758

  6. Disordered actomyosin networks are sufficient to produce cooperative and telescopic contractility

    PubMed Central

    Linsmeier, Ian; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Oakes, Patrick W.; Jung, Wonyeong; Kim, Taeyoon; Murrell, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    While the molecular interactions between individual myosin motors and F-actin are well established, the relationship between F-actin organization and actomyosin forces remains poorly understood. Here we explore the accumulation of myosin-induced stresses within a two-dimensional biomimetic model of the disordered actomyosin cytoskeleton, where myosin activity is controlled spatiotemporally using light. By controlling the geometry and the duration of myosin activation, we show that contraction of disordered actin networks is highly cooperative, telescopic with the activation size, and capable of generating non-uniform patterns of mechanical stress. We quantitatively reproduce these collective biomimetic properties using an isotropic active gel model of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and explore the physical origins of telescopic contractility in disordered networks using agent-based simulations. PMID:27558758

  7. Catecholamines and myocardial contractile function during hypodynamia and with an altered thyroid hormone balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruss, G. M.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Zhilinskaya, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content and myocardial contractile function during hypodynamia were studied in 109 white rats whose motor activity was severely restricted for up to 30 days. During the first five days myocardial catecholamine content, contractile function, and physical load tolerance decreased. Small doses of thyroidin counteracted this tendency. After 15 days, noradrenalin content and other indices approached normal levels and, after 30 days, were the same as control levels, although cardiac functional reserve was decreased. Thyroidin administration after 15 days had no noticeable effect. A detailed table shows changes in 17 indices of myocardial contractile function during hypodynamia.

  8. Junb regulates arterial contraction capacity, cellular contractility, and motility via its target Myl9 in mice.

    PubMed

    Licht, Alexander H; Nübel, Tobias; Feldner, Anja; Jurisch-Yaksi, Nathalie; Marcello, Marco; Demicheva, Elena; Hu, Jun-Hao; Hartenstein, Bettina; Augustin, Hellmut G; Hecker, Markus; Angel, Peter; Korff, Thomas; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina

    2010-07-01

    Cellular contractility and, thus, the ability to alter cell shape are prerequisites for a number of important biological processes such as cytokinesis, movement, differentiation, and substrate adherence. The contractile capacity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is pivotal for the regulation of vascular tone and thus blood pressure and flow. Here, we report that conditional ablation of the transcriptional regulator Junb results in impaired arterial contractility in vivo and in vitro. This was exemplified by resistance of Junb-deficient mice to DOCA-salt-induced volume-dependent hypertension as well as by a decreased contractile capacity of isolated arteries. Detailed analyses of Junb-deficient VSMCs, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and endothelial cells revealed a general failure in stress fiber formation and impaired cellular motility. Concomitantly, we identified myosin regulatory light chain 9 (Myl9), which is critically involved in actomyosin contractility and stress fiber assembly, as a Junb target. Consistent with these findings, reexpression of either Junb or Myl9 in Junb-deficient cells restored stress fiber formation, cellular motility, and contractile capacity. Our data establish a molecular link between the activator protein-1 transcription factor subunit Junb and actomyosin-based cellular motility as well as cellular and vascular contractility by governing Myl9 transcription. PMID:20551518

  9. Junb regulates arterial contraction capacity, cellular contractility, and motility via its target Myl9 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Alexander H.; Nübel, Tobias; Feldner, Anja; Jurisch-Yaksi, Nathalie; Marcello, Marco; Demicheva, Elena; Hu, Jun-Hao; Hartenstein, Bettina; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Hecker, Markus; Angel, Peter; Korff, Thomas; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Cellular contractility and, thus, the ability to alter cell shape are prerequisites for a number of important biological processes such as cytokinesis, movement, differentiation, and substrate adherence. The contractile capacity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is pivotal for the regulation of vascular tone and thus blood pressure and flow. Here, we report that conditional ablation of the transcriptional regulator Junb results in impaired arterial contractility in vivo and in vitro. This was exemplified by resistance of Junb-deficient mice to DOCA-salt–induced volume-dependent hypertension as well as by a decreased contractile capacity of isolated arteries. Detailed analyses of Junb-deficient VSMCs, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and endothelial cells revealed a general failure in stress fiber formation and impaired cellular motility. Concomitantly, we identified myosin regulatory light chain 9 (Myl9), which is critically involved in actomyosin contractility and stress fiber assembly, as a Junb target. Consistent with these findings, reexpression of either Junb or Myl9 in Junb-deficient cells restored stress fiber formation, cellular motility, and contractile capacity. Our data establish a molecular link between the activator protein–1 transcription factor subunit Junb and actomyosin-based cellular motility as well as cellular and vascular contractility by governing Myl9 transcription. PMID:20551518

  10. Contractility of single cardiomyocytes differentiated from pluripotent stem cells depends on physiological shape and substrate stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Alexandre J. S.; Ang, Yen-Sin; Fu, Ji-Dong; Rivas, Renee N.; Mohamed, Tamer M. A.; Higgs, Gadryn C.; Srivastava, Deepak; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2015-01-01

    Single cardiomyocytes contain myofibrils that harbor the sarcomere-based contractile machinery of the myocardium. Cardiomyocytes differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) have potential as an in vitro model of heart activity. However, their fetal-like misalignment of myofibrils limits their usefulness for modeling contractile activity. We analyzed the effects of cell shape and substrate stiffness on the shortening and movement of labeled sarcomeres and the translation of sarcomere activity to mechanical output (contractility) in live engineered hPSC-CMs. Single hPSC-CMs were cultured on polyacrylamide substrates of physiological stiffness (10 kPa), and Matrigel micropatterns were used to generate physiological shapes (2,000-µm2 rectangles with length:width aspect ratios of 5:1–7:1) and a mature alignment of myofibrils. Translation of sarcomere shortening to mechanical output was highest in 7:1 hPSC-CMs. Increased substrate stiffness and applied overstretch induced myofibril defects in 7:1 hPSC-CMs and decreased mechanical output. Inhibitors of nonmuscle myosin activity repressed the assembly of myofibrils, showing that subcellular tension drives the improved contractile activity in these engineered hPSC-CMs. Other factors associated with improved contractility were axially directed calcium flow, systematic mitochondrial distribution, more mature electrophysiology, and evidence of transverse-tubule formation. These findings support the potential of these engineered hPSC-CMs as powerful models for studying myocardial contractility at the cellular level. PMID:26417073

  11. Recovery in skeletal muscle contractile function after prolonged hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.

  12. Actomyosin contractility controls cell surface area of oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kippert, Angelika; Fitzner, Dirk; Helenius, Jonne; Simons, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Background To form myelin oligodendrocytes expand and wrap their plasma membrane multiple times around an axon. How is this expansion controlled? Results Here we show that cell surface area depends on actomyosin contractility and is regulated by physical properties of the supporting matrix. Moreover, we find that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG), molecules associated with non-permissive growth properties within the central nervous system (CNS), block cell surface spreading. Most importantly, the inhibitory effects of CSPG on plasma membrane extension were completely prevented by treatment with inhibitors of actomyosin contractility and by RNAi mediated knockdown of myosin II. In addition, we found that reductions of plasma membrane area were accompanied by changes in the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis. Conclusion In summary, our results establish a novel connection between endocytosis, cell surface extension and actomyosin contractility. These findings open up new possibilities of how to promote the morphological differentiation of oligodendrocytes in a non-permissive growth environment. See related minireview by Bauer and ffrench-Constant: PMID:19781079

  13. Contractile properties of afferent and efferent arterioles.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Abe, K

    1997-07-01

    1. The balance of vascular tone of the afferent and efferent arteriole is a crucial determinant of glomerular haemodynamics. Despite their intimate anatomical relationship in the juxtaglomerular apparatus, the mechanisms that regulate afferent and efferent arteriolar tone are different. 2. In the afferent arteriole, two intrinsic mechanisms, the myogenic response and macula densa-mediated tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) play a dominant role, maintaining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at a constant level over a wide range of renal perfusion pressure. Studies have shown that these two mechanisms are modulated by nitric oxide (NO). In addition, an interaction between TGF and angiotensin II (AngII) seems to be essential to maintaining GFR despite large variations in daily intake of salt and water. 3. In the efferent arteriole, neither myogenic response nor TGF seems to be important, while AngII is one major factor involved in the control of vascular resistance. In addition, recent studies have provided evidence that NO and prostaglandins produced by the glomerulus may control resistance of the downstream efferent arteriole. 4. As the early segment of the efferent arteriole resides within the glomerulus, various autacoid hormones produced by the glomerulus may reach and directly act on this segment, thereby controlling the glomerular capillary pressure. Thus, it would be important to understand the differences in the mechanisms operating at the afferent and efferent arteriole, as well as their alterations in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:9248673

  14. [Ventricular contractility: Physiology and clinical projection].

    PubMed

    Domenech, Raúl J; Parra, Víctor M

    2016-06-01

    The contractile state of the heart is the result of myocardial contractility, the intrinsic mechanism that regulates the force and the shortening of the ventricle and determines the ventricular ejection volume. However, the ejection volume is also modulated by ventricular preload (diastolic ventricular volume) and afterload (resistance to ejection). Accordingly, a decrease in contractility may be masked by changes in preload or afterload, maintaining a normal ejection volume and delaying the diagnosis of myocardial damage. Thus, it is necessary to develop a non-invasive method to measure contractility in the clinical practice. We review in this article the basic principles of cardiac contraction, the concept of contractility and its measurement with the ventricular pressure-volume loop, an experimental method that also measures most of the hemodynamic variables of the cardiac cycle including preload, afterload, ventricular work, ventricular lusitropy and arterial elastance. This method has been recently validated in cardiac patients and allows to evaluate the evolution of contractility in heart failure in a non invasive way. Although some modifications are still necessary, it will probably have an extensive use in practical cardiology in the near future. PMID:27598497

  15. Effect of hypokinesia on contractile function of cardiac muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, F. Z.; Kapelko, V. I.; Trikhpoyeva, A. M.; Gorina, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were subjected to hypokinesia for two months and the contractile function of isolated papillary muscle was studied. Hypokinesia reduced significantly the isotonic contraction rate which depended on the ATPase activity of the myofibrils; it also reduced the rate and index of relaxation which depended on the functional capacity of the Ca(++) pump of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The maximum force of isometric contraction determined by the quantity of actomyosin bridges in the myofibrils did not change after hypokinesia. This complex of changes is contrary to that observed in adaptation to exercise when the rate of isotonic contraction and relaxation increases while the force of isometric contraction does not change. The possible mechanism of this stability of the contractile force during adaptation and readaptation of the heart is discussed.

  16. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Materials and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Erickson, Carl J.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Gentile, Charles A.; Tilson, Carl; Bernasek, Stephen L.; Abelev, Esta

    2010-02-19

    Ras Labs produces electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple and now contract (new development) with low electric input. This is an important attribute because of the ability of contraction to produce life-like motion. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments were conducted to follow the movement of electrolytes and water in these EAPs when activated. Extreme temperature experiments were performed on the contractile EAPs with very favorable results. One of the biggest challenges in developing these actuators, however, is the electrode-EAP interface because of the pronounced movement of the EAP. Plasma treatments of metallic electrodes were investigated in order to improve the attachment of the embedded electrodes to the EAP material. Surface analysis, adhesive testing, and mechanical testing were conducted to test metal surfaces and metal-polymer interfaces. The nitrogen plasma treatment of titanium produced a strong metal-polymer interface; however, oxygen plasma treatment of both stainless steel and titanium produced even stronger metal-polymer interfaces. Plasma treatment of the electrodes allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface.

  17. Activated T Cell Trans-Endothelial Migration Relies on Myosin-IIA Contractility for Squeezing the Cell Nucleus through Endothelial Cell Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Jacobelli, Jordan; Estin Matthews, Miriam; Chen, Stephanie; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Following activation, T cells are released from lymph nodes to traffic via the blood to effector sites. The re-entry of these activated T cells into tissues represents a critical step for them to carry out local effector functions. Here we have assessed defects in effector T cells that are acutely depleted in Myosin-IIA (MyoIIA) and show a T cell intrinsic requirement for this motor to facilitate the diapedesis step of extravasation. We show that MyoIIA accumulates at the rear of T cells undergoing trans-endothelial migration. T cells can extend protrusions and project a substantial portion of their cytoplasm through the endothelial wall in the absence of MyoIIA. However, this motor protein plays a crucial role in allowing T cells to complete the movement of their relatively rigid nucleus through the endothelial junctions. In vivo, this defect manifests as poor entry into lymph nodes, tumors and into the spinal cord, during tissue-specific autoimmunity, but not the spleen. This suggests that therapeutic targeting of this molecule may allow for differential attenuation of tissue-specific inflammatory responses. PMID:24069389

  18. TMEM16A knockdown abrogates two different Ca(2+)-activated Cl (-) currents and contractility of smooth muscle in rat mesenteric small arteries.

    PubMed

    Dam, Vibeke Secher; Boedtkjer, Donna M B; Nyvad, Jakob; Aalkjaer, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    The presence of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is well established. Their molecular identity is, however, elusive. Two distinct Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I Cl(Ca)) were previously characterized in SMCs. We have shown that the cGMP-dependent I Cl(Ca) depends on bestrophin expression, while the "classical" I Cl(Ca) is not. Downregulation of bestrophins did not affect arterial contraction but inhibited the rhythmic contractions, vasomotion. In this study, we have used in vivo siRNA transfection of rat mesenteric small arteries to investigate the role of a putative CaCC, TMEM16A. Isometric force, [Ca(2+)]i, and SMC membrane potential were measured in isolated arterial segments. I Cl(Ca) and GTPγS-induced nonselective cation current were measured in isolated SMCs. Downregulation of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of both the cGMP-dependent I Cl(Ca) and the "classical" I Cl(Ca) in SMCs. TMEM16A downregulation also reduced expression of bestrophins. TMEM16A downregulation suppressed vasomotion both in vivo and in vitro. Downregulation of TMEM16A reduced agonist (noradrenaline and vasopressin) and K(+)-induced contractions. In accordance with the depolarizing role of CaCCs, TMEM16A downregulation suppressed agonist-induced depolarization and elevation in [Ca(2+)]i. Surprisingly, K(+)-induced depolarization was unchanged but Ca(2+) entry was reduced. We suggested that this is due to reduced expression of the L-type Ca(2+) channels, as observed at the mRNA level. Thus, the importance of TMEM16A for contraction is, at least in part, independent from membrane potential. This study demonstrates the significance of TMEM16A for two SMCs I Cl(Ca) and vascular function and suggests an interaction between TMEM16A and L-type Ca(2+) channels. PMID:24162234

  19. Reduced Mechanical Stretch Induces Enhanced Endothelin B Receptor-Mediated Contractility via Activation of Focal Adhesion Kinase and Extracellular Regulated Kinase 1/2 in Cerebral Arteries from Rat.

    PubMed

    Spray, Stine; Rasmussen, Marianne N P; Skovsted, Gry F; Warfvinge, Karin; Sheykhzade, Majid; Edvinsson, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral ischaemia results in enhanced endothelin B (ETB ) receptor-mediated contraction and receptor protein expression in the affected cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Organ culture of cerebral arteries is a method to induce similar alterations in ETB receptor expression. We suggest that rapid and sustained reduction in wall tension/stretch is a possible trigger mechanism for this vascular remodelling. Isolated rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) segments were incubated in a wire myograph with or without mechanical stretch, prior to assessment of their contractile response to the selective ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c. The involvement of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was studied by their specific inhibitors U0126 and PF-228, respectively. Compared with their stretched counterparts, unstretched MCA segments showed a significantly increased ETB receptor-mediated contractile response after 12 hr of incubation, which was attenuated by either U0126 or PF-228. The functionally increased ETB -mediated contractility could be attributed to two different mechanisms: (i) a difference in ETB receptor localization from primarily endothelial expression to SMC expression and (ii) an increased calcium sensitivity of the SMCs due to an increased expression of the calcium channel transient receptor potential canonical 1. Collectively, our results present a possible mechanism linking lack of vessel wall stretch/tension to changes in ETB receptor-mediated contractility via triggering of an early mechanosensitive signalling pathway involving ERK1/2 and FAK signalling. A mechanism likely to be an initiating factor for the increased ETB receptor-mediated contractility found after cerebral ischaemia. PMID:26781487

  20. Regulation of the uterine contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kathleen G

    2007-01-01

    Parturition at term, the end stage of a successful pregnancy occurs as a result of powerful, co-ordinated and periodic contractions of uterine smooth muscle (myometrium). To occur in a propitious manner, a high degree of control over the activation of a myometrial cell is required. We review the molecular mechanisms and structural composition of myometrial cells that may contribute to their increased contractile capacity at term. We focus attention on pathways that lead to the activation of filamentous networks traditionally labeled ‘contractile’ or ‘cytoskeletal’ yet draw attention to the fact that functional discrimination between these systems is not absolute. PMID:17582796

  1. Requirements for contractility in disordered cytoskeletal bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Martin; Gardel, Margaret L.; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2012-03-01

    Actomyosin contractility is essential for biological force generation, and is well understood in highly organized structures such as striated muscle. Additionally, actomyosin bundles devoid of this organization are known to contract both in vivo and in vitro, which cannot be described by standard muscle models. To narrow down the search for possible contraction mechanisms in these systems, we investigate their microscopic symmetries. We show that contractile behavior requires non-identical motors that generate large-enough forces to probe the nonlinear elastic behavior of F-actin. This suggests a role for filament buckling in the contraction of these bundles, consistent with recent experimental results on reconstituted actomyosin bundles.

  2. The Transport Properties of Activated Carbon Fibers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    di Vittorio, S. L.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Endo, M.; Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons.

  3. The transport properties of activated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    di Vittorio, S.L. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Dresselhaus, M.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA . Dept. of Physics); Endo, M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Sodium hydrogen exchanger as a mediator of hydrostatic edema induced intestinal contractile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Uray, Karen S.; Shah, Shinil K.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Jimenez, Fernando; Walker, Peter A.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Laine, Glen A.; Cox, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resuscitation-induced intestinal edema is associated with early and profound mechanical changes in intestinal tissue. We hypothesize that the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE), a mechano-responsive ion channel, is a mediator of edema-induced intestinal contractile dysfunction. Methods An animal model of hydrostatic intestinal edema was utilized for all experiments. NHE isoforms 1-3 mRNA and protein were evaluated. Subsequently, the effects of NHE inhibition (with 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA)) on wet to dry ratios, signal transduction and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, intestinal smooth muscle myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, intestinal contractile activity, and intestinal transit were measured. Results NHE1-3 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in the small intestinal mucosa with the induction of intestinal edema. Administration of EIPA, an NHE inhibitor, attenuated validated markers of intestinal contractile dysfunction induced by edema as measured by decreased STAT-3 activation, increased MLC phosphorylation, improved intestinal contractile activity, and enhanced intestinal transit. Conclusion The mechano-responsive ion channel NHE may mediate edema-induced intestinal contractile dysfunction, possibly via a STAT-3 related mechanism. PMID:20553904

  5. Ablation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Prevents Cardiomyocytes Contractile Dysfunction in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Prathipati, Priyanka; Metreveli, Naira; Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Mishra, Paras K.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and decreased contractility of cardiomyocytes are documented in diabetic hearts. However, it is unclear whether MMP is involved in the regulation of contractility of cardiomyocytes in diabetic hearts. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MMP9 regulates contractility of cardiomyocytes in diabetic hearts, and ablation of MMP9 prevents impaired contractility of cardiomyocytes in diabetic hearts. To determine the specific role of MMP9 in cardiomyocyte contractility, we used 12–14 week male WT (normoglycemic sibling of Akita), Akita, and Ins2+∕−/MMP9−∕− (DKO) mice. DKO mice were generated by cross-breeding male Ins2+∕− Akita (T1D) with female MMP9 knockout (MMP9−∕−) mice. We isolated cardiomyocytes from the heart of the above three groups of mice and measured their contractility and calcium transients. Moreover, we determined mRNA and protein levels of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase-2a (SERCA-2a), which is involved in calcium handling during contractility of cardiomyocytes in WT, Akita, and DKO hearts using QPCR, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Our results revealed that in Akita hearts where increased expression and activity of MMP9 is reported, the rates of shortening and re-lengthening (±dL/dt) of cardiomyocytes were decreased, time to 90% peak height and baseline during contractility was increased, rate of calcium decay was increased, and calcium transient was decreased as compared to WT cardiomyocytes. However, these changes in Akita were blunted in DKO cardiomyocytes. The molecular analyses of SERCA-2a in the hearts showed that it was downregulated in Akita as compared to WT but was comparatively upregulated in DKO. These results suggest that abrogation of MMP9 gene prevents contractility of cardiomyocytes, possibly by increasing SERCA-2a and calcium transients. We conclude that MMP9 plays a crucial role in the regulation

  6. The contractile wall of the caput epididymidis in men affected by congenital or postinflammatory obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Pelliccione, Fiore; Cordeschi, Giuliana; Giuliani, Valeria; D'Abrizio, Piera; Necozione, Stefano; Negri, Luciano; Mancini, Mario; Sagone, Patrizia; Francavilla, Felice; Colpi, Giovanni Maria; Francavilla, Sandro

    2004-01-01

    The transport and storage of spermatozoa in the epididymis depend on the contractile activity of its tubular wall. It is not known what differences exist in the contractile wall of the human epididymis in cases of obstructive azoospermia. The contractile wall in the tubules of the caput epididymidis was analyzed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in 10 azoospermic men, 5 with a bilateral congenital absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) and 5 with a bilateral postinflammatory congestive obstruction of the epididymis. Five specimens from the same region of the caput epididymidis, obtained from fertile men who had undergone an orchidectomy because of testicular cancer, served as controls. No differences were observed between congenital and congestive obstructions. The contractile wall in caput tubules proximal to the obstructed level was strongly thickened when compared with controls (62.98 +/- 5.84 micro; 80.82 +/- 7.72 micro vs 19.59 +/- 2.23 micro, respectively, for congestive and congenital obstructions vs controls; P <.0001 vs controls), and the spindle-shaped myoid cells, which formed the contractile wall in normal cases, were replaced by large smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that showed features of coexisting contractile and secretory functions. The former included crowded cytoplasmic bundles of thin myofilaments (5-6 nm in diameter) converging to a large number of dense bodies, numerous micropinocytotic vesicles of the plasma membrane, and a continuous cell basement membrane. The presence of a developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and a Golgi complex, associated with the accumulation of thick layers of pericellular basement membrane-like material and ground substance, was indicative of a secretory phenotype of SMCs. The increased mechanical forces on the epididymal wall upstream from the obstruction might eventually activate the differentiation of myoid cells into SMCs, leading to an altered physiology of the contractile wall that could have

  7. Implementing cell contractility in filament-based cytoskeletal models.

    PubMed

    Fallqvist, B

    2016-02-01

    Cells are known to respond over time to mechanical stimuli, even actively generating force at longer times. In this paper, a microstructural filament-based cytoskeletal network model is extended to incorporate this active response, and a computational study to assess the influence on relaxation behaviour was performed. The incorporation of an active response was achieved by including a strain energy function of contractile activity from the cross-linked actin filaments. A four-state chemical model and strain energy function was adopted, and generalisation to three dimensions and the macroscopic deformation field was performed by integration over the unit sphere. Computational results in MATLAB and ABAQUS/Explicit indicated an active cellular response over various time-scales, dependent on contractile parameters. Important features such as force generation and increasing cell stiffness due to prestress are qualitatively predicted. The work in this paper can easily be extended to encompass other filament-based cytoskeletal models as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26899417

  8. Architecture and Connectivity Govern Actin Network Contractility.

    PubMed

    Ennomani, Hajer; Letort, Gaëlle; Guérin, Christophe; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Cao, Wenxiang; Nédélec, François; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Actomyosin contractility plays a central role in a wide range of cellular processes, including the establishment of cell polarity, cell migration, tissue integrity, and morphogenesis during development. The contractile response is variable and depends on actomyosin network architecture and biochemical composition. To determine how this coupling regulates actomyosin-driven contraction, we used a micropatterning method that enables the spatial control of actin assembly. We generated a variety of actin templates and measured how defined actin structures respond to myosin-induced forces. We found that the same actin filament crosslinkers either enhance or inhibit the contractility of a network, depending on the organization of actin within the network. Numerical simulations unified the roles of actin filament branching and crosslinking during actomyosin contraction. Specifically, we introduce the concept of "network connectivity" and show that the contractions of distinct actin architectures are described by the same master curve when considering their degree of connectivity. This makes it possible to predict the dynamic response of defined actin structures to transient changes in connectivity. We propose that, depending on the connectivity and the architecture, network contraction is dominated by either sarcomeric-like or buckling mechanisms. More generally, this study reveals how actin network contractility depends on its architecture under a defined set of biochemical conditions. PMID:26898468

  9. Intestinal permeability and contractility in murine colitis.

    PubMed Central

    van Meeteren, M E; van Bergeijk, J D; van Dijk, A P; Tak, C J; Meijssen, M A; Zijlstra, F J

    1998-01-01

    We developed an in vitro organ bath method to measure permeability and contractility simultaneously in murine intestinal segments. To investigate whether permeability and contractility are correlated and influenced by mucosal damage owing to inflammation, BALB/c mice were exposed to a 10% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) solution for 8 days to induce colitis. The effect of pharmacologically induced smooth muscle relaxation and contraction on permeability was tested in vitro. Regional permeability differences were observed in both control and 10% DSS-treated mice. Distal colon segments were less permeable to 3H-mannitol and 14C-PEG 400 molecules compared with proximal colon and ileum. Intestinal permeability in control vs. 10% DSS mice was not altered, although histologic inflammation score and IFN-gamma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly increased in proximal and distal colon. IL-1beta levels were enhanced in these proximal and distal segments, but not significantly different from controls. Any effect of pharmacologically induced contractility on intestinal permeability could not be observed. In conclusion, intestinal permeability and contractility are not correlated in this model of experimentally induced colitis in mice. Although simultaneous measurement in a physiological set-up is possible, this method has to be further validated. PMID:9705603

  10. Chronic sustained hypoxia-induced redox remodeling causes contractile dysfunction in mouse sternohyoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Philip; Sheehan, David; Soares, Renata; Varela Coelho, Ana; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sustained hypoxia (CH) induces structural and functional adaptations in respiratory muscles of animal models, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study explores the putative role of CH-induced redox remodeling in a translational mouse model, with a focus on the sternohyoid-a representative upper airway dilator muscle involved in the control of pharyngeal airway caliber. We hypothesized that exposure to CH induces redox disturbance in mouse sternohyoid muscle in a time-dependent manner affecting metabolic capacity and contractile performance. C57Bl6/J mice were exposed to normoxia or normobaric CH (FiO2 = 0.1) for 1, 3, or 6 weeks. A second cohort of animals was exposed to CH for 6 weeks with and without antioxidant supplementation (tempol or N-acetyl cysteine in the drinking water). Following CH exposure, we performed 2D redox proteomics with mass spectrometry, metabolic enzyme activity assays, and cell-signaling assays. Additionally, we assessed isotonic contractile and endurance properties ex vivo. Temporal changes in protein oxidation and glycolytic enzyme activities were observed. Redox modulation of sternohyoid muscle proteins key to contraction, metabolism and cellular homeostasis was identified. There was no change in redox-sensitive proteasome activity or HIF-1α content, but CH decreased phospho-JNK content independent of antioxidant supplementation. CH was detrimental to sternohyoid force- and power-generating capacity and this was prevented by chronic antioxidant supplementation. We conclude that CH causes upper airway dilator muscle dysfunction due to redox modulation of proteins key to function and homeostasis. Such changes could serve to further disrupt respiratory homeostasis in diseases characterized by CH such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Antioxidants may have potential use as an adjunctive therapy in hypoxic respiratory disease. PMID:25941492

  11. Chronic sustained hypoxia-induced redox remodeling causes contractile dysfunction in mouse sternohyoid muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Philip; Sheehan, David; Soares, Renata; Varela Coelho, Ana; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sustained hypoxia (CH) induces structural and functional adaptations in respiratory muscles of animal models, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study explores the putative role of CH-induced redox remodeling in a translational mouse model, with a focus on the sternohyoid—a representative upper airway dilator muscle involved in the control of pharyngeal airway caliber. We hypothesized that exposure to CH induces redox disturbance in mouse sternohyoid muscle in a time-dependent manner affecting metabolic capacity and contractile performance. C57Bl6/J mice were exposed to normoxia or normobaric CH (FiO2 = 0.1) for 1, 3, or 6 weeks. A second cohort of animals was exposed to CH for 6 weeks with and without antioxidant supplementation (tempol or N-acetyl cysteine in the drinking water). Following CH exposure, we performed 2D redox proteomics with mass spectrometry, metabolic enzyme activity assays, and cell-signaling assays. Additionally, we assessed isotonic contractile and endurance properties ex vivo. Temporal changes in protein oxidation and glycolytic enzyme activities were observed. Redox modulation of sternohyoid muscle proteins key to contraction, metabolism and cellular homeostasis was identified. There was no change in redox-sensitive proteasome activity or HIF-1α content, but CH decreased phospho-JNK content independent of antioxidant supplementation. CH was detrimental to sternohyoid force- and power-generating capacity and this was prevented by chronic antioxidant supplementation. We conclude that CH causes upper airway dilator muscle dysfunction due to redox modulation of proteins key to function and homeostasis. Such changes could serve to further disrupt respiratory homeostasis in diseases characterized by CH such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Antioxidants may have potential use as an adjunctive therapy in hypoxic respiratory disease. PMID:25941492

  12. [Subcellular basis of disorders of the contractile capacity of the heart in L-thyroxine-induced thyrotoxicosis].

    PubMed

    Karsanov, N V; Melashvili, N O; Khugashvili, Z G; Mamulashvili, L D; Azrumelashvili, M I; Khaindrava, G K; Kapanadze, R V

    1990-02-01

    In experiments on dogs, the authors examined the functional activity of three cardiomyocyte systems responsible for contraction-relaxation (the systems of contractile proteins, calcium transport and energy supply) in the dynamics of L-thyroxine-induced toxicosis. A fall in the capacity of the contractile protein system to generate energy and to perform was shown to play the leading role in decrease of myocardial reserve forces and reduction in cardiac contractility. There was a drop in the intensity of calcium transport through the membranes of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and a deficiency of the direct energy source for contraction only in the late period of the disease. PMID:2348627

  13. Right atrial contractile dynamics are impaired in patients with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bening, Constanze; Leyh, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in conjunction with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) is frequently associated with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, determining the patient prognosis. Compensatory mechanisms for RV dysfunction have not been previously evaluated in detail. Since calcium dependent right atrial (RA) dynamics are a surrogate for RA contractile properties, the present study examined the calcium dependency of RA tissue obtained from patients with or without postcapillary PH. In total, 15 patients with PH (PH group; mean age, 70.7±7.2 years) and 10 patients without postcapillary PH (non-PH group; mean age, 55.7±11.8 years) who were scheduled to undergo elective left heart valve surgery were included in the current study. Calcium concentration (pCa; shown as the negative log10) against force curves were generated, while LV and RV function was evaluated by echocardiography. Echocardiography data revealed a significantly reduced LV function in the PH group, while the RV function was preserved in the two groups, precluding overt RV dysfunction. In the PH group, significantly reduced force values were detected at high pCa values when compared with the non-PH group force, indicating impaired RA function. Furthermore, reduced calcium sensitivity was observed (which was determined as the pCa at half maximal activation) in the PH group, and the presence of a compensatory mechanism for reduced force capacity was hypothesized. In conclusion, the preliminary results of the current study showed impaired RA contractile properties in postcapillary hypertension with preserved RV function. The diminished RA compensatory mechanisms may lead to accelerated RV dysfunction in the clinical course of postcapillary PH. PMID:27446277

  14. Recovery time course in contractile function of fast and slow skeletal muscle after hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the time course and extent of recovery in the isometric and isotonic contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an immobilized group or a control group. The results of the study show that fast and slow skeletal muscles possess the ability to completely recover normal contractile function following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. The rate of recovery is dependent on the fiber type composition of the affected muscle.

  15. The role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of mouse uterine contractility

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C; McClure, Marisa C; Smith, Margaret A; Abel, Peter W; Bradley, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Background Uterine smooth muscle cells exhibit ionic currents that appear to be important in the control of uterine contractility, but how these currents might produce the changes in contractile activity seen in pregnant myometrium has not been established. There are conflicting reports concerning the role of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in the regulation of uterine contractility. In this study we provide molecular and functional evidence for a role for Kv channels in the regulation of spontaneous contractile activity in mouse myometrium, and also demonstrate a change in Kv channel regulation of contractility in pregnant mouse myometrium. Methods Functional assays which evaluated the effects of channel blockers and various contractile agonists were accomplished by quantifying contractility of isolated uterine smooth muscle obtained from nonpregnant mice as well as mice at various stages of pregnancy. Expression of Kv channel proteins in isolated uterine smooth muscle was evaluated by Western blots. Results The Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) caused contractions in nonpregnant mouse myometrium (EC50 = 54 micromolar, maximal effect at 300 micromolar) but this effect disappeared in pregnant mice; similarly, the Kv4.2/Kv4.3 blocker phrixotoxin-2 caused contractions in nonpregnant, but not pregnant, myometrium. Contractile responses to 4-AP were not dependent upon nerves, as neither tetrodotoxin nor storage of tissues at room temperature significantly altered these responses, nor were responses dependent upon the presence of the endometrium. Spontaneous contractions and contractions in response to 4-AP did not appear to be mediated by BK, as the BK channel-selective blockers iberiotoxin, verruculogen, or tetraethylammonium failed to affect either spontaneous contractions or 4-AP-elicited responses. A number of different Kv channel alpha subunit proteins were found in isolated myometrium

  16. Cholesterol Depletion Alters Cardiomyocyte Subcellular Signaling and Increases Contractility

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Victoria J.; Abou Samra, Abdul B.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Lasley, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane cholesterol levels play an important factor in regulating cell function. Sarcolemmal cholesterol is concentrated in lipid rafts and caveolae, which are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. The scaffolding protein caveolin permits the enrichment of cholesterol in caveolae, and caveolin interactions with numerous proteins regulate their function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute reductions in cardiomyocyte cholesterol levels alter subcellular protein kinase activation, intracellular Ca2+ and contractility. Methods: Ventricular myocytes, isolated from adult Sprague Dawley rats, were treated with the cholesterol reducing agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, 5 mM, 1 hr, room temperature). Total cellular cholesterol levels, caveolin-3 localization, subcellular, ERK and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, contractility, and [Ca2+]i were assessed. Results: Treatment with MβCD reduced cholesterol levels by ~45 and shifted caveolin-3 from cytoskeleton and triton-insoluble fractions to the triton-soluble fraction, and increased ERK isoform phosphorylation in cytoskeletal, cytosolic, triton-soluble and triton-insoluble membrane fractions without altering their subcellular distributions. In contrast the primary effect of MβCD was on p38 subcellular distribution of p38α with little effect on p38 phosphorylation. Cholesterol depletion increased cardiomyocyte twitch amplitude and the rates of shortening and relaxation in conjunction with increased diastolic and systolic [Ca2+]i. Conclusions: These results indicate that acute reductions in membrane cholesterol levels differentially modulate basal cardiomyocyte subcellular MAPK signaling, as well as increasing [Ca2+]i and contractility. PMID:27441649

  17. Restoring redox balance enhances contractility in heart trabeculae from type 2 diabetic rats exposed to high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Niraj M.; Aon, Miguel A.; Tocchetti, Carlo G.; Shen, Xiaoxu; Dey, Swati; Ramirez-Correa, Genaro; O′Rourke, Brian; Gao, Wei Dong

    2014-01-01

    Hearts from type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects are chronically subjected to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, both thought to contribute to oxidizing conditions and contractile dysfunction. How redox alterations and contractility interrelate, ultimately diminishing T2DM heart function, remains poorly understood. Herein we tested whether the fatty acid palmitate (Palm), in addition to its energetic contribution, rescues function by improving redox [glutathione (GSH), NAD(P)H, less oxidative stress] in T2DM rat heart trabeculae subjected to high glucose. Using cardiac trabeculae from Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, we assessed the impact of low glucose (EG) and high glucose (HG), in absence or presence of Palm or insulin, on force development, energetics, and redox responses. We found that in EG ZDF and lean trabeculae displayed similar contractile work, yield of contractile work (Ycw), representing the ratio of force time integral over rate of O2 consumption. Conversely, HG had a negative impact on Ycw, whereas Palm, but not insulin, completely prevented contractile loss. This effect was associated with higher GSH, less oxidative stress, and augmented matrix GSH/thioredoxin (Trx) in ZDF mitochondria. Restoration of myocardial redox with GSH ethyl ester also rescued ZDF contractile function in HG, independently from Palm. These results support the idea that maintained redox balance, via increased GSH and Trx antioxidant activities to resist oxidative stress, is an essential protective response of the diabetic heart to keep contractile function. PMID:25485897

  18. The contractome--a systems view of actomyosin contractility in non-muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Zhenhuan, Guo; Luxenburg, Chen

    2015-06-15

    Actomyosin contractility is a highly regulated process that affects many fundamental biological processes in each and every cell in our body. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we mined the literature and databases to map the contractome of non-muscle cells. Actomyosin contractility is involved in at least 49 distinct cellular functions that range from providing cell architecture to signal transduction and nuclear activity. Containing over 100 scaffolding and regulatory proteins, the contractome forms a highly complex network with more than 230 direct interactions between its components, 86 of them involving phosphorylation. Mapping these interactions, we identify the key regulatory pathways involved in the assembly of actomyosin structures and in activating myosin to produce contractile forces within non-muscle cells at the exact time and place necessary for cellular function. PMID:26021351

  19. Ablation of SM22alpha decreases contractility and actin contents of mouse vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Asad; Swärd, Karl; Nordström, Ina; Ekblad, Eva; Zhang, Janet C L; Parmacek, Michael S; Hellstrand, Per

    2004-03-26

    The actin-binding protein SM22alpha marks contractile differentiation in smooth muscle, but its function is unknown. We tested its role in arterial contractility and stretch-sensitive vascular protein synthesis. Active stress in depolarised mesenteric resistance arteries and portal veins was reduced by 40% in SM22alpha(-/-) mice. Passive and active arterial circumference-force relationships were shifted leftwards, whereas alpha(1)-adrenergic responses were increased. Actin contents were 10-25% lower in vessels from SM22alpha(-/-) mice, but protein composition was otherwise similar. Synthesis of SM22alpha, calponin and alpha-actin, but not beta-actin, was sensitive to stretch. Ablation of SM22alpha did not affect stretch sensitivity of any of these proteins. Thus, SM22alpha plays a role in contractility, possibly by affecting actin filament organisation. PMID:15044015

  20. Commonly used intravenous anesthetics decrease bladder contractility: An in vitro study of the effects of propofol, ketamine, and midazolam on the rat bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ceran, Canan; Pampal, Arzu; Goktas, Ozgur; Pampal, H. Kutluk; Olmez, Ercument

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that propofol, ketamine, and midazolam could alter the contractile activity of detrusor smooth muscle. Materials and Methods: Four detrusor muscle strips isolated from each rat bladder (n = 12) were placed in 4 tissue baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. The carbachol (10 −8to 10−4mol/L)-induced contractile responses as well as 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Hz electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractile responses of the detrusor muscles were recorded using isometric contraction measurements. After obtaining basal responses, the in vitro effects of propofol, ketamine, midazolam (10−5 to 10−3 mol/L), and saline on the contractile responses of the detrusor muscle strips were recorded and evaluated. Results: All the 3 drugs reduced the carbachol-induced and/or EFS-evoked contractile responses of rat detrusor smooth muscles in different degrees. Midazolam (10−4 to 10−3 mol/L) caused a significant decrease in the contractile responses elicited by either EFS or carbachol (P=0.000−0.013). Propofol (10−3mol/L) caused a decrease only in EFS-evoked contractile responses (P=0.001−0.004) and ketamine (10−3mol/L) caused a decrease only in carbachol-induced contractile responses (P=0.001−0.034). Conclusion: We evaluated the effects of the 3 different intravenous anesthetics on detrusor contractile responses in vitro and found that there are possible interactions between anesthetic agents and detrusor contractile activity. The depressant effects of midazolam on the contractile activity were found to be more significant than ketamine and propofol. Despite the necessity of further studies, it could be a piece of wise advice to clinicians to keep the probable alterations due to intravenous anesthetics in mind, while evaluating the results of urodynamic studies in children under sedation. PMID:21116355

  1. Loss of cortactin causes endothelial barrier dysfunction via disturbed adrenomedullin secretion and actomyosin contractility

    PubMed Central

    García Ponce, Alexander; Citalán Madrid, Alí F.; Vargas Robles, Hilda; Chánez Paredes, Sandra; Nava, Porfirio; Betanzos, Abigail; Zarbock, Alexander; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vascular permeability occur during inflammation and the actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in regulating endothelial cell contacts and permeability. We demonstrated recently that the actin-binding protein cortactin regulates vascular permeability via Rap1. However, it is unknown if the actin cytoskeleton contributes to increased vascular permeability without cortactin. As we consistently observed more actin fibres in cortactin-depleted endothelial cells, we hypothesised that cortactin depletion results in increased stress fibre contractility and endothelial barrier destabilisation. Analysing the contractile machinery, we found increased ROCK1 protein levels in cortactin-depleted endothelium. Concomitantly, myosin light chain phosphorylation was increased while cofilin, mDia and ERM were unaffected. Secretion of the barrier-stabilising hormone adrenomedullin, which activates Rap1 and counteracts actomyosin contractility, was reduced in plasma from cortactin-deficient mice and in supernatants of cortactin-depleted endothelium. Importantly, adrenomedullin administration and ROCK1 inhibition reduced actomyosin contractility and rescued the effect on permeability provoked by cortactin deficiency in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest a new role for cortactin in controlling actomyosin contractility with consequences for endothelial barrier integrity. PMID:27357373

  2. Loss of cortactin causes endothelial barrier dysfunction via disturbed adrenomedullin secretion and actomyosin contractility.

    PubMed

    García Ponce, Alexander; Citalán Madrid, Alí F; Vargas Robles, Hilda; Chánez Paredes, Sandra; Nava, Porfirio; Betanzos, Abigail; Zarbock, Alexander; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vascular permeability occur during inflammation and the actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in regulating endothelial cell contacts and permeability. We demonstrated recently that the actin-binding protein cortactin regulates vascular permeability via Rap1. However, it is unknown if the actin cytoskeleton contributes to increased vascular permeability without cortactin. As we consistently observed more actin fibres in cortactin-depleted endothelial cells, we hypothesised that cortactin depletion results in increased stress fibre contractility and endothelial barrier destabilisation. Analysing the contractile machinery, we found increased ROCK1 protein levels in cortactin-depleted endothelium. Concomitantly, myosin light chain phosphorylation was increased while cofilin, mDia and ERM were unaffected. Secretion of the barrier-stabilising hormone adrenomedullin, which activates Rap1 and counteracts actomyosin contractility, was reduced in plasma from cortactin-deficient mice and in supernatants of cortactin-depleted endothelium. Importantly, adrenomedullin administration and ROCK1 inhibition reduced actomyosin contractility and rescued the effect on permeability provoked by cortactin deficiency in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest a new role for cortactin in controlling actomyosin contractility with consequences for endothelial barrier integrity. PMID:27357373

  3. Mechanically Induced Chromatin Condensation Requires Cellular Contractility in Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Su-Jin; Han, Woojin M; Szczesny, Spencer E; Cosgrove, Brian D; Elliott, Dawn M; Lee, David A; Duncan, Randall L; Mauck, Robert L

    2016-08-23

    Mechanical cues play important roles in directing the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which dynamic tensile loading (DL) regulates chromatin organization in this cell type. Our previous findings indicated that the application of DL elicited a rapid increase in chromatin condensation through purinergic signaling mediated by ATP. Here, we show that the rate and degree of condensation depends on the frequency and duration of mechanical loading, and that ATP release requires actomyosin-based cellular contractility. Increases in baseline cellular contractility via the addition of an activator of G-protein coupled receptors (lysophosphatidic acid) induced rapid ATP release, resulting in chromatin condensation independent of loading. Conversely, inhibition of contractility through pretreatment with either a RhoA/Rock inhibitor (Y27632) or MLCK inhibitor (ML7) abrogated ATP release in response to DL, blocking load-induced chromatin condensation. With loading, ATP release occurred very rapidly (within the first 10-20 s), whereas changes in chromatin occurred at a later time point (∼10 min), suggesting a downstream biochemical pathway mediating this process. When cells were pretreated with blockers of the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily, purinergic signaling in response to DL was also eliminated. Further analysis showed that this pretreatment decreased contractility, implicating activity in the TGF pathway in the establishment of the baseline contractile state of MSCs (in the absence of exogenous ligands). These data indicate that chromatin condensation in response to DL is regulated through the interplay between purinergic and RhoA/Rock signaling, and that ligandless activity in the TGF/bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathway contributes to the establishment of baseline contractility in MSCs. PMID:27558729

  4. Human Engineered Heart Tissue: Analysis of Contractile Force.

    PubMed

    Mannhardt, Ingra; Breckwoldt, Kaja; Letuffe-Brenière, David; Schaaf, Sebastian; Schulz, Herbert; Neuber, Christiane; Benzin, Anika; Werner, Tessa; Eder, Alexandra; Schulze, Thomas; Klampe, Birgit; Christ, Torsten; Hirt, Marc N; Huebner, Norbert; Moretti, Alessandra; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Hansen, Arne

    2016-07-12

    Analyzing contractile force, the most important and best understood function of cardiomyocytes in vivo is not established in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM). This study describes the generation of 3D, strip-format, force-generating engineered heart tissues (EHT) from hiPSC-CM and their physiological and pharmacological properties. CM were differentiated from hiPSC by a growth factor-based three-stage protocol. EHTs were generated and analyzed histologically and functionally. HiPSC-CM in EHTs showed well-developed sarcomeric organization and alignment, and frequent mitochondria. Systematic contractility analysis (26 concentration-response curves) reveals that EHTs replicated canonical response to physiological and pharmacological regulators of inotropy, membrane- and calcium-clock mediators of pacemaking, modulators of ion-channel currents, and proarrhythmic compounds with unprecedented precision. The analysis demonstrates a high degree of similarity between hiPSC-CM in EHT format and native human heart tissue, indicating that human EHTs are useful for preclinical drug testing and disease modeling. PMID:27211213

  5. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  6. [Influence of nanosize particles of cobalt ferrite on contractile responses of smooth muscle segment of airways].

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Zaĭtseva, T N; Nosarev, A V; D'iakova, E Iu; Petlina, Z R; Ogorodova, L M; Ageev, B G; Magaeva, A A; Itin, V I; Terekhova, O G; Medvedev, M A

    2012-02-01

    Contractile responses of airways segments of porpoises inhaling nanopowder CoFe2O4 were stidued by means of a mechanographic method. Inhalation of the nanosize particles of CoFe2O4 in vivo and in vitro testing the nanomaterial on isolated smooth muscles led to potentiation histaminergic, cholinergic contractile activity in airways of porpoises and to strengthening of adrenergic relaxing answers. Nanosize particles vary amplitude of hyperpotassium reductions in smooth muscle segments of airways similarly to the effect of depolymerizing drug colchicine. PMID:22650066

  7. Influence of neurohypophyseal hormones on human cervical smooth muscle contractility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1990-02-01

    Cervical tissue strips from nonpregnant women and women in early and term pregnancy were used to study spontaneous contractile activity and the effects of oxytocin and vasopressin in vitro. Oxytocin stimulated contractions in strips from all groups of patients except for those from five term pregnant women, in which an inhibitory effect was observed at a high concentration. Vasopressin had a stimulatory effect in all groups of patients. These neurohypophyseal hormones may interact with the effect of other hormones in their regulatory influence on cervical contractility, and this interaction might be important in cervical dilatation during labor as well as in the pathophysiology of dysmenorrhea. PMID:2300351

  8. Increased smooth muscle contractility in mice deficient for neuropilin 2.

    PubMed

    Bielenberg, Diane R; Seth, Abhishek; Shimizu, Akio; Pelton, Kristine; Cristofaro, Vivian; Ramachandran, Aruna; Zwaans, Bernadette M M; Chen, Cheng; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Seth, Meetu; Huang, Lin; Takashima, Seiji; Klagsbrun, Michael; Sullivan, Maryrose P; Adam, Rosalyn M

    2012-08-01

    Neuropilins (NRPs) are transmembrane receptors that bind class 3 semaphorins and VEGF family members to regulate axon guidance and angiogenesis. Although expression of NRP1 by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) has been reported, NRP function in smooth muscle (SM) in vivo is unexplored. Using Nrp2(+/LacZ) and Nrp2(+/gfp) transgenic mice, we observed robust and sustained expression of Nrp2 in the SM compartments of the bladder and gut, but no expression in vascular SM, skeletal muscle, or cardiac muscle. This expression pattern was recapitulated in vitro using primary human SM cell lines. Alterations in cell morphology after treatment of primary visceral SMCs with the NRP2 ligand semaphorin-3F (SEMA3F) were accompanied by inhibition of RhoA activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation, as well as decreased cytoskeletal stiffness. Ex vivo contractility testing of bladder muscle strips exposed to electrical stimulation or soluble agonists revealed enhanced tension generation of tissues from mice with constitutive or SM-specific knockout of Nrp2, compared with controls. Mice lacking Nrp2 also displayed increased bladder filling pressures, as assessed by cystometry in conscious mice. Together, these findings identify Nrp2 as a mediator of prorelaxant stimuli in SMCs and suggest a novel function for Nrp2 as a regulator of visceral SM contractility. PMID:22688055

  9. [Contractile proteins in chemical signal transduction in plant microspores].

    PubMed

    Roshchina, V V

    2005-01-01

    Involvement of contractile components in chemical signal transduction from the cell surface to the organelles was studied using unicellular systems. Neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin as well as active forms of oxygen hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl peroxide were used as chemical signals. Experiments were carried out on vegetative microspores of field horsetail Equisetum arvense and generative microspores (pollen) of amaryllis Hippeastrum hybridum treated with cytochalasin B (an inhibitor of actin polymerization in microfilaments), colchicine, and vinblastine (inhibitors of tubulin polymerization in microtubules). Both types of thus treated microspores demonstrated suppressed development, particularly, for cytochalasin B treatment. At the same time, an increased typical blue fluorescence of certain cell regions (along the cell wall and around nuclei and chloroplasts) where the corresponding contractile proteins could reside was observed. In contrast to anticontractile agents, dopamine, serotonin B, and the peroxides stimulated microspore germination. Microspore pretreatment with cytochalasin B and colchicine followed by the treatment with serotonin, dopamine, or the peroxides decreased the germination rate. Involvement of actin and tubulin in chemical signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus is proposed. PMID:16004258

  10. Dynamic regulation of β1 subunit trafficking controls vascular contractility

    PubMed Central

    Leo, M. Dennis; Bannister, John P.; Narayanan, Damodaran; Nair, Anitha; Grubbs, Jordan E.; Gabrick, Kyle S.; Boop, Frederick A.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels composed of pore-forming and auxiliary subunits control physiological functions in virtually all cell types. A conventional view is that channels assemble with their auxiliary subunits before anterograde plasma membrane trafficking of the protein complex. Whether the multisubunit composition of surface channels is fixed following protein synthesis or flexible and open to acute and, potentially, rapid modulation to control activity and cellular excitability is unclear. Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that are functionally significant modulators of arterial contractility. Here, we show that native BKα subunits are primarily (∼95%) plasma membrane-localized in human and rat arterial myocytes. In contrast, only a small fraction (∼10%) of total β1 subunits are located at the cell surface. Immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy demonstrated that intracellular β1 subunits are stored within Rab11A-postive recycling endosomes. Nitric oxide (NO), acting via cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and cAMP-dependent pathways stimulated rapid (≤1 min) anterograde trafficking of β1 subunit-containing recycling endosomes, which increased surface β1 almost threefold. These β1 subunits associated with surface-resident BKα proteins, elevating channel Ca2+ sensitivity and activity. Our data also show that rapid β1 subunit anterograde trafficking is the primary mechanism by which NO activates myocyte BK channels and induces vasodilation. In summary, we show that rapid β1 subunit surface trafficking controls functional BK channel activity in arterial myocytes and vascular contractility. Conceivably, regulated auxiliary subunit trafficking may control ion channel activity in a wide variety of cell types. PMID:24464482

  11. Loss of anti-contractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue in offspring of obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaborska, K E; Wareing, M; Edwards, G; Austin, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Maternal obesity pre-programmes offspring to develop obesity and associated cardiovascular disease. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anti-contractile effect on the vasculature, which is reduced in hypertension and obesity. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal obesity pre-programmes offspring to develop PVAT dysfunction in later life. Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 10% (control) or 45% fat (high fat diet, HFD) for 12 weeks prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were killed at 12 or 24 weeks of age and tension in PVAT-intact or -denuded mesenteric artery segments was measured isometrically. Concentration–response curves were constructed to U46619 and norepinephrine. Results: Only 24-week-old HFD offspring were hypertensive (P<0.0001), although the anti-contractile effect of PVAT was lost in vessels from HFD offspring of each age. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with 100 μM l-NMMA attenuated the anti-contractile effect of PVAT and increased contractility of PVAT-denuded arteries (P<0.05, P<0.0001). The increase in contraction was smaller in PVAT-intact than PVAT-denuded vessels from 12-week-old HFD offspring, suggesting decreased PVAT-derived NO and release of a contractile factor (P<0.07). An additional, NO-independent effect of PVAT was evident only in norepinephrine-contracted vessels. Activation of AMP-activated kinase (with 10 μM A769662) was anti-contractile in PVAT-denuded (P<0.0001) and -intact (P<0.01) vessels and was due solely to NO in controls; the AMPK effect was similar in HFD offspring vessels (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively) but was partially NO-independent. Conclusions: The diminished anti-contractile effects of PVAT in offspring of HFD dams are primarily due to release of a PVAT-derived contractile factor and reduced NO bioavailability. PMID:27102050

  12. O-GlcNAcylation, contractile protein modifications and calcium affinity in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Lambert, Matthias; Dupont, Erwan; Montel, Valérie; Stevens, Laurence; Bastide, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation, a generally undermined atypical protein glycosylation process, is involved in a dynamic and highly regulated interplay with phosphorylation. Akin to phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation is also involved in the physiopathology of several acquired diseases, such as muscle insulin resistance or muscle atrophy. Recent data underline that the interplay between phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation acts as a modulator of skeletal muscle contractile activity. In particular, the O-GlcNAcylation level of the phosphoprotein myosin light chain 2 seems to be crucial in the modulation of the calcium activation properties, and should be responsible for changes in calcium properties observed in functional atrophy. Moreover, since several key structural proteins are O-GlcNAc-modified, and because of the localization of the enzymes involved in the O-GlcNAcylation/de-O-GlcNAcylation process to the nodal Z disk, a role of O-GlcNAcylation in the modulation of the sarcomeric structure should be considered. PMID:25400587

  13. Cytoskeletal Role in the Contractile Dysfunction of Hypertrophied Myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Kazuaki; Cooper, George

    1993-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy in response to systolic pressure loading frequently results in contractile dysfunction of unknown cause. In the present study, pressure loading increased the microtubule component of the cardiac muscle cell cytoskeleton, which was responsible for the cellular contractile dysfunction observed. The linked microtubule and contractile abnormalities were persistent and thus may have significance for the deterioration of initially compensatory cardiac hypertrophy into congestive heart failure.

  14. Regulation of tissue morphodynamics: an important role for actomyosin contractility

    PubMed Central

    Siedlik, Michael J.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Forces arising from contractile actomyosin filaments help shape tissue form during morphogenesis. Developmental events that result from actomyosin contractility include tissue elongation, bending, budding, and collective migration. Here, we highlight recent insights into these morphogenetic processes from the perspective of actomyosin contractility as a key regulator. Emphasis is placed on a range of results obtained through live imaging, culture, and computational methods. Combining these approaches in the future has the potential to generate a robust, quantitative understanding of tissue morphodynamics. PMID:25748251

  15. Active material based active sealing technology: Part 1. Active seal requirements vs. active material actuator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher P.; Carter, William; Herrera, Guillermo A.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Bazzi, Imad F.

    2010-04-01

    Current seals used for vehicle closures/swing panels are essentially flexible, frequently hollow structures whose designs are constrained by numerous requirements, many of them competing, including door closing effort (both air bind and seal compression), sound isolation, prevention of water leaks, and accommodation of variations in vehicle build. This paper documents the first portion of a collaborative research study/exploration of the feasibility of and approaches for using active materials with shape and stiffness changing attributes to produce active seal technologies, seals with improved performance. An important design advantage of an active material approach compared to previous active seal technologies is the distribution of active material regions throughout the seal length, which would enable continued active function even with localized failure. Included as a major focus of this study was the assessment of polymeric active materials because of their potential ease of integration into the current seal manufacturing process. In Part 1 of this study, which is documented in this paper, potential materials were evaluated in terms of their cost, activation mechanisms, and mechanical and actuation properties. Based on these properties, simple designs were proposed and utilized to help determine which materials are best suited for active seals. Shape memory alloys (SMA) and electroactive polymers (EAP) were judged to be the most promising.

  16. The use of a compact protable microcomputer system (EPSON HX 20) to measure on-line the contractile activity of the digestive tract from eight channels. Application to pharmacological tests.

    PubMed

    Hachet, T; Bueno, L; Fioramonti, J; Rode, C

    1986-09-01

    The chronically prepared gut with strain-gauge transducers is a useful model to evaluate the effects of drugs affecting the digestive motility in fed and fasted animals. This paper describes a rapid and reproducible on-line microcomputerized technique to evaluate continuously, 23 hr per day, the level of gut motility using a portable compact microcomputer (EPSON HX 20). The gastric, intestinal, and colonic motility indexes were automatically determined from the surface of the contractile waves from eight different sites over periods of time varying from 1 to 120 min. This system has been successfully used to investigate the motor effects of spasmolytic or antidiarrheal drugs inravenously (N-butyl-hyoscine, trospium, secoverine, and prifinium) or orally (trimebutine, loperamide) administered in conscious, fed dogs. PMID:3755780

  17. On intrinsic stress fiber contractile forces in semilunar heart valve interstitial cells using a continuum mixture model.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yusuke; Buchanan, Rachel M; Sacks, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    Heart valve interstitial cells (VICs) play a critical role in the maintenance and pathophysiology of heart valve tissues. Normally quiescent in the adult, VICs can become activated in periods of growth and disease. When activated, VICs exhibit increased levels of cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, and upregulated expression and strong contraction of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) fibers. However, it remains unknown how expression and contraction of the α-SMA fibers, which vary among different VIC types, contribute to the overall VIC mechanical responses, including the nucleus and cytoskeleton contributions. In the present study, we developed a novel solid-mixture model for VIC biomechanical behavior that incorporated 1) the underlying cytoskeletal network, 2) the oriented α-SMA stress fibers with passive elastic and active contractile responses, 3) a finite deformable elastic nucleus. We implemented the model in a full 3D finite element simulation of a VIC based on known geometry. Moreover, we examined the respective mechanical responses of aortic and pulmonary VICs (AVICs and PVICs, respectively), which are known to have different levels of α-SMA expression levels and contractile behaviors. To calibrate the model, we simulated the combined mechanical responses of VICs in both micropipette aspiration (MA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. These two states were chosen as the VICs were under significantly different mechanical loading conditions and activation states, with the α-SMA fibers inactivated in the MA studies while fully activated in the AFM studies. We also used the AFM to study the mechanical property of the nucleus. Our model predicted that the substantial differences found in stiffening of the AVIC compared to the PVICs was due to a 9 to 16 times stronger intrinsic AVIC α-SMA stress fiber contractile force. Model validation was done by simulating a traction force microscopy experiment to estimate the forces the VICs

  18. Assembly and positioning of actomyosin rings by contractility and planar cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Sehring, Ivonne M; Recho, Pierre; Denker, Elsa; Kourakis, Matthew; Mathiesen, Birthe; Hannezo, Edouard; Dong, Bo; Jiang, Di

    2015-01-01

    The actomyosin cytoskeleton is a primary force-generating mechanism in morphogenesis, thus a robust spatial control of cytoskeletal positioning is essential. In this report, we demonstrate that actomyosin contractility and planar cell polarity (PCP) interact in post-mitotic Ciona notochord cells to self-assemble and reposition actomyosin rings, which play an essential role for cell elongation. Intriguingly, rings always form at the cells′ anterior edge before migrating towards the center as contractility increases, reflecting a novel dynamical property of the cortex. Our drug and genetic manipulations uncover a tug-of-war between contractility, which localizes cortical flows toward the equator and PCP, which tries to reposition them. We develop a simple model of the physical forces underlying this tug-of-war, which quantitatively reproduces our results. We thus propose a quantitative framework for dissecting the relative contribution of contractility and PCP to the self-assembly and repositioning of cytoskeletal structures, which should be applicable to other morphogenetic events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09206.001 PMID:26486861

  19. Assembly and positioning of actomyosin rings by contractility and planar cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Sehring, Ivonne M; Recho, Pierre; Denker, Elsa; Kourakis, Matthew; Mathiesen, Birthe; Hannezo, Edouard; Dong, Bo; Jiang, Di

    2015-01-01

    The actomyosin cytoskeleton is a primary force-generating mechanism in morphogenesis, thus a robust spatial control of cytoskeletal positioning is essential. In this report, we demonstrate that actomyosin contractility and planar cell polarity (PCP) interact in post-mitotic Ciona notochord cells to self-assemble and reposition actomyosin rings, which play an essential role for cell elongation. Intriguingly, rings always form at the cells' anterior edge before migrating towards the center as contractility increases, reflecting a novel dynamical property of the cortex. Our drug and genetic manipulations uncover a tug-of-war between contractility, which localizes cortical flows toward the equator and PCP, which tries to reposition them. We develop a simple model of the physical forces underlying this tug-of-war, which quantitatively reproduces our results. We thus propose a quantitative framework for dissecting the relative contribution of contractility and PCP to the self-assembly and repositioning of cytoskeletal structures, which should be applicable to other morphogenetic events. PMID:26486861

  20. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.J.; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.; Bridgland-Taylor, M.; Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P.

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.

  1. Cellular Polarization and Contractility in Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utuje, Kazage J. Christophe; Notbohm, Jacob; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Gweon, Bomi; Jang, Hwanseok; Park, Yongdoo; Shin, Jennifer; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Collective cell migration drives many biological processes such as metastasis, morphogenesis and wound healing. These coordinated motions are driven by active forces. The physical nature of these forces and the mechanisms by which they generate collective cell migration are still not fully understood. We have developed a minimum physical model of a cell monolayer as an elastic continuum whose deformation field is coupled to two internal degrees of freedom: the concentration of a chemical signal, controlling cell Contractility, and the polarization field controlling the direction of local cell motion. By combining theory with experiments, we show that these two internal variables account for the sloshing waves and the systematic deviations of the direction of cell polarization from that of local cell velocity observed in confined cell monolayers. KJCU and MCM were supported by the Simons Foundation.

  2. Dietary Fat Influences the Expression of Contractile and Metabolic Genes in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Komiya, Yusuke; Razin, Farzaneh Rahimi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Sato, Yusuke; Nakamura, Mako; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich), fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich), or lard (low in PUFAs) were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake. PMID:24244634

  3. Impaired pulmonary artery contractile responses in a rat model of microgravity: role of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyhan, Daniel; Kim, Soonyul; Dunbar, Stacey; Li, Dechun; Shoukas, Artin; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2002-01-01

    Vascular contractile hyporesponsiveness is an important mechanism underlying orthostatic intolerance after microgravity. Baroreceptor reflexes can modulate both pulmonary resistance and capacitance function and thus cardiac output. We hypothesized, therefore, that pulmonary vasoreactivity is impaired in the hindlimb-unweighted (HLU) rat model of microgravity. Pulmonary artery (PA) contractile responses to phenylephrine (PE) and U-46619 (U4) were significantly decreased in the PAs from HLU vs. control (C) animals. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-5) M) enhanced the contractile responses in the PA rings from both C and HLU animals and completely abolished the differential responses to PE and U4 in HLU vs. C animals. Vasorelaxant responses to ACh were significantly enhanced in PA rings from HLU rats compared with C. Moreover, vasorelaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were also significantly enhanced. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and soluble guanlyl cyclase expression were significantly enhanced in PA and lung tissue from HLU rats. In marked contrast, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was unchanged in lung tissue. These data support the hypothesis that vascular contractile responsiveness is attenuated in PAs from HLU rats and that this hyporesponsiveness is due at least in part to increased nitric oxide synthase activity resulting from enhanced eNOS expression. These findings may have important implications for blood volume distribution and attenuated stroke volume responses to orthostatic stress after microgravity exposure.

  4. Regional left ventricular myocardial contractility and stress in a finite element model of posterobasal myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Jonathan F; Sun, Kay; Zhang, Zhihong; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Ge, Liang; Saloner, David; Wallace, Arthur W; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M

    2011-04-01

    Recently, a noninvasive method for determining regional myocardial contractility, using an animal-specific finite element (FE) model-based optimization, was developed to study a sheep with anteroapical infarction (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), p. 111001). Using the methodology developed in the previous study (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), p. 111001), which incorporates tagged magnetic resonance images, three-dimensional myocardial strains, left ventricular (LV) volumes, and LV cardiac catheterization pressures, the regional myocardial contractility and stress distribution of a sheep with posterobasal infarction were investigated. Active material parameters in the noninfarcted border zone (BZ) myocardium adjacent to the infarct (T(max_B)), in the myocardium remote from the infarct (T(max_R)), and in the infarct (T(max_I)) were estimated by minimizing the errors between FE model-predicted and experimentally measured systolic strains and LV volumes using the previously developed optimization scheme. The optimized T(max_B) was found to be significantly depressed relative to T(max_R), while T(max_I) was found to be zero. The myofiber stress in the BZ was found to be elevated, relative to the remote region. This could cause further damage to the contracting myocytes, leading to heart failure. PMID:21428685

  5. Dynamic myosin phosphorylation regulates contractile pulses and tissue integrity during epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Claudia G.; Tworoger, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Apical constriction is a cell shape change that promotes epithelial bending. Activation of nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) by kinases such as Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is important to generate contractile force during apical constriction. Cycles of Myo-II assembly and disassembly, or pulses, are associated with apical constriction during Drosophila melanogaster gastrulation. It is not understood whether Myo-II phosphoregulation organizes contractile pulses or whether pulses are important for tissue morphogenesis. Here, we show that Myo-II pulses are associated with pulses of apical Rok. Mutants that mimic Myo-II light chain phosphorylation or depletion of myosin phosphatase inhibit Myo-II contractile pulses, disrupting both actomyosin coalescence into apical foci and cycles of Myo-II assembly/disassembly. Thus, coupling dynamic Myo-II phosphorylation to upstream signals organizes contractile Myo-II pulses in both space and time. Mutants that mimic Myo-II phosphorylation undergo continuous, rather than incremental, apical constriction. These mutants fail to maintain intercellular actomyosin network connections during tissue invagination, suggesting that Myo-II pulses are required for tissue integrity during morphogenesis. PMID:25092658

  6. Dynamic myosin phosphorylation regulates contractile pulses and tissue integrity during epithelial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Tworoger, Mike; Martin, Adam C

    2014-08-01

    Apical constriction is a cell shape change that promotes epithelial bending. Activation of nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) by kinases such as Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is important to generate contractile force during apical constriction. Cycles of Myo-II assembly and disassembly, or pulses, are associated with apical constriction during Drosophila melanogaster gastrulation. It is not understood whether Myo-II phosphoregulation organizes contractile pulses or whether pulses are important for tissue morphogenesis. Here, we show that Myo-II pulses are associated with pulses of apical Rok. Mutants that mimic Myo-II light chain phosphorylation or depletion of myosin phosphatase inhibit Myo-II contractile pulses, disrupting both actomyosin coalescence into apical foci and cycles of Myo-II assembly/disassembly. Thus, coupling dynamic Myo-II phosphorylation to upstream signals organizes contractile Myo-II pulses in both space and time. Mutants that mimic Myo-II phosphorylation undergo continuous, rather than incremental, apical constriction. These mutants fail to maintain intercellular actomyosin network connections during tissue invagination, suggesting that Myo-II pulses are required for tissue integrity during morphogenesis. PMID:25092658

  7. Isotonic contractile impairment due to genetic CLC-1 chloride channel deficiency in myotonic mouse diaphragm muscle.

    PubMed

    van Lunteren, Erik; Pollarine, Jennifer; Moyer, Michelle

    2007-07-01

    The hallmark of genetic CLC-1 chloride channel deficiency in myotonic humans, goats and mice is delayed muscle relaxation resulting from persistent electrical discharges. In addition to the ion channel defect, muscles from myotonic humans and mice also have major changes in fibre type and myosin isoform composition, but the extent to which this affects isometric contractions remains controversial. Many muscles, including the diaphragm, shorten considerably during normal activities, but shortening contractions have never been assessed in myotonic muscle. The present study tested the hypothesis that CLC-1 deficiency leads to an impairment of muscle isotonic contractile performance. This was tested in vitro on diaphragm muscle from SWR/J-Clcn1(adr-mto)/J myotonic mice. The CLC-1-deficient muscle demonstrated delayed relaxation, as expected. During the contractile phase, there were significant reductions in power and work across a number of stimulation frequencies and loads in CLC-1-deficient compared with normal muscle, the magnitude of which in many instances exceeded 50%. Reductions in shortening and velocity of shortening occurred, and were more pronounced when calculated as a function of absolute than relative load. However, the maximal unloaded shortening velocity calculated from Hill's equation was not altered significantly. The impaired isotonic contractile performance of CLC-1-deficient muscle persisted during fatigue-inducing stimulation. These data indicate that genetic CLC-1 chloride channel deficiency in mice not only produces myotonia but also substantially worsens the isotonic contractile performance of diaphragm muscle. PMID:17483199

  8. A device for rapid and quantitative measurement of cardiac myocyte contractility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitas, Angelo; Malhotra, Ricky; Li, Tao; Herron, Todd; Jalife, José

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac contractility is the hallmark of cardiac function and is a predictor of healthy or diseased cardiac muscle. Despite advancements over the last two decades, the techniques and tools available to cardiovascular scientists are limited in their utility to accurately and reliably measure the amplitude and frequency of cardiomyocyte contractions. Isometric force measurements in the past have entailed cumbersome attachment of isolated and permeabilized cardiomyocytes to a force transducer followed by measurements of sarcomere lengths under conditions of submaximal and maximal Ca2+ activation. These techniques have the inherent disadvantages of being labor intensive and costly. We have engineered a micro-machined cantilever sensor with an embedded deflection-sensing element that, in preliminary experiments, has demonstrated to reliably measure cardiac cell contractions in real-time. Here, we describe this new bioengineering tool with applicability in the cardiovascular research field to effectively and reliably measure cardiac cell contractility in a quantitative manner. We measured contractility in both primary neonatal rat heart cardiomyocyte monolayers that demonstrated a beat frequency of 3 Hz as well as human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with a contractile frequency of about 1 Hz. We also employed the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (100 nmol l-1) and observed that our cantilever demonstrated high sensitivity in detecting subtle changes in both chronotropic and inotropic responses of monolayers. This report describes the utility of our micro-device in both basic cardiovascular research as well as in small molecule drug discovery to monitor cardiac cell contractions.

  9. The formins Cdc12 and For3 cooperate during contractile ring assembly in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Valerie C.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Kovar, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Both de novo–assembled actin filaments at the division site and existing filaments recruited by directional cortical transport contribute to contractile ring formation during cytokinesis. However, it is unknown which source is more important. Here, we show that fission yeast formin For3 is responsible for node condensation into clumps in the absence of formin Cdc12. For3 localization at the division site depended on the F-BAR protein Cdc15, and for3 deletion was synthetic lethal with mutations that cause defects in contractile ring formation. For3 became essential in cells expressing N-terminal truncations of Cdc12, which were more active in actin assembly but depended on actin filaments for localization to the division site. In tetrad fluorescence microscopy, double mutants of for3 deletion and cdc12 truncations were severely defective in contractile ring assembly and constriction, although cortical transport of actin filaments was normal. Together, these data indicate that different formins cooperate in cytokinesis and that de novo actin assembly at the division site is predominant for contractile ring formation. PMID:24127216

  10. Cardiac-Specific Knockout of ETA Receptor Mitigates Paraquat-Induced Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxing; Lu, Songhe; Zheng, Qijun; Hu, Nan; Yu, Wenjun; Li, Na; Liu, Min; Gao, Beilei; Zhang, Guoyong; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Haichang

    2016-07-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dim ethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium dichloride), a highly toxic quaternary ammonium herbicide widely used in agriculture, exerts potent toxic prooxidant effects resulting in multi-organ failure including the lung and heart although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests possible involvement of endothelin system in paraquat-induced acute lung injury. This study was designed to examine the role of endothelin receptor A (ETA) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury. Wild-type (WT) and cardiac-specific ETA receptor knockout mice were challenged to paraquat (45 mg/kg, i.p.) for 48 h prior to the assessment of echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, as well as apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Levels of the mitochondrial proteins for biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation including UCP2, HSP90 and PGC1α were evaluated. Our results revealed that paraquat elicited cardiac enlargement, mechanical anomalies including compromised echocardiographic parameters (elevated left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters as well as reduced factional shortening), suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, overt apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. ETA receptor knockout itself failed to affect myocardial function, apoptosis, mitochondrial integrity and mitochondrial protein expression. However, ETA receptor knockout ablated or significantly attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) defect, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Taken together, these findings revealed that endothelin system in particular the ETA receptor may be involved in paraquat-induced toxic myocardial contractile anomalies possibly related to apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. PMID:26089164

  11. Heme-induced contractile dysfunction in human cardiomyocytes caused by oxidant damage to thick filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Gerardo; Jeney, Viktória; Tóth, Attila; Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Huynh, An T; Hajnal, Csaba; Kalász, Judit; Pásztor, Enikő T; Édes, István; Gram, Magnus; Akerström, Bo; Smith, Ann; Eaton, John W; Balla, György; Papp, Zoltán; Balla, József

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular free heme predisposes to oxidant-mediated tissue damage. We hypothesized that free heme causes alterations in myocardial contractility via disturbed structure and/or regulation of the contractile proteins. Isometric force production and its Ca(2+)-sensitivity (pCa50) were monitored in permeabilized human ventricular cardiomyocytes. Heme exposure altered cardiomyocyte morphology and evoked robust decreases in Ca(2+)-activated maximal active force (Fo) while increasing Ca(2+)-independent passive force (F passive). Heme treatments, either alone or in combination with H2O2, did not affect pCa50. The increase in F passive started at 3 µM heme exposure and could be partially reversed by the antioxidant dithiothreitol. Protein sulfhydryl (SH) groups of thick myofilament content decreased and sulfenic acid formation increased after treatment with heme. Partial restoration in the SH group content was observed in a protein running at 140 kDa after treatment with dithiothreitol, but not in other proteins, such as filamin C, myosin heavy chain, cardiac myosin binding protein C, and α-actinin. Importantly, binding of heme to hemopexin or alpha-1-microglobulin prevented its effects on cardiomyocyte contractility, suggesting an allosteric effect. In line with this, free heme directly bound to myosin light chain 1 in human cardiomyocytes. Our observations suggest that free heme modifies cardiac contractile proteins via posttranslational protein modifications and via binding to myosin light chain 1, leading to severe contractile dysfunction. This may contribute to systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunctions in hemolytic diseases, heart failure, and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26409224

  12. Inhibition of tissue transglutaminase 2 attenuates contractility of pregnant human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Joelle; Warren, Averil Y; Goodson, Yvonne J; Hill, Stephen J; Khan, Raheela N; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-04-01

    Premature delivery remains a serious risk factor in pregnancy, with currently licensed tocolytics unable to offer significant improvement in neonatal outcome. Further understanding of the regulators of uterine contractility is required to enable the development of novel and more effective tocolytic therapies. The transglutaminase family is a class of calcium-dependent, transamidating enzymes, of which tissue transglutaminase 2 is a multifunctional enzyme with roles in cell survival, migration, adhesion, and contractility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this enzyme in regulating the contractility of pregnant human myometrium. Tissue strips from biopsy samples obtained at elective cesarean section were either allowed to contract spontaneously or induced to contract with oxytocin, phenylephrine, or bradykinin. Activity integrals, used to measure contractile activity, were taken following cumulative additions of the reversible, polyamine transglutaminase inhibitors cystamine and mono-dansylcadaverine and the irreversible, site-specific transglutaminase inhibitors N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-6-dimethylsulfonium-5-oxo-L-norleucine and 1,3-dimethyl-2[(oxopropyl)thio]imidazolium. The ability of cystamine and mono-dansylcadaverine to affect oxytocin-mediated calcium mobilization within primary cultured myometrial cells was also measured utilizing a calcium indicator. All inhibitors attenuated myometrial contractions in a concentration-dependent manner independent of the method of contraction stimulus. Similarly cultured myometrial cells preincubated with cystamine and mono-dansylcadaverine displayed an altered calcium response to oxytocin stimulation. Our findings demonstrate a potential role for tissue transglutaminase 2 in regulating uterine contractility in pregnant human myometrium that may be associated with the calcium signaling cascade required for contraction. PMID:21123816

  13. Emerging trends in the pathophysiology of lymphatic contractile function

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Davis, Michael J.; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic contractile dysfunction is central to a number of pathologies that affect millions of people worldwide. Due to its critical role in the process of inflammation, a dysfunctional lymphatic system also compromises the immune response, further exacerbating a number of inflammation related diseases. Despite the critical physiological functions accomplished by the transport of lymph, a complete understanding of the contractile machinery of the lymphatic system lags far behind that of the blood vasculature. However, there has been a surge of recent research focusing on different mechanisms that underlie both physiological and pathophysiological aspects of lymphatic contractile function. This review summarizes those emerging paradigms that shed some novel insights into the contractile physiology of the lymphatics in normal as well as different disease states. In addition, this review emphasizes the recent progress made in our understanding of various contractile parameters and regulatory elements that contribute to the normal functioning of the lymphatics. PMID:25617600

  14. Influence of prostaglandins on contractility of the isolated human cervical muscle.

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Sahni, S; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1984-03-01

    The contractile activity of smooth muscle from the pregnant and nonpregnant human cervix uteri was studied in organ bath experiments. Several patterns of spontaneous activity with varying frequency and amplitude were observed. Prostaglandin E2 inhibited muscle activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and total inhibition was achieved in pregnant tissue at extremely low concentrations. Prostaglandin F2 alpha, on the other hand, did not influence spontaneous contractions. Prostaglandin I2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha had an inhibitory effect but only at comparatively high concentrations. 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid and indomethacin abolished spontaneous contractions, indicating a regulatory influence of endogenous prostanoids on cervical contractility. The extreme sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 and enhancement of its action during early pregnancy provide evidence for a specific role of this compound in controlling cervical smooth muscle activity in the human female. PMID:6583598

  15. Upper airway collapsibility, and contractile and metabolic characteristics of musculus uvulae.

    PubMed

    Sériès, F; Côté, C; Simoneau, J A; St Pierre, S; Marc, I

    1996-06-01

    Physiologic, metabolic, and histochemical characteristics of one upper airway (UA) dilator muscle (musculus uvulae; MU) differ between sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and nonapneic snorers. We hypothesized that these differences in MU characteristics could result from the cumulative effects of the diurnal and nocturnal intermittent contractions of UA muscles in order to compensate for a permanent increase in UA collapsibility. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of UA collapsibility on MU characteristics. Seventeen SAHS and three nonapneic snorers, who underwent an uvulo-palato-pharyngoplasty as a treatment for snoring or SAHS, participated in the study. Awake and sleeping UA critical pressure (Pcrit) was measured during continuous positive or negative airway pressure trials by analysis of the relationship between maximal inspiratory flow and the upstream pressure of flow-limited breathing cycles. Maximum isometric twitch (Pt) and tetanic tension (Po), fatigability measurements, activities of marker enzymes for anaerobic and aerobic-oxidative profile, and fiber type proportions and areas of MU were determined. There was a significant positive relationship between Pt, Po, and Pcrit measured during wakefulness and sleep. The fatigability index was negatively correlated with awake Pcrit values (r = -0.79). Activity level of the anaerobic enzymes as well as the percentage of surface occupied by type I and type IIA muscle fibers as correlated witb awake Pcrit. We conclude that the differences in awake UA collapsibility help to determine the contractile properties and metabolic and histochemical characteristics of MU. PMID:8666167

  16. Effects of Acetaminophen on Left Atrial Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jun-Hei; Cheng, Pao-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Hsueng; Chen, Yao-Chang; Hong, Po-Da

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been observed that acetaminophen shows cardioprotective efficacy in mammals. In this study, we investigated the electromechanical effects of acetaminophen on the left atrium (LA). Methods Conventional microelectrodes were used to record the action potentials (AP) in rabbit LA preparations. The action potential duration (APD) at repolarization levels of 90%, 50% and 20% of the AP amplitude (APD90, APD50, and APD20, respectively), resting membrane potential, and contractile force were measured during 2 Hz electrical stimulation before and after sequential acetaminophen administration to the LA. Results Acetaminophen (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mM) reduced APD20 from 9.4 ± 1.2 to 8.0 ± 1.1 (p < 0.05), 7.1 ± 0.8 (p < 0.05), 7.8 ± 1.1, and 6.8 ± 1.2 ms (p < 0.05), respectively, and APD50 from 20.2 ± 1.9 to 17.4 ± 2.0, 15.6 ± 1.8 (p < 0.05), 15.8 ± 2.2 (p < 0.05), and 14.1 ± 2.4 ms (p < 0.05), respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. APD90 was reduced from 72.0 ± 3.6 to 64.7 ± 4.2, 61.9 ± 4.3, 60.5 ± 3.7, and 53.4 ± 4.4 ms (p < 0.05), respectively. Acetaminophen increased LA contractility from 45 ± 9 to 52 ± 10 (p < 0.05), 55 ± 9 (p < 0.01), 58 ± 9 (p < 0.01), and 60 ± 9 mg (p < 0.01), respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of the NOS inhibitor L-NAME or PKG-I inhibitor DT-2, additional acetaminophen treatment did not significantly increase LA contractility. Conclusions Acetaminophen modulated the electromechanical characteristics of LA by inhibiting the NOS and PKG I pathway, and then contributed to the positive inotropic effect. PMID:27471362

  17. Contractile function of the myocardium with prolonged hypokinesia in patients with surgical tuberculosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakutayeva, V. P.; Matiks, N. I.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the myocardial contractile function with hypokinesia in surgical tuberculosis patients are discussed. The phase nature of the changes is noted, specifically the changes in the various systoles, diastole, and other parts of the cardiac cycle. The data compare these changes during confinement in bed with no motor activity to and with a return to motor activity after leaving the in-bed regimen.

  18. Considerations For Contractile Electroactive Materials and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lenore Rasmussen, Lewis D. Meixler and Charles A. Gentile

    2012-02-29

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) that bend, swell, ripple (first generation materials), and now contract with low electric input (new development) have been produced. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments, molecular modeling, electrolyte experiments, pH experiments, and an ionic concentration experiment were used to determine the chain of events that occur during contraction and, reciprocally, expansion when the polarity is reversed, in these ionic EAPs. Plasma treatment of the electrodes, along with other strategies, allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface, analogous to nerves and tendons moving with muscles during movement. Challenges involved with prototyping actuation using contractile EAPs are also discussed.

  19. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Materials and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lenore Rasmussen, David Schramm, Paul Rasmussen, Kevin Mullaly, Ras Labs, LLC, Intelligent Materials for Prosthetics & Automation, Lewis D. Meixler, Daniel Pearlman and Alice Kirk

    2011-05-23

    Ras Labs produces contractile electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple, and contract (new development) with low electric input. In addition, Ras Labs produces EAP materials that quickly contract and expand, repeatedly, by reversing the polarity of the electric input, which can be cycled. This phenomenon was explored using molecular modeling, followed by experimentation. Applied voltage step functions were also investigated. High voltage steps followed by low voltage steps produced a larger contraction followed by a smaller contraction. Actuator control by simply adjusting the electric input is extremely useful for biomimetic applications. Muscles are able to partially contract. If muscles could only completely contract, nobody could hold an egg, for example, without breaking it. A combination of high and low voltage step functions could produce gross motor function and fine manipulation within the same actuator unit. Plasma treated electrodes with various geometries were investigated as a means of providing for more durable actuation.

  20. Considerations for contractile electroactive materials and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Schramm, David; Rasmussen, Paul; Mullally, Kevin; Meixler, Lewis D.; Pearlman, Daniel; Kirk, Alice

    2011-04-01

    Ras Labs produces contractile electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple, and contract (new development) with low electric input. In addition, Ras Labs produces EAP materials that quickly contract and expand, repeatedly, by reversing the polarity of the electric input, which can be cycled. This phenomenon was explored using molecular modeling, followed by experimentation. Applied voltage step functions were also investigated. High voltage steps followed by low voltage steps produced a larger contraction followed by a smaller contraction. Actuator control by simply adjusting the electric input is extremely useful for biomimetic applications. Muscles are able to partially contract. If muscles could only completely contract, nobody could hold an egg, for example, without breaking it. A combination of high and low voltage step functions could produce gross motor function and fine manipulation within the same actuator unit. Plasma treated electrodes with various geometries were investigated as a means of providing for more durable actuation.

  1. Mechanisms of uterine contractility in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kupittayanant, S; Kupittayanant, P; Suwannachat, C

    2009-10-01

    The physiological basis of uterine contractility in laying hens is not well understood, but a better understanding is important for understanding the mechanisms governing egg laying. The characteristics of uterine contractility arising spontaneously or by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) stimulation were therefore examined and the underlying mechanisms investigated. Uterine strips were isolated from laying hens 4h before oviposition and force measured. These strips remained healthy in vitro and produced regular spontaneous contractions. The contractions were phasic and could be recorded for several hours. Exposure to nifedipine, the specific L-type Ca channel blocker, led to the abolition of force. The contraction amplitude and frequency were significantly increased when Bay K8644, an agonist of L-type Ca channels, was applied or when the concentration of extracellular Ca was elevated. Spontaneous contractions were also significantly inhibited by wortmannin, the specific inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). When 1 microM PGF(2alpha) was applied to spontaneously contracting uterus, it significantly increased their amplitude and frequency of the contractions. As with spontaneous contractions, PGF(2alpha)-induced force production was abolished by nifedipine and wortmannin. In the absence of extracellular Ca, a small but tonic force was generated upon application of PGF(2alpha) which was not affected by wortmannin. Thus, extracellular Ca entry and MLCK phosphorylation are essential for uterine force production occurring spontaneously or by PGF(2alpha) stimulation. Our data supports the conclusion that the pathway dependent on extracellular Ca entry and MLCK phosphorylation predominates during PGF(2alpha) stimulation but suggests some involvement of an alternative force-producing pathway, presumably Ca-sensitization. PMID:19081211

  2. Longitudinal decline of lower extremity muscle power in healthy and mobility-limited older adults: influence of muscle mass, strength, composition, neuromuscular activation and single fiber contractile properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This longitudinal study examined the major physiological mechanisms that determine the age related loss of lower extremity muscle power in two distinct groups of older humans. We hypothesized that after ~3 years of follow-up, mobility-limited older adults (mean age: 77.2 +/- 4, n = 22, 12 females) w...

  3. Neuropilin 1 Is Essential for Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility and Motility in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Maiko; Mahmoud, Marwa; Evans, Ian M.; Zachary, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a non-tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and class 3 semaphorins, playing a role in angiogenesis and neuronal axon guidance, respectively. NRP1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMC) but the functional role of NRP1 in SMC has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated the biological relevance of NRP1 in SMC in vivo by generating mice with SMC-specific Nrp1 deficiency. Methods Conditional gene targeting generated SMC-specific Nrp1 knockout mice (Nrp1SMKO) in which Cre recombinase is driven by the smooth muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (smMHC) promoter. Results SMC-specific Nrp1 deficiency resulted in a significant reduction in intestinal length by 6 months, and, by 18 months, in severe constipation, and enlargement of the intestine consistent with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. These effects were associated with significant thinning of the intestinal smooth muscle, and decreased intestinal contractility. Expression of contractile proteins was reduced in Nrp1SMKO mice, including the smMHC isoform, SMB, whereas we observed a significant increase in the expression of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3/KCa2.3), implicated in negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Conclusions Nrp1 deficiency in visceral SMC results in adult-onset defects in gastrointestinal contractility and motility and causes a shift to a less contractile SMC phenotype. These findings indicate a new role for Nrp1 in the maintenance of the visceral SMC contractile phenotype required for normal GI motility in aged mice. PMID:25659123

  4. Mechanism underlying the reversal of contractility dysfunction in experimental colitis by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Khan, I; Oriowo, M A

    2006-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with reduced colonic contractility and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. In this study a possible role of cyclooxygenase-2 in and the underlying mechanism of the reduced contractility were investigated in experimental colitis. The effects of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor were examined on colonic contractility and MAP kinase p38 and ERK(1/2) expression. Colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley male rats by intra-colonic instillation of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS; 40 mg/rat in 50 ethanol). The animals were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n=9) received meloxicam (3 mg/kg-day) gavage 1 h before and 1 day (Group 2) after induction of colitis. Group 3 (n=9) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a similar manner and served as colitic control. The non colitic control animals received meloxicam in a similar manner. The animals were sacrificed after 5 days of treatment, colon was cleaned with PBS and colonic smooth muscle was obtained which was used in this study. Meloxicam treatment given 1 h before or 1 day after administration of colitis restored the reduced colonic contractility without affecting the sensitivity to carbachol. The levels of colonic smooth muscle IL-1beta mRNA, PGE(2), ERK(1/2), p38, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase activity and colonic mass were increased, whereas the body weight was decreased due to TNBS. The changes except colonic muscle mass and p38 expression were reversed by meloxicam treatment. These findings indicate that restoration of reduced colonic contractility by meloxicam is mediated by ERK(1/2), and that ERK(1/2) may serve as an important anti inflammatory target for treatment of colitis. PMID:16835710

  5. Essential Opposite Roles of ERK and Akt Signaling in Cardiac Steroid-Induced Increase in Heart Contractility.

    PubMed

    Buzaglo, Nahum; Rosen, Haim; Ben Ami, Hagit Cohen; Inbal, Adi; Lichtstein, David

    2016-05-01

    Interaction of cardiac steroids (CS) with the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase elicits, in addition to inhibition of the enzyme's activity, the activation of intracellular signaling such as extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt). We hypothesized that the activities of these pathways are involved in CS-induced increase in heart contractility. This hypothesis was tested using in vivo and ex vivo wild type (WT) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) atpase1a-deficient zebrafish (accordion, acc mutant) experimental model. Heart contractility was measured in vivo and in primary cardiomyocytes in WT zebrafish larvae and acc mutant. Ca(2+) transients were determined ex vivo in adult zebrafish hearts. CS dose dependently augmented the force of contraction of larvae heart muscle and cardiomyocytes and increased Ca(2+) transients in WT but not in acc mutant. CS in vivo increased the phosphorylation rate of ERK and Akt in the adult zebrafish heart of the two strains. Pretreatment of WT zebrafish larvae or cardiomyocytes with specific MAPK inhibitors completely abolished the CS-induced increase in contractility. On the contrary, pretreatment with Akt inhibitor significantly enhanced the CS-induced increase in heart contractility both in vivo and ex vivo without affecting CS-induced Ca(2+) transients. Furthermore, pretreatment of the acc mutant larvae or cardiomyocytes with Akt inhibitor restored the CS-induced increase in heart contractility also without affecting Ca(2+) transients. These results support the notion that the activity of MAPK pathway is obligatory for CS-induced increases in heart muscle contractility. Akt activity, on the other hand, plays a negative role, via Ca(2+) independent mechanisms, in CS action. These findings point to novel potential pharmacological intervention to increase CS efficacy. PMID:26941172

  6. Stretch-induced increase in cardiac contractility is independent of myocyte Ca2+ while block of stretch channels by streptomycin improves contractility after ischemic stunning

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Samhita S; Camara, Amadou K S; Aldakkak, Mohammed; Heisner, James S; Stowe, David F

    2015-01-01

    Stretching the cardiac left ventricle (LV) enhances contractility but its effect on myoplasmic [Ca2+] is controversial. We measured LV pressure (LVP) and [Ca2+] as a function of intra-LV stretch in guinea pig intact hearts before and after 15 min global stunning ± perfusion with streptomycin (STM), a stretch-activated channel blocker. LV wall [Ca2+] was measured by indo-1 fluorescence and LVP by a saline-filled latex balloon inflated in 50 μL steps to stretch the LV. We implemented a mathematical model to interpret cross-bridge dynamics and myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness from the instantaneous relationship between [Ca2+] and LVP ± stretching. We found that: (1) stretch enhanced LVP but not [Ca2+] before and after stunning in either control (CON) and STM groups, (2) after stunning [Ca2+] increased in both groups although higher in STM versus CON (56% vs. 39%), (3) STM-enhanced LVP after stunning compared to CON (98% vs. 76% of prestunning values), and (4) stretch-induced effects on LVP were independent of [Ca2+] before or after stunning in both groups. Mathematical modeling suggested: (1) cooperativity in cross-bridge kinetics and myofilament Ca2+ handling is reduced after stunning in the unstretched heart, (2) stunning results in depressed myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in the presence of attached cross-bridges regardless of stretch, and (3) the initial mechanism responsible for increased contractility during stretch may be enhanced formation of cross-bridges. Thus stretch-induced enhancement of contractility is not due to increased [Ca2+], whereas enhanced contractility after stunning in STM versus CON hearts results from improved Ca2+ handling and/or enhanced actinomyosin cross-bridge cycling. PMID:26290532

  7. Effect of vasopressin on electrical and contractile responses of vascular smooth muscles in animals of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Frol'kis, I.V.

    1987-07-01

    The authors analyze the effects of vasopressin on electrical and contractile properties of smooth-muscle cells of the femoral artery of adult and old rats and the possible role of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in its realization. Calculations were done with the aid of standard curves and radioactivity was counted on a liquid scintillator.

  8. Phophatidylinositol-3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K regulates contractile protein accumulation in airway myocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halayko, Andrew J; Kartha, Sreedharan; Stelmack, Gerald L; McConville, John; Tam, John; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Forsythe, Sean M; Hershenson, Marc B; Solway, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle in airway remodeling results from myocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Skeletal and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is induced by phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI(3) kinase) via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). We tested the hypothesis that this pathway regulates contractile protein accumulation in cultured canine airway myocytes acquiring an elongated contractile phenotype in serum-free culture. In vitro assays revealed a sustained activation of PI(3) kinase and p70S6K during serum deprivation up to 12 d, with concomitant accumulation of SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) proteins. Immunocytochemistry revealed that activation of PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K occurred almost exclusively in myocytes that acquire the contractile phenotype. Inhibition of PI(3) kinase or mTOR with LY294002 or rapamycin blocked p70S6K activation, prevented formation of large elongated contractile phenotype myocytes, and blocked accumulation of SM22 and smMHC. Inhibition of MEK had no effect. Steady-state mRNA abundance for SM22 and smMHC was unaffected by blocking p70S6K activation. These studies provide primary evidence that PI(3) kinase and mTOR activate p70S6K in airway myocytes leading to the accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins, differentiation, and growth of large, elongated contractile phenotype airway smooth muscle cells. PMID:15105162

  9. The myogenic electric organ of Sternopygus macrurus: a non-contractile tissue with a skeletal muscle transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Manoj P.; Chaidez, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In most electric fish species, the electric organ (EO) derives from striated muscle cells that suppress many muscle properties. In the gymnotiform Sternopygus macrurus, mature electrocytes, the current-producing cells of the EO, do not contain sarcomeres, yet they continue to make some cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins and the muscle transcription factors (MTFs) that induce their expression. In order to more comprehensively examine the transcriptional regulation of genes associated with the formation and maintenance of the contractile sarcomere complex, results from expression analysis using qRT-PCR were informed by deep RNA sequencing of transcriptomes and miRNA compositions of muscle and EO tissues from adult S. macrurus. Our data show that: (1) components associated with the homeostasis of the sarcomere and sarcomere-sarcolemma linkage were transcribed in EO at levels similar to those in muscle; (2) MTF families associated with activation of the skeletal muscle program were not differentially expressed between these tissues; and (3) a set of microRNAs that are implicated in regulation of the muscle phenotype are enriched in EO. These data support the development of a unique and highly specialized non-contractile electrogenic cell that emerges from a striated phenotype and further differentiates with little modification in its transcript composition. This comprehensive analysis of parallel mRNA and miRNA profiles is not only a foundation for functional studies aimed at identifying mechanisms underlying the transcription-independent myogenic program in S. macrurus EO, but also has important implications to many vertebrate cell types that independently activate or suppress specific features of the skeletal muscle program. PMID:27114860

  10. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, Frank; Grevendonk, Lotte; Verboven, Kenneth; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type II (+23±7%) and IIa (+23±6%,) CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13±7% and +45±20%) and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9±2.0% and HCTR: -2.5±1.2%). Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21±4%, time to exhaustion +24±5%, VO2max +17±5%) and lean tissue mass (+1.4±0.5%) only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73±19% and 86±27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively. Conclusion High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:26418222

  11. Contractile dysfunction of the shoulder (rotator cuff tendinopathy): an overview

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Chris

    2012-01-01

    It is now over a decade since the features defining a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder were first reported. Since this time, some progress has been made to better understand this mechanical syndrome. In response to these developments, this narrative review will explore current understanding in relation to pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this syndrome with reference to literature specifically relating to contractile dysfunction but also literature relating to rotator cuff tendinopathy where necessary. The review not only identifies the strengths of the mechanical diagnosis and therapy approach with reference to a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder but also identifies where further progress needs to be made. PMID:24179329

  12. The Fiber Contractility and Cytoskeleton Losses in Space are Less Pronounced in Mongolian Gerbils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipets, E. N.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Ogneva, I. V.; Vikhliantsev, I. M.; Karaduleva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Kuznetsov, S. L.; Podlubnaia, Z. A.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    This work was purposed on the comparison of space flight effects on m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior of Mongolian gerbils. The animals have been flown onboard biosatellite Foton-M3 for 12 days. Contractile properties of single skinned muscle fibers were studied. It was revealed that diameter of m. soleus skinned fibers and maximal isometric tension were decreased by 19.7% and 21.8% respectively. The Ca-sensitivity reduction wasn't significant, that was in accordance with absence of changes of titin and nebulin relative content in soleus and minor manifestations in slow-to-fast fiber ratio (9%, p<0.05). There weren't observed significant changes of the same parameters in m. tibialis anterior. Ultimately the fiber contractility and cytoskeleton losses in space are less pronounced in Mongolian gerbils than in rats.

  13. Apelin administration ameliorates high fat diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ceylan-Isik, Asli F; Kandadi, Machender R; Xu, Xihui; Hua, Yinan; Chicco, Adam J; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2013-10-01

    Apelin has been recognized as an adipokine that plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism and is credited with antiobesity and antidiabetic properties. This study was designed to examine the effect of exogenous apelin on obesity-associated cardiac dysfunction. Oral glucose tolerance test, echocardiography, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were assessed in adult C57BL/6J mice fed - low or a - high-fat diet for 24weeks followed by apelin treatment (100nmol/kg, i.p. for 2weeks). High-fat diet resulted in increased left ventricular diastolic and systolic diameters, and wall thickness, compromised fractional shortening, impaired cardiomyocyte mechanics (peak-shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, and duration of shortening and relengthening) and compromised intracellular Ca(2+) handling, all of which were reconciled by apelin. Apelin treatment also reversed high fat diet-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, ER stress, and autophagy. In addition, microRNAs (miR) -133a, miR-208 and miR-1 which were elevated following high-fat feeding were attenuated by apelin treatment. In cultured cardiomyocytes apelin reconciled palmitic acid-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Collectively, these data depict a pivotal role of apelin in obesity-associated cardiac contractile dysfunction, suggesting a therapeutic potential of apelin in the management of cardiac dysfunction associated with obesity. PMID:23859766

  14. Uterine contractility of plants used to facilitate childbirth in Nigerian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Attah, Alfred F.; O'Brien, Margaret; Koehbach, Johannes; Sonibare, Mubo A.; Moody, Jones O.; Smith, Terry J.; Gruber, Christian W.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Pregnant women in Nigeria use plant preparations to facilitate childbirth and to reduce associated pain. The rationale for this is not known and requires pharmacological validation. Aim of study Obtain primary information regarding the traditional use of plants and analyze their uterine contractility at cellular level. Materials and methods Semi-structured, open interviews using questionnaires of traditional healthcare professionals and other informants triggered the collection and identification of medicinal plant species. The relative traditional importance of each medicinal plant was determined by its use-mention index. Extracts of these plants were analyzed for their uterotonic properties on an in vitro human uterine cell collagen model. Result The plants Calotropis procera, Commelina africana, Duranta repens, Hyptis suaveolens, Ocimum gratissimum, Saba comorensis, Sclerocarya birrea, Sida corymbosa and Vernonia amygdalina were documented and characterized. Aqueous extracts from these nine plants induced significant sustained increases in human myometrial smooth muscle cell contractility, with varying efficiencies, depending upon time and dose of exposure. Conclusion The folkloric use of several plant species during childbirth in Nigeria has been validated. Seven plants were for the first time characterized to have contractile properties on uterine myometrial cells. The results serve as ideal starting points in the search for safe, longer lasting, effective and tolerable uterotonic drug leads. PMID:22766472

  15. Thin filament incorporation of an engineered cardiac troponin C variant (L48Q) enhances contractility in intact cardiomyocytes from healthy and infarcted hearts

    PubMed Central

    Feest, Erik R.; Korte, F. Steven; Tu, An-yue; Dai, Jin; Razumova, Maria V.; Murry, Charles E.; Regnier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many current pharmaceutical therapies for systolic heart failure target intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) metabolism, or cardiac troponin C (cTnC) on thin filaments, and can have significant side-effects, including arrhythmias or adverse effects on diastolic function. In this study, we tested the feasibility of directly increasing the Ca2+ binding properties of cTnC to enhance contraction independent of [Ca2+]i in intact cardiomyocytes from healthy and myocardial infarcted (MI) hearts. Specifically, cardiac thin filament activation was enhanced through adenovirus-mediated over-expression of a cardiac troponin C (cTnC) variant designed to have increased Ca2+ binding affinity conferred by single amino acid substitution (L48Q). In skinned cardiac trabeculae and myofibrils we and others have shown that substitution of L48Q cTnC for native cTnC increases Ca2+ sensitivity of force and the maximal rate of force development. Here we introduced L48Q cTnC into myofilaments of intact cardiomyocytes via adeno-viral transduction to deliver cDNA for the mutant or wild type (WT) cTnC protein. Using video-microscopy to monitor cell contraction, relaxation, and intracellular Ca2+ transients (Fura-2), we report that incorporation of L48Q cTnC significantly increased contractility of cardiomyocytes from healthy and MI hearts without adversely affecting Ca2+ transient properties or relaxation. The improvements in contractility from L48Q cTnC expression are likely the result of enhanced contractile efficiency, as intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitudes were not affected. Expression and incorporation of L48Q cTnC into myofilaments was confirmed by Western blot analysis of myofibrils from transduced cardiomyocytes, which indicated replacement of 18±2% of native cTnC with L48Q cTnC. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of directly targeting cardiac thin filament proteins to enhance cardiomyocyte contractility that is impaired following MI. PMID:24690333

  16. Effect of quercetin on colon contractility and L-type Ca(2+) channels in colon smooth muscle of guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Feng; Ouyang, Shou; Li, Shi-Ying; Lin, Yan-Fei; Ouyang, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Chun-Jing

    2009-12-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on colon contractility and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the single smooth muscle cell isolated from the proximal colon of guinea-pig and to clarify whether its effect on L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) would be related to its myorelaxing properties. Colon smooth muscle strips were used to take contractile tension recordings. Smooth muscle cells were freshly isolated from the proximal colon of guinea-pig by means of papain treatment. I(Ba,L) (barium instead of calcium as current carrier) was measured by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that quercetin relaxed colon muscle strips in a concentration-dependent manner and antagonized the contractile effect of acetylcholine and neostigmine. Preincubation with indomethcin [cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor] and methylene blue [guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor] significantly attenuated the relaxing effect of quercetin, respectively. Quercetin increased I(Ba,L) in a concentration- [EC(50)= (7.59+/-0.38) mumol/L] and voltage-dependent pattern, and shifted the maximum of the current-voltage curve by 10 mV in the depolarizing direction without modifying the threshold potential for Ca(2+) influx. Quercetin shifted the steady-state inactivation curve toward more positive potentials by approximately 3.75 mV without affecting the slope of activation and inactivation curve. H-89 (PKA inhibitor) abolished quercetin-induced I(Ba,L) increase, while cAMP enhanced the quercetin-induced I(Ba,L) increase. The patch-clamp results proved that quercetin increased I(Ba,L) via PKA pathway. It is therefore suggested that the relaxing effect of quercetin attributes to the interaction of GC and COX stimulation, as well as the antagonism effect on acetylcholine, which hierarchically prevails over the increase in the Ca(2+) influx to be expected from I(Ca,L) stimulation. PMID:20029691

  17. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates cardiac contractile dysfunction in an Akt2-knockout murine model of insulin resistance: role of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Nan; Dong, Maolong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas now being recognized as an endogenous signaling molecule in multiple organ systems, in particular, the cardiovascular system. H2S is known to regulate cardiac function and protect against ischemic injury. However, little information is available regarding the effect of H2S on cardiac function in insulin resistance. This study was designed to examine the impact of H2S supplementation on cardiac function using an Akt2 knockout model of insulin resistance. Wild-type and Akt2 knockout mice were treated with NaHS (50 μM·kg−1·day−1 ip for 10 days) prior to evaluation of echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile, and intracellular Ca2+ properties, apoptosis, and mitochondrial damage. Our results revealed that Akt2 ablation led to overtly enlarged ventricular end-systolic diameter, reduced myocardial and cardiomyocyte contractile function, and disrupted intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and apoptosis, the effects of which were ameliorated by H2S. Furthermore, Akt2 knockout displayed upregulated apoptotic protein markers (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspace-12) and mitochondrial damage (reduced aconitase activity and NAD+, elevated cytochrome-c release from mitochondria) along with reduced phosphorylation of PTEN, Akt, and GSK3β in the absence of changes in pan protein expression, the effects of which were abolished or significantly ameliorated by H2S treatment. In vitro data revealed that H2S-induced beneficial effect against Akt2 ablation was obliterated by mitochondrial uncoupling. Taken together, our findings suggest the H2S may reconcile Akt2 knockout-induced myocardial contractile defect and intracellular Ca2+ mishandling, possibly via attenuation of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis. PMID:24622975

  18. Acute effects of taurine on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ accumulation and contractility in human type I and type II skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Dutka, T L; Lamboley, C R; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2014-10-01

    Taurine occurs in high concentrations in muscle and is implicated in numerous physiological processes, yet its effects on many aspects of contractility remain unclear. Using mechanically skinned segments of human vastus lateralis muscle fibers, we characterized the effects of taurine on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ accumulation and contractile apparatus properties in type I and type II fibers. Prolonged myoplasmic exposure (>10 min) to taurine substantially increased the rate of accumulation of Ca2+ by the SR in both fiber types, with no change in the maximum amount accumulated; no such effect was found with carnosine. SR Ca2+ accumulation was similar with 10 or 20 mM taurine, but was significantly slower at 5 mM taurine. Cytoplasmic taurine (20 mM) had no detectable effects on the responsiveness of the Ca2+ release channels in either fiber type. Taurine caused a small increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in type I fibers, but type II fibers were unaffected; maximum Ca(2+)-activated force was unchanged in both cases. The effects of taurine on SR Ca2+ accumulation (1) only became apparent after prolonged cytoplasmic exposure, and (2) persisted for some minutes after complete removal of taurine from the cytoplasm, consistent with the hypothesis that the effects were due to an action of taurine from inside the SR. In summary, taurine potentiates the rate of SR Ca2+ uptake in both type I and type II human fibers, possibly via an action from within the SR lumen, with the degree of potentiation being significantly reduced at low physiological taurine levels. PMID:25123198

  19. [Oregano: properties, composition and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Arcila-Lozano, Cynthia Cristina; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Lecona-Uribe, Salvador; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2004-03-01

    The oregano spice includes various plant species. The most common are the genus Origanum, native of Europe, and the Lippia, native of Mexico. Among the species of Origanum. their most important components are the limonene, gamma-cariofilene, rho-cymenene, canfor, linalol, alpha-pinene, carvacrol and thymol. In the genus Lippia, the same compounds can be found. The oregano composition depends on the specie, climate, altitude, time of recollection and the stage of growth. Some of the properties of this plant's extracts are being currently studied due to the growing interest for substituting synthetic additives commonly found in foods. Oregano has a good antioxidant capacity and also presents antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, among others. These are all characteristics of interest for the food industry because they may enhance the safety and stability of foods. There are also some reports regarding the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effect of oregano; representing an alternative for the potential treatment and/or prevention of certain chronic ailments, like cancer. PMID:15332363

  20. Macroscopic stiffening of embryonic tissues via microtubules, RhoGEF and the assembly of contractile bundles of actomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Kim, Hye Young; Wang, James H.-C.; Davidson, Lance A.

    2010-01-01

    During morphogenesis, forces generated by cells are coordinated and channeled by the viscoelastic properties of the embryo. Microtubules and F-actin are considered to be two of the most important structural elements within living cells accounting for both force production and mechanical stiffness. In this paper, we investigate the contribution of microtubules to the stiffness of converging and extending dorsal tissues in Xenopus laevis embryos using cell biological, biophysical and embryological techniques. Surprisingly, we discovered that depolymerizing microtubules stiffens embryonic tissues by three- to fourfold. We attribute tissue stiffening to Xlfc, a previously identified RhoGEF, which binds microtubules and regulates the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Combining drug treatments and Xlfc activation and knockdown lead us to the conclusion that mechanical properties of tissues such as viscoelasticity can be regulated through RhoGTPase pathways and rule out a direct contribution of microtubules to tissue stiffness in the frog embryo. We can rescue nocodazole-induced stiffening with drugs that reduce actomyosin contractility and can partially rescue morphogenetic defects that affect stiffened embryos. We support these conclusions with a multi-scale analysis of cytoskeletal dynamics, tissue-scale traction and measurements of tissue stiffness to separate the role of microtubules from RhoGEF activation. These findings suggest a re-evaluation of the effects of nocodazole and increased focus on the role of Rho family GTPases as regulators of the mechanical properties of cells and their mechanical interactions with surrounding tissues. PMID:20630946

  1. Optimum periodicity of repeated contractile actions applied in mass transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically repeated periodic patterns are abundant in natural and artificial systems, such as tides, heart beats, stock prices, and the like. The characteristic repeatability and periodicity are expected to be optimized in effective system-specific functions. In this study, such optimum periodicity is experimentally evaluated in terms of effective mass transport using one-valve and multi-valve systems working in contractile fluid flows. A set of nanoscale gating functions is utilized, operating in nanocomposite networks through which permeates selectively pass under characteristic contractile actions. Optimized contractile periodicity exists for effective energy impartment to flow in a one-valve system. In the sequential contractile actions for a multi-valve system, synchronization with the fluid flow is critical for effective mass transport. This study provides fundamental understanding on the various repeated periodic patterns and dynamic repeatability occurring in nature and mechanical systems, which are useful for broad applications.

  2. Geometrical Origins of Contractility in Disordered Actomyosin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Movement within eukaryotic cells largely originates from localized forces exerted by myosin motors on scaffolds of actin filaments. Although individual motors locally exert both contractile and extensile forces, large actomyosin structures at the cellular scale are overwhelmingly contractile, suggesting that the scaffold serves to favor contraction over extension. While this mechanism is well understood in highly organized striated muscle, its origin in disordered networks such as the cell cortex is unknown. Here, we develop a mathematical model of the actin scaffold's local two- or three-dimensional mechanics and identify four competing contraction mechanisms. We predict that one mechanism dominates, whereby local deformations of the actin break the balance between contraction and extension. In this mechanism, contractile forces result mostly from motors plucking the filaments transversely rather than buckling them longitudinally. These findings shed light on recent in vitro experiments and provide a new geometrical understanding of contractility in the myriad of disordered actomyosin systems found in vivo.

  3. Optimum periodicity of repeated contractile actions applied in mass transport

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically repeated periodic patterns are abundant in natural and artificial systems, such as tides, heart beats, stock prices, and the like. The characteristic repeatability and periodicity are expected to be optimized in effective system-specific functions. In this study, such optimum periodicity is experimentally evaluated in terms of effective mass transport using one-valve and multi-valve systems working in contractile fluid flows. A set of nanoscale gating functions is utilized, operating in nanocomposite networks through which permeates selectively pass under characteristic contractile actions. Optimized contractile periodicity exists for effective energy impartment to flow in a one-valve system. In the sequential contractile actions for a multi-valve system, synchronization with the fluid flow is critical for effective mass transport. This study provides fundamental understanding on the various repeated periodic patterns and dynamic repeatability occurring in nature and mechanical systems, which are useful for broad applications. PMID:25622949

  4. Modification of aortic contractility in the cardiomyopathic hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, E. C.; Lambert, C.; Lamontagne, D.

    1996-01-01

    1. The functional arterial response in the cardiomyopathic hamster compared with inbred control, was investigated in thoracic aortae. For this purpose, vessels were cut into 6-mm rings and mounted in 20-ml organ baths. 2. In a first experimental series, the function of the endothelium was evaluated. Dose-response curves to acetylcholine (0.1 nM-10 microM) on phenylephrine (0.3 microM)-preconstricted rings of cardiomyopathic hamsters and inbred age-matched controls were comparable (log[EC50] of -7.08 +/- 0.12 and -7.18 +/- 0.12, respectively; n = 4). 3. Changes in contractility of cardiomyopathic hamster endothelium-denuded aortae were investigated. Dose-response curves to phenylephrine (1 nM-0.1 mM), angiotensin II (10 pM-0.3 microM), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (1 nM-0.1 mM) and KCl (1 mM-0.1 M) were performed. Increased sensitivity in cardiomyopathic hamster aortae, compared to controls, was observed with phenylephrine (log[EC50] of -7.25 +/- 0.05 and -6.83 +/- 0.05, respectively, n = 6, P < 0.001) and angiotensin II (log[EC50] of -8.67 +/- 0.07 and -8.26 +/- 0.06, respectively, n = 6, P = 0.001) but not with 5-HT or KCl. A decreased maximum response in cardiomyopathic, compared to control, was observed with 5-HT (1.28 +/- 0.06 g vs 1.56 +/- 0.07 g, respectively, n = 6, P = 0.03). Comparable results were found in aortae with an intact endothelium. 4. No difference in the maximum contractile response to the G-protein activator, NaF (3, 10 and 30 mM) was observed in either group of animals. 5. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1-10 microM) was used to assess changes in the activity of protein kinase C (PKC). Contractility to PMA was increased in cardiomyopathic hamster aortae compared to controls (0.22 +/- 0.02 g vs 0.07 +/- 0.03 g at 3 microM, respectively, n = 6, P = 0.003). 6. Finally, cardiomyopathic hamsters aortae were found to be less sensitive when exposed to increasing concentrations of Ca2+ (10 microM-1 mM) in KCl-depolarized rings (0.58 +/- 0.04 g in

  5. Contractile effects of intracellularly administered angiotensin II are partially dependent on membrane receptors internalization in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, G; Costuleanu, M; Slătineanu, S M; Foia, L; Costuleanu, N; Costuleanu, A

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we used the isolated rat aorta as a model to characterize the modulation of contractile effects of extra- and intracellularly administered angiotensin II by dithiothreitol (DTT) and hyperosmotic sucrose. DTT inactivation of AT1 receptor as well as disruption of the clathrin-coated pits by hyperosmotic sucrose significantly inhibited the contraction induced by intracellularly administered AII. We suggest that these intracellular effects of angiotensin peptides are associated with AT1 receptor activation/internalization and may thus be part of the mechanism of angiotensin peptides direct contractile effects in the vascular smooth muscle. PMID:12092224

  6. Cortical Contractility Triggers a Stochastic Switch to Fast Amoeboid Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Summary 3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761

  7. A small-molecule inhibitor of sarcomere contractility suppresses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Green, Eric M.; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Anderson, Robert L.; Evanchik, Marc J.; Gorham, Joshua M.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Henze, Marcus; Kawas, Raja; Oslob, Johan D.; Rodriguez, Hector M.; Song, Yonghong; Wan, William; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Spudich, James A.; McDowell, Robert S.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of heart muscle that can be caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins. Clinical diagnosis depends on an abnormal thickening of the heart, but the earliest signs of disease are hyperdynamic contraction and impaired relaxation. Whereas some in vitro studies of power generation by mutant and wild-type sarcomere proteins are consistent with mutant sarcomeres exhibiting enhanced contractile power, others are not. We identified a small molecule, MYK-461, that reduces contractility by decreasing the adenosine triphosphatase activity of the cardiac myosin heavy chain. Here we demonstrate that early, chronic administration of MYK-461 suppresses the development of ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray, and myocardial fibrosis and attenuates hypertrophic and profibrotic gene expression in mice harboring heterozygous human mutations in the myosin heavy chain. These data indicate that hyperdynamic contraction is essential for HCM pathobiology and that inhibitors of sarcomere contraction may be a valuable therapeutic approach for HCM. PMID:26912705

  8. A small-molecule inhibitor of sarcomere contractility suppresses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Green, Eric M; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Anderson, Robert L; Evanchik, Marc J; Gorham, Joshua M; Harrison, Brooke C; Henze, Marcus; Kawas, Raja; Oslob, Johan D; Rodriguez, Hector M; Song, Yonghong; Wan, William; Leinwand, Leslie A; Spudich, James A; McDowell, Robert S; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E

    2016-02-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of heart muscle that can be caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins. Clinical diagnosis depends on an abnormal thickening of the heart, but the earliest signs of disease are hyperdynamic contraction and impaired relaxation. Whereas some in vitro studies of power generation by mutant and wild-type sarcomere proteins are consistent with mutant sarcomeres exhibiting enhanced contractile power, others are not. We identified a small molecule, MYK-461, that reduces contractility by decreasing the adenosine triphosphatase activity of the cardiac myosin heavy chain. Here we demonstrate that early, chronic administration of MYK-461 suppresses the development of ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray, and myocardial fibrosis and attenuates hypertrophic and profibrotic gene expression in mice harboring heterozygous human mutations in the myosin heavy chain. These data indicate that hyperdynamic contraction is essential for HCM pathobiology and that inhibitors of sarcomere contraction may be a valuable therapeutic approach for HCM. PMID:26912705

  9. Contractile function is unaltered in diaphragm from mice lacking calcium release channel isoform 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, J. S.; Takeshima, H.; Hamilton, S. L.; Reid, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle expresses at least two isoforms of the calcium release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR1 and RyR3). Whereas the function of RyR1 is well defined, the physiological significance of RyR3 is unclear. Some authors have suggested that RyR3 participates in excitation-contraction coupling and that RyR3 may specifically confer resistance to fatigue. To test this hypothesis, we measured contractile function of diaphragm strips from adult RyR3-deficient mice (exon 2-targeted mutation) and their heterozygous and wild-type littermates. In unfatigued diaphragm, there were no differences in isometric contractile properties (twitch characteristics, force-frequency relationships, maximal force) among the three groups. Our fatigue protocol (30 Hz, 0.25 duty cycle, 37 degrees C) depressed force to 25% of the initial force; however, lack of RyR3 did not accelerate the decline in force production. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to higher frequencies and was depressed in fatigued diaphragm; lack of RyR3 did not exaggerate these changes. We therefore provide evidence that RyR3 deficiency does not alter contractile function of adult muscle before, during, or after fatigue.

  10. Cannabinoid-induced actomyosin contractility shapes neuronal morphology and growth

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Alexandre B; Ricobaraza, Ana; Carrel, Damien; Jordan, Benjamin M; Rico, Felix; Simon, Anne; Humbert-Claude, Marie; Ferrier, Jeremy; McFadden, Maureen H; Scheuring, Simon; Lenkei, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are recently recognized regulators of brain development, but molecular effectors downstream of type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R)-activation remain incompletely understood. We report atypical coupling of neuronal CB1Rs, after activation by endo- or exocannabinoids such as the marijuana component ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, to heterotrimeric G12/G13 proteins that triggers rapid and reversible non-muscle myosin II (NM II) dependent contraction of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, through a Rho-GTPase and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). This induces rapid neuronal remodeling, such as retraction of neurites and axonal growth cones, elevated neuronal rigidity, and reshaping of somatodendritic morphology. Chronic pharmacological inhibition of NM II prevents cannabinoid-induced reduction of dendritic development in vitro and leads, similarly to blockade of endocannabinoid action, to excessive growth of corticofugal axons into the sub-ventricular zone in vivo. Our results suggest that CB1R can rapidly transform the neuronal cytoskeleton through actomyosin contractility, resulting in cellular remodeling events ultimately able to affect the brain architecture and wiring. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03159.001 PMID:25225054

  11. Intravital imaging of intestinal lacteals unveils lipid drainage through contractility

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Kibaek; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Park, Intae; Kim, Yeseul; Ahn, Soyeon; Park, Dae-Young; Hong, Young-Kwon; Alitalo, Kari; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Pilhan

    2015-01-01

    Lacteals are lymphatic vessels located at the center of each intestinal villus and provide essential transport routes for lipids and other lipophilic molecules. However, it is unclear how absorbed molecules are transported through the lacteal. Here, we used reporter mice that express GFP under the control of the lymphatic-specific promoter Prox1 and a custom-built confocal microscope and performed intravital real-time visualization of the absorption and transport dynamics of fluorescence-tagged fatty acids (FAs) and various exogenous molecules in the intestinal villi in vivo. These analyses clearly revealed transepithelial absorption of these molecules via enterocytes, diffusive distribution over the lamina propria, and subsequent transport through lacteals. Moreover, we observed active contraction of lacteals, which seemed to be directly involved in dietary lipid drainage. Our analysis revealed that the smooth muscles that surround each lacteal are responsible for contractile dynamics and that lacteal contraction is ultimately controlled by the autonomic nervous system. These results indicate that the lacteal is a unique organ-specific lymphatic system and does not merely serve as a passive conduit but as an active pump that transports lipids. Collectively, using this efficient imaging method, we uncovered drainage of absorbed molecules in small intestinal villus lacteals and the involvement of lacteal contractibility. PMID:26436648

  12. Intravital imaging of intestinal lacteals unveils lipid drainage through contractility.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kibaek; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Park, Intae; Kim, Yeseul; Ahn, Soyeon; Park, Dae-Young; Hong, Young-Kwon; Alitalo, Kari; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Pilhan

    2015-11-01

    Lacteals are lymphatic vessels located at the center of each intestinal villus and provide essential transport routes for lipids and other lipophilic molecules. However, it is unclear how absorbed molecules are transported through the lacteal. Here, we used reporter mice that express GFP under the control of the lymphatic-specific promoter Prox1 and a custom-built confocal microscope and performed intravital real-time visualization of the absorption and transport dynamics of fluorescence-tagged fatty acids (FAs) and various exogenous molecules in the intestinal villi in vivo. These analyses clearly revealed transepithelial absorption of these molecules via enterocytes, diffusive distribution over the lamina propria, and subsequent transport through lacteals. Moreover, we observed active contraction of lacteals, which seemed to be directly involved in dietary lipid drainage. Our analysis revealed that the smooth muscles that surround each lacteal are responsible for contractile dynamics and that lacteal contraction is ultimately controlled by the autonomic nervous system. These results indicate that the lacteal is a unique organ-specific lymphatic system and does not merely serve as a passive conduit but as an active pump that transports lipids. Collectively, using this efficient imaging method, we uncovered drainage of absorbed molecules in small intestinal villus lacteals and the involvement of lacteal contractibility. PMID:26436648

  13. Increased acetyl group availability enhances contractile function of canine skeletal muscle during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Timmons, J A; Poucher, S M; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Worrall, V; Macdonald, I A; Greenhaff, P L

    1996-02-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function is impaired during acute ischemia such as that experienced by peripheral vascular disease patients. We therefore, examined the effects of dichloroacetate, which can alter resting metabolism, on canine gracilis muscle contractile function during constant flow ischemia. Pretreatment with dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and resting acetylcarnitine concentration by approximately 4- and approximately 10-fold, respectively. After 20-min contraction the control group had demonstrated an approximately 40% reduction in isomeric tension whereas the dichloroacetate group had fatigued by approximately 25% (P < 0.05). Dichloroacetate resulted in less lactate accumulation (10.3 +/- 3.0 vs 58.9 +/- 10.5 mmol.kg-1 dry muscle [dm], P < 0.05) and phosphocreatine hydrolysis (15.6 +/- 6.3 vs 33.8 +/- 9.0 mmol.kg-1 dm, P < 0.05) during contraction. Acetylcarnitine concentration fell during contraction by 5.4 +/- 1.8 mmol.kg-1 dm in the dichloroacetate group but increased by 10.0 +/- 1.9 mmol.kg-1 dm in the control group. In conclusion, dichloroacetate enhanced contractile function during ischemia, independently of blood flow, such that it appears oxidative ATP regeneration is limited by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and acetyl group availability. PMID:8609248

  14. The effects of Ginseng Java root extract on uterine contractility in nonpregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Sukwan, Catthareeya; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng Java or Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Geartn has long been used in herbal recipes because of its various therapeutic properties. Ginseng Java is believed to be beneficial to the female reproductive system by inducing lactation and restoring uterine functions after the postpartum period. There are, however, no scientific data on verifying the effects on the uterus to support its therapeutic relevance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Ginseng Java root extract and its possible mechanism(s) of action on uterine contractility. Female virgin rats were humanely killed by CO2 asphyxia and uteri removed. Isometric force was measured in strips of longitudinal myometrium. The effects of Ginseng Java root extract at its IC50 concentration (0.23 mg/mL) on spontaneous, oxytocin‐induced (10 nmol/L), and depolarized (KCl 40 mmol/L) contraction were investigated. After establishing regular phasic contractions, the application of Java root extract significantly inhibited spontaneous uterine contractility (n =5). The extract also significantly inhibited the contraction induced by high KCl solution (n =5) and oxytocin (n =5). The extract also inhibited oxytocin‐induced contraction in the absence of external Ca entry (n =7) and the tonic force induced by oxytocin in the presence of high KCl solution. Taken together, the data demonstrate a potent and consistent ability of extract from Ginseng Java root to reduce myometrial contractility. The tocolytic effects were demonstrated on both spontaneous and agonist‐induced contractions. The fact that force was inhibited in depolarized conditions suggests that the possible mechanisms may be blockade of Ca influx via L‐type Ca channels. The data in Ca‐free solutions suggest that the extract also reduces IP3‐induced Ca release from the internal store. These tocolytic effects do not support the use of ginseng to help with postpartum contractility, but instead suggest it may be

  15. Pericyte contractility controls endothelial cell cycle progression and sprouting: insights into angiogenic switch mechanics.

    PubMed

    Durham, Jennifer T; Surks, Howard K; Dulmovits, Brian M; Herman, Ira M

    2014-11-01

    Microvascular stability and regulation of capillary tonus are regulated by pericytes and their interactions with endothelial cells (EC). While the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway has been implicated in modulation of pericyte contractility, in part via regulation of the myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), the mechanisms linking Rho GTPase activity with actomyosin-based contraction and the cytoskeleton are equivocal. Recently, the myosin phosphatase-RhoA-interacting protein (MRIP) was shown to mediate the RhoA/ROCK-directed MLCP inactivation in vascular smooth muscle. Here we report that MRIP directly interacts with the β-actin-specific capping protein βcap73. Furthermore, manipulation of MRIP expression influences pericyte contractility, with MRIP silencing inducing cytoskeletal remodeling and cellular hypertrophy. MRIP knockdown induces a repositioning of βcap73 from the leading edge to stress fibers; thus MRIP-silenced pericytes increase F-actin-driven cell spreading twofold. These hypertrophied and cytoskeleton-enriched pericytes demonstrate a 2.2-fold increase in contractility upon MRIP knockdown when cells are plated on a deformable substrate. In turn, silencing pericyte MRIP significantly affects EC cycle progression and angiogenic activation. When MRIP-silenced pericytes are cocultured with capillary EC, there is a 2.0-fold increase in EC cycle entry. Furthermore, in three-dimensional models of injury and repair, silencing pericyte MRIP results in a 1.6-fold elevation of total tube area due to EC network formation and increased angiogenic sprouting. The pivotal role of MRIP expression in governing pericyte contractile phenotype and endothelial growth should lend important new insights into how chemomechanical signaling pathways control the "angiogenic switch" and pathological angiogenic induction. PMID:25143350

  16. Chronic clenbuterol treatment compromises force production without directly altering skeletal muscle contractile machinery.

    PubMed

    Py, G; Ramonatxo, C; Sirvent, P; Sanchez, A M J; Philippe, A G; Douillard, A; Galbès, O; Lionne, C; Bonnieu, A; Chopard, A; Cazorla, O; Lacampagne, A; Candau, R B

    2015-04-15

    Clenbuterol is a β2 -adrenergic receptor agonist known to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotypic shift. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on contractile efficiency and explore the underlying mechanisms, i.e. the muscle contractile machinery and calcium-handling ability. Forty-three 6-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to one of six groups that were treated with either subcutaneous equimolar doses of clenbuterol (4 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) or saline solution for 9, 14 or 21 days. In addition to the muscle hypertrophy, although an 89% increase in absolute maximal tetanic force (Po ) was noted, specific maximal tetanic force (sPo) was unchanged or even depressed in the slow twitch muscle of the clenbuterol-treated rats (P < 0.05). The fit of muscle contraction and relaxation force kinetics indicated that clenbuterol treatment significantly reduced the rate constant of force development and the slow and fast rate constants of relaxation in extensor digitorum longus muscle (P < 0.05), and only the fast rate constant of relaxation in soleus muscle (P < 0.05). Myofibrillar ATPase activity increased in both relaxed and activated conditions in soleus (P < 0.001), suggesting that the depressed specific tension was not due to the myosin head alteration itself. Moreover, action potential-elicited Ca(2+) transients in flexor digitorum brevis fibres (fast twitch fibres) from clenbuterol-treated animals demonstrated decreased amplitude after 14 days (-19%, P < 0.01) and 21 days (-25%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, we showed that chronic clenbuterol treatment reduces contractile efficiency, with altered contraction and relaxation kinetics, but without directly altering the contractile machinery. Lower Ca(2+) release during contraction could partially explain these deleterious effects. PMID:25656230

  17. Chronic clenbuterol treatment compromises force production without directly altering skeletal muscle contractile machinery

    PubMed Central

    Py, G; Ramonatxo, C; Sirvent, P; Sanchez, A M J; Philippe, A G; Douillard, A; Galbès, O; Lionne, C; Bonnieu, A; Chopard, A; Cazorla, O; Lacampagne, A; Candau, R B

    2015-01-01

    Clenbuterol is a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist known to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotypic shift. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on contractile efficiency and explore the underlying mechanisms, i.e. the muscle contractile machinery and calcium-handling ability. Forty-three 6-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to one of six groups that were treated with either subcutaneous equimolar doses of clenbuterol (4 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline solution for 9, 14 or 21 days. In addition to the muscle hypertrophy, although an 89% increase in absolute maximal tetanic force (Po) was noted, specific maximal tetanic force (sPo) was unchanged or even depressed in the slow twitch muscle of the clenbuterol-treated rats (P < 0.05). The fit of muscle contraction and relaxation force kinetics indicated that clenbuterol treatment significantly reduced the rate constant of force development and the slow and fast rate constants of relaxation in extensor digitorum longus muscle (P < 0.05), and only the fast rate constant of relaxation in soleus muscle (P < 0.05). Myofibrillar ATPase activity increased in both relaxed and activated conditions in soleus (P < 0.001), suggesting that the depressed specific tension was not due to the myosin head alteration itself. Moreover, action potential-elicited Ca2+ transients in flexor digitorum brevis fibres (fast twitch fibres) from clenbuterol-treated animals demonstrated decreased amplitude after 14 days (−19%, P < 0.01) and 21 days (−25%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, we showed that chronic clenbuterol treatment reduces contractile efficiency, with altered contraction and relaxation kinetics, but without directly altering the contractile machinery. Lower Ca2+ release during contraction could partially explain these deleterious effects. PMID:25656230

  18. Role of microtubules in the contractile dysfunction of hypertrophied myocardium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zile, M. R.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Ishiguro, Y.; Conrad, C. H.; Buckley, J. M.; Morgan, J. P.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the ameliorative effects of microtubule depolymerization on cellular contractile dysfunction in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy apply at the tissue level. BACKGROUND: A selective and persistent increase in microtubule density causes decreased contractile function of cardiocytes from cats with hypertrophy produced by chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overloading. Microtubule depolymerization by colchicine normalizes contractility in these isolated cardiocytes. However, whether these changes in cellular function might contribute to changes in function at the more highly integrated and complex cardiac tissue level was unknown. METHODS: Accordingly, RV papillary muscles were isolated from 25 cats with RV pressure overload hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) for 4 weeks and 25 control cats. Contractile state was measured using physiologically sequenced contractions before and 90 min after treatment with 10(-5) mol/liter colchicine. RESULTS: The PAB significantly increased RV systolic pressure and the RV weight/body weight ratio in PAB; it significantly decreased developed tension from 59+/-3 mN/mm2 in control to 25+/-4 mN/mm2 in PAB, shortening extent from 0.21+/-0.01 muscle lengths (ML) in control to 0.12+/-0.01 ML in PAB, and shortening rate from 1.12+/-0.07 ML/s in control to 0.55+/-0.03 ML/s in PAB. Indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed that PAB muscles had a selective increase in microtubule density and that colchicine caused complete microtubule depolymerization in both control and PAB papillary muscles. Microtubule depolymerization normalized myocardial contractility in papillary muscles of PAB cats but did not alter contractility in control muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Excess microtubule density, therefore, is equally important to both cellular and to myocardial contractile dysfunction caused by chronic, severe pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. TRPM4 Is a Novel Component of the Adhesome Required for Focal Adhesion Disassembly, Migration and Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Mónica; Ortiz, Liliana; Recabarren, Tatiana; Romero, Anibal; Colombo, Alicia; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Varela, Diego; Rivas, José; Silva, Ian; Morales, Diego; Campusano, Camilo; Almarza, Oscar; Simon, Felipe; Toledo, Hector; Park, Kang-Sik; Trimmer, James S.; Cerda, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Cellular migration and contractility are fundamental processes that are regulated by a variety of concerted mechanisms such as cytoskeleton rearrangements, focal adhesion turnover, and Ca2+ oscillations. TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated non-selective cationic channel (Ca2+-NSCC) that conducts monovalent but not divalent cations. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify putative TRPM4-associated proteins. Interestingly, the largest group of these proteins has actin cytoskeleton-related functions, and among these nine are specifically annotated as focal adhesion-related proteins. Consistent with these results, we found that TRPM4 localizes to focal adhesions in cells from different cellular lineages. We show that suppression of TRPM4 in MEFs impacts turnover of focal adhesions, serum-induced Ca2+ influx, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rac activities, and results in reduced cellular spreading, migration and contractile behavior. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibition of TRPM4 activity alters cellular contractility in vivo, affecting cutaneous wound healing. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for a TRP channel specifically localized to focal adhesions, where it performs a central role in modulating cellular migration and contractility. PMID:26110647

  20. Evaluating the potential role of nitric oxide as a mediator of hydrostatic edema mediated intestinal contractile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shinil K.; Xue, Hasen; Jimenez, Fernando; Kots, Alexander Y.; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Uray, Karen S.; Walker, Peter A.; Moore-Olufemi, Stacey D.; Velez, Natalia; Stewart, Randolph H.; Laine, Glen A.; Cox, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Administration of L-nil, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), improves ileus in an animal model of resuscitation induced intestinal edema. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the iNOS/nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction pathway in intestinal edema. Materials and Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups; CONTROL and RESUS + VH (edema, 80cc/kg normal saline (resuscitation) with mesenteric venous hypertension). iNOS mRNA and protein, iNOS activity, NO tissue levels, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were measured. As a functional endpoint, we evaluated intestinal contractile strength and frequency in L-nil treated animals. Results Edema was associated with increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression without subsequent increases in iNOS activity or tissue NO levels. There was no significant change in sGC expression or increase in cGMP induced by edema. Administration of L-nil did not decrease edema development or preserve contractile strength, but increased contractile frequency. Conclusion Hydrostatic intestinal edema is not associated with increased iNOS activity or tissue NO levels. Administration of L-nil in edema increases intestinal contractile frequency. This may represent a potential mechanism for the amelioration of ileus seen with the administration of L-nil. PMID:20605598

  1. Skeletal Muscle Phospholipid Metabolism Regulates Insulin Sensitivity and Contractile Function.

    PubMed

    Funai, Katsuhiko; Lodhi, Irfan J; Spears, Larry D; Yin, Li; Song, Haowei; Klein, Samuel; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early defect in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lipid overload induces insulin resistance in muscle and alters the composition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle phospholipid metabolism regulates systemic glucose metabolism, we perturbed choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1), the terminal enzyme in the Kennedy pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In C2C12 cells, CEPT1 knockdown altered SR phospholipid composition and calcium flux. In mice, diet-induced obesity, which decreases insulin sensitivity, increased muscle CEPT1 expression. In high-fat diet-fed mice with skeletal muscle-specific knockout of CEPT1, systemic and muscle-based approaches demonstrated increased muscle insulin sensitivity. In CEPT1-deficient muscles, an altered SR phospholipid milieu decreased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase-dependent calcium uptake, activating calcium-signaling pathways known to improve insulin sensitivity. Altered muscle SR calcium handling also rendered these mice exercise intolerant. In obese humans, surgery-induced weight loss increased insulin sensitivity and decreased skeletal muscle CEPT1 protein. In obese humans spanning a spectrum of metabolic health, muscle CEPT1 mRNA was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that high-fat feeding and obesity induce CEPT1, which remodels the SR to preserve contractile function at the expense of insulin sensitivity. PMID:26512026

  2. Contractile Force of Human Extraocular Muscle: A Theoretical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongmei; Gao, Zhipeng; Chen, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The length-contractile force relationships of six human extraocular muscles (EOMs) in primary innervations should be determined during eye movement modeling and surgery of clinical EOMs. This study aims to investigate these relationships. Method. The proposal is based on the assumption that six EOMs have similar constitutive relationships, with the eye suspended in the primary position. The constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained by optimizing from previous experimental data and the theory of mechanical equilibrium using traditional model. Further, simulate the existing experiment of resistance force, and then compare the simulated results with the existing experimental results. Finally, the mechanical constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained. Results. The results show that the simulated resistance forces from the other four EOMs except for the horizontal recti well agree with previous experimental results. Conclusion. The mechanical constitutive relationships of six EOMs in primary innervations are obtained, and the rationality of the constitutive relationships is verified. Whereafter, the active stress-strain relationships of the six EOMs in the primary innervations are obtained. The research results can improve the eye movement model to predict the surgical amounts of EOMs before EOM surgery more precisely. PMID:27087774

  3. Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.

  4. Novel inhibition of contractility by wortmannin in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S J; Chang, C C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of wortmannin and 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1[4H]-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002), inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, on the contractile responses of murine skeletal muscle were studied. Wortmannin (10–100 μM) suppressed twitch and tetanic contraction evoked by field stimulation of diaphragm without causing elevation of muscle tone. The inhibition was quasi-irreversible with IC50∼15 μM. In contrast, LY294002 increased twitch responses and elevated muscle tone.Wortmannin reversibly depressed the maximal slope of action potential upstroke by ∼40% and inhibited the membrane depolarization and spontaneous burst of action potential induced by crotamine, a polypeptide toxin that activates the Na+ channel of skeletal muscle.Wortmannin inhibited contractures evoked by high K+, ryanodine and caffeine, but potentiated the contracture induced by rapamycin, which binds to myoplasmic FK506 binding protein, an immunophilin closely associated with the ryanodine receptor. The contractures elicited by cardiotoxin, which disrupts the integrity of sarcolemma and thereby elevates `myoplasmic' Ca2+ level, were suppressed only slightly.In placed left atrium and ventricular strip, wortmannin and LY294002 produced a positive inotropic effect.The results suggest that, in addition to depressing the Ca2+ mobilization from sarcoplasmic reticulum, wortmannin exerts a novel inhibitory action on the excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle but not in cardiac muscle. PMID:9692768

  5. The actions of neurotensin in rat bladder detrusor contractility

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xingyou; Bai, Xinyu; Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Longkun

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the expression, distribution and function of neurotensin (NTs) and two main neurotensin receptors (NTSR), NTSR1 and NTSR2 in normal rat urinary bladders. NTs is primarily located in the suburothelium and the interstitium of smooth muscle bundles. The NTSR1 and NTSR2 receptor subtypes are found to co-localize with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). NTs not only can directly act on bladder SMCs to induce intracellular calcium mobilization by activating the phospholipase C/inositol triphosphate (PLC/IP3) pathway, promoting extracellular calcium influx through a non-selective cation channels, but may be also involved in the modulation of the cholinergic system. Nowadays, the selective antimuscarinic drugs (solifenacin) and the selective beta 3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) are used as the first-line pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder (OAB), but without satisfactory treatment benefits in some patients. This study provided evidence suggesting that bladder NTs may play an important role in the regulation of micturition. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of NTs on bladder contractility and the underlying mechanism, which might reveal that the administration of NTSR antagonists can potentially relieve the symptoms of OAB by coordination with antimuscarinic pharmacotherapy. PMID:26053252

  6. Contractile Force of Human Extraocular Muscle: A Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongmei; Gao, Zhipeng; Chen, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The length-contractile force relationships of six human extraocular muscles (EOMs) in primary innervations should be determined during eye movement modeling and surgery of clinical EOMs. This study aims to investigate these relationships. Method. The proposal is based on the assumption that six EOMs have similar constitutive relationships, with the eye suspended in the primary position. The constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained by optimizing from previous experimental data and the theory of mechanical equilibrium using traditional model. Further, simulate the existing experiment of resistance force, and then compare the simulated results with the existing experimental results. Finally, the mechanical constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained. Results. The results show that the simulated resistance forces from the other four EOMs except for the horizontal recti well agree with previous experimental results. Conclusion. The mechanical constitutive relationships of six EOMs in primary innervations are obtained, and the rationality of the constitutive relationships is verified. Whereafter, the active stress-strain relationships of the six EOMs in the primary innervations are obtained. The research results can improve the eye movement model to predict the surgical amounts of EOMs before EOM surgery more precisely. PMID:27087774

  7. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Polymeric Materials and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Erickson, Carl J.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Gentile, Charles A.; Tilson, Charles; Bernasek, Stephen L.; Abelev, Esta

    2009-06-16

    Ras Labs produces electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple and now contract (new development) with low electric input. This is an important attribute because of the ability of contraction to produce life-like motion. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments were conducted to follow the movement of electrolytes and water in these EAPs when activated. Extreme temperature experiments were performed on the contractile EAPs with very favorable results. One of the biggest challenges in developing these actuators, however, is the electrode-EAP interface because of the pronounced movement of the EAP. Plasma treatments of metallic electrodes were investigated in order to improve the attachment of the embedded electrodes to the EAP material. Surface analysis, adhesive testing, and mechanical testing were conducted to test metal surfaces and metal-polymer interfaces. The nitrogen plasma treatment of titanium produced a strong metal-polymer interface; however, oxygen plasma treatment of both stainless steel and titanium produced even stronger metal-polymer interfaces. Plasma treatment of the electrodes allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface.

  8. [Contractile reaction of the myocardium of patients with heart diseases to chemical scarification of cell membranes].

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Tsyv'ian, P B; Markhasin, V S; Shtengol'd, E Sh

    1978-03-01

    Strips of the myocardium from the auricula atria of patients suffering from mitral stenosis (MS) and septal defects of the heart (SDH) removed during the operation were treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (DETA)--3mM--to increase the cell membrane permeability (scarification). The mechanical response of the contractile proteins to the change in the Ca2+ was recorded in the ethylene-hexaaminetetraacetic acid (EHTA)--3mM--against the background of increased membrane permeability to the Ca-EHTA complex permitting to regulate Ca2+ concentration in myofibrillae from 10(-9) to 10(-4)M. As shown, with the same threshold concentrations (5.10(-8)M) and saturation concentrations (10(-4)M) of Ca2+ the strips from the patients with MS developed the maximal tension per cross section unit of the strip half as great as the preparations from patients with SDH, this indicating a possible affection of the contractile proteins in the hearts of patients with MS. The ratio between the tension amplitudes under conditions of a complete calcium activation of the contractile proteins and a single isometric contraction for the preparations obtained from the patients with MS was 8 to 10, and with SDH--from 4 to 5. It is supposed that this was the result of more pronounced changes in the apparatus of electromechanical conjugation of the myocardium of patients suffering from MS. PMID:96886

  9. Canonical transient receptor potential 1 channel is involved in contractile function of glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Sours-Brothers, Sherry; Coleman, Rashadd; Ding, Min; Graham, Sarabeth; Kong, De-Hu; Ma, Rong

    2007-05-01

    Contractility of mesangial cells (MC) is tightly controlled by [Ca(2+)](i). Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane constitutes a major component of mesangial responses to vasoconstrictors. Canonical transient receptor potential 1 (TRPC1) is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel in a variety of cell types. This study was performed to investigate whether TRPC1 takes part in vasoconstrictor-induced mesangial contraction by mediating Ca(2+) entry. It was found that angiotensin II (AngII) evoked remarkable contraction of the cultured MC. Downregulation of TRPC1 using RNA interference significantly attenuated the contractile response. Infusion of AngII or endothelin-1 in rats caused a decrease in GFR. The GFR decline was significantly reduced by infusion of TRPC1 antibody that targets an extracellular domain in the pore region of TRPC1 channel. However, the treatment of TRPC1 antibody did not affect the AngII-induced vasopressing effect. Electrophysiologic experiments revealed that functional or biologic inhibition of TRPC1 significantly depressed AngII-induced channel activation. Fura-2 fluorescence-indicated that Ca(2+) entry in response to AngII stimulation was also dramatically inhibited by TRPC1 antibody and TRPC1-specific RNA interference. These results suggest that TRPC1 plays an important role in controlling contractile function of MC. Mediation of Ca(2+) entry might be the underlying mechanism for the TRPC1-associated MC contraction. PMID:17389736

  10. Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Toshifumi; Ishizuka, Toru; Morishima, Keisuke; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Myoblasts can be differentiated into multinucleated myotubes, which provide a well-established and reproducible muscle cell model for skeletal myogenesis in vitro. However, under conventional differentiation conditions, each myotube rarely exhibits robust contraction as well as sarcomere arrangement. Here, we applied trains of optical stimulation (OS) to C2C12 myotubes, which were genetically engineered to express a channelrhodopsin variant, channelrhodopsin-green receiver (ChRGR), to investigate whether membrane depolarization facilitates the maturation of myotubes. We found that light pulses induced membrane depolarization and evoked action potentials in ChRGR-expressing myotubes. Regular alignments of sarcomeric proteins were patterned periodically after OS training. In contrast, untrained control myotubes rarely exhibited the striated patterns. OS-trained and untrained myotubes also differed in terms of their resting potential. OS training significantly increased the number of contractile myotubes. Treatment with nifedipine during OS training significantly decreased the fraction of contractile myotubes, whereas tetrodotoxin was less effective. These results suggest that oscillations of membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ accompanied by OS promoted sarcomere assembly and the development of contractility during the myogenic process. These results also suggest that optogenetic techniques could be used to manipulate the activity-dependent process during myogenic development. PMID:25661648

  11. Oxytocin plus antibiotics: A synergism of potentiation to enhance bovine uterine contractility.

    PubMed

    Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A; Cariello, G; Staffieri, F; Sciorsci, R L

    2016-09-15

    This in vitro study investigates the modulatory effect of three antibiotics (amoxicillin, enrofloxacin, and rifaximin) on contractility of the bovine uterine tissue, in follicular and luteal phases. The evaluation of the effects of these antibiotics (10(-4) M) was performed on oxytocin-induced contractility. The decision to test these antibiotics with the oxytocin (10(-6) M) comes from the reported ability of these combinations of hinder the antibiotic resistance and the formation of bacterial biofilms. The procedures were carried out in isolated organ bath, and the contractile functionality of the strip throughout the experiment was evaluated after a dose of carbachol (10(-5) M). The results demonstrate the different modulatory activity of these antibiotics, on the plateau of contraction induced by oxytocin, in both phases of the estrus cycle. The differing individual antibiotic effects of our testing made it possible to identify, only in some cases. Rifaximin in the follicular phase and enrofloxacin in both phases of the estrous cycle, induced a synergistic enhancement (potentiation) of uterine strip contraction induced by oxytocin. This result is thought important because these associations might enable, in vivo, a simultaneous increase of uterine cleaning and the antimicrobial action on bacteria in planktonic form and of those organized in biofilms. PMID:27173953

  12. Spectroscopic properties of pharmacologically active phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Polozov, G. I.; Sorokin, V. L.; Ksendzova, G. A.

    2012-05-01

    The IR Fourier-transform spectra of pharmacologically active phenol molecules in solutions in CCl4 and in the crystalline state have been studied. Phenol derivatives with different directivities and different levels of pharmacological efficiency have been examined. Based on analysis of the IR spectra of screened phenols, the antimicrobial activity of phenols with free hydroxyl groups has been shown to be highest. The high antimicrobial activity of aminophenols is related to the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. For aminophenols that are active against herpesviruses, O-H...N hydrogen bonds are formed in molecules. The main characteristic of the high antiviral activity against A-type influenza is predominance of intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the O-H...O=C type in molecules. Sulfur-containing aminophenols, which manifest activity against HIV infection, are characterized by the occurrence of hydrogen bonds that involve the participation of the OH, NH, and SO2 groups.

  13. Enhanced Uterine Contractility and Stillbirth in Mice Lacking G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 6 (GRK6): Implications for Oxytocin Receptor Desensitization.

    PubMed

    Grotegut, Chad A; Mao, Lan; Pierce, Stephanie L; Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips; Murtha, Amy P

    2016-04-01

    Oxytocin is a potent uterotonic agent and is used clinically for induction and augmentation of labor, as well as for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Oxytocin increases uterine contractility by activating the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, which is prone to molecular desensitization. After oxytocin binding, the OXTR is phosphorylated by a member of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) family, which allows for recruitment of β-arrestin, receptor internalization, and desensitization. According to previous in vitro analyses, desensitization of calcium signaling by the OXTR is mediated by GRK6. The objective of this study was to determine the role of GRK6 in mediating uterine contractility. Here, we demonstrate that uterine GRK6 levels increase in pregnancy and using a telemetry device to measure changes in uterine contractility in live mice during labor, show that mice lacking GRK6 produce a phenotype of enhanced uterine contractility during both spontaneous and oxytocin-induced labor compared with wild-type or GRK5 knockout mice. In addition, the observed enhanced contractility was associated with high rates of term stillbirth. Lastly, using a heterologous in vitro model, we show that β-arrestin recruitment to the OXTR, which is necessary for homologous OXTR desensitization, is dependent on GRK6. Our findings suggest that GRK6-mediated OXTR desensitization in labor is necessary for normal uterine contractile patterns and optimal fetal outcome. PMID:26886170

  14. Passive and active mechanical properties of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles in the forelimbs of anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Swanstrom, Michael D; Zarucco, Laura; Stover, Susan M; Hubbard, Mont; Hawkins, David A; Driessen, Bernd; Steffey, Eugene P

    2005-03-01

    The superficial (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) muscles are critical for equine forelimb locomotion. Knowledge of their mechanical properties will enhance our understanding of limb biomechanics. Muscle contractile properties derived from architectural-based algorithms may overestimate real forces and underestimate shortening capacity because of simplistic assumptions regarding muscle architecture. Therefore, passive and active (=total - passive) force-length properties of the SDF and DDF muscles were measured directly in vivo. Muscles from the right forelimbs of four Thoroughbred horses were evaluated during general anesthesia. Limbs were fixed to an external frame with the muscle attached to a linear actuator and load cell. Each muscle was stretched from an unloaded state to a range of prefixed lengths, then stimulated while held at that length. The total force did not exceed 4000 N, the limit for the clamping device. The SDF and DDF muscles produced 716+/-192 and 1577+/-203 N maximum active isometric force (F(max)), had ascending force-length ranges (R(asc)) of 5.1+/-0.2 and 9.1+/-0.4 cm, and had passive stiffnesses of 1186+/-104 and 1132+/-51 N/cm, respectively. The values measured for F(max) were much smaller than predicted based on conservative estimates of muscle specific tension and muscle physiological cross-sectional area. R(asc) were much larger than predicted based on muscle fiber length estimates. These data suggest that accurate prediction of the active mechanical behavior of architecturally complex muscles such as the equine DDF and SDF requires more sophisticated algorithms. PMID:15652557

  15. Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on Arterial Contractile Responses in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jia; Ren, Xin-Ling; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if hindlimb unweighting in mice alters arterial contractile responses. Sixteen male C57B/6 mice and 16 male Chinese Kunming mice were divided into control and 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting groups, respectively. Using isolated arterial rings from different arteries of mouse, effects of 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting on arterial contractile responsiveness were examined in vitro. The results showed that, in arterial rings from both C57B/6 and Chinese Kunming mice, maximum isometric contractile tensions evoked by either KCl or phenylephrine were significantly lower in abdominal aortic, mesenteric arterial and femoral arterial rings from hindlimb unweighting, compared to control mice. However, the maximal contractile responses of common carotid rings to KCl and PE were not significantly different between control and hindlimb unweighting groups. The sensitivity (EC(sub 50)) of all arteries to KCl or PE showed no significant differences between control and hindlimb unweighting mice. These data indicated that 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting results in a reduced capacity of the arterial smooth muscle of the hindquarter to develop tension. In addition, the alterations in arterial contractile responses caused by hindlimb unweighting in mice are similar as those in rats. Our work suggested that hindlimb unweighting mouse model may be used as a model for the study of postflight cardiovascular deconditioning.

  16. Contractile cell forces deform macroscopic cantilevers and quantify biomaterial performance.

    PubMed

    Allenstein, U; Mayr, S G; Zink, M

    2015-07-01

    Cells require adhesion to survive, proliferate and migrate, as well as for wound healing and many other functions. The strength of contractile cell forces on an underlying surface is a highly relevant quantity to measure the affinity of cells to a rigid surface with and without coating. Here we show with experimental and theoretical studies that these forces create surface stresses that are sufficient to induce measurable bending of macroscopic cantilevers. Since contractile forces are linked to the formation of focal contacts, results give information on adhesion promoting qualities and allow a comparison of very diverse materials. In exemplary studies, in vitro fibroblast adhesion on the magnetic shape memory alloy Fe-Pd and on the l-lysine derived plasma-functionalized polymer PPLL was determined. We show that cells on Fe-Pd are able to induce surface stresses three times as high as on pure titanium cantilevers. A further increase was observed for PPLL, where the contractile forces are four times higher than on the titanium reference. In addition, we performed finite element simulations on the beam bending to back up the calculation of contractile forces from cantilever bending under non-homogenous surface stress. Our findings consolidate the role of contractile forces as a meaningful measure of biomaterial performance. PMID:26027952

  17. Changes of smooth muscle contractile filaments in small bowel atresia

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Fiegel, Henning; Ramachandran, Priya; Rolle, Udo; Metzger, Roman

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate morphological changes of intestinal smooth muscle contractile fibres in small bowel atresia patients. METHODS: Resected small bowel specimens from small bowel atresia patients (n = 12) were divided into three sections (proximal, atretic and distal). Standard histology hematoxylin-eosin staining and enzyme immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize smooth muscle contractile markers α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin using conventional paraffin sections of the proximal and distal bowel. Small bowel from age-matched patients (n = 2) undergoing Meckel’s diverticulum resection served as controls. RESULTS: The smooth muscle coat in the proximal bowel of small bowel atresia patients was thickened compared with control tissue, but the distal bowel was unchanged. Expression of smooth muscle contractile fibres SMA and desmin within the proximal bowel was slightly reduced compared with the distal bowel and control tissue. There were no major differences in the architecture of the smooth muscle within the proximal bowel and the distal bowel. The proximal and distal bowel in small bowel atresia patients revealed only minimal differences regarding smooth muscle morphology and the presence of smooth muscle contractile filament markers. CONCLUSION: Changes in smooth muscle contractile filaments do not appear to play a major role in postoperative motility disorders in small bowel atresia. PMID:22791945

  18. Micropost arrays for measuring stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Beussman, Kevin M; Rodriguez, Marita L; Leonard, Andrea; Taparia, Nikita; Thompson, Curtis R; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have the potential to be used to study heart disease and maturation, screen drug treatments, and restore heart function. Here, we discuss the procedures involved in using micropost arrays to measure the contractile forces generated by stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocyte contractility is needed for the heart to pump blood, so measuring the contractile forces of cardiomyocytes is a straightforward way to assess their function. Microfabrication and soft lithography techniques are utilized to create identical arrays of flexible, silicone microposts from a common master. Micropost arrays are functionalized with extracellular matrix protein to allow cardiomyocytes to adhere to the tips of the microposts. Live imaging is used to capture videos of the deflection of microposts caused by the contraction of the cardiomyocytes. Image analysis code provides an accurate means to quantify these deflections. The contractile forces produced by a beating cardiomyocyte are calculated by modeling the microposts as cantilever beams. We have used this assay to assess techniques for improving the maturation and contractile function of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:26344757

  19. Emergent properties in experiments with active microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie

    Self-propelled micro-particles are intrinsically out-of-equilibrium. This renders their physics far richer than passive colloids and give rise to the emergence of complex phenomena e.g. collective behavior, swarming... I will present experimental demonstration of emergent properties beyond equilibrium.

  20. SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES UNDERLYING ARSENIC'S BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    In this paper some of the chemical properties of arsenicals (atomic
    and molecular orbitals, electronegativity, valence state, changes between
    valence state, nucleophilicity, the hard/soft acid/base principle) that may
    account for some of the b...

  1. Immunostimulatory properties and antitumor activities of glucans

    PubMed Central

    VANNUCCI, LUCA; KRIZAN, JIRI; SIMA, PETR; STAKHEEV, DMITRY; CAJA, FABIAN; RAJSIGLOVA, LENKA; HORAK, VRATISLAV; SAIEH, MUSTAFA

    2013-01-01

    New foods and natural biological modulators have recently become of scientific interest in the investigation of the value of traditional medical therapeutics. Glucans have an important part in this renewed interest. These fungal wall components are claimed to be useful for various medical purposes and they are obtained from medicinal mushrooms commonly used in traditional Oriental medicine. The immunotherapeutic properties of fungi extracts have been reported, including the enhancement of anticancer immunity responses. These properties are principally related to the stimulation of cells of the innate immune system. The discovery of specific receptors for glucans on dendritic cells (dectin-1), as well as interactions with other receptors, mainly expressed by innate immune cells (e.g., Toll-like receptors, complement receptor-3), have raised new attention toward these products as suitable therapeutic agents. We briefly review the characteristics of the glucans from mycelial walls as modulators of the immunity and their possible use as antitumor treatments. PMID:23739801

  2. Dosimetric properties of activated lithium tetraborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majchrowski, Andrzej; Malecki, M.; Zmija, Jozef; Warkocki, Stanislaw; Warkocki, Wodzislaw

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes preliminary investigations of Li2B4O7 thermoluminescent phosphors as candidates for gamma radiation dosimetry materials. Single crystals, glasses, and polycrystals of lithium tetraborate activated with different dopants have been investigated.

  3. Lateral hypothalamic lesions cause gastric injury by stimulating gastric contractility.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T; Grijalva, C V; Trauner, M

    1993-07-01

    Changes in gastric contractility following lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions with and without bilateral cervical vagotomy were measured in urethan-anesthetized rats. LH lesions were induced with direct current passed through stereotaxically placed electrodes. Gastric contractility was recorded continuously for 4 h with acutely implanted strain gauge force transducers and analyzed by computer. LH lesions consistently stimulated gastric contractility and caused more gastric mucosal injury than control conditions. Vagotomy blocked both gastric mucosal injury and high-amplitude gastric contractions. In rats with LH lesions and exogenously infused intragastric hydrochloric acid, atropine methyl nitrate inhibited high-amplitude gastric contractions and gastric erosions. These findings indicate that LH lesions stimulate vagally mediated high-amplitude gastric contractions, which, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, cause gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:8338162

  4. Contractile basis of ameboid movement VIII. Aequorin luminescence during ameboid movement, endocytosis, and capping

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.L.; Blinks, J.R.; Reynolds, G.

    1980-08-01

    Aequorin luminescence has been utilized to determine the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the free calcium ion concentration (Ca/sup + +/) in chaos carolinensis during ameboid movement, pinocytosis, and capping. Three types of luminescent signals are detected in cells: continuous luminescence, spontaneous pulses, and stimulated pulses. Continuous luminescence is localized in the tails of actively motile cells, and spontaneous pulses occur primarily over the anterior regions of cells. The localization of both distinct actin structures and sites where (Ca/sup + +/) increases suggests cellular sites of contractile activity.

  5. Role of Mitochondrial fission and fusion in cardiomyocyte contractility

    PubMed Central

    Givvimani, S; Pushpakumar, SB; Metreveli, N; Veeranki, S; Kundu, S; Tyagi, SC

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondria constitute 30% of cell volume and are engaged in two dynamic processes called fusion and fission, regulated by Drp-1(Dynamin related protein) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). Previously, we showed that Drp-1 inhibition ameliorates cardiovascular dysfunction following pressure overload in aortic banding model and myocardial infarction. As dynamic organelles, mitochondria are capable of changing their morphology in response to stress. However, whether such changes can alter their function and in turn cellular function is unknown. Further, a direct role of fission and fusion in cardiomyocyte contractility has not yet been studied. In this study, we hypothesize that disrupted fission and fusion balance by increased Drp-1 and decreased Mfn2 expression in cardiomyocytes affect their contractility through alterations in the calcium and potassium concentrations. Methods To verify this, we used freshly isolated ventricular myocytes from wild type mouse and transfected them with either siRNA to Drp-1 or Mfn2. Myocyte contractility studies were performed by IonOptix using a myopacer. Intracellular calcium and potassium measurements were done using flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was done to evaluate live cell mitochondria and its membrane potential. Protein expression was done by Western blot and Immunocytochemistry. Results We found that silencing mitochondrial fission increased the myocyte contractility, while fusion inhibition decreased contractility with simultaneous changes in calcium and potassium. Also, we observed that increase in fission prompted decrease in Serca-2a and increase in cytochrome c leading to mitophagy. Conclusion Our results suggested that regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion have direct effects on overall cardiomyocyte contractility and thus function. PMID:25841124

  6. Statistical Properties of Extreme Solar Activity Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioznova, A. V.; Blinov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A study of long-term solar variability reflected in indirect indices of past solar activity leads to stimulating results. We compare the statistics of intervals of very low and very high solar activity derived from two cosmogenic radionuclide records and look for consistency in their timing and physical interpretation. According to the applied criteria, the numbers of minima and of maxima are 61 and 68, respectively, from the 10Be record, and 42 and 46 from the 14C record. The difference between the enhanced and depressed states of solar activity becomes apparent in the difference in their statistical distributions. We find no correlation between the level or type (minimum or maximum) of an extremum and the level or type of the predecessor. The hypothesis of solar activity as a periodic process on the millennial time scale is not supported by the existing proxies. A new homogeneous series of 10Be measurements in polar ice covering the Holocene would be of great value for eliminating the existing discrepancy in the available solar activity reconstructions.

  7. Corneal Stromal Cells use both High- and Low-Contractility Migration Mechanisms in 3-D Collagen Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Areum; Zhou, Chengxin; Lakshman, Neema; Petroll, W. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Corneal keratocyte migration can impact both corneal clarity and refractive outcome following injury or refractive surgery. In this study, we investigated how culture conditions, ECM properties, and Rho kinase activity regulate the mechanics of keratocyte migration, using a nested collagen matrix model. Time-lapse imaging demonstrated that both serum and PDGF stimulate keratocyte migration into the outer matrix. Although the velocity of cell migration was similar, cells in serum were bipolar and induced significant matrix deformation during migration, whereas PDGF induced extension of branching dendritic processes with smaller, more localized force generation. These differences in cell-induced matrix reorganization were verified with a global matrix contraction assay and confocal reflection imaging, using both bovine and rat tail collagen. When constructs were detached from the substrate to lower the effective stiffness, migration was significantly reduced in serum; but was unchanged in PDGF. These differences in migration mechanics were mediated, in part, by Rho kinase. Overall, corneal keratocytes can effectively migrate through collagen matrices using varying degrees of cellular force generation. Low-contractility migration may facilitate keratocyte repopulation of the stroma following surgery or injury, without altering the structural and mechanical properties that are critical to maintaining corneal transparency. PMID:22233682

  8. Muscle fatigue in frog semitendinosus: alterations in contractile function.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L V; Balog, E M; Riley, D A; Fitts, R H

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the contractile properties of the frog semitendinosus (ST) muscle before and during recovery from fatigue, to relate the observed functional changes to alterations in specific steps in the crossbridge model of muscle contraction, and to determine how fatigue affects the force-frequency relationship. The frog ST (22 degrees C) was fatigued by direct electrical stimulation with 100-ms 150-Hz trains at 1/s for 5 min. The fatigue protocol reduced peak twitch (Pt) and tetanic (Po) force to 32 and 8.5% of initial force, respectively. The decline in Pt was less than Po, in part due to a prolongation in the isometric contraction time (CT), which increased to 300% of the initial value. The isometric twitch duration was greatly prolonged as reflected by the lengthened CT and the 800% increase in the one-half relaxation time (1/2RT). Both Pt and Po showed a biphasic recovery, a rapid initial phase (2 min) followed by a slower (40 min) return to the prefatigue force. CT and 1/2RT also recovered in two phases, returning to 160 and 265% of control in the first 5 min. CT returned to the prefatigue value between 35 and 40 min, whereas even at 60 min 1/2RT was 133% of control. The maximal velocity of shortening, determined by the slack test, was significantly reduced [from 6.7 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 0.4 optimal muscle length/s] at fatigue. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to the left, so that optimal frequency for generating Po was reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1535482

  9. Muscle fatigue in frog semitendinosus: alterations in contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. V.; Balog, E. M.; Riley, D. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the contractile properties of the frog semitendinosus (ST) muscle before and during recovery from fatigue, to relate the observed functional changes to alterations in specific steps in the crossbridge model of muscle contraction, and to determine how fatigue affects the force-frequency relationship. The frog ST (22 degrees C) was fatigued by direct electrical stimulation with 100-ms 150-Hz trains at 1/s for 5 min. The fatigue protocol reduced peak twitch (Pt) and tetanic (Po) force to 32 and 8.5% of initial force, respectively. The decline in Pt was less than Po, in part due to a prolongation in the isometric contraction time (CT), which increased to 300% of the initial value. The isometric twitch duration was greatly prolonged as reflected by the lengthened CT and the 800% increase in the one-half relaxation time (1/2RT). Both Pt and Po showed a biphasic recovery, a rapid initial phase (2 min) followed by a slower (40 min) return to the prefatigue force. CT and 1/2RT also recovered in two phases, returning to 160 and 265% of control in the first 5 min. CT returned to the prefatigue value between 35 and 40 min, whereas even at 60 min 1/2RT was 133% of control. The maximal velocity of shortening, determined by the slack test, was significantly reduced [from 6.7 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 0.4 optimal muscle length/s] at fatigue. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to the left, so that optimal frequency for generating Po was reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Modification of abomasum contractility by flavonoids present in ruminants diet: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoid supplementation is likely to be beneficial in improving rumen fermentation and in reducing the incidence of rumen acidosis and bloat. Flavonoids are also said to increase the metabolic performance during the peripartum period. Ruminants are constantly exposed to flavonoids present in feed. However, it is not clear if these phytochemicals can affect the activity of the gut smooth muscle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of three flavonoids on bovine isolated abomasum smooth muscle. The study was carried out on bovine isolated circular and longitudinal abomasal smooth muscle specimens. All experiments were conducted under isometric conditions. The effect of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin (0.001 to 100 µM) was evaluated on acetylcholine-precontracted preparations. The effect of multiple, but not cumulative, treatment and single treatment with each flavonoid on abomasum strips was compared. Apigenin (0.1 to 100 µM) dose-dependently showed myorelaxation effects. Luteolin and quercetin applied in low doses increased the force of the ACh-evoked reaction. However, if used in high doses in experiments testing a wide range of concentrations, their contractile effect either declined (luteolin) or was replaced by an antispasmodic effect (quercetin). Surprisingly, the reaction induced by flavonoids after repeated exposure to the same phytochemical was not reproducible in experiments testing only single exposure of abomasum strips to the same flavonoid used in a high concentration. Taking into account the physicochemical properties of flavonoids, this data suggests the ability of flavonoids to interfere with cell membranes and, subsequently, to modify their responsiveness. Assuming ruminant supplementation with luteolin or quercetin or their presence in daily pasture, a reduction of the likelihood of abomasum dysmotility should be expected. PMID:27534882

  11. Heparin II domain of fibronectin mediates contractility through an α4β1 co-signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Marie K.; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Gabelt, B’Ann T.; Sheibani, Nader; Kaufman, Paul L.; Peters, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    In the trabecular meshwork (TM) of the eye, regulation of tissue contractility by the PPRARI sequence within the Heparin II (HepII) domain of fibronectin is believed to control the movement of aqueous humor and dictate the level of intraocular pressure. This study shows that the HepII domain utilizes activated α4β1 integrin and collagen to mediate a co-signaling pathway that down-regulates contractility in TM cells. siRNA silencing of α4β1 integrin blocked the actin disrupting effects of both PPRARI and the HepII domain. The down-regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and contractility did not involve syndecan-4 or other heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) since siRNA silencing of syndecan-4 expression or heparitinase removal of cell surface HSPGs did not prevent the HepII-mediated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. HepII-mediated disruption of the cytoskeleton depended upon the presence of collagen in the extracellular matrix, and cell binding studies indicated that HepII signaling involved cross-talk between α41β1 and α1/α2β1 integrins. This is the first time that the PPRARI sequence in the HepII domain has been shown to serve as a physiological α4β1 ligand, suggesting that α4β1 integrin may be a key regulator of tissue contractility. PMID:20302860

  12. Expansion and concatenation of nonmuscle myosin IIA filaments drive cellular contractile system formation during interphase and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Fenix, Aidan M.; Taneja, Nilay; Buttler, Carmen A.; Lewis, John; Van Engelenburg, Schuyler B.; Ohi, Ryoma; Burnette, Dylan T.

    2016-01-01

    Cell movement and cytokinesis are facilitated by contractile forces generated by the molecular motor, nonmuscle myosin II (NMII). NMII molecules form a filament (NMII-F) through interactions of their C-terminal rod domains, positioning groups of N-terminal motor domains on opposite sides. The NMII motors then bind and pull actin filaments toward the NMII-F, thus driving contraction. Inside of crawling cells, NMIIA-Fs form large macromolecular ensembles (i.e., NMIIA-F stacks), but how this occurs is unknown. Here we show NMIIA-F stacks are formed through two non–mutually exclusive mechanisms: expansion and concatenation. During expansion, NMIIA molecules within the NMIIA-F spread out concurrent with addition of new NMIIA molecules. Concatenation occurs when multiple NMIIA-Fs/NMIIA-F stacks move together and align. We found that NMIIA-F stack formation was regulated by both motor activity and the availability of surrounding actin filaments. Furthermore, our data showed expansion and concatenation also formed the contractile ring in dividing cells. Thus interphase and mitotic cells share similar mechanisms for creating large contractile units, and these are likely to underlie how other myosin II–based contractile systems are assembled. PMID:26960797

  13. Protective effects of anisodamine on cigarette smoke extract-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and tracheal contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Guang-Ni; Yang, Kai; Xu, Zu-Peng; Zhu, Liang; Hou, Li-Na; Qi, Hong; Chen, Hong-Zhuan Cui, Yong-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Anisodamine, an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), has been used therapeutically to improve smooth muscle function, including microvascular, intestinal and airway spasms. Our previous studies have revealed that airway hyper-reactivity could be prevented by anisodamine. However, whether anisodamine prevents smoking-induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation remained unclear. In this study, a primary culture of rat ASM cells was used to evaluate an ASM phenotype through the ability of the cells to proliferate and express contractile proteins in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and intervention of anisodamine. Our results showed that CSE resulted in an increase in cyclin D1 expression concomitant with the G0/G1-to-S phase transition, and high expression of M2 and M3. Functional studies showed that tracheal hyper-contractility accompanied contractile marker α-SMA high-expression. These changes, which occur only after CSE stimulation, were prevented and reversed by anisodamine, and CSE-induced cyclin D1 expression was significantly inhibited by anisodamine and the specific inhibitor U0126, BAY11-7082 and LY294002. Thus, we concluded that the protective and reversal effects and mechanism of anisodamine on CSE-induced events might involve, at least partially, the ERK, Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways associated with cyclin D1 via mAChRs. Our study validated that anisodamine intervention on ASM cells may contribute to anti-remodeling properties other than bronchodilation. -- Highlights: ► CSE induces tracheal cell proliferation, hyper-contractility and α-SMA expression. ► Anisodamine reverses CSE-induced tracheal hyper-contractility and cell proliferation. ► ERK, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways and cyclin D1 contribute to the reversal effect.

  14. Purinergic and cholinergic components of bladder contractility and flow.

    PubMed

    Theobald, R J

    1995-01-01

    The role of ATP as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the urinary tract has been the subject of much study, particularly whether ATP has a functional role in producing urine flow. Recent studies suggested significant species variation, specifically a variation between cat and other species. This study was performed to determine the in vivo response of cat urinary bladder to pelvic nerve stimulation (PNS) and to the exogenous administration of cholinergic and purinergic agents. In anesthetized cats, bladder contractions and fluid expulsion was measured in response to PNS and to the exogenous administration of cholinergic and purinergic agents. Fluid was instilled into the bladder and any fluid expelled by bladder contractions induced by PNS or exogenous agents was collected in a beaker. The volume was measured in a graduated cylinder and recorded. PNS, carbachol and APPCP produced sustained contractions with significant expulsion of fluid. ATP, ACh and hypogastric nerve stimulation did not produce any significant expulsion of fluid. Atropine, a cholinergic antagonist, inhibited PNS contractions and fluid expulsion with no effect on purinergic actions. There was a significant relationship between the magnitude of the contraction, duration of the contractions and volume of fluid expelled. The data and information from other studies, strongly suggests a functional role for ATP as a cotransmitter in the lower urinary tract different from ACh's role. ATP stimulation of a specific purinergic receptor plays a role in initiation of bladder contractions and perhaps in the initiation of urine flow from the bladder. ACh's role is functionally different and appears to be more involved in maintenance of contractile activity and flow. PMID:7830505

  15. MDMA induces cardiac contractile dysfunction through autophagy upregulation and lysosome destabilization in rats.

    PubMed

    Shintani-ishida, Kaori; Saka, Kanju; Yamaguchi, Koji; Hayashida, Makiko; Nagai, Hisashi; Takemura, Genzou; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms of cardiotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") abuse are unclear. Autophagy exerts either adaptive or maladaptive effects on cardiac function in various pathological settings, but nothing is known on the role of autophagy in the MDMA cardiotoxicity. Here, we investigated the mechanism through which autophagy may be involved in MDMA-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with MDMA (20mg/kg) or saline. Left ventricular (LV) echocardiography and LV pressure measurement demonstrated reduction of LV systolic contractility 24h after MDMA administration. Western blot analysis showed a time-dependent increase in the levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and cathepsin-D after MDMA administration. Electron microscopy showed the presence of autophagic vacuoles in cardiomyocytes. MDMA upregulated phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at Thr172, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at Thr2446, Raptor at Ser792, and Unc51-like kinase (ULK1) at Ser555, suggesting activation of autophagy through the AMPK-mTOR pathway. The effects of autophagic inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) on LC3-II levels indicated that MDMA enhanced autophagosome formation, but attenuated autophagosome clearance. MDMA also induced release of cathepsins into cytosol, and western blotting and electron microscopy showed cardiac troponin I (cTnI) degradation and myofibril damage, respectively. 3-MA, CQ, and a lysosomal inhibitor, E64c, inhibited cTnI proteolysis and improved contractile dysfunction after MDMA administration. In conclusion, MDMA causes lysosome destabilization following activation of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, through which released lysosomal proteases damage myofibrils and induce LV systolic dysfunction in rat heart. PMID:24491919

  16. Myocardial Mitochondrial and Contractile Function Are Preserved in Mice Lacking Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions. PMID:25785965

  17. Regulation of contractile protein gene expression in unloaded mouse skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1996-01-01

    Hindlimb unloading was performed on mice in an effort to study the regulation of contractile protein genes. In particular, the regulation of myosin heavy chain IIb was examined. During unloading, muscle fibers undergo a type conversion. Preliminary data from this study does not support the hypothesis that the fiber type conversion is due to an increase in promoter activity of fast isoform genes, such as myosin heavy chain IIb. The consequences of this finding are examined, with particular focus on other factors controlling gene regulation.

  18. The Inhibitory Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Rat Pyloric Smooth Muscle Contractile Response to Substance P In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Xie, Jun-Fan; Ren, Yin-Xiang; Wang, Can; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Zong, Xiao-Jian; Fan, Lin-Lan; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A decrease in pyloric myoelectrical activity and pyloric substance P (SP) content following intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in free move rats have been demonstrated in our previous studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of BTX-A on rat pyloric muscle contractile response to SP in vitro and the distributions of SP and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactive (IR) cells and fibers within pylorus. After treatment with atropine, BTX-A (10 U/mL), similar to [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]-SP (APTL-SP, 1 μmol/L) which is an NK1R antagonist, decreased electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractile tension and frequency, whereas, subsequent administration of APTL-SP did not act on contractility. Incubation with BTX-A at 4 and 10 U/mL for 4 h respectively decreased SP (1 μmol/L)-induced contractions by 26.64% ± 5.12% and 74.92% ± 3.62%. SP-IR fibers and NK1R-IR cells both located within pylorus including mucosa and circular muscle layer. However, fewer SP-fibers were observed in pylorus treated with BTX-A (10 U/mL). In conclusion, BTX-A inhibits SP release from enteric terminals in pylorus and EFS-induced contractile responses when muscarinic cholinergic receptors are blocked by atropine. In addition, BTX-A concentration- and time-dependently directly inhibits SP-induced pyloric smooth muscle contractility. PMID:26501321

  19. Identification of contractile vacuole proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Paul N; Jimenez, Veronica; Park, Miyoung; Martins, Vicente P; Atwood, James; Moles, Kristen; Collins, Dalis; Rohloff, Peter; Tarleton, Rick; Moreno, Silvia N J; Orlando, Ron; Docampo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Contractile vacuole complexes are critical components of cell volume regulation and have been shown to have other functional roles in several free-living protists. However, very little is known about the functions of the contractile vacuole complex of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, other than a role in osmoregulation. Identification of the protein composition of these organelles is important for understanding their physiological roles. We applied a combined proteomic and bioinfomatic approach to identify proteins localized to the contractile vacuole. Proteomic analysis of a T. cruzi fraction enriched for contractile vacuoles and analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS resulted in the addition of 109 newly detected proteins to the group of expressed proteins of epimastigotes. We also identified different peptides that map to at least 39 members of the dispersed gene family 1 (DGF-1) providing evidence that many members of this family are simultaneously expressed in epimastigotes. Of the proteins present in the fraction we selected several homologues with known localizations in contractile vacuoles of other organisms and others that we expected to be present in these vacuoles on the basis of their potential roles. We determined the localization of each by expression as GFP-fusion proteins or with specific antibodies. Six of these putative proteins (Rab11, Rab32, AP180, ATPase subunit B, VAMP1, and phosphate transporter) predominantly localized to the vacuole bladder. TcSNARE2.1, TcSNARE2.2, and calmodulin localized to the spongiome. Calmodulin was also cytosolic. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining subcellular fractionation, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatic approaches for localization of organellar proteins that are difficult to detect with whole cell methodologies. The CV localization of the proteins investigated revealed potential novel roles of these organelles in phosphate metabolism

  20. Three-dimensional morphogenesis of MDCK cells induced by cellular contractile forces on a viscous substrate.

    PubMed

    Imai, Misako; Furusawa, Kazuya; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Substrate physical properties are essential for many physiological events such as embryonic development and 3D tissue formation. Physical properties of the extracellular matrix such as viscoelasticity and geometrical constraints are understood as factors that affect cell behaviour. In this study, we focused on the relationship between epithelial cell 3D morphogenesis and the substrate viscosity. We observed that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells formed 3D structures on a viscous substrate (Matrigel). The structures appear as a tulip hat. We then changed the substrate viscosity by genipin (GP) treatment. GP is a cross-linker of amino groups. Cells cultured on GP-treated-matrigel changed their 3D morphology in a substrate viscosity-dependent manner. Furthermore, to elucidate the spatial distribution of the cellular contractile force, localization of mono-phosphorylated and di-phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (P-MRLCs) was visualized by immunofluorescence. P-MRLCs localized along the periphery of epithelial sheets. Treatment with Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, blocked the P-MRLCs localization at the edge of epithelial sheets and halted 3D morphogenesis. Our results indicate that the substrate viscosity, the substrate deformation, and the cellular contractile forces induced by P-MRLCs play crucial roles in 3D morphogenesis. PMID:26374384

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Huberty, Jennifer; Pettee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). Methods: Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. Results: Three CPAS factors emerged:…

  2. Histochemical and contractile responses of rat medial gastrocnemius to 2 weeks of complete disuse.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, P F; Favron, M; Corriveau, P

    1992-08-01

    We studied the histochemical and in situ contractile changes in a rat ankle extensor, medial gastrocnemius, in which activation of muscle fibres by motoneurones was blocked for 14 days, using the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin applied to the sciatic nerve. Muscles were atrophied and showed slower twitch responses, greater fusion at subtetanic frequencies of stimulation, and higher twitch/tetanic ratios. Tetanic force/mm2 of fibre area and fatiguability were unchanged. Type II fibres were more atrophied and showed greater decreases in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity than type I fibres. The contractile changes resulting from complete disuse do not occur in models in which weight-bearing alone has been removed (space flight, hindlimb suspension), suggesting that the residual motoneurone activity reported in models of weightlessness is sufficient to prevent these responses. Similarly, the finding of a greater type II fibre susceptibility to complete disuse, which differs from the pattern seen in models of weightlessness, suggest that this residual motoneurone activity in the latter influences atrophic responses in a manner that is variable among motor unit types, to produce the reported preferential type I atrophy characteristic of removal of weight-bearing. PMID:1473039

  3. Adult progenitor cell transplantation influences contractile performance and calcium handling of recipient cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon; Stagg, Mark A; Fukushima, Satsuki; Soppa, Gopal K R; Siedlecka, Urszula; Youssef, Samuel J; Suzuki, Ken; Yacoub, Magdi H; Terracciano, Cesare M N

    2009-04-01

    Adult progenitor cell transplantation has been proposed for the treatment of heart failure, but the mechanisms effecting functional improvements remain unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in failing hearts treated with cell transplantation, the mechanical properties and excitation-contraction coupling of recipient cardiomyocytes are altered. Adult rats underwent coronary artery ligation, leading to myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. After 3 wk, they received intramyocardial injections of either 10(7) green fluorescence protein (GFP)-positive bone marrow mononuclear cells or 5 x 10(6) GFP-positive skeletal myoblasts. Four weeks after injection, both cell types increased ejection fraction and reduced cardiomyocyte size. The contractility of isolated GFP-negative cardiomyocytes was monitored by sarcomere shortening assessment, Ca(2+) handling by indo-1 and fluo-4 fluorescence, and electrophysiology by patch-clamping techniques. Injection of either bone marrow cells or skeletal myoblasts normalized the impaired contractile performance and the prolonged time to peak of the Ca(2+) transient observed in failing cardiomyocytes. The smaller and slower L-type Ca(2+) current observed in heart failure normalized after skeletal myoblast, but not bone marrow cell, transplantation. Measurement of Ca(2+) sparks suggested a normalization of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak after skeletal myoblast transplantation. The increased Ca(2+) wave frequency observed in failing myocytes was reduced by either bone marrow cells or skeletal myoblasts. In conclusion, the morphology, contractile performance, and excitation-contraction coupling of individual recipient cardiomyocytes are altered in failing hearts treated with adult progenitor cell transplantation. PMID:19181964

  4. CD146 defines commitment of cultured annulus fibrosus cells to express a contractile phenotype.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Tomoko; Sakai, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nukaga, Tadashi; Grad, Sibylle; Li, Zhen; Alini, Mauro; Chan, Danny; Masuda, Koichi; Ando, Kiyoshi; Mochida, Joji; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-08-01

    Characterization of cells is important for facilitating cell-based therapies for degenerative diseases of intervertebral discs. For this purpose, we analyzed mouse annulus fibrosus cells by flowcytometory to detect phenotypic change in their primary cultures. After examination of sixteen cell surface proteins, we focused on CD146 that solely increased during culture expansion. CD146 is known to be a marker for mesenchymal stem cells and for their vascular smooth muscle commitment with expression of contractile phenotype enhanced by SM22α. We sorted CD146+ cells to elucidate their characteristics and the key factors that play a role in this change. Whole cell cultures showed the ability for tripotent differentiation toward mesenchymal lineages, whereas sorted CD146+ cells did not. Expression of CD146 was elevated by addition of transforming growth factor β1, and sorted CD146+ cells expressed higher levels of mRNA for SM22α and Elastin than did CD146- cells. Morphologically, CD146+ cells more broadly deposited extracellular type I collagen than CD146- cells and showed filamentous actin bundles traversing their cytoplasm and cell-cell junctions. Moreover, CD146+ cells demonstrated significantly higher gel contraction properties than CD146- cells when they were embedded in collagen gels. Human annulus fibrosus CD146+ cells also showed higher contractility. Immunohistochemistry determined CD146+ cells localized to the outermost annulus layers of mouse intervertebral disc tissue with co-expression of SM22α. These results suggest that increment of CD146 expression indicates gradual change of cultured annulus fibrosus cells to express a contractile phenotype and that transforming growth factor β1 enhances this cellular commitment. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1361-1372, 2016. PMID:27273299

  5. Feeding the fibrillating heart: Dichloroacetate improves cardiac contractile dysfunction following VF.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mohammed Ali; Wagg, Cory S; Massé, Stéphane; Farid, Talha; Lai, Patrick F H; Kusha, Marjan; Asta, John; Jaimes, Rafael; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Kay, Matthew W; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy

    2015-11-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is an important cause of sudden cardiac arrest following myocardial infarction. Following resuscitation from VF, decreased cardiac contractile function is a common problem. During and following myocardial ischemia, decreased glucose oxidation, increased anaerobic glycolysis for cardiac energy production are harmful and energetically expensive. The objective of the present study is to determine the effects of dichloroacetate (DCA), a glucose oxidation stimulator, on cardiac contractile dysfunction following ischemia-induced VF. Male Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were Langendorff perfused in Tyrode's buffer. Once stabilized, hearts were subjected to 15 min of global ischemia and 5 min of aerobic reperfusion in the presence or absence of DCA. At the 6th min of reperfusion, VF was induced electrically, and terminated. Left ventricular (LV) pressure was measured using a balloon. Pretreatment with DCA significantly improved post-VF left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and dp/dtmax. In DCA-pretreated hearts, post-VF lactate production and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation were significantly reduced, indicative of stimulated glucose oxidation, and inhibited anaerobic glycolysis by activation of PDH. Epicardial NADH fluorescence was increased during global ischemia above preischemic levels, but decreased below preischemia levels following VF, with no differences between nontreated controls and DCA-pretreated hearts, whereas DCA pretreatment increased NADH production in nonischemic hearts. With exogenous fatty acids (FA) added to the perfusion solution, DCA pretreatment also resulted in improvements in post-VF LVDP and dp/dtmax, indicating that the presence of exogenous FA did not affect the beneficial actions of DCA. In conclusion, enhancement of PDH activation by DCA mitigates cardiac contractile dysfunction following ischemia-induced VF. PMID:26342067

  6. Poor spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility in human myometrium from postdates pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, Sarah; Quenby, Siobhan; Weeks, Andrew; Burdyga, Theodor; Wray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Prolongation of pregnancy i.e. going more than 10 days over the estimated due date, complicates up to 10% of all pregnancies and is associated with increased risk to both mother and fetus. Despite the obvious need for contractions of the uterus to end pregnancy, there have been no studies directly examining the role of uterine smooth muscle, myometrium, in the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic contractile characteristics of myometrium taken from women with prolonged pregnancy (>41 weeks and 3 days) was reduced compared to those delivering at term (39-41 weeks). We recruited women undergoing Caesarean Section (CS) delivery either pre-labour (n = 27) or in labour (n = 66) at term or postdates. The contractile ability of the postdates myometrium, whether spontaneous or elicited by oxytocin or high-K solution, was significantly reduced compared to term myometrium. These differences remained when adjusted for parity and other maternal characteristics. The findings remained significant when expressed per cross sectional area. Histological examination revealed no differences between the two groups. The contractile differences were however related to intracellular Ca transients suggesting an effect of [Ca] on reduced force production in the postdates group. In summary, myometrium from prolonged pregnancies contracts poorly in vitro even when stimulated with oxytocin and in active labour. Responses to high K(+) and measurements of Ca suggest that alterations in excitation contraction coupling, rather than any histological changes of the myometrium, may underlie the differences between term and postdates myometrium. We show that postdates pregnancy is associated with poor myometrial activity and suggest that this may contribute to increased myometrial quiescence and hence, prolonged gestation. PMID:22590608

  7. Testosterone regulates smooth muscle contractile pathways in the rat prostate: emphasis on PDE5 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zang, Ning; Wei, Yu; Yin, Jin; Teng, Ruobing; Seftel, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) plays a permissive role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) have been found to be effective for BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in clinical trials. This study investigated the effect of T on smooth muscle (SM) contractile and regulatory signaling pathways, including PDE5 expression and functional activity in prostate in male rats (sham-operated, surgically castrated, and castrated with T supplementation). In vitro organ bath studies, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were performed. Castration heavily attenuated contractility, including sensitivity to phenylephrine with SM myosin immunostaining revealing a disrupted SM cell arrangement in the stroma. PDE5 was immunolocalized exclusively in the prostate stroma, and orchiectomy signficantly reduced PDE5 immunopositivity, mRNA, and protein expression, along with nNOS and ROKβ mRNA, whereas it increased eNOS plus α1a and α1b adrenoreceptor expression in castrated animals. The PDE5i zaprinast significantly increased prostate strip relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in control but not castrated rats. But SNP alone was more effective on castrated rats, comparable with sham treated with SNP plus zaprinast. T supplementation prevented or restored all above changes, including SNP and zaprinast in vitro responsiveness. In conclusion, our data show that T positively regulates PDE5 expression and functional activities in prostate, and T ablation not only suppresses prostate size but also reduces prostatic SM contractility, with several potential SM contraction/relaxation pathways implicated. Zaprinast findings strongly suggest a major role for PDE5/cGMP in this signaling cascade. PDE5 inhibition may represent a novel mechanism for treatment of BPH. PMID:22028410

  8. Passive heating following the prematch warm-up in soccer: examining the time-course of changes in muscle temperature and contractile function.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Cross, Rebecca; Lovell, Ric

    2015-12-01

    This study examined changes in muscle temperature, electrically evoked muscle contractile properties, and voluntary power before and after a soccer specific active warm-up and subsequent rest period. Ten amateur soccer players performed two experimental sessions that involved performance of a modified FIFA 11+ soccer specific warm-up, followed by a 12.5-min rest period where participants were required to wear either normal clothing or a passive electrical heating garment was applied to the upper thigh muscles. Assessments around the warm-up and cool-down included measures of maximal torque, rate of torque development, muscle temperature (Tm), and electrically evoked measures of quadriceps contractile function. Tm was increased after the warm-up by 3.2 ± 0.7°C (P < 0.001). Voluntary and evoked rates of torque development increased after the warm-up between 20% and 30% (P < 0.05), despite declines in both maximal voluntary torque and voluntary activation (P < 0.05). Application of a passive heating garment in the cool-down period after the warm-up did not effect variables measured. While Tm was reduced by 1.4 ± 0.4°C after the rest period (P < 0.001), this value was still higher than pre warm-up levels. Voluntary and evoked rate of torque development remained elevated from pre warm-up levels at the end of the cool-down (P < 0.05). The soccer specific warm-up elevated muscle temperature by 3.2°C and was associated with concomitant increases of between 20% and 30% in voluntary rate of torque development, which seems explained by elevations in rate-dependent measures of intrinsic muscle contractile function. Application of a passive heating garment did not attenuate declines in muscle temperature during a 12.5-min rest period. PMID:26634901

  9. Elevated Intraocular Pressure Induces Rho GTPase Mediated Contractile Signaling in the Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Inoue, Toshihiro; Rao, P. Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Rho GTPase regulated contractile signaling in the trabecular meshwork (TM) has been shown to modulate aqueous humor (AH) outflow and intraocular pressure (IOP). To explore whether elevated IOP, a major risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) influences Rho GTPase signaling in the TM, we recorded AH outflow in enucleated contralateral porcine eyes perfused for 4–5 hours at either 15 mm or 50 mm Hg pressure. After perfusion, TM tissue extracted from perfused eyes was evaluated for the activation status of Rho GTPase, myosin light chain (MLC), myosin phosphatase target substrate 1 (MYPT1), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) and paxillin. Eyes perfused at 50 mm Hg exhibited a significant decrease in AH outflow facility compared with those perfused at 15 mm Hg. Additionally, TM tissue from eyes perfused at 50 mm Hg revealed significantly increased levels of activated RhoA and phosphorylated MLC, MYPT1, MARCKS and paxillin compared to TM tissue derived from eyes perfused at 15 mm Hg. Taken together, these observations indicate that elevated IOP-induced activation of Rho GTPase-dependent contractile signaling in the TM is associated with increased resistance to AH outflow through the trabecular pathway, and demonstrate the sensitivity of Rho GTPase signaling to mechanical force in the AH outflow pathway. PMID:25956210

  10. Insulin inhibits cardiac contractility by inducing a Gi-biased β2-adrenergic signaling in hearts.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qin; Xu, Bing; Liu, Yongming; Parikh, Dippal; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Riehle, Christian; Zhu, Yi; Rawlings, Tenley; Shi, Qian; Clark, Richard B; Chen, Xiongwen; Abel, E Dale; Xiang, Yang K

    2014-08-01

    Insulin and adrenergic stimulation are two divergent regulatory systems that may interact under certain pathophysiological circumstances. Here, we characterized a complex consisting of insulin receptor (IR) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in the heart. The IR/β2AR complex undergoes dynamic dissociation under diverse conditions such as Langendorff perfusions of hearts with insulin or after euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps in vivo. Activation of IR with insulin induces protein kinase A (PKA) and G-protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylation of the β2AR, which promotes β2AR coupling to the inhibitory G-protein, Gi. The insulin-induced phosphorylation of β2AR is dependent on IRS1 and IRS2. After insulin pretreatment, the activated β2AR-Gi signaling effectively attenuates cAMP/PKA activity after β-adrenergic stimulation in cardiomyocytes and consequently inhibits PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban and contractile responses in myocytes in vitro and in Langendorff perfused hearts. These data indicate that increased IR signaling, as occurs in hyperinsulinemic states, may directly impair βAR-regulated cardiac contractility. This β2AR-dependent IR and βAR signaling cross-talk offers a molecular basis for the broad interaction between these signaling cascades in the heart and other tissues or organs that may contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction in insulin-resistant states. PMID:24677713

  11. Modulation of Cardiac Contractility by the Phopholamban/SERCA2a Regulatome

    PubMed Central

    Kranias, Evangelia G.; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. Current therapies aim at treating the symptoms rather than the subcellular mechanisms, underlying the etiology and pathological remodeling in heart failure. A universal characteristic, contributing to the decreased contractile performance in human and experimental failing hearts, is impaired calcium sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). SR calcium uptake is mediated by a Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2), whose activity is reversibly regulated by phospholamban (PLN). Dephosphorylated PLN is an inhibitor of SERCA and phosphorylation of PLN relieves this inhibition. However, the initial simple view of a PLN/SERCA regulatory complex has been modified by our recent identification of SUMO, S100 and the histidine rich Ca-binding protein as regulators of SERCA activity. In addition, PLN activity is regulated by two phosphoproteins, the inhibitor-1 of protein phosphatase 1 and the small heat shock protein 20, which impact the overall SERCA-mediated Ca-transport. This review will highlight the regulatory mechanisms of cardiac contractility by the multimeric SERCA/PLN-ensemble and the potential for new therapeutic avenues targeting this complex by using small molecules and gene transfer methods. PMID:22679139

  12. Left ventricular pressure, contractility and dP/dt(max) in nonclinical drug safety assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Sarazan, R Dustan; Kroehle, John P; Main, Bradley W

    2012-09-01

    Increasing or decreasing cardiac contractility is an undesirable property of drugs being developed for noncardiovascular indications. The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Topic S7A and S7B guidelines only require the assessment of heart rate, blood pressure and the electrocardiogram in nonclinical in vivo safety pharmacology studies. Assessment of drug effects on contractility is only suggested as an optional follow-up study. However, these nonclinical safety assessment studies can detect these effects if properly designed and conducted using appropriate instrumentation. Left ventricular dP/dt is the first derivative of left ventricular pressure, which is computed by software algorithms by using calculus. Its peak value, dP/dt(max), is a common, robust and sensitive indicator of changes in cardiac contractility if experimental parameters such as preload, afterload and heart rate are well controlled. In order to ensure accuracy and avoid errors in the measurement of contractility in experimental animals, the frequency response of the pressure sensing system and the sample rate of the data acquisition system must be optimized for the signal. For dogs, nonhuman primates, and normotensive rats, all important information in a left ventricular pressure signal can be captured with a system with a frequency response of 100 Hz. Although systems with much higher frequency response can be used to measure left ventricular pressure, the output of these devices must be filtered to allow no frequencies to be acquired that are higher than one-half the sample rate of the acquisition system. Stated conversely, the sample rate of the acquisition system must be at least 2× the highest frequency contained in the signal. Failure to follow these principals can lead to incorrect results due to measurement artifacts from high frequency noise, which could be present but not detectable by the investigator. This manuscript has been written for biologists who do not have

  13. R4496C RyR2 mutation impairs atrial and ventricular contractility

    PubMed Central

    Coppini, Raffaele; Scellini, Beatrice; Ferrara, Claudia; Pioner, Josè Manuel; Mazzoni, Luca; Priori, Silvia; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Tesi, Chiara; Poggesi, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    Ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major Ca2+ channel of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and plays a crucial role in the generation of myocardial force. Changes in RyR2 gating properties and resulting increases in its open probability (Po) are associated with Ca2+ leakage from the SR and arrhythmias; however, the effects of RyR2 dysfunction on myocardial contractility are unknown. Here, we investigated the possibility that a RyR2 mutation associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, R4496C, affects the contractile function of atrial and ventricular myocardium. We measured isometric twitch tension in left ventricular and atrial trabeculae from wild-type mice and heterozygous transgenic mice carrying the R4496C RyR2 mutation and found that twitch force was comparable under baseline conditions (30°C, 2 mM [Ca2+]o, 1 Hz). However, the positive inotropic responses to high stimulation frequency, 0.1 µM isoproterenol, and 5 mM [Ca2+]o were decreased in R4496C trabeculae, as was post-rest potentiation. We investigated the mechanisms underlying inotropic insufficiency in R4496C muscles in single ventricular myocytes. Under baseline conditions, the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient was normal, despite the reduced SR Ca2+ content. Under inotropic challenge, however, R4496C myocytes were unable to boost the amplitude of Ca2+ transients because they are incapable of properly increasing the amount of Ca2+ stored in the SR because of a larger SR Ca2+ leakage. Recovery of force in response to premature stimuli was faster in R4496C myocardium, despite the unchanged rates of recovery of L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa-L) and SR Ca2+ content in single myocytes. A faster recovery from inactivation of the mutant R4496C channels could explain this behavior. In conclusion, changes in RyR2 channel gating associated with the R4496C mutation could be directly responsible for the alterations in both ventricular and atrial contractility. The increased RyR2 Po

  14. Workability and mechanical properties of alkali activated slag concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.G.; Sanjayan, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on concrete containing alkali activated slag (AAS) as the binder, with emphasis on achievement of reasonable workability and equivalent one-day strength to portland cement concrete at normal curing temperatures. Two types of activators were used: sodium hydroxide in combination with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate in combination with hydrated lime. The fresh concrete properties reported include slump and slump loss, air content, and bleed. Mechanical properties of AAS concrete, including compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, drying shrinkage, and creep are contrasted with those of portland cement concrete.

  15. Autonomic modification of intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems. PMID:26873897

  16. Spontaneous Oscillations of Elastic Contractile Materials with Turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierkes, Kai; Sumi, Angughali; Solon, Jérôme; Salbreux, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Single and collective cellular oscillations driven by the actomyosin cytoskeleton have been observed in numerous biological systems. Here, we propose that these oscillations can be accounted for by a generic oscillator model of a material turning over and contracting against an elastic element. As an example, we show that during dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo, experimentally observed changes in actomyosin concentration and oscillatory cell shape changes can, indeed, be captured by the dynamic equations studied here. We also investigate the collective dynamics of an ensemble of such contractile elements and show that the relative contribution of viscous and friction losses yields different regimes of collective oscillations. Taking into account the diffusion of force-producing molecules between contractile elements, our theoretical framework predicts the appearance of traveling waves, resembling the propagation of actomyosin waves observed during morphogenesis.

  17. Lidocaine decreases the xylazine-evoked contractility in pregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A; Mutinati, M; D'Onghia, G; Sciorsci, R L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of xylazine on basal uterine contractility of bovine pregnant uterine strips and that of lidocaine on xylazine-sensitized bovine pregnant uterine strips, at different stages of pregnancy. Basal contractility was evaluated in an isolated organ bath and the functionality of the strips throughout the experiment was evaluated using a dose of carbachol (10(-5)M). Uterine motility, expressed with amplitude, frequency of contractions as well as the area under the curve, was recorded in different stages of pregnancy and data were collected at 15-min intervals (5-min before and 5-min after xylazine administration and 5-min after lidocaine addition on the plateau contraction induced by xylazine). Uterine motility increased in all the stages of pregnancy after xylazine addition and gradually decreased after treatment with lidocaine. These data suggest that lidocaine might decrease the tonic effect induced by xylazine on bovine pregnant uteri. PMID:27474006

  18. In Vivo Assessment of Muscle Contractility in Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shama R; Valencia, Ana P; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Lovering, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies. Animal models provide unmitigated access to histological samples, which provide a "direct measure" of damage. However, even with unconstrained access to tissue morphology and biochemistry assays, the findings typically do not account for loss of muscle function. Thus, the most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is assessment of its primary function, which is to produce contractile force. The majority of animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle, with advantages and disadvantages depending on the equipment. Here, we describe in vivo methods to measure torque, to produce a reliable muscle injury, and to follow muscle function within the same animal over time. We also describe in vivo methods to measure tension in the leg and thigh muscles. PMID:27492180

  19. An Optogenetic Method to Modulate Cell Contractility during Tissue Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, Giorgia; Barry, Joseph D; Huber, Wolfgang; De Renzis, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Morphogenesis of multicellular organisms is driven by localized cell shape changes. How, and to what extent, changes in behavior in single cells or groups of cells influence neighboring cells and large-scale tissue remodeling remains an open question. Indeed, our understanding of multicellular dynamics is limited by the lack of methods allowing the modulation of cell behavior with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we developed an optogenetic approach to achieve local modulation of cell contractility and used it to control morphogenetic movements during Drosophila embryogenesis. We show that local inhibition of apical constriction is sufficient to cause a global arrest of mesoderm invagination. By varying the spatial pattern of inhibition during invagination, we further demonstrate that coordinated contractile behavior responds to local tissue geometrical constraints. Together, these results show the efficacy of this optogenetic approach to dissect the interplay between cell-cell interaction, force transmission, and tissue geometry during complex morphogenetic processes. PMID:26777292

  20. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  1. Rab8a regulates the exocyst-mediated kiss-and-run discharge of the Dictyostelium contractile vacuole.

    PubMed

    Essid, Miriam; Gopaldass, Navin; Yoshida, Kunito; Merrifield, Christien; Soldati, Thierry

    2012-04-01

    Water expulsion by the contractile vacuole (CV) in Dictyostelium is carried out by a giant kiss-and-run focal exocytic event during which the two membranes are only transiently connected but do not completely merge. We present a molecular dissection of the GTPase Rab8a and the exocyst complex in tethering of the contractile vacuole to the plasma membrane, fusion, and final detachment. Right before discharge, the contractile vacuole bladder sequentially recruits Drainin, a Rab11a effector, Rab8a, the exocyst complex, and LvsA, a protein of the Chédiak-Higashi family. Rab8a recruitment precedes the nucleotide-dependent arrival of the exocyst to the bladder by a few seconds. A dominant-negative mutant of Rab8a strongly binds to the exocyst and prevents recruitment to the bladder, suggesting that a Rab8a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity is associated with the complex. Absence of Drainin leads to overtethering and blocks fusion, whereas expression of constitutively active Rab8a allows fusion but blocks vacuole detachment from the plasma membrane, inducing complete fragmentation of tethered vacuoles. An indistinguishable phenotype is generated in cells lacking LvsA, implicating this protein in postfusion detethering. Of interest, overexpression of a constitutively active Rab8a mutant reverses the lvsA-null CV phenotype. PMID:22323285

  2. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries. PMID:26008718

  3. Protrusive and Contractile Forces of Spreading Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Henry, Steven J; Chen, Christopher S; Crocker, John C; Hammer, Daniel A

    2015-08-18

    Human neutrophils are mediators of innate immunity and undergo dramatic shape changes at all stages of their functional life cycle. In this work, we quantified the forces associated with a neutrophil's morphological transition from a nonadherent, quiescent sphere to its adherent and spread state. We did this by tracking, with high spatial and temporal resolution, the cell's mechanical behavior during spreading on microfabricated post-array detectors printed with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. Two dominant mechanical regimes were observed: transient protrusion and steady-state contraction. During spreading, a wave of protrusive force (75 ± 8 pN/post) propagates radially outward from the cell center at a speed of 206 ± 28 nm/s. Once completed, the cells enter a sustained contractile state. Although post engagement during contraction was continuously varying, posts within the core of the contact zone were less contractile (-20 ± 10 pN/post) than those residing at the geometric perimeter (-106 ± 10 pN/post). The magnitude of the protrusive force was found to be unchanged in response to cytoskeletal inhibitors of lamellipodium formation and myosin II-mediated contractility. However, cytochalasin B, known to reduce cortical tension in neutrophils, slowed spreading velocity (61 ± 37 nm/s) without significantly reducing protrusive force. Relaxation of the actin cortical shell was a prerequisite for spreading on post arrays as demonstrated by stiffening in response to jasplakinolide and the abrogation of spreading. ROCK and myosin II inhibition reduced long-term contractility. Function blocking antibody studies revealed haptokinetic spreading was induced by β2 integrin ligation. Neutrophils were found to moderately invaginate the post arrays to a depth of ∼1 μm as measured from spinning disk confocal microscopy. Our work suggests a competition of adhesion energy, cortical tension, and the relaxation of cortical tension is at play at the onset of

  4. Protrusive and Contractile Forces of Spreading Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Steven J.; Chen, Christopher S.; Crocker, John C.; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Human neutrophils are mediators of innate immunity and undergo dramatic shape changes at all stages of their functional life cycle. In this work, we quantified the forces associated with a neutrophil’s morphological transition from a nonadherent, quiescent sphere to its adherent and spread state. We did this by tracking, with high spatial and temporal resolution, the cell’s mechanical behavior during spreading on microfabricated post-array detectors printed with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. Two dominant mechanical regimes were observed: transient protrusion and steady-state contraction. During spreading, a wave of protrusive force (75 ± 8 pN/post) propagates radially outward from the cell center at a speed of 206 ± 28 nm/s. Once completed, the cells enter a sustained contractile state. Although post engagement during contraction was continuously varying, posts within the core of the contact zone were less contractile (−20 ± 10 pN/post) than those residing at the geometric perimeter (−106 ± 10 pN/post). The magnitude of the protrusive force was found to be unchanged in response to cytoskeletal inhibitors of lamellipodium formation and myosin II-mediated contractility. However, cytochalasin B, known to reduce cortical tension in neutrophils, slowed spreading velocity (61 ± 37 nm/s) without significantly reducing protrusive force. Relaxation of the actin cortical shell was a prerequisite for spreading on post arrays as demonstrated by stiffening in response to jasplakinolide and the abrogation of spreading. ROCK and myosin II inhibition reduced long-term contractility. Function blocking antibody studies revealed haptokinetic spreading was induced by β2 integrin ligation. Neutrophils were found to moderately invaginate the post arrays to a depth of ∼1 μm as measured from spinning disk confocal microscopy. Our work suggests a competition of adhesion energy, cortical tension, and the relaxation of cortical tension is at play at the

  5. Effect of pinaverium bromide on stress-induced colonic smooth muscle contractility disorder in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yun; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Li, Jun-Xia; Xu, Yun-Feng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pinaverium bromide, a L-type calcium channel blocker with selectivity for the gastrointestinal tract on contractile activity of colonic circular smooth muscle in normal or cold-restraint stressed rats and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Cold-restraint stress was conducted on rats to increase fecal pellets output. Each isolated colonic circular muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing warm oxygenated Tyrode-Ringer solution. The contractile response to ACh or KCl was measured isometrically on ink-writing recorder. Incubated muscle in different concentrations of pinaverium and the effects of pinaverium were investigated on ACh or KCl-induced contraction. Colon smooth muscle cells were cultured from rats and [Ca2+]i was measured in cell suspension using the Ca2+ fluorescent dye fura-2/AM. RESULTS: During stress, rats fecal pellet output increased 61% (P < 0.01). Stimulated with ACh or KCl, the muscle contractility was higher in stress than that in control. Pinaverium inhibited the increment of [Ca2+]i and the muscle contraction in response to ACh or KCl in a dose dependent manner. A significant inhibition of pinaverium to ACh or KCl induced [Ca2+]i increment was observed at 10-6 mol/L. The IC50 values for inhibition of ACh induced contraction for the stress and control group were 1.66 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.91 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. The IC50 values for inhibition of KCl induced contraction for the stress and control group were 8.13 × 10-7 mol/L and 3.80 × 10-7 mol/L, respectively. CONCLUSION: Increase in [Ca2+]i of smooth muscle cells is directly related to the generation of contraction force in colon. L-type Ca2+ channels represent the main route of Ca2+ entry. Pinaverium inhibits the calcium influx through L-type channels; decreases the contractile response to many kinds of agonists and regulates the stress-induced colon hypermotility. PMID:12632518

  6. Multicellular contractility contributes to the emergence of mesothelioma nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czirok, Andras

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) nodules arise from the mesothelial lining of the pleural cavity by a poorly understood mechanism. We demonstrate that macroscopic multicellular aggregates, reminiscent of the MPM nodules found in patients, develop when MPM cell lines are cultured at high cell densities for several weeks. Surprisingly, the nodule-like aggregates do not arise by excessive local cell proliferation, but by myosin II-driven cell contractility. Contractile nodules contain prominent actin cables that can span several cells. Several features of the in vitro MPM nodule development can be explained by a computational model that assumes uniform and steady intercellular contractile forces within a monolayer of cells, and a mechanical load-dependent lifetime of cell-cell contacts. The model behaves as a self-tensioned Maxwell fluid and exhibits an instability that leads to pattern formation. Altogether, our findings suggest that inhibition of the actomyosin system may provide a hitherto not utilized therapeutic approach to affect MPM growth. NIH R01-GM102801.

  7. Collective cancer cell invasion induced by coordinated contractile stresses.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Valencia, Angela M; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Yogurtcu, Osman N; Rao, Pranay; DiGiacomo, Josh; Godet, Inês; He, Lijuan; Lee, Meng-Horng; Gilkes, Daniele; Sun, Sean X; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-12-22

    The physical underpinnings of fibrosarcoma cell dissemination from a tumor in a surrounding collagen-rich matrix are poorly understood. Here we show that a tumor spheroid embedded in a 3D collagen matrix exerts large contractile forces on the matrix before invasion. Cell invasion is accompanied by complex spatially and temporally dependent patterns of cell migration within and at the surface of the spheroids that are fundamentally different from migratory patterns of individual fibrosarcoma cells homogeneously distributed in the same type of matrix. Cells display a continuous transition from a round morphology at the spheroid core, to highly aligned elongated morphology at the spheroid periphery, which depends on both β1-integrin-based cell-matrix adhesion and myosin II/ROCK-based cell contractility. This isotropic-to-anisotropic transition corresponds to a shift in migration, from a slow and unpolarized movement at the core, to a fast, polarized and persistent one at the periphery. Our results also show that the ensuing collective invasion of fibrosarcoma cells is induced by anisotropic contractile stresses exerted on the surrounding matrix. PMID:26528856

  8. Surgical Treatment of Concomitant Atrial Fibrillation: Focus onto Atrial Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Loardi, Claudia; Alamanni, Francesco; Galli, Claudia; Naliato, Moreno; Veglia, Fabrizio; Zanobini, Marco; Pepi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Maze procedure aims at restoring sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial contractility (AC). This study evaluated multiple aspects of AC recovery and their relationship with SR regain after ablation. Methods. 122 mitral and fibrillating patients underwent radiofrequency Maze. Rhythm check and echocardiographic control of biatrial contractility were performed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. A multivariate Cox analysis of risk factors for absence of AC recuperation was applied. Results. At 2-years follow-up, SR was achieved in 79% of patients. SR-AC coexistence increased from 76% until 98%, while biatrial contraction detection augmented from 84 to 98% at late stage. Shorter preoperative arrhythmia duration was the only common predictor of SR-AC restoring, while pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) negatively influenced AC recuperation. Early AC restoration favored future freedom from arrhythmia recurrence. Minor LA dimensions correlated with improved future A/E value and vice versa. Right atrial (RA) contractility restoring favored better left ventricular (LV) performance and volumes. Conclusions. SR and left AC are two interrelated Maze objectives. Factors associated with arrhythmia “chronic state” (PAP and arrhythmia duration) are negative predictors of procedural success. Our results suggest an association between postoperative LA dimensions and “kick” restoring and an influence of RA contraction onto LV function. PMID:26229956

  9. Contractile dynamics change before morphological cues during florescence illumination

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, S. G.; Ahmed, W. W.; Saif, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Illumination can have adverse effects on live cells. However, many experiments, e.g. traction force microscopy, rely on fluorescence microscopy. Current methods to assess undesired photo-induced cell changes rely on qualitative observation of changes in cell morphology. Here we utilize a quantitative technique to identify the effect of light on cell contractility prior to morphological changes. Fibroblasts were cultured on soft elastic hydrogels embedded with fluorescent beads. The adherent cells generated contractile forces that deform the substrate. Beads were used as fiducial markers to quantify the substrate deformation over time, which serves as a measure of cell force dynamics. We find that cells exposed to moderate fluorescence illumination (λ = 540–585 nm, I = 12.5 W/m2, duration = 60 s) exhibit rapid force relaxation. Strikingly, cells exhibit force relaxation after only 2 s of exposure, suggesting that photo-induced relaxation occurs nearly immediately. Evidence of photo-induced morphological changes were not observed for 15–30 min after illumination. Force relaxation and morphological changes were found to depend on wavelength and intensity of excitation light. This study demonstrates that changes in cell contractility reveal evidence of a photo-induced cell response long before any morphological cues. PMID:26691776

  10. Power-stroke-driven actomyosin contractility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshka, R.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2014-01-01

    In ratchet-based models describing actomyosin contraction the activity is usually associated with actin binding potential while the power-stroke mechanism, residing inside myosin heads, is viewed as passive. To show that contraction can be propelled directly through a conformational change, we propose an alternative model where the power stroke is the only active mechanism. The asymmetry, ensuring directional motion, resides in steric interaction between the externally driven power-stroke element and the passive nonpolar actin filament. The proposed model can reproduce all four discrete states of the minimal actomyosin catalytic cycle even though it is formulated in terms of continuous Langevin dynamics. We build a conceptual bridge between processive and nonprocessive molecular motors by demonstrating that not only the former but also the latter can use structural transformation as the main driving force.

  11. Monitoring contractile dermal lymphatic activity following uniaxial mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Worsley, P R; Voegeli, D; Bader, D L

    2016-09-01

    It is proposed that direct mechanical loading can impair dermal lymphatic function, contributing to the causal pathway of pressure ulcers. The present study aims to investigate the effects of loading on human dermal lymphatic vessels. Ten participants were recruited with ages ranging from 24 to 61 years. Participants had intradermal Indocyanine Green injections administrated between left finger digits. Fluorescence was imaged for 5min sequences with an infra-red camera prior to lymph vessel loading, immediately after axial loading (60mmHg) and following a recovery period. Image processing was employed to defined transient lymph packets and compare lymph function between each test phase. The results revealed that between 1-8 transient events (median=4) occurred at baseline, with a median velocity of 8.1mm/sec (range 4.1-20.1mm/sec). Immediately post-loading, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in velocity (median=6.4, range 2.2-13.5mm/sec), although the number of transient lymph packages varied between participants. During the recovery period the number (range 1-7) and velocity (recovery median=9.6mm/sec) of transient packets were largely restored to basal values. The present study revealed that some individuals present with impaired dermal lymphatic function immediately after uniaxial mechanical loading. More research is needed to investigate the effects of pressure and shear on lymphatic vessel patency. PMID:27245749

  12. Increasing O-GlcNAcylation Level on Organ Culture of Soleus Modulates the Calcium Activation Parameters of Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Montel, Valerie; Berthoin, Serge; Bastide, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    O-N-acetylglucosaminylation is a reversible post-translational modification which presents a dynamic and highly regulated interplay with phosphorylation. New insights suggest that O-GlcNAcylation might be involved in striated muscle physiology, in particular in contractile properties such as the calcium activation parameters. By the inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, we investigated the effect of the increase of soleus O-GlcNAcylation level on the contractile properties by establishing T/pCa relationships. We increased the O-GlcNAcylation level on soleus biopsies performing an organ culture of soleus treated or not with PUGNAc or Thiamet-G, two O-GlcNAcase inhibitors. The enhancement of O-GlcNAcylation pattern was associated with an increase of calcium affinity on slow soleus skinned fibers. Analysis of the glycoproteins pattern showed that this effect is solely due to O-GlcNAcylation of proteins extracted from skinned biopsies. We also characterized the O-GlcNAcylated contractile proteins using a proteomic approach, and identified among others troponin T and I as being O-GlcNAc modified. We quantified the variation of O-GlcNAc level on all these identified proteins, and showed that several regulatory contractile proteins, predominantly fast isoforms, presented a drastic increase in their O-GlcNAc level. Since the only slow isoform of contractile protein presenting an increase of O-GlcNAc level was MLC2, the effect of enhanced O-GlcNAcylation pattern on calcium activation parameters could involve the O-GlcNAcylation of sMLC2, without excluding that an unidentified O-GlcNAc proteins, such as TnC, could be potentially involved in this mechanism. All these data strongly linked O-GlcNAcylation to the modulation of contractile activity of skeletal muscle. PMID:23110217

  13. Environment and properties of obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, M.; Bornancini, C.

    We analyze the properties of obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei selected using mid-infrared colors in the redshift range 1 < z < 3. We find that obscured objects are located in a denser local galaxy environment compared to the unobscured sample.

  14. AP180-mediated trafficking of Vamp7B limits homotypic fusion of Dictyostelium contractile vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yujia; Stavrou, Irene; Bersuker, Kirill; Brady, Rebecca J; De Lozanne, Arturo; O'Halloran, Theresa J

    2009-10-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles play an established role in endocytosis from the plasma membrane, but they are also found on internal organelles. We examined the composition of clathrin-coated vesicles on an internal organelle responsible for osmoregulation, the Dictyostelium discoideum contractile vacuole. Clathrin puncta on contractile vacuoles contained multiple accessory proteins typical of plasma membrane-coated pits, including AP2, AP180, and epsin, but not Hip1r. To examine how these clathrin accessory proteins influenced the contractile vacuole, we generated cell lines that carried single and double gene knockouts in the same genetic background. Single or double mutants that lacked AP180 or AP2 exhibited abnormally large contractile vacuoles. The enlarged contractile vacuoles in AP180-null mutants formed because of excessive homotypic fusion among contractile vacuoles. The SNARE protein Vamp7B was mislocalized and enriched on the contractile vacuoles of AP180-null mutants. In vitro assays revealed that AP180 interacted with the cytoplasmic domain of Vamp7B. We propose that AP180 directs Vamp7B into clathrin-coated vesicles on contractile vacuoles, creating an efficient mechanism for regulating the internal distribution of fusion-competent SNARE proteins and limiting homotypic fusions among contractile vacuoles. Dictyostelium contractile vacuoles offer a valuable system to study clathrin-coated vesicles on internal organelles within eukaryotic cells. PMID:19692567

  15. Measurement of contractile forces generated by individual fibroblasts on self-standing fiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hojeong; Kim, Eunpa; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2011-02-01

    Contractility of cells in wound site is important to understand pathological wound healing and develop therapeutic strategies. In particular, contractile force generated by cells is a basic element for designing artificial three-dimensional cell culture scaffolds. Direct assessment of deformation of three-dimensional structured materials has been used to calculate contractile forces by averaging total forces with respect to the cell population number. However, macroscopic methods have offered only lower bounds of contractility due to experimental assumptions and the large variance of the spatial and temporal cell response. In the present study, cell contractility was examined microscopically in order to measure contractile forces generated by individual cells on self-standing fiber scaffolds that were fabricated via femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization. Experimental assumptions and calculation errors that arose in previous studies of macroscopic and microscopic contractile force measurements could be reduced by adopting a columnar buckling model on individual, standing fiber scaffolds. Via quantifying eccentric critical loads for the buckling of fibers with various diameters, contractile forces of single cells were calculated in the range between 30-116 nN. In the present study, a force magnitude of approximately 200 nN is suggested as upper bound of the contractile force exerted by single cells. In addition, contractile forces by multiple cells on a single fiber were calculated in the range between 241-709 nN. PMID:20862610

  16. Comparison of the contractile responses to irregular and regular trains of stimuli during microstimulation of single human motor axons.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2014-04-01

    During voluntary contractions, human motoneurons discharge with a physiological variability of ∼20%. However, studies that have measured the contractile responses to microstimulation of single motor axons have used regular trains of stimuli with no variability. We tested the hypothesis that irregular (physiological) trains of stimuli produce greater contractile responses than regular (nonphysiological) trains of identical mean frequency but zero variability. High-impedance tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve and guided into fascicles supplying a toe extensor muscle. Selective microstimulation was achieved for 14 single motor axons. Contractile responses were measured via an angular displacement transducer over the relevant toe. After the responses to regular trains of 10 stimuli extending from 2 to 100 Hz were recorded, irregular trains of 10 stimuli, based on the interspike intervals recorded from single motor units during voluntary contractions, were delivered. Finally, the stimulation sequences were repeated following a 2-min period of continuous stimulation at 10 Hz to induce muscle fatigue. Regular trains of stimuli generated a sigmoidal increase in displacement with frequency, whereas irregular trains, emulating the firing of volitionally driven motoneurons, displayed significantly greater responses over the same frequency range (8-24 Hz). This was maintained even in the presence of fatigue. We conclude that physiological discharge variability, which incorporates short and long interspike intervals, offers an advantage to the neuromuscular system by allowing motor units to operate on a higher level of the contraction-frequency curve and taking advantage of catch-like properties in skeletal muscle. PMID:24401713

  17. An impedance-based cellular assay using human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes to quantify modulators of cardiac contractility.

    PubMed

    Scott, Clay W; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Abi-Gerges, Najah; Lamore, Sarah D; Abassi, Yama A; Peters, Matthew F

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity, a prominent reason for late-stage failures in drug development, has resulted in a demand for in vitro assays that can predict this liability in early drug discovery. Current in vitro cardiovascular safety testing primarily focuses on ion channel modulation and low throughput cardiomyocyte (CM) contractility measurements. We evaluated both human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs (hiPSC-CMs) and rat neonatal CMs (rat CMs) on the xCELLigence Cardio system which uses impedance technology to quantify CM beating properties in a 96-well format. Forty-nine compounds were tested in concentration-response mode to determine potency for modulation of CM beating, a surrogate biomarker for contractility. These compounds had previously been tested in vivo and in a low throughput in vitro optical-based contractility assay that measures sarcomere shortening in electrically paced dog CMs. In comparison with in vivo contractility effects, hiPSC-CM impedance had assay sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 90%, 74%, and 82%, respectively. These values compared favorably to values reported for the dog CM optical assay (83%, 84%, and 82%) and were slightly better than impedance using rat CMs (77%, 74%, and 74%). The potency values from the hiPSC-CM and rat CM assays spanned four orders of magnitude and correlated with values from the dog CM optical assay (r(2 )= 0.76 and 0.70, respectively). The Cardio system assay has >5× higher throughput than the optical assay. Thus, hiPSC-CM impedance testing can help detect the human cardiotoxic potential of novel therapeutics early in drug discovery, and if a hazard is identified, has sufficient throughput to support the design-make-test-analyze cycle to mitigate this liability. PMID:25237062

  18. Emergent Global Contractile Force in Cardiac Tissues.

    PubMed

    Knight, Meghan B; Drew, Nancy K; McCarthy, Linda A; Grosberg, Anna

    2016-04-12

    The heart is a complex organ whose structure and function are intricately linked at multiple length scales. Although several advancements have been achieved in the field of cardiac tissue engineering, current in vitro cardiac tissues do not fully replicate the structure or function necessary for effective cardiac therapy and cardiotoxicity studies. This is partially due to a deficiency in current understandings of cardiac tissue organization's potential downstream effects, such as changes in gene expression levels. We developed a novel (to our knowledge) in vitro tool that can be used to decouple and quantify the contribution of organization and associated downstream effects to tissue function. To do so, cardiac tissue monolayers were designed into a parquet pattern to be organized anisotropically on a local scale, within a parquet tile, and with any desired organization on a global scale. We hypothesized that if the downstream effects were muted, the relationship between developed force and tissue organization could be modeled as a sum of force vectors. With the in vitro experimental platforms of parquet tissues and heart-on-a-chip devices, we were able to prove this hypothesis for both systolic and diastolic stresses. Thus, insight was gained into the relationship between the generated stress and global myofibril organization. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the developed quantitative tool could be used to estimate the changes in stress production due to downstream effects decoupled from tissue architecture. This has the potential to elucidate properties coupled to tissue architecture, which change force production and pumping function in the diseased heart or stem cell-derived tissues. PMID:27074686

  19. PDE3A Regulates Basal Myocardial Contractility through Interacting with SERCA2a-Signaling Complexes in Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Beca, Sanja; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Shen, Weixing; Liu, Jie; Makary, Samy; Polidovitch, Nazari; Sun, Junhui; Hockman, Steven; Chung, Youn Wook; Movesian, Matthew; Murphy, Elizabeth; Manganiello, Vincent; Backx, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale cAMP is an important regulator of myocardial function, and regulation of cAMP hydrolysis by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is a critical determinant of the amplitude, duration, and compartmentation of cAMP–mediated signaling. The role of different PDE isozymes, particularly PDE3A versus PDE3B, in the regulation of heart function remains unclear. Objective To determine the relative contribution of PDE3A versus PDE3B isozymes in the regulation of heart function and to dissect the molecular basis for this regulation. Methods and Results Compared to wild-type (WT) littermates, cardiac contractility and relaxation were enhanced in isolated hearts from PDE3A−/−, but not PDE3B−/−, mice. Furthermore, PDE3 inhibition had no effect on PDE3A−/− hearts but increased contractility in WT (as expected) and PDE3B−/− hearts to levels indistinguishable from PDE3A−/−. The enhanced contractility in PDE3A−/− hearts was associated with cAMP-dependent elevations in Ca2+ transient amplitudes and increased SR Ca2+ content, without changes in L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L) of cardiomyocytes, as well as with increased SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) activity, SR Ca2+ uptake rates, and phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation in SR fractions. Consistent with these observations, PDE3 activity was reduced ~8-fold in SR fractions from PDE3A−/− hearts. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that PDE3A associates with both SERCA2a and PLN in a complex which also contains AKAP-18, PKA-RII and PP2A. Conclusion Our data support the conclusion that PDE3A is the primary PDE3 isozyme modulating basal contractility and SR Ca2+ content by regulating cAMP in microdomains containing macromolecular complexes of SERCA2a-PLN-PDE3A. PMID:23168336

  20. Dynamics of myosin II organization into contractile networks and fibers at the medial cell cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei

    The cellular morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of non-muscle myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin (which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers). Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested the following processes: myosin minifilament assembly and disassembly; aligning and contraction; myosin filament stabilization upon increasing contractile tension. Numerical simulations that include those processes capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. We discuss methods to monitor myosin reorganization using non-linear imaging methods.

  1. Dynamics of myosin II organization into cortical contractile networks and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of adhered cells critically depends on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers. Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared them to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested that the following processes contribute to the assembly of cortical actomyosin into fibers: random myosin mini-filament assembly and disassembly along the cortex; myosin mini-filament aligning and contraction; stabilization of cortical myosin upon increasing contractile tension. We developed simple numerical simulations that include those processes. The results of simulations of cells at steady state and in response to blebbistatin capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness.

  2. Astral microtubules physically redistribute cortical actin filaments to the incipient contractile ring.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Foss, Margit; Zhang, Dahong

    2012-11-01

    Prior to cell cleavage, cytokinetic proteins are recruited into the nascent actomyosin contractile ring, paving the way for formation of a functional cleavage furrow. Interactions between spindle microtubules and the cell cortex may play a critical role in this recruitment, since microtubules have been shown to affect distribution and activation of cytokinetic proteins within the cortex. However, direct evidence for physical interaction between microtubules and the cortex has been lacking. Here, we probed the physical connection between astral microtubules and cortical actin filaments, by micromanipulating the fluorescently tagged cytoskeleton in living spermatocytes of the grasshopper Melanoplus femurrubrum. When microtubules were tugged with a microneedle, they in turn pulled on cortical actin filaments, interrupting the filaments' journey toward the equator. Further displacement of the actin dragged the cell membrane inward, demonstrating that the cortical actin network physically linked spindle microtubules to the cell membrane. Regional disruption of the connection by breaking spindle microtubules prevented actin accumulation in a segment of the ring, which locally inhibited furrowing. We propose a model in which dynamic astral microtubules physically redistribute cortical actin into the incipient contractile ring. PMID:23027710

  3. Synaptopodin couples epithelial contractility to α-actinin-4–dependent junction maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Nivetha

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial junction experiences mechanical force exerted by endogenous actomyosin activities and from interactions with neighboring cells. We hypothesize that tension generated at cell–cell adhesive contacts contributes to the maturation and assembly of the junctional complex. To test our hypothesis, we used a hydraulic apparatus that can apply mechanical force to intercellular junction in a confluent monolayer of cells. We found that mechanical force induces α-actinin-4 and actin accumulation at the cell junction in a time- and tension-dependent manner during junction development. Intercellular tension also induces α-actinin-4–dependent recruitment of vinculin to the cell junction. In addition, we have identified a tension-sensitive upstream regulator of α-actinin-4 as synaptopodin. Synaptopodin forms a complex containing α-actinin-4 and β-catenin and interacts with myosin II, indicating that it can physically link adhesion molecules to the cellular contractile apparatus. Synaptopodin depletion prevents junctional accumulation of α-actinin-4, vinculin, and actin. Knockdown of synaptopodin and α-actinin-4 decreases the strength of cell–cell adhesion, reduces the monolayer permeability barrier, and compromises cellular contractility. Our findings underscore the complexity of junction development and implicate a control process via tension-induced sequential incorporation of junctional components. PMID:26504173

  4. Contractile effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the human internal mammary artery.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sónia; Carvalho, Félix; Fernandes, Eduarda; Antunes, Manuel J; Cotrim, Maria Dulce

    2016-08-01

    Since the late 1980s numerous reports have detailed adverse reactions to the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) associated with cardiovascular collapse and sudden death, following ventricular tachycardia and hypertension. For a better understanding of the effects of MDMA on the cardiovascular system, it is critical to determine their effects at the vasculature level, including the transporter or neurotransmitter systems that are most affected at the whole range of drug doses. With this purpose in mind, the aim of our study was to evaluate the contractile effect of MDMA in the human internal mammary artery, the contribution of SERT for this effect and the responsiveness of this artery to 5-HT in the presence of MDMA. We have also studied the possible involvement of 5-HT2 receptors on the MDMA contractile effect in this human blood vessel using ketanserin. Our results showed that MDMA contracted the studied human's internal mammary artery in a SERT-independent form, through activation of 5-HT2A receptors. Considering the high plasma concentrations achieved in heavy users or in situations of acute exposure to drugs, this effect is probably involved in the cardiovascular risk profile of this psychostimulant, especially in subjects with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. PMID:27079619

  5. Patterned Contractile Forces Promote Epidermal Spreading and Regulate Segment Positioning during Drosophila Head Involution.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Natalia Dorota; Dierkes, Kai; D'Angelo, Arturo; Colombelli, Julien; Solon, Jérôme

    2016-07-25

    Epithelial spreading is a fundamental mode of tissue rearrangement occurring during animal development and wound closure. It has been associated either with the collective migration of cells [1, 2] or with actomyosin-generated forces acting at the leading edge (LE) and pulling the epithelial tissue [3, 4]. During the process of Drosophila head involution (HI), the epidermis spreads anteriorly to envelope the head tissues and fully cover the embryo [5]. This results in epidermal segments of equal width that will give rise to the different organs of the fly [6]. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of tissue spreading during HI. Combining high-resolution live microscopy with laser microsurgery and genetic perturbations, we show that epidermal movement is in part, but not solely, driven by a contractile actomyosin cable at the LE. Additional driving forces are generated within each segment by a gradient of actomyosin-based circumferential tension. Interfering with Hedgehog (Hh) signaling can modulate this gradient, thus suggesting the involvement of polarity genes in the regulation of HI. In particular, we show that disruption of these contractile forces alters segment widths and leads to a mispositioning of segments. Within the framework of a physical description, we confirm that given the geometry of the embryo, a patterned profile of active circumferential tensions can indeed generate propelling forces and control final segment position. Our study thus unravels a mechanism by which patterned tensile forces can regulate spreading and positioning of epithelial tissues. PMID:27397891

  6. Microvesicles released from tumor cells disrupt epithelial cell morphology and contractility.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Francois; Chan, Bryan; Antonyak, Marc A; Lampi, Marsha C; Cerione, Richard A; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2016-05-24

    During tumor progression, cancer cells interact and communicate with non-malignant cells within their local microenvironment. Microvesicles (MV) derived from human cancer cells play an important role in mediating this communication. Another critical aspect of cancer progression involves widespread ECM remodeling, which occur both at the primary and metastatic sites. ECM remodeling and reorganization within the tumor microenvironment is generally attributed to fibroblasts. Here, using MCF10a cells, a well-characterized breast epithelial cell line that exhibits a non-malignant epithelial phenotype, and MVs shed by aggressive MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells, we show that non-malignant epithelial cells can participate in ECM reorganization of 3D collagen matrices following their treatment with cancer cell-derived MVs. In addition, MVs trigger several changes in epithelial cells under 3D culture conditions. Furthermore, we show that this ECM reorganization is associated with an increase in cellular traction force following MV treatment, higher acto-myosin contractility, and higher FAK activity. Overall, our findings suggest that MVs derived from tumor cells can contribute to ECM reorganization occurring within the tumor microenvironment by enhancing the contractility of non-malignant epithelial cells. PMID:26477404

  7. Cytoskeletal coherence requires myosin-IIA contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunfei; Rossier, Olivier; Gauthier, Nils C.; Biais, Nicolas; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Zhang, Xian; Miller, Lawrence W.; Ladoux, Benoit; Cornish, Virginia W.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining a physical connection across cytoplasm is crucial for many biological processes such as matrix force generation, cell motility, cell shape and tissue development. However, in the absence of stress fibers, the coherent structure that transmits force across the cytoplasm is not understood. We find that nonmuscle myosin-II (NMII) contraction of cytoplasmic actin filaments establishes a coherent cytoskeletal network irrespective of the nature of adhesive contacts. When NMII activity is inhibited during cell spreading by Rho kinase inhibition, blebbistatin, caldesmon overexpression or NMIIA RNAi, the symmetric traction forces are lost and cell spreading persists, causing cytoplasm fragmentation by membrane tension that results in ‘C’ or dendritic shapes. Moreover, local inactivation of NMII by chromophore-assisted laser inactivation causes local loss of coherence. Actin filament polymerization is also required for cytoplasmic coherence, but microtubules and intermediate filaments are dispensable. Loss of cytoplasmic coherence is accompanied by loss of circumferential actin bundles. We suggest that NMIIA creates a coherent actin network through the formation of circumferential actin bundles that mechanically link elements of the peripheral actin cytoskeleton where much of the force is generated during spreading. PMID:20067993

  8. Effects of Soil Property Uncertainty on Projected Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, D. R.; Atchley, A. L.; Coon, E.; Painter, S. L.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Liljedahl, A.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in future climate is often assumed to contribute the largest uncertainty to active layer thickness (ALT) projections. However, the impact of soil property uncertainty on these projections may be significant. In this research, we evaluate the contribution of soil property uncertainty on ALT projections at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska. The effect of variations in porosity, thermal conductivity, saturation, and water retention properties of peat and mineral soil are evaluated. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) is used to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface. We apply the Null-Space Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm to identify an ensemble of soil property combinations that produce simulated temperature profiles that are consistent with temperature measurements available from the site. ALT is simulated for the ensemble of soil property combinations for four climate scenarios. The uncertainty in ALT due to soil properties within and across climate scenarios is evaluated. This work was supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project LDRD201200068DR and by the The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science.

  9. Elevated temperature creep properties for selected active metal braze alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Active metal braze alloys reduce the number of processes required for the joining of metal to ceramic components by eliminating the need for metallization and/or Ni plating of the ceramic surfaces. Titanium (Ti), V, and Zr are examples of active element additions which have been used successfully in such braze alloys. Since the braze alloy is expected to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch strains between the metal and ceramic materials, a knowledge of its elevated temperature mechanical properties is important. In particular, the issue of whether or not the creep strength of an active metal braze alloy is increased or decreased relative to its non-activated counterpart is important when designing new brazing processes and alloy systems. This paper presents a survey of high temperature mechanical properties for two pairs of conventional braze alloys and their active metal counterparts: (a) the conventional 72Ag-28Cu (Cusil) alloy, and the active braze alloy 62.2Ag- 36.2Cu-1.6Ti (Cusil ABA), and (b) the 82Au-18Ni (Nioro) alloy and the active braze alloy Mu-15.5M-0.75Mo-1.75V (Nioro ABA). For the case of the Cusil/Cusil ABA pair, the active metal addition contributes to solid solution strengthening of the braze alloy, resulting in a higher creep strength as compared to the non-active alloy. In the case of the Nioro/Nioro ABA pair, the Mo and V additions cause the active braze alloy to have a two-phase microstructure, which results in a reduced creep strength than the conventional braze alloy. The Garofalo sinh equation has been used to quantitatively describe the stress and temperature dependence of the deformation behavior. It will be observed that the effective stress exponent in the Garofalo sinh equation is a function of the instantaneous value of the stress argument.

  10. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  11. Single acute stress-induced progesterone and ovariectomy alter cardiomyocyte contractile function in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalász, Judit; Tóth, Enikő Pásztor; Bódi, Beáta; Fagyas, Miklós; Tóth, Attila; Pal, Bhattoa Harjit; Vári, Sándor G.; Balog, Marta; Blažetić, Senka; Heffer, Marija; Papp, Zoltán; Borbély, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess how ovarian-derived sex hormones (in particular progesterone) modify the effects of single acute stress on the mechanical and biochemical properties of left ventricular cardiomyocytes in the rat. Methods Non-ovariectomized (control, n = 8) and ovariectomized (OVX, n = 8) female rats were kept under normal conditions or were exposed to stress (control-S, n = 8 and OVX-S, n = 8). Serum progesterone levels were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Left ventricular myocardial samples were used for isometric force measurements and protein analysis. Ca2+-dependent active force (Factive), Ca2+-independent passive force (Fpassive), and Ca2+-sensitivity of force production were determined in single, mechanically isolated, permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Stress- and ovariectomy-induced alterations in myofilament proteins (myosin-binding protein C [MyBP-C], troponin I [TnI], and titin) were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis using protein and phosphoprotein stainings. Results Serum progesterone levels were significantly increased in stressed rats (control-S, 35.6 ± 4.8 ng/mL and OVX-S, 21.9 ± 4.0 ng/mL) compared to control (10 ± 2.9 ng/mL) and OVX (2.8 ± 0.5 ng/mL) groups. Factive was higher in the OVX groups (OVX, 25.9 ± 3.4 kN/m2 and OVX-S, 26.3 ± 3.0 kN/m2) than in control groups (control, 16.4 ± 1.2 kN/m2 and control-S, 14.4 ± 0.9 kN/m2). Regarding the potential molecular mechanisms, Factive correlated with MyBP-C phosphorylation, while myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity inversely correlated with serum progesterone levels when the mean values were plotted for all animal groups. Fpassive was unaffected by any treatment. Conclusion Stress increases ovary-independent synthesis and release of progesterone, which may regulate Ca2+-sensitivity of force production in left ventricular cardiomyocytes. Stress and female hormones differently alter Ca2+-dependent cardiomyocyte contractile

  12. Oleanolic acid: a novel cardioprotective agent that blunts hyperglycemia-induced contractile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mapanga, Rudo F; Rajamani, Uthra; Dlamini, Nonkululeko; Zungu-Edmondson, Makhosazane; Kelly-Laubscher, Roisin; Shafiullah, Mohammed; Wahab, Athiq; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Fahim, Mohamed A; Rondeau, Philippe; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Essop, M Faadiel

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes constitutes a major health challenge. Since cardiovascular complications are common in diabetic patients this will further increase the overall burden of disease. Furthermore, stress-induced hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Previous studies implicate oxidative stress, excessive flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and a dysfunctional ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as potential mediators of this process. Since oleanolic acid (OA; a clove extract) possesses antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that it attenuates acute and chronic hyperglycemia-mediated pathophysiologic molecular events (oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP, UPS) and thereby improves contractile function in response to ischemia-reperfusion. We employed several experimental systems: 1) H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to 33 mM glucose for 48 hr vs. controls (5 mM glucose); and subsequently treated with two OA doses (20 and 50 µM) for 6 and 24 hr, respectively; 2) Isolated rat hearts were perfused ex vivo with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 33 mM glucose vs. controls (11 mM glucose) for 60 min, followed by 20 min global ischemia and 60 min reperfusion ± OA treatment; 3) In vivo coronary ligations were performed on streptozotocin treated rats ± OA administration during reperfusion; and 4) Effects of long-term OA treatment (2 weeks) on heart function was assessed in streptozotocin-treated rats. Our data demonstrate that OA treatment blunted high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in heart cells. OA therapy also resulted in cardioprotection, i.e. for ex vivo and in vivo rat hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion under hyperglycemic conditions. In parallel, we found decreased oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP flux and proteasomal activity following ischemia-reperfusion. Long-term OA treatment also improved heart function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These findings are

  13. Cell motion, contractile networks, and the physics of interpenetrating reactive flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dembo, M.; Harlow, F.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper the authors propose a physical model of contractile biological polymer networks based on the notion of reactive interpenetrating flow. They show how their model leads to a mathematical formulation of the dynamical laws governing the behavior of contractile networks. They also develop estimates of the various parameters that appear in their equations, and discuss some elementary predictions of the model concerning the general scaling principles that pertain to the motions of contractile networks.

  14. Cell motion, contractile networks, and the physics of interpenetrating reactive flow.

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, M; Harlow, F

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we propose a physical model of contractile biological polymer networks based on the notion of reactive interpenetrating flow. We show how our model leads to a mathematical formulation of the dynamical laws governing the behavior of contractile networks. We also develop estimates of the various parameters that appear in our equations, and we discuss some elementary predictions of the model concerning the general scaling principles that pertain to the motions of contractile networks. PMID:3730497

  15. Fission yeast IQGAP arranges actin filaments into the cytokinetic contractile ring.

    PubMed

    Takaine, Masak; Numata, Osamu; Nakano, Kentaro

    2009-10-21

    The contractile ring (CR) consists of bundled actin filaments and myosin II; however, the actin-bundling factor remains elusive. We show that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe IQGAP Rng2 is involved in the generation of CR F-actin and required for its arrangement into a ring. An N-terminal fragment of Rng2 is necessary for the function of Rng2 and is localized to CR F-actin. In vitro the fragment promotes actin polymerization and forms linear arrays of F-actin, which are resistant to the depolymerization induced by the actin-depolymerizing factor Adf1. Our findings indicate that Rng2 is involved in the generation of CR F-actin and simultaneously bundles the filaments and regulates its dynamics by counteracting the effects of Adf1, thus enabling the reconstruction of CR F-actin bundles, which provides an insight into the physical properties of the building blocks that comprise the CR. PMID:19713940

  16. Effect of cardiac neural crest ablation on contractile force and calcium uptake and release in chick heart.

    PubMed

    Nosek, T M; Fogaça, R T; Hatcher, C J; Brotto, M A; Godt, R E

    1997-09-01

    Cardiac neural crest ablation (CNCA) in the chick embryo at stages 8-10 results in reduced contractility of the heart that can be observed as early as stage 14. We found that intact trabeculae from embryonic day (E) 15 experimental animals after CNCA display an approximately 50% decrease in twitch force relative to sham-operated E15 control animals. In control and CNCA trabeculae skinned in Triton X-100 and bathed in our standard solutions, neither maximum Ca(2+)-activated force nor Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus was significantly different. CNCA resulted in a marked reduction in the magnitude of the Ca2+ transient in trabeculae, estimated using fura 2 acetoxymethyl ester. CNCA had no effect on the half-time of Ca2+ loading by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of saponin skinned trabeculae at fixed Ca2+. However, it slightly reduced the Ca2+ sensitivity of Ca2+ uptake by the SR. Its most dramatic effect was to essentially abolish Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from the SR. These effects on Ca2+ metabolism explain, in part, the decrease in the intracellular Ca2+ transient and myocardial contractility observed with CNCA. PMID:9321838

  17. Maintaining PGC-1α expression following pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy preserves angiogenesis but not contractile or mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Renata O.; Wende, Adam R.; Crum, Ashley; Hunter, Douglas; Olsen, Curtis D.; Rawlings, Tenley; Riehle, Christian; Ward, Walter F.; Abel, E. Dale

    2014-01-01

    During pathological hypertrophy, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is repressed in concert with reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). We therefore sought to determine if maintaining or increasing PGC-1α levels in the context of pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) would preserve mitochondrial function and prevent contractile dysfunction. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy was induced using 4 wk of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice overexpressing the human PGC-1α genomic locus via a bacterial artificial chromosome (TG) and nontransgenic controls (Cont). PGC-1α levels were increased by 40% in TG mice and were sustained following TAC. Although TAC-induced repression of FAO genes and oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) genes was prevented in TG mice, mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis were equivalently impaired in Cont and TG mice after TAC. Contractile function was also equally impaired in Cont and TG mice following TAC, as demonstrated by decreased +dP/dt and ejection fraction and increased left ventricular developed pressure and end diastolic pressure. Conversely, capillary density was preserved, in concert with increased VEGF expression, while apoptosis and fibrosis were reduced in TG relative to Cont mice after TAC. Hence, sustaining physiological levels of PGC-1α expression following POH, while preserving myocardial vascularity, does not prevent mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction.—Pereira, R. O., Wende, A. R., Crum, A., Hunter, D., Olsen, C. D., Rawlings, T., Riehle, C., Ward, W. F., Abel, E. D. Maintaining PGC-1α expression following pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy preserves angiogenesis but not contractile or mitochondrial function. PMID:24776744

  18. Relation of Murine Thoracic Aortic Structural and Cellular Changes With Aging to Passive and Active Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jason B.; Mukherjee, Rupak; Stroud, Robert E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ikonomidis, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintenance of the structure and mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta contributes to aortic function and is dependent on the composition of the extracellular matrix and the cellular content within the aortic wall. Age‐related alterations in the aorta include changes in cellular content and composition of the extracellular matrix; however, the precise roles of these age‐related changes in altering aortic mechanical function are not well understood. Methods and Results Thoracic aortic rings from the descending segment were harvested from C57BL/6 mice aged 6 and 21 months. Thoracic aortic diameter and wall thickness were higher in the old mice. Cellular density was reduced in the medial layer of aortas from the old mice; concomitantly, collagen content was higher in old mice, but elastin content was similar between young and old mice. Stress relaxation, an index of compliance, was reduced in aortas from old mice and correlated with collagen fraction. Contractility of the aortic rings following potassium stimulation was reduced in old versus young mice. Furthermore, collagen gel contraction by aortic smooth muscle cells was reduced with age. Conclusions These results demonstrate that numerous age‐related structural changes occurred in the thoracic aorta and were related to alterations in mechanical properties. Aortic contractility decreased with age, likely because of a reduction in medial cell number in addition to a smooth muscle contractile deficit. Together, these unique findings provide evidence that the age‐related changes in structure and mechanical function coalesce to provide an aortic substrate that may be predisposed to aortopathies. PMID:25716945

  19. Regulation of human myometrial contractility during pregnancy and labour: are calcium homeostatic pathways important?

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M

    2001-03-01

    If we are to develop new strategies for the treatment and management of preterm and dysfunctional term labour, it is imperative that we improve current understanding of the control of human uterine activity. Despite many studies of animal pregnancy, there is a paucity of knowledge relating to the complex control of human myometrium during pregnancy. It is hypothesized that human myometrium is relatively quiescent during the majority of pregnancy and that as term approaches there is cascade of molecular events that prepare the uterus for labour. This review will consider the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of human myometrial activity and the modulation of these by hormonal and mechanical signals. In particular, the contribution of calcium homeostatic pathways to the control of human myometrial contractility during gestation will be discussed. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.2, 247-254. PMID:11429641

  20. Study of erodable paint properties involved in antifouling activity.

    PubMed

    Thouvenin, M; Langlois, V; Briandet, R; Langlois, J Y; Guerin, P H; Peron, J J; Haras, D; Vallee-Rehel, K

    2003-06-01

    To produce ecological marine paints, it is necessary to understand the phenomena involved in antifouling activity. Due to the multivariable components which have to be taken into account and due to their analytical intricacy, only studies based on selected properties are conceivable. In this study, four properties have been chosen, viz. erosion, biocide release, roughness and the physicochemical characteristics of the film surface. A principal-component analysis (PCA) of the experimental data has shown that, among the selected properties, only erosion affected antifouling efficiency. A more detailed investigation of erosion by quantifying global hydration and hydrolysis of immersed paints revealed the difficulty in linking the chemical structure of binders to the final erosion properties. Biocide release from paints, quantified by chromatographic methods coupled with UV detection, was inferior to the doses stated by the paint producers. These observations allowed the conceiving of formulations with reduced amounts of active molecules. The development of erodable, biodegradable binders associated with non toxic compounds is a promising way to obtain efficient antifouling paints compatible with existing, preventive systems. PMID:14619286

  1. Comparative Study of Surface-Active Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Disaccharide Monoesters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air–water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  2. Comparative study of surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of disaccharide monoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air-water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  3. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  4. Caveolin-3 Promotes a Vascular Smooth Muscle Contractile Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Pajares, Jorge L.; Iturrieta, Jeannette; Dulam, Vipin; Wang, Yu; Pavlides, Stephanos; Malacari, Gabriella; Lisanti, Michael P.; Frank, Philippe G.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of cardiovascular diseases in Western countries. Among the cell types associated with a dysfunctional vasculature, smooth muscle (SM) cells are believed to play an essential role in the development of these illnesses. Vascular SM cells are key regulators of the vascular tone and also have an important function in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis. While in the normal vasculature, contractile SM cells are predominant, in atherosclerotic vascular lesions, synthetic cells migrate toward the neointima, proliferate, and synthetize extracellular matrix proteins. In the present study, we have examined the role of caveolin-3 in the regulation of SM cell phenotype. Caveolin-3 is expressed in vivo in normal arterial SM cells, but its expression appears to be lost in cultured SM cells. Our data show that caveolin-3 expression in the A7r5 SM cell line is associated with increased expression of contractility markers such as SM α-actin, SM myosin heavy chain but decreased expression of the synthetic phenotype markers such as p-Elk and Klf4. Moreover, we also show that caveolin-3 expression can reduce proliferation upon treatment with LDL or PDGF. Finally, we show that caveolin-3-expressing SM cells are less sensitive to apoptosis than control cells upon treatment with oxidized LDL. Taken together, our data suggest that caveolin-3 can regulate the phenotypic switch between contractile and synthetic SM cells. A better understanding of the factors regulating caveolin-3 expression and function in this cell type will permit the development of a better comprehension of the factors regulating SM function in atherosclerosis and restenosis. PMID:26664898

  5. The role of microtubules in contractile ring function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, A. H.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    During cytokinesis, a cortical contractile ring forms around a cell, constricts to a stable tight neck and terminates in separation of the daughter cells. At first cleavage, Ilyanassa obsoleta embryos form two contractile rings simultaneously. The cleavage furrow (CF), in the animal hemisphere between the spindle poles, constricts to a stable tight neck and separates the daughter cells. The third polar lobe constriction (PLC-3), in the vegetal hemisphere below the spindle, constricts to a transient tight neck, but then relaxes, allowing the polar lobe cytoplasm to merge with one daughter cell. Eggs exposed to taxol, a drug that stabilizes microtubules, before the CF or the PLC-3 develop, fail to form CFs, but form stabilized tight PLCs. Eggs exposed to taxol at the time of PLC-3 formation develop varied numbers of constriction rings in their animal hemispheres and one PLC in their vegetal hemisphere, none of which relax. Eggs exposed to taxol after PLC-3 initiation form stabilized tight CFs and PLCs. At maximum constriction, control embryos display immunolocalization of nonextractable alpha-tubulin in their CFs, but not in their PLCs, and reveal, via electron microscopy, many microtubules extending through their CFs, but not through their PLCs. Embryos which form stabilized tightly constricted CFs and PLCs in the presence of taxol display immunolocalization of nonextractable alpha-tubulin in both constrictions and show many polymerized microtubules extending through both CFs and PLCs. These results suggest that the extension of microtubules through a tight contractile ring may be important for stabilizing that constriction and facilitating subsequent cytokinesis.

  6. Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function

    SciTech Connect

    Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro; Bartolome, Maria Visitacion; Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; Salaices, Mercedes; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2011-09-01

    Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl{sub 2} (1st dose 4.6 {mu}g/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 {mu}g/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and {beta}-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and {alpha}-1 isoform of NKA, whereas {alpha}-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: > Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. > Increases end diastolic pressure. > Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. > Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. > Small

  7. High-throughput screening for modulators of cellular contractile force†

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Young; Zhou, Enhua H.; Tambe, Dhananjay; Chen, Bohao; Lavoie, Tera; Dowell, Maria; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J.; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Burger, Stephanie; Frykenberg, Matthew; Butler, James P.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Johnson, Mark; Solway, Julian; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    When cellular contractile forces are central to pathophysiology, these forces comprise a logical target of therapy. Nevertheless, existing high-throughput screens are limited to upstream signalling intermediates with poorly defined relationships to such a physiological endpoint. Using cellular force as the target, here we report a new screening technology and demonstrate its applications using human airway smooth muscle cells in the context of asthma and Schlemm's canal endothelial cells in the context of glaucoma. This approach identified several drug candidates for both asthma and glaucoma. We attained rates of 1000 compounds per screening day, thus establishing a force-based cellular platform for high-throughput drug discovery. PMID:25953078

  8. Effects of glycine and proline on the calcium activation properties of skinned muscle fibre segments from crayfish and rat.

    PubMed

    Powney, E L; West, J M; Stephenson, D G; Dooley, P C

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the polar amino acid glycine (20 mmol l(-1)) and the non-polar amino acid proline (20 mmol l(-1)) on Ca(2+)-activated contraction have been examined in four types of striated muscle fibres. Single fibres dissected from the claw muscle of a crustacean (long- and short-sarcomere) and the hindlimb muscles of the rat (slow-twitch from soleus and fast-twitch from extensor digitorum longus) were activated in matched solutions that either contained the amino acid ('test') or not ('control'). The steady-state force produced in these solutions was used to determine the relation between force production and pCa (-log10[Ca2+]). The results show that in the concentrations used, glycine and proline had only small effects on the maximum Ca(2+)-activated force, pCa corresponding to 10, 50 and 90% maximum force (pCa10, pCa50, pCa90, respectively) or on the slope of the force-pCa curves in the four different fibre types. The relative lack of effects of glycine and proline on contractile activation would confer a distinct physiological advantage to force production of muscle of Cherax, where the concentrations of glycine and proline vary considerably. Finally, the results show that glycine and proline may be useful to balance control solutions when the effects of other amino acids or zwitterions on contractile activation are examined. PMID:14677649

  9. Mesenteric lymph from rats with trauma-hemorrhagic shock causes abnormal cardiac myocyte function and induces myocardial contractile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sambol, Justin T.; Lee, Marlon A.; Jiang, Mingshan; Dosi, Garima; Dong, Wei; Deitch, Edwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial contractile dysfunction develops following trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). We have previously shown that, in a rat fixed pressure model of T/HS (mean arterial pressure of 30–35 mmHg for 90 min), mesenteric lymph duct ligation before T/HS prevented T/HS-induced myocardial contractile depression. To determine whether T/HS lymph directly alters myocardial contractility, we examined the functional effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of mesenteric lymph collected from rats undergoing trauma-sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS on both isolated cardiac myocytes and Langendorff-perfused whole hearts. Acute application of T/HS lymph (0.1–2%), but not T/SS lymph, induced dual inotropic effects on myocytes with an immediate increase in the amplitude of cell shortening (1.4 ± 0.1-fold) followed by a complete block of contraction. Similarly, T/HS lymph caused dual, positive and negative effects on cellular Ca2+ transients. These effects were associated with changes in the electrophysiological properties of cardiac myocytes; T/HS lymph initially prolonged the action potential duration (action potential duration at 90% repolarization, 3.3 ± 0.4-fold), and this was followed by a decrease in the plateau potential and membrane depolarization. Furthermore, intravenous infusion of T/HS lymph, but not T/SS lymph, caused myocardial contractile dysfunction at 24 h after injection, which mimicked actual T/HS-induced changes; left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP rise and fall (±dP/dtmax) were decreased and inotropic response to Ca2+ was blunted. However, the contractile responsiveness to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the T/HS lymph-infused hearts remained unchanged. These results suggest that T/HS lymph directly causes negative inotropic effects on the myocardium and that T/HS lymph-induced changes in myocyte function are likely to contribute to the development of T/HS-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:21700891

  10. Chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide subunit eta (CCT-eta) is a specific regulator of fibroblast motility and contractility.

    PubMed

    Satish, Latha; Johnson, Sandra; Wang, James H-C; Post, J Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D; Kathju, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Integumentary wounds in mammalian fetuses heal without scar; this scarless wound healing is intrinsic to fetal tissues and is notable for absence of the contraction seen in postnatal (adult) wounds. The precise molecular signals determining the scarless phenotype remain unclear. We have previously reported that the eta subunit of the chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide (CCT-eta) is specifically reduced in healing fetal wounds in a rabbit model. In this study, we examine the role of CCT-eta in fibroblast motility and contractility, properties essential to wound healing and scar formation. We demonstrate that CCT-eta (but not CCT-beta) is underexpressed in fetal fibroblasts compared to adult fibroblasts. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that adult fibroblasts showed increased cell migration in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation, whereas fetal fibroblasts were unresponsive. Downregulation of CCT-eta in adult fibroblasts with short inhibitory RNA (siRNA) reduced cellular motility, both basal and growth factor-induced; in contrast, siRNA against CCT-beta had no such effect. Adult fibroblasts were more inherently contractile than fetal fibroblasts by cellular traction force microscopy; this contractility was increased by treatment with EGF and PDGF. CCT-eta siRNA inhibited the PDGF-induction of adult fibroblast contractility, whereas CCT-beta siRNA had no such effect. In each of these instances, the effect of downregulating CCT-eta was to modulate the behavior of adult fibroblasts so as to more closely approximate the characteristics of fetal fibroblasts. We next examined the effect of CCT-eta modulation on alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression, a gene product well known to play a critical role in adult wound healing. Fetal fibroblasts were found to constitutively express less alpha-SMA than adult cells. Reduction of CCT-eta with siRNA had minimal effect on cellular beta-actin but

  11. Differential effects of arginine, glutamate and phosphoarginine on Ca(2+)-activation properties of muscle fibres from crayfish and rat.

    PubMed

    Jame, David W; West, Jan M; Dooley, Philip C; Stephenson, D George

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two amino acids, arginine which has a positively charged side-chain and glutamate which has a negatively charged side-chain on the Ca2+-activation properties of the contractile apparatus were examined in four structurally and functionally different types of skeletal muscle; long- and short-sarcomere fibres from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean), and fast- and slow-twitch fibres from limb muscles of the rat. Single skinned fibres were activated in carefully balanced solutions of different pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) that either contained the test solute ("test") or not ("control"). The effect of phosphoarginine, a phosphagen that bears a nett negative charge, was also compared to the effects of arginine. Results show that (i) arginine (33-36 mmol l(-1)) significantly shifted the force-pCa curve by 0.08-0.13 pCa units in the direction of increased sensitivity to Ca2+-activated contraction in all fibre types; (ii) phosphoarginine (9-10 mmol l(-1)) induced a significant shift of the force-pCa curve by 0.18-0.24 pCa units in the direction of increased sensitivity to Ca2+ in mammalian fast- and slow-twitch fibres, but had no significant effects on the force-pCa relation in either long- or short-sarcomere crustacean fibres; (iii) glutamate (36-40 mmol l(-1)), like arginine affected the force-pCa relation of all fibre types investigated, but in the opposite direction, causing a significant decrease in the sensitivity to Ca2+-activated contraction by 0.08-0.19 pCa units; (iv) arginine, phosphoarginine and glutamate had little or no effect on the maximum Ca2+-activated force of crustacean and mammalian fibres. The results suggest that the opposing effects of glutamate and arginine are not related to simply their charge structure, but must involve complex interactions between these molecules, Ca2+ and the regulatory and other myofibrillar proteins. PMID:15711880

  12. Antioedematogenic activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antimicrobial properties of Jacaranda oxyphylla.

    PubMed

    Pereira, V V; Silva, R R; Dos Santos, M H; Dias, D F; Moreira, M E C; Takahashi, J A

    2016-09-01

    Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham. (Bignoniaceae) is a shrub found in the Brazilian cerrado and used in folk medicine to treat microbial infections. The aim of this study was to carry out a phytochemical screening and evaluate antioedematogenic, antimicrobial and antiacetylcholinesterase properties of J. oxyphylla crude extracts. All extracts analysed showed presence of terpenoids, which are potentially active chemical substances. A high AChE inhibitory activity for hexane extract from leaves and for the extracts from twigs was found. Ethanol extract from leaves of J. oxyphylla showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. This extract was also effective in inhibiting the stages of inflammation evaluated. Biological investigation and phytochemical screening of J. oxyphylla extracts provided additional evidence of its traditional medicinal value. PMID:26469996

  13. Biological and therapeutic activities, and anticancer properties of curcumin

    PubMed Central

    PERRONE, DONATELLA; ARDITO, FATIMA; GIANNATEMPO, GIOVANNI; DIOGUARDI, MARIO; TROIANO, GIUSEPPE; LO RUSSO, LUCIO; DE LILLO, ALFREDO; LAINO, LUIGI; LO MUZIO, LORENZO

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine, as it is nontoxic and exhibits a variety of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activities. Recently, certain studies have indicated that curcumin may exert anticancer effects in a variety of biological pathways involved in mutagenesis, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, cell cycle regulation and metastasis. The present study reviewed previous studies in the literature, which support the therapeutic activity of curcumin in cancer. In addition, the present study elucidated a number of the challenges concerning the use of curcumin as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent. All the studies reviewed herein suggest that curcumin is able to exert anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antioxidative, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities, particularly against cancers of the liver, skin, pancreas, prostate, ovary, lung and head neck, as well as having a positive effect in the treatment of arthritis. PMID:26640527

  14. Protonophore properties of hyperforin are essential for its pharmacological activity

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Thomas S.; Belkacemi, Thabet; Flockerzi, Veit; Beck, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hyperforin is a pharmacologically active component of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), recommended as a treatment for a range of ailments including mild to moderate depression. Part of its action has been attributed to TRPC6 channel activation. We found that hyperforin induces TRPC6-independent H+ currents in HEK-293 cells, cortical microglia, chromaffin cells and lipid bilayers. The latter demonstrates that hyperforin itself acts as a protonophore. The protonophore activity of hyperforin causes cytosolic acidification, which strongly depends on the holding potential, and which fuels the plasma membrane sodium-proton exchanger. Thereby the free intracellular sodium concentration increases and the neurotransmitter uptake by Na+ cotransport is inhibited. Additionally, hyperforin depletes and reduces loading of large dense core vesicles in chromaffin cells, which requires a pH gradient in order to accumulate monoamines. In summary the pharmacological actions of the “herbal Prozac” hyperforin are essentially determined by its protonophore properties shown here. PMID:25511254

  15. Time course analysis of mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm contractile muscle dysfunction in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Corpeno, R; Dworkin, B; Cacciani, N; Salah, H; Bergman, H-M; Ravara, B; Vitadello, M; Gorza, L; Gustafson, A-M; Hedström, Y; Petersson, J; Feng, H-Z; Jin, J-P; Iwamoto, H; Yagi, N; Artemenko, K; Bergquist, J; Larsson, L

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) plays a key role in triggering the impaired diaphragm muscle function and the concomitant delayed weaning from the respirator in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To date, experimental and clinical studies have primarily focused on early effects on the diaphragm by CMV, or at specific time points. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impaired diaphragm muscle function in response to mechanical ventilation, we have performed time-resolved analyses between 6 h and 14 days using an experimental rat ICU model allowing detailed studies of the diaphragm in response to long-term CMV. A rapid and early decline in maximum muscle fibre force and preceding muscle fibre atrophy was observed in the diaphragm in response to CMV, resulting in an 85% reduction in residual diaphragm fibre function after 9–14 days of CMV. A modest loss of contractile proteins was observed and linked to an early activation of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, myosin:actin ratios were not affected and the transcriptional regulation of myosin isoforms did not show any dramatic changes during the observation period. Furthermore, small angle X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrate that myosin can bind to actin in an ATP-dependent manner even after 9–14 days of exposure to CMV. Thus, quantitative changes in muscle fibre size and contractile proteins are not the dominating factors underlying the dramatic decline in diaphragm muscle function in response to CMV, in contrast to earlier observations in limb muscles. The observed early loss of subsarcolemmal neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, onset of oxidative stress, intracellular lipid accumulation and post-translational protein modifications strongly argue for significant qualitative changes in contractile proteins causing the severely impaired residual function in diaphragm fibres after long-term mechanical ventilation. For the first time, the present study

  16. Effect of substrate mechanical properties on T cell activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, King; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2013-03-01

    T cell activation is a key process in cell-mediated immunity, and engagement of T cell receptors by peptides on antigen presenting cells leads to activation of signaling cascades as well as cytoskeletal reorganization and large scale membrane deformations. While significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemical signaling pathways, the effects imposed by the physical environment and the role of mechanical forces on cell activation are not well understood. In this study, we have used anti-CD3 coated elastic polyacrylamide gels as stimulatory substrates to enable the spreading of Jurkat T cells and the measurement of cellular traction forces. We have investigated the effect of substrate stiffness on the dynamics of T cell spreading and cellular force generation. We found that T cells display more active and sustained edge dynamics on softer gels and that they exert increased traction stresses with increasing gel stiffness. A dynamic actin cytoskeleton was required to maintain the forces generated during activation, as inferred from small molecule inhibition experiments. Our results indicate an important role for physical properties of the antigen presenting cell as well as cytoskeleton-driven forces in signaling activation.

  17. Type VI secretion system: secretion by a contractile nanomachine

    PubMed Central

    Basler, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are present in about a quarter of all Gram-negative bacteria. Several key components of T6SS are evolutionarily related to components of contractile nanomachines such as phages and R-type pyocins. The T6SS assembly is initiated by formation of a membrane complex that binds a phage-like baseplate with a sharp spike, and this is followed by polymerization of a long rigid inner tube and an outer contractile sheath. Effectors are preloaded onto the spike or into the tube during the assembly by various mechanisms. Contraction of the sheath releases an unprecedented amount of energy, which is used to thrust the spike and tube with the associated effectors out of the effector cell and across membranes of both bacterial and eukaryotic target cells. Subunits of the contracted sheath are recycled by T6SS-specific unfoldase to allow for a new round of assembly. Live-cell imaging has shown that the assembly is highly dynamic and its subcellular localization is in certain bacteria regulated with a remarkable precision. Through the action of effectors, T6SS has mainly been shown to contribute to pathogenicity and competition between bacteria. This review summarizes the knowledge that has contributed to our current understanding of T6SS mode of action. PMID:26370934

  18. Priming and polymerization of a bacterial contractile tail structure.

    PubMed

    Zoued, Abdelrahim; Durand, Eric; Brunet, Yannick R; Spinelli, Silvia; Douzi, Badreddine; Guzzo, Mathilde; Flaugnatti, Nicolas; Legrand, Pierre; Journet, Laure; Fronzes, Rémi; Mignot, Tâm; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Contractile tails are composed of an inner tube wrapped by an outer sheath assembled in an extended, metastable conformation that stores mechanical energy necessary for its contraction. Contraction is used to propel the rigid inner tube towards target cells for DNA or toxin delivery. Although recent studies have revealed the structure of the contractile sheath of the type VI secretion system, the mechanisms by which its polymerization is controlled and coordinated with the assembly of the inner tube remain unknown. Here we show that the starfish-like TssA dodecameric complex interacts with tube and sheath components. Fluorescence microscopy experiments in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli reveal that TssA binds first to the type VI secretion system membrane core complex and then initiates tail polymerization. TssA remains at the tip of the growing structure and incorporates new tube and sheath blocks. On the basis of these results, we propose that TssA primes and coordinates tail tube and sheath biogenesis. PMID:26909579

  19. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M.; Fehler, Michael C.; Johnson, Paul A.; Phillips, W. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  20. Sphincter Contractility After Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Autograft into the Cryoinjured Anal Sphincters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Haet Nim; Lee, Ji Young; Park, Jun-Seok; Lee, Hye Seung

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether the injection of muscle-derived stem cells into the anal sphincter can improve functional properties in a fecal incontinence rat model. Methods Cryoinjured rats were utilized as a fecal incontinence model. The gastrocnemius muscles of normal three-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the purification of the muscle-derived stem cells. The experimental group was divided into three subgroups: normal control; cryoinjured; and muscle-derived stem cells (3 × 106 cells) injection group of cryoinjured rats. All groups were subsequently employed in contractility experiments using muscle strips from the anal sphincter, one week after preparation. Results Contractility in the cryoinjured group was significantly lower than in the control after treatment with acetylcholine and KCl. In the muscle-derived stem cells injection group, contraction amplitude was higher than in the cryoinjured group but not significantly (20.5 ± 21.3 vs. 17.3 ± 3.4 g per gram tissue, with acetylcholine (10−4 mol/l); 31 ± 14.2 vs. 18.4 ± 7.9 g per gram tissue, with KCl (10−4 mol/l)). PKH-26-labeled transplanted cells were detected in all of the grafted sphincters. Differentiated muscle masses stained positively for alpha smooth muscle actin and myosin heavy chain at the muscle-derived stem cells injection sites. Conclusions This is the first study reporting that autologous muscle-derived stem cell grafts may be a tool for improving anal sphincter function. PMID:18536965

  1. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    , termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MRE to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination.

  2. Brain Mechanical Property Measurement Using MRE with Intrinsic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation, termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MR elastography to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination. PMID:23079508

  3. Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Lampson, M. A.; Greathouse, D. V.; Koeppe, R. E., II; Andersen, O. S.

    2006-07-01

    Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)—Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly—alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.

  4. Endothelin-1-induced alterations in phenylephrine-induced contractile responses are largely additive in physiologically diverse rabbit vasculature.

    PubMed

    Gondré, M; Christ, G J

    1998-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an important modulator of vasomotor tone that is thought to participate in the etiology of cardiovascular disease by virtue of its ability to amplify the contractile responses of vascular smooth muscle cells to the effects of other vasoactive agents. Despite this fact, few studies have quantitated the expected contribution of ET-1 to the enhanced contractile responses elicited in the presence of another spasmogen. As a first step in this direction, ET-1 and phenylephrine (PE) were used to evaluate the effects of co-activation of the ETA/B or alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, respectively, on contractile responses in isolated rings of rabbit aorta, mesenteric and femoral artery, or strips of corporal tissue. Cumulative steady-state concentration-response curves (CRCs) were constructed to PE alone before the construction of a CRC to ET-1 alone, or a mixture of PE and ET-1 using a previously described drug concentration paradigm. Computer fits of the logistic equation to CRC data revealed that in all vascular tissues examined, the partial substitution of PE with ET-1 was associated with a significant vessel-dependent approximately 3- to 30-fold leftward shift in the CRC (P < .01, Student's t test for paired samples), as judged by a significant increase in the pEC50 (negative logarithm of the concentration of drug that elicits one-half of the calculated maximal effect), in the absence of any detectable effect on the calculated maximal contractile response (Emax) or the slope factor (rho). A theoretical CRC constructed using the Pöch and Holzmann method for equiactive substitution demonstrated that the responses to mixtures of PE and ET-1 were often the result of simple additivity of agonist effects in these preparations, and thus, were "expected" based on detailed knowledge of the individual effects of these two agonists. Regardless of the precision of the Poch and Holzmann CRC in predicting the effects of this drug mixture in these vascular tissues

  5. Modeling beta-adrenergic control of cardiac myocyte contractility in silico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucerman, Jeffrey J.; Brunton, Laurence L.; Michailova, Anushka P.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic signaling pathway regulates cardiac myocyte contractility through a combination of feedforward and feedback mechanisms. We used systems analysis to investigate how the components and topology of this signaling network permit neurohormonal control of excitation-contraction coupling in the rat ventricular myocyte. A kinetic model integrating beta-adrenergic signaling with excitation-contraction coupling was formulated, and each subsystem was validated with independent biochemical and physiological measurements. Model analysis was used to investigate quantitatively the effects of specific molecular perturbations. 3-Fold overexpression of adenylyl cyclase in the model allowed an 85% higher rate of cyclic AMP synthesis than an equivalent overexpression of beta 1-adrenergic receptor, and manipulating the affinity of Gs alpha for adenylyl cyclase was a more potent regulator of cyclic AMP production. The model predicted that less than 40% of adenylyl cyclase molecules may be stimulated under maximal receptor activation, and an experimental protocol is suggested for validating this prediction. The model also predicted that the endogenous heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor may enhance basal cyclic AMP buffering by 68% and increasing the apparent Hill coefficient of protein kinase A activation from 1.0 to 2.0. Finally, phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel and phospholamban were found sufficient to predict the dominant changes in myocyte contractility, including a 2.6x increase in systolic calcium (inotropy) and a 28% decrease in calcium half-relaxation time (lusitropy). By performing systems analysis, the consequences of molecular perturbations in the beta-adrenergic signaling network may be understood within the context of integrative cellular physiology.

  6. Immunoenhancing properties and antiviral activity of 7-deazaguanosine in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Smee, D F; Alaghamandan, H A; Gilbert, J; Burger, R A; Jin, A; Sharma, B S; Ramasamy, K; Revankar, G R; Cottam, H B; Jolley, W B

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide analog 7-deazaguanosine has not previously been reported to possess biological (antiviral or antitumor) properties in cell culture or in vivo. Up to 10(5) U of interferon per ml was detected in mouse sera 1 to 4 h following oral (200-mg/kg of body weight) and intraperitoneal (50-mg/kg) doses of the compound. 7-Deazaguanosine also caused significant activation of natural killer and phagocytic cells but did not augment T- and B-cell blastogenesis. Intraperitoneal treatments of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day administered 24 and 18 h before virus inoculation were highly protective in mice inoculated with lethal doses of Semliki Forest or San Angelo viruses. Less but still significant survivor increases were evident in treated mice infected with banzi or encephalomyocarditis viruses. In most cases, the degree of antiviral activity was similar to that exhibited by the biological response modifier 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine. 7-Thia-8-oxoguanosine was more potent than 7-deazaguanosine against encephalomyocarditis virus in mice, however. Oral efficacy was achieved with 7-deazaguanosine treatments of greater than or equal to 100 mg/kg against all virus infections, whereas 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine is reported to be devoid of oral activity in rodents. Thus, 7-deazaguanosine represents the first reported orally active nucleoside biological response modifier exhibiting broad-spectrum antiviral activity against particular types of RNA viruses. PMID:1707603

  7. Swarming Bristle-Bots: Exploring Properties of Active Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Martin B.; Beasock, Damian

    Active Matter describes an ubiquitous class of non-equilibrium systems that encompasses a diverse range of phenomena in the living and non-living realm. Examples are microscopic bio-filaments and their associated motor proteins, flocks of birds and fish, vibrated rods and disks, or nanoscale colloids actuated by catalytic activity on their surface. What unifies these systems is that they are all composed of self-driven units. In consequence, these systems are not driven into non-equilibrium by energy input at their boundary, but by local energy injection. As fascinating as these systems are, there are currently barely any laboratory systems that allow for controlled experiments in dry active matter. That is, systems not immersed in a fluid that can be observed without specialized equipment. Here we present a two-dimensional `active matter' system consisting of hundreds of macroscopic (~0.05 m long), modified, commercially available bristle-bots. We show that this swarm of toys classifies as active matter as it exhibits properties such as dynamic phase separation. Because of their straight forward implementation, their size and controllability, such swarms can not only answer scientific questions, but they have great potential as educational tools in teaching labs and classrooms.

  8. Frequency dependence of power and its implications for contractile function of muscle fibers from the digital flexors of horses.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Michael T; Bertram, John E A; Syme, Douglas A; Hermanson, John W; Chase, P Bryant

    2014-10-01

    The digital flexors of horses must produce high force to support the body weight during running, and a need for these muscles to generate power is likely limited during locomotion over level ground. Measurements of power output from horse muscle fibers close to physiological temperatures, and when cyclic strain is imposed, will help to better understand the in vivo performance of the muscles as power absorbers and generators. Skinned fibers from the deep (DDF) and superficial (SDF) digital flexors, and the soleus (SOL) underwent sinusoidal oscillations in length over a range of frequencies (0.5-16 Hz) and strain amplitudes (0.01-0.06) under maximum activation (pCa 5) at 30°C. Results were analyzed using both workloop and Nyquist plot analyses to determine the ability of the fibers to absorb or generate power and the frequency dependence of those abilities. Power absorption was dominant at most cycling frequencies and strain amplitudes in fibers from all three muscles. However, small amounts of power were generated (0.002-0.05 Wkg(-1)) at 0.01 strain by all three muscles at relatively slow cycling frequencies: DDF (4-7 Hz), SDF (4-5 Hz) and SOL (0.5-1 Hz). Nyquist analysis, reflecting the influence of cross-bridge kinetics on power generation, corroborated these results. The similar capacity for power generation by DDF and SDF versus lower for SOL, and the faster frequency at which this power was realized in DDF and SDF fibers, are largely explained by the fast myosin heavy chain isoform content in each muscle. Contractile function of DDF and SDF as power absorbers and generators, respectively, during locomotion may therefore be more dependent on their fiber architectural arrangement than on the physiological properties of their muscle fibers. PMID:25293602

  9. Effects of Gestational and Postnatal Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on Diaphragm Muscle Contractile Function in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm—the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats. CIH consisted of exposure in environmental chambers to 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir, once every 5 min, 8 h a day. Exposure to gCIH started within 24 h of identification of a copulation plug and continued until day 20 of gestation; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. For pCIH, pups were born in normoxia and within 24 h of delivery were exposed with dams to CIH for 3 weeks; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Following gas exposures, diaphragm muscle contractile, and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. Neither gCIH nor pCIH exposure had effects on diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity or endurance in either sex. Similarly, early life exposure to CIH did not affect muscle tolerance of severe hypoxic stress determined ex vivo. The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus, the present study suggests a relative resilience to hypoxic stress in diaphragm muscle. Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber. A mismatch in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway patency and respiratory homeostasis. PMID:27462274

  10. Effects of Gestational and Postnatal Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on Diaphragm Muscle Contractile Function in the Rat.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Fiona B; Dempsey, Eugene M; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm-the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats. CIH consisted of exposure in environmental chambers to 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir, once every 5 min, 8 h a day. Exposure to gCIH started within 24 h of identification of a copulation plug and continued until day 20 of gestation; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. For pCIH, pups were born in normoxia and within 24 h of delivery were exposed with dams to CIH for 3 weeks; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Following gas exposures, diaphragm muscle contractile, and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. Neither gCIH nor pCIH exposure had effects on diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity or endurance in either sex. Similarly, early life exposure to CIH did not affect muscle tolerance of severe hypoxic stress determined ex vivo. The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus, the present study suggests a relative resilience to hypoxic stress in diaphragm muscle. Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber. A mismatch in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway patency and respiratory homeostasis. PMID:27462274

  11. Frequency dependence of power and its implications for contractile function of muscle fibers from the digital flexors of horses

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E.A.; Syme, Douglas A.; Hermanson, John W.; Chase, P. Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The digital flexors of horses must produce high force to support the body weight during running, and a need for these muscles to generate power is likely limited during locomotion over level ground. Measurements of power output from horse muscle fibers close to physiological temperatures, and when cyclic strain is imposed, will help to better understand the in vivo performance of the muscles as power absorbers and generators. Skinned fibers from the deep (DDF) and superficial (SDF) digital flexors, and the soleus (SOL) underwent sinusoidal oscillations in length over a range of frequencies (0.5–16 Hz) and strain amplitudes (0.01–0.06) under maximum activation (pCa 5) at 30°C. Results were analyzed using both workloop and Nyquist plot analyses to determine the ability of the fibers to absorb or generate power and the frequency dependence of those abilities. Power absorption was dominant at most cycling frequencies and strain amplitudes in fibers from all three muscles. However, small amounts of power were generated (0.002–0.05 Wkg−1) at 0.01 strain by all three muscles at relatively slow cycling frequencies: DDF (4–7 Hz), SDF (4–5 Hz) and SOL (0.5–1 Hz). Nyquist analysis, reflecting the influence of cross‐bridge kinetics on power generation, corroborated these results. The similar capacity for power generation by DDF and SDF versus lower for SOL, and the faster frequency at which this power was realized in DDF and SDF fibers, are largely explained by the fast myosin heavy chain isoform content in each muscle. Contractile function of DDF and SDF as power absorbers and generators, respectively, during locomotion may therefore be more dependent on their fiber architectural arrangement than on the physiological properties of their muscle fibers. PMID:25293602

  12. Migration in Confined 3D Environments Is Determined by a Combination of Adhesiveness, Nuclear Volume, Contractility, and Cell Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Lautscham, Lena A.; Kämmerer, Christoph; Lange, Janina R.; Kolb, Thorsten; Mark, Christoph; Schilling, Achim; Strissel, Pamela L.; Strick, Reiner; Gluth, Caroline; Rowat, Amy C.; Metzner, Claus; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In cancer metastasis and other physiological processes, cells migrate through the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix of connective tissue and must overcome the steric hindrance posed by pores that are smaller than the cells. It is currently assumed that low cell stiffness promotes cell migration through confined spaces, but other factors such as adhesion and traction forces may be equally important. To study 3D migration under confinement in a stiff (1.77 MPa) environment, we use soft lithography to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices consisting of linear channel segments with 20 μm length, 3.7 μm height, and a decreasing width from 11.2 to 1.7 μm. To study 3D migration in a soft (550 Pa) environment, we use self-assembled collagen networks with an average pore size of 3 μm. We then measure the ability of four different cancer cell lines to migrate through these 3D matrices, and correlate the results with cell physical properties including contractility, adhesiveness, cell stiffness, and nuclear volume. Furthermore, we alter cell adhesion by coating the channel walls with different amounts of adhesion proteins, and we increase cell stiffness by overexpression of the nuclear envelope protein lamin A. Although all cell lines are able to migrate through the smallest 1.7 μm channels, we find significant differences in the migration velocity. Cell migration is impeded in cell lines with larger nuclei, lower adhesiveness, and to a lesser degree also in cells with lower contractility and higher stiffness. Our data show that the ability to overcome the steric hindrance of the matrix cannot be attributed to a single cell property but instead arises from a combination of adhesiveness, nuclear volume, contractility, and cell stiffness. PMID:26331248

  13. Inhibition of AMPK accentuates prolonged caloric restriction-induced change in cardiac contractile function through disruption of compensatory autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qijun; Zhao, Kun; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F; Cui, Qin; Babcock, Sara A; Yu, Shiqiang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Prolonged caloric restriction often results in alteration in heart geometry and function although the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Autophagy, a conserved pathway for bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles, preserves energy and nutrient in the face of caloric insufficiency. This study was designed to examine the role of AMPK in prolonged caloric restriction-induced change in cardiac homeostasis and the underlying mechanism(s) involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and AMPK kinase dead (KD) mice were caloric restricted (by 40%) for 30 weeks. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca²⁺ properties, autophagy and autophagy regulatory proteins were evaluated. Caloric restriction compromised echocardiographic indices (decreased ventricular mass, left ventricular diameters, and cardiac output), cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca²⁺ properties associated with upregulated autophagy (Beclin-1, Atg5 and LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio), increased autophagy adaptor protein p62, elevated phosphorylation of AMPK and TSC1/2, depressed phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1. Although AMPK inhibition did not affect cardiac mechanical function, autophagy and autophagy signaling proteins, it significantly accentuated caloric restriction-induced changes in myocardial contractile function and intracellular Ca²⁺ handling. Interestingly, AMPK inhibition reversed caloric restriction-induced changes in autophagy and autophagy signaling. AMPK inhibition led to dampened levels of Beclin-1, Atg 5 and LC3B ratio along with suppressed phosphorylation of AMPK and TSC1/2 as well as elevated phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1. Taken together, these data suggest an indispensible role for AMPK in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis under prolonged caloric restriction-induced pathological changes possibly through autophagy regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in

  14. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  15. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753