Science.gov

Sample records for active control devices

  1. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  2. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz. PMID:25920885

  3. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz.

  4. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOEpatents

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  5. MEMS Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. It uses a thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or it can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly are accomplished by wet etching and wafer bonding techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces and limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration.

  6. DEVICE CONTROLLER, CAMERA CONTROL

    1998-07-20

    This is a C++ application that is the server for the cameral control system. Devserv drives serial devices, such as cameras and videoswitchers used in a videoconference, upon request from a client such as the camxfgbfbx ccint program. cc Deverv listens on UPD ports for clients to make network contractions. After a client connects and sends a request to control a device (such as to pan,tilt, or zooma camera or do picture-in-picture with a videoswitcher),more » devserv formats the request into an RS232 message appropriate for the device and sends this message over the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port and then formats and sends via multicast a status message. In addition, devserv periodically multicasts status or description messages so that all clients connected to the multicast channel know what devices are supported and their ranges of motion and the current position. The software design employs a class hierarchy such that an abstract base class for devices can be subclassed into classes for various device categories(e.g. sonyevid30, cononvco4, panasonicwjmx50, etc.). which are further subclassed into classes for various device categories. The devices currently supported are the Sony evi-D30, Canon, VCC1, Canon VCC3, and Canon VCC4 cameras and the Panasonic WJ-MX50 videoswitcher. However, developers can extend the class hierarchy to support other devices.« less

  7. DEVICE CONTROLLER, CAMERA CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Marcia

    1998-07-20

    This is a C++ application that is the server for the cameral control system. Devserv drives serial devices, such as cameras and videoswitchers used in a videoconference, upon request from a client such as the camxfgbfbx ccint program. cc Deverv listens on UPD ports for clients to make network contractions. After a client connects and sends a request to control a device (such as to pan,tilt, or zooma camera or do picture-in-picture with a videoswitcher), devserv formats the request into an RS232 message appropriate for the device and sends this message over the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port and then formats and sends via multicast a status message. In addition, devserv periodically multicasts status or description messages so that all clients connected to the multicast channel know what devices are supported and their ranges of motion and the current position. The software design employs a class hierarchy such that an abstract base class for devices can be subclassed into classes for various device categories(e.g. sonyevid30, cononvco4, panasonicwjmx50, etc.). which are further subclassed into classes for various device categories. The devices currently supported are the Sony evi-D30, Canon, VCC1, Canon VCC3, and Canon VCC4 cameras and the Panasonic WJ-MX50 videoswitcher. However, developers can extend the class hierarchy to support other devices.

  8. Re-active Passive (RAP) Devices for Control of Noise Transmission through a Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carneal, James P.; Giovanardi, Marco; Fuller, Chris R.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Re-Active Passive (RAP) devices have been developed to control low frequency (<1000 Hz) noise transmission through a panel. These devices use a combination of active, re-active, and passive technologies packaged into a single unit to control a broad frequency range utilizing the strength of each technology over its best suited frequency range. The RAP device uses passive constrained layer damping to cover the relatively high frequency range (>200 Hz), reactive distributed vibration absorber) to cover the medium frequency range (75 to 250 Hz), and active control for controlling low frequencies (<200 Hz). The device was applied to control noise transmission through a panel mounted in a transmission loss test facility. Experimental results are presented for the bare panel, and combinations of passive treatment, reactive treatment, and active control. Results indicate that three RAP devices were able to increase the overall broadband (15-1000 Hz) transmission loss by 9.4 dB. These three devices added a total of 285 grams to the panel mass of 6.0 kg, or approximately 5%, not including control electronics.

  9. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  10. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  11. Seismic Response Control Of Structures Using Semi-Active and Passive Variable Stiffness Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Mohamed M. A.

    Controllable devices such as Magneto-Rheological Fluid Dampers, Electro-Rheological Dampers, and controllable friction devices have been studied extensively with limited implementation in real structures. Such devices have shown great potential in reducing seismic demands, either as smart base isolation systems, or as smart devices for multistory structures. Although variable stiffness devices can be used for seismic control of structures, the vast majority of research effort has been given to the control of damping. The primary focus of this dissertation is to evaluate the seismic control of structures using semi-active and passive variable stiffness characteristics. Smart base isolation systems employing variable stiffness devices have been studied, and two semi-active control strategies are proposed. The control algorithms were designed to reduce the superstructure and base accelerations of seismically isolated structures subject to near-fault and far-field ground motions. Computational simulations of the proposed control algorithms on the benchmark structure have shown that excessive base displacements associated with the near-fault ground motions may be better mitigated with the use of variable stiffness devices. However, the device properties must be controllable to produce a wide range of stiffness changes for an effective control of the base displacements. The potential of controllable stiffness devices in limiting the base displacement due to near-fault excitation without compromising the performance of conventionally isolated structures, is illustrated. The application of passive variable stiffness devices for seismic response mitigation of multistory structures is also investigated. A stiffening bracing system (SBS) is proposed to replace the conventional bracing systems of braced frames. An optimization process for the SBS parameters has been developed. The main objective of the design process is to maintain a uniform inter-story drift angle over the

  12. Electromagnetic and structural coupled finite element analysis of active control in an anti-vibration device

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, Eiji; Chen, Q.M.; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Brauer, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    An active control model of an anti-vibration device is analyzed using a coupled electromagnetic and structural finite element technique. The model consists of two parallel conducting wires moving in a uniform magnetic field. Displacement and velocity of the wires are detected and transformed into voltages. Those voltages are fed back to each wire to control the motion by Lorentz force. Calculated response of the motion is shown to agree with the theory of the equivalent mechanical model.

  13. Active flow control of subsonic flow in an adverse pressure gradient using synthetic jets and passive micro flow control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denn, Michael E.

    Several recent studies have shown the advantages of active and/or passive flow control devices for boundary layer flow modification. Many current and future proposed air vehicles have very short or offset diffusers in order to save vehicle weight and create more optimal vehicle/engine integration. Such short coupled diffusers generally result in boundary layer separation and loss of pressure recovery which reduces engine performance and in some cases may cause engine stall. Deployment of flow control devices can alleviate this problem to a large extent; however, almost all active flow control devices have some energy penalty associated with their inclusion. One potential low penalty approach for enhancing the diffuser performance is to combine the passive flow control elements such as micro-ramps with active flow control devices such as synthetic jets to achieve higher control authority. The goal of this dissertation is twofold. The first objective is to assess the ability of CFD with URANS turbulence models to accurately capture the effects of the synthetic jets and micro-ramps on boundary layer flow. This is accomplished by performing numerical simulations replicating several experimental test cases conducted at Georgia Institute of Technology under the NASA funded Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies Program, and comparing the simulation results with experimental data. The second objective is to run an expanded CFD matrix of numerical simulations by varying various geometric and other flow control parameters of micro-ramps and synthetic jets to determine how passive and active control devices interact with each other in increasing and/or decreasing the control authority and determine their influence on modification of boundary layer flow. The boundary layer shape factor is used as a figure of merit for determining the boundary layer flow quality/modification and its tendency towards separation. It is found by a large number of numerical experiments and

  14. Conceiving semi-active control devices for large-size monolithic monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciati, Fabio; El Attar, Adel; Casciati, Sara

    2001-07-01

    CHIME is a research project, funded by the European Union, which investigates the adoption of innovative structural control techniques in view of the seismic rehabilitation of the wide monumental cultural heritage in Mediterranean countries as Egypt, Tunisia and Cyprus. The structural control devices are mainly of the semi-active type. In this particular paper one reports the first results achieved within a case study. It considers an Egyptian large size monolithic monument. Alternative solutions for its seismic rehabilitation are eventually conceived and discussed.

  15. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Duane E.

    2003-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) using a Stirling thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode or can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly employ techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces, limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration. The MEMS cooler has potential applications across a broad range of industries such as the biomedical, computer, automotive, and aerospace industries. The basic capabilities it provides can be categorized into four key areas: 1) Extended environmental temperature range in harsh environments; 2) Lower operating temperatures for electronics and other components; 3) Precision spatial and temporal thermal control for temperature-sensitive devices; and 4) The enabling of microsystem devices that require active cooling and/or temperature control. The rapidly expanding capabilities of semiconductor processing in general, and microsystems packaging in particular, present a new opportunity to extend Stirling-cycle cooling to the MEMS domain. The comparatively high capacity and efficiency possible with a MEMS Stirling cooler provides a level of active cooling that is impossible at the microscale with current state-of-the-art techniques. The MEMS cooler technology builds on decades of research at Glenn on Stirling-cycle machines, and capitalizes on Glenn s emerging microsystems capabilities.

  16. System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device

    DOEpatents

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Mauger, Joseph; Anderson, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

  17. Active terahertz metamaterial devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J; Zide, Joshua M O; Gossard, Arthur C; Taylor, Antoinette J; Averitt, Richard D

    2006-11-30

    The development of artificially structured electromagnetic materials, termed metamaterials, has led to the realization of phenomena that cannot be obtained with natural materials. This is especially important for the technologically relevant terahertz (1 THz = 10(12) Hz) frequency regime; many materials inherently do not respond to THz radiation, and the tools that are necessary to construct devices operating within this range-sources, lenses, switches, modulators and detectors-largely do not exist. Considerable efforts are underway to fill this 'THz gap' in view of the useful potential applications of THz radiation. Moderate progress has been made in THz generation and detection; THz quantum cascade lasers are a recent example. However, techniques to control and manipulate THz waves are lagging behind. Here we demonstrate an active metamaterial device capable of efficient real-time control and manipulation of THz radiation. The device consists of an array of gold electric resonator elements (the metamaterial) fabricated on a semiconductor substrate. The metamaterial array and substrate together effectively form a Schottky diode, which enables modulation of THz transmission by 50 per cent, an order of magnitude improvement over existing devices. PMID:17136089

  18. Control of electro-rheological fluid based resistive torque elements for use in active rehabilitation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present control algorithms for novel electro-rheological fluid based resistive torque generation elements that will be used to drive the joint of a new type of portable and controllable active knee rehabilitation orthotic device (AKROD) for iso-inertial, isokinetic, and isometric exercising as well as gait retraining. The AKROD is composed of straps and rigid components for attachment to the leg, with a central hinge mechanism where a gear system is connected. The key features of AKROD include: a compact, lightweight design with highly tunable torque capabilities through a variable damper component, full portability with on-board power, control circuitry, and sensors (encoder and torque), and real-time capabilities for closed loop computer control for optimizing gait retraining. The variable damper component is achieved through an electro-rheological fluid (ERF) element that connects to the output of the gear system. Using the electrically controlled rheological properties of ERFs, compact brakes capable of supplying high resistive and controllable torques are developed. In this project, a prototype for the AKROD has been developed and tested. The AKROD's ERF resistive actuator was tested in laboratory experiments using a custom-made ERF testing apparatus (ETA). ETA provides a computer-controlled environment to test ERF brakes and actuators in various conditions and scenarios including emulating the interaction between human muscles involved with the knee and the AKROD's ERF actuators/brakes. The AKROD's ERF resistive actuator was tested in closed loop torque control experiments. A hybrid (non-linear, adaptive) proportional-integral (PI) torque controller was implemented to achieve this goal.

  19. Active control of near-field coupling in conductively coupled microelectromechanical system metamaterial devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally report a structurally reconfigurable metamaterial for active switching of near-field coupling in conductively coupled, orthogonally twisted split ring resonators (SRRs) operating in the terahertz spectral region. Out-of-plane reconfigurable microcantilevers integrated into the dark SRR geometry are used to provide active frequency tuning of dark SRR resonance. The geometrical parameters of individual SRRs are designed to have identical inductive-capacitive resonant frequency. This allows for the excitation of classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) due to the strong conductive coupling between the SRRs. When the microcantilevers are curved up, the resonant frequency of dark SRR blue-shifts and the EIT peak is completely modulated while the SRRs are still conductively connected. EIT modulation contrast of ˜50% is experimentally achieved with actively switchable group delay of ˜2.5 ps. Electrical control, miniaturized size, and readily integrable fabrication process of the proposed structurally reconfigurable metamaterial make it an ideal candidate for the realization of various terahertz communication devices such as electrically controllable terahertz delay lines, buffers, and tunable data-rate channels.

  20. Ferroelectric Light Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A light control device is formed by ferroelectric material and N electrodes positioned adjacent thereto to define an N-sided regular polygonal region or circular region there between where N is a multiple of four.

  1. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, H.B.; Weiss, A.A.

    1959-08-18

    A shadow control device for controlling a nuclear reactor is described. The device comprises a series of hollow neutron-absorbing elements arranged in groups, each element having a cavity for substantially housing an adjoining element and a longitudinal member for commonly supporting the groups of elements. Longitudinal actuation of the longitudinal member distributes the elements along its entire length in which position maximum worth is achieved.

  2. Electro-Active Device Using Radial Electric Field Piezo-Diaphragm for Control of Fluid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A fluid-control electro-active device includes a piezo-diaphragm made from a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied thereto. The electric field originates at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and extends radially outward from this region of the ferroelectric material and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The piezo-diaphragm deflects symmetrically about this region in a direction substantially perpendicular to the electric field. An annular region coupled to and extending radially outward from the piezo-diaphragm perimetrically borders the piezo-diaphragm, A housing is connected to the region and at least one fluid flow path with piezo-diaphragm disposed therein.

  3. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  4. Precise Spatiotemporal Control of Optogenetic Activation Using an Acousto-Optic Device

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanmeng; Song, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Wang, Zuoren

    2011-01-01

    Light activation and inactivation of neurons by optogenetic techniques has emerged as an important tool for studying neural circuit function. To achieve a high resolution, new methods are being developed to selectively manipulate the activity of individual neurons. Here, we report that the combination of an acousto-optic device (AOD) and single-photon laser was used to achieve rapid and precise spatiotemporal control of light stimulation at multiple points in a neural circuit with millisecond time resolution. The performance of this system in activating ChIEF expressed on HEK 293 cells as well as cultured neurons was first evaluated, and the laser stimulation patterns were optimized. Next, the spatiotemporally selective manipulation of multiple neurons was achieved in a precise manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of this high-resolution method in dissecting neural circuits both in the mouse cortical slice and the Drosophila brain in vivo. Taken together, our results show that the combination of AOD-assisted laser stimulation and optogenetic tools provides a flexible solution for manipulating neuronal activity at high efficiency and with high temporal precision. PMID:22174813

  5. Device Oriented Project Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  6. Contamination control device

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Robert M.; Cronin, John C.

    1977-01-01

    A contamination control device for use in a gas-insulated transmission bus consisting of a cylindrical center conductor coaxially mounted within a grounded cylindrical enclosure. The contamination control device is electrically connected to the interior surface of the grounded outer shell and positioned along an axial line at the lowest vertical position thereon. The contamination control device comprises an elongated metallic member having a generally curved cross-section in a first plane perpendicular to the axis of the bus and having an arcuate cross-section in a second plane lying along the axis of the bus. Each opposed end of the metallic member and its opposing sides are tapered to form a pair of generally converging and downward sloping surfaces to trap randomly moving conductive particles in the relatively field-free region between the metallic member and the interior surface of the grounded outer shell. The device may have projecting legs to enable the device to be spot welded to the interior of the grounded housing. The control device provides a high capture probability and prevents subsequent release of the charged particles after the capture thereof.

  7. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Graham, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A wholly mechanical compact control device is designed for automatically rendering the core of a fission reactor subcritical in response to core temperatures in excess of the design operating temperature limit. The control device comprises an expansible bellows interposed between the base of a channel in a reactor core and the inner end of a fuel cylinder therein which is normally resiliently urged inwardly. The bellows contains a working fluid which undergoes a liquid to vapor phase change at a temperature substantially equal to the design temperature limit. Hence, the bellows abruptiy expands at this limiting temperature to force the fuel cylinder outward and render the core subcritical. The control device is particularly applicable to aircraft propulsion reactor service. (AEC)

  8. Contaminate Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert H. (Inventor); Flynn, Kenneth P. (Inventor); Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A contaminate control device for filtering contaminates from a gas such as air is provided. The device includes a housing having a first inlet and a first outlet. An axial flow filter is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the axial flow filter has a second inlet and a second outlet. A second filter disposed about the axial flow filter and is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the second filter having a third inlet on an inner diameter and a third outlet disposed on an outer diameter. A flow restrictor is fluidly coupled between the second inlet and the first inlet.

  9. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  10. Silicon active photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  11. CONTROL OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS BY ACTIVE AND PASSIVE METHODS FOR THE NSLS-II INSERTION DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson J.; Chubar, O.; Kitegi, C.; Tanabe, T.

    2012-05-20

    Nonlinear effects from insertion devices are potentially a limiting factor for the electron beam quality of modern ring-based light sources, i.e., the on and off-dynamical aperture, leading to reduced injection efficiency and beam lifetime. These effects can be modelled by e.g. kick maps ({approx}1/{gamma}{sup 2}) and controlled by e.g. first-order thin or thick magnetic kicks introduced by 'magic fingers,' 'L-shims,' or 'current strips'. However, due to physical or technological constraints, these corrections are typically only partial. Therefore, a precise model is needed to correctly minimize the residual nonlinear effects for the entire system. We outline a systematic method for integrated design and rapid prototyping based on evaluation of the 3D magnetic field and control of the local trajectory with RADIA, and particle tracking with Tracy-3 for validation. The optimal geometry for the compensating magnetic fields is determined from the results of these simulations using a combination of linear algebra and genetic optimization.

  12. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-02-05

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  13. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device

    PubMed Central

    Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  14. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  15. Graphene-polymer hybrid nanostructure-based bioenergy storage device for real-time control of biological motor activity.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Dong Shin; Kim, Eunji; Seo, David H; Yang, Heejun; Seo, Sunae; Hong, Seunghun

    2011-11-22

    We report a graphene-polymer hybrid nanostructure-based bioenergy storage device to turn on and off biomotor activity in real-time. In this strategy, graphene was functionalized with amine groups and utilized as a transparent electrode supporting the motility of biomotors. Conducting polymer patterns doped with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were fabricated on the graphene and utilized for the fast release of ATP by electrical stimuli through the graphene. The controlled release of biomotor fuel, ATP, allowed us to control the actin filament transportation propelled by the biomotor in real-time. This strategy should enable the integrated nanodevices for the real-time control of biological motors, which can be a significant stepping stone toward hybrid nanomechanical systems based on motor proteins.

  16. A novel device based on smart textile to control heart's activity during exercise.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Guillen, Javier; Basterra, Javier; Villacastin, J P; Guillen, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, several systems have been developed to control cardiac function during exercise, and some are also capable of recording RR data to provide heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. In this study we compare time between heart beats and HRV parameters obtained with a smart textile system (GOW; Weartech sl., Spain) and an electrocardiogram machine commonly used in hospitals during continuous cycling tests. Twelve cardiology patients performed a 30-min cycling test at stable submaximal intensity. RR interval data were recorded during the test by both systems. 3-min RR segments were taken to compare the time intervals between beats and HRV variables using Bland-Altman analyses and intraclass correlation coefficients. Limits of agreement (LoAs) on RR intervals were stable at around 3 ms (widest LoAs -5.754 to 6.094 ms, tightest LoAs -2.557 to 3.105 ms, medium LoAs -3.638 ± 0.812 to 3.145 ± 0.539 ms). HRV parameters related to short-term change presented wide LoAs (RMSSD -0.17 to 18.41 %, HF -17.64 to 33.21 %, SD1 -0.50 to 17.54 %) as an effect of the error measurement of the GOW system. The GOW system is a valid tool for controlling HR during physical activity, although its use as a clinical tool for HRV cannot be supported.

  17. A novel device based on smart textile to control heart's activity during exercise.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Guillen, Javier; Basterra, Javier; Villacastin, J P; Guillen, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, several systems have been developed to control cardiac function during exercise, and some are also capable of recording RR data to provide heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. In this study we compare time between heart beats and HRV parameters obtained with a smart textile system (GOW; Weartech sl., Spain) and an electrocardiogram machine commonly used in hospitals during continuous cycling tests. Twelve cardiology patients performed a 30-min cycling test at stable submaximal intensity. RR interval data were recorded during the test by both systems. 3-min RR segments were taken to compare the time intervals between beats and HRV variables using Bland-Altman analyses and intraclass correlation coefficients. Limits of agreement (LoAs) on RR intervals were stable at around 3 ms (widest LoAs -5.754 to 6.094 ms, tightest LoAs -2.557 to 3.105 ms, medium LoAs -3.638 ± 0.812 to 3.145 ± 0.539 ms). HRV parameters related to short-term change presented wide LoAs (RMSSD -0.17 to 18.41 %, HF -17.64 to 33.21 %, SD1 -0.50 to 17.54 %) as an effect of the error measurement of the GOW system. The GOW system is a valid tool for controlling HR during physical activity, although its use as a clinical tool for HRV cannot be supported. PMID:24756693

  18. Active multistable twisting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Marc R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Two similarly shaped, such as rectangular, shells are attached to one another such that they form a resulting thin airfoil-like structure. The resulting device has at least two stable equilibrium shapes. The device can be transformed from one shape to another with a snap-through action. One or more actuators can be used to effect the snap-through; i.e., transform the device from one stable shape to another. Power to the actuators is needed only to transform the device from one shape to another.

  19. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described. (LEW)

  20. Control of electro-rheological fluid-based torque generation components for use in active rehabilitation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present the design and control algorithms for novel electro-rheological fluid based torque generation elements that will be used to drive the joint of a new type of portable and controllable Active Knee Rehabilitation Orthotic Device (AKROD) for gait retraining in stroke patients. The AKROD is composed of straps and rigid components for attachment to the leg, with a central hinge mechanism where a gear system is connected. The key features of AKROD include: a compact, lightweight design with highly tunable torque capabilities through a variable damper component, full portability with on board power, control circuitry, and sensors (encoder and torque), and real-time capabilities for closed loop computer control for optimizing gait retraining. The variable damper component is achieved through an electro-rheological fluid (ERF) element that connects to the output of the gear system. Using the electrically controlled rheological properties of ERFs, compact brakes capable of supplying high resistive and controllable torques, are developed. A preliminary prototype for AKROD v.2 has been developed and tested in our laboratory. AKROD's v.2 ERF resistive actuator was tested in laboratory experiments using our custom made ERF Testing Apparatus (ETA). ETA provides a computer controlled environment to test ERF brakes and actuators in various conditions and scenarios including emulating the interaction between human muscles involved with the knee and AKROD's ERF actuators / brakes. In our preliminary results, AKROD's ERF resistive actuator was tested in closed loop torque control experiments. A hybrid (non-linear, adaptive) Proportional-Integral (PI) torque controller was implemented to achieve this goal.

  1. Fuel-air control device

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.

    1981-12-15

    The invention concerns a device for controlling the vehicles fuel-air mixture by regulating the air in the ventilation passage leading to the engine air intake from the crankcase. In a vehicle provided with a PCV valve, the device is located in the ventilation passage leading from the crankcase to the engine air intake and the device is downstream of the PCV valve. The device admits outside air to the ventilation passage to lean the gas mixture when the engine creates a vacuum less than 8 psi in the ventilation passage.

  2. Vehicle speed control device

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Trump, W.E.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is described for automatically limiting the speed of a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine having a spark ignition system with an ignition coil, comprising: sensor means for generating a speed signal directly representative of the speed of the vehicle comprising a series of speed signal pulses having a pulse repetition frequency proportional to the speed of the vehicle; control means for converting speed signal pulses into a DC voltage proportional to the vehicle speed; means for comparing the DC voltage to a predetermined DC voltage having substantially zero AC components representative of a predetermined maximum speed and for generating a difference signal in response thereto; and means for generating a pulse-width modulated control signal responsive to the difference signal; power means responsive to the control signal for intermittently interrupting the ignition system.

  3. Active Morphology Control for Concomitant Long Distance Spin Transport and Photoresponse in a Single Organic Device.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Mao, Zupan; Gobbi, Marco; Yan, Wenjing; Guo, Yunlong; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Chuvilin, Andrey; Casanova, Felix; Hueso, Luis E

    2016-04-01

    Long distance spin transport and photoresponse are demonstrated in a single F16 CuPc spin valve. By introducing a low-temperature strategy for controlling the morphology of the organic layer during the fabrication of a molecular spin valve, a large spin-diffusion length up to 180 nm is achieved at room temperature. Magnetoresistive and photoresponsive signals are simultaneously observed even in an air atmosphere. PMID:26823157

  4. Control method for prosthetic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  5. CALUTRON CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, L.W.

    1959-08-25

    Several interlock and control circuits for a calutron are described. In one of the arrangements, the ton source cooling water flow is interlocked with the current supply to the heaters assoctated with the charge chamber, arc chamber, and electrode structure. When the ion source coolant flow rate exceeds a predetermined level, the heater associated with the charge chamber is energized. After the charge chamber has reached a predetermined temperature, the arc chamber heater is energized. Thereafter, the electrode structure heater is energized and the ion source is ready to have the operating voltages applied.

  6. Pollution Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    BHA Group Inc.'s PrecipTech Power Guard SQ-200 automatic voltage controller, combined with a remote computer, is an automatic management system for smoke-cleaning precipitators. It is the second generation of the SQ 100 developed at Langley Research Center, and was commercialized by two NASA employees. An electrostatic precipitator cleans the smoke by removing particulate matter from smokestack gases before gases are expelled into the atmosphere. Smokestack gas is passed through a precipitator chamber and exposed to an electrostatic field; dust particles in the gas become electrically charged, migrate to collection surfaces and are "captured." Developed under a NASA program seeking a way to dispose refuse, the system monitors sparking, automatically adjusts to changes in operating conditions and does not require a skilled operator.

  7. Control System for Prosthetic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that of movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part through the full-shrg position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  8. Variable capacity turbocharger control device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiguchi, F.; Noguchi, M.; Hatanaka, K.

    1987-07-14

    A device is described for controlling a turbocharger having a compressor and a turbine coupled to the compressor, the device comprising: means for determining the supercharge pressure of air from the compressor; variable capacity means for varying the flow rate of exhaust gas introduced into the turbine in a low speed state of an engine connected to the turbocharger, the variable capacity means responsive to a first control signal; exhaust gas bypass means for controlling the flow rate of the exhaust gas bypassing the variable capacity means and the turbine in a high speed state of the engine, the bypass means responsive to a second control signal; a control means, responsive to operating parameters for the engine, for generating the first and second control signals; and the control means for detecting an acceleration state of the engine and responsive to the determined supercharge procedure and generating the second control signal for controlling the operation of the exhaust gas bypass means. The exhaust gas bypass means reduces the flow rate of the exhaust gas introduced into the turbine only when the determined supercharge pressure reaches a predetermined pressure in an acceleration state of the engine.

  9. Active terahertz metamaterial devices

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Houtong; Padilla, Willie John; Averitt, Richard Douglas; O'Hara, John F.; Lee, Mark

    2010-11-02

    Metamaterial structures are taught which provide for the modulation of terahertz frequency signals. Each element within an array of metamaterial (MM) elements comprises multiple loops and at least one gap. The MM elements may comprise resonators with conductive loops and insulated gaps, or the inverse in which insulated loops are present with conductive gaps; each providing useful transmissive control properties. The metamaterial elements are fabricated on a semiconducting substrate configured with a means of enhancing or depleting electrons from near the gaps of the MM elements. An on to off transmissivity ratio of about 0.5 is achieved with this approach. Embodiments are described in which the MM elements incorporated within a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) to provide surface emitting (SE) properties.

  10. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  11. Control device for vehicle speed

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, S.; Hyodo, H.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a control device for vehicle speed comprising: a throttle driving means operatively coupled to a throttle valve of a vehicle; a set switch means for commanding memorization of the vehicle speed; a resume switch means for commanding read of the vehicle speed; a vehicle speed detecting means for generating a signal in accordance with the vehicle speed; a vehicle speed memory; an electronical control means for memorizing in the vehicle speed memory vehicle speed information corresponding to the signal obtained from the vehicle speed detecting means in response to actuation of the set switch means. The control means is also for reading out the content of the vehicle speed memory in response to actuation of the resume switch means to control the throttle driving means in accordance with the read-out content; a power supply means for supplying power to the electronical control means; and a power supply control switch means for controlling supply of power to the electronical control means in response to the state of at least one of the set switch means and the resume switch means and the state of the electronical control means. The improvement described here comprises the electronical control means sets the power supply control switch means into such a state that supply of power to the electronical control means is turned OFF, when vehicle speed information is not memorized in the vehicle speed memory.

  12. Electronically Controlled Continuous Culture Device

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, William J.; Webb, Robert B.

    1968-01-01

    A photocell-controlled continuous culture device, a Nephelostat, is described that maintains a wide variety of cultures of microorganisms in balanced growth. This Nephelostat controls concentrations of bacteria within ±3% over a cell concentration range of 106 to 109 cells per ml. Growth rates are recorded so that changes in the growth rate are observed over small increments of time. Spontaneous and caffeine-induced mutation rates of two strains of Escherichia coli were compared under Nephelostat and chemostat conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4877660

  13. Portable control device for networked mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Feddema, John T.; Byrne, Raymond H.; Bryan, Jon R.; Harrington, John J.; Gladwell, T. Scott

    2002-01-01

    A handheld control device provides a way for controlling one or multiple mobile robotic vehicles by incorporating a handheld computer with a radio board. The device and software use a personal data organizer as the handheld computer with an additional microprocessor and communication device on a radio board for use in controlling one robot or multiple networked robots.

  14. New electronic measurement, control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-04-01

    The electronic control device serves to measure the capacitance of the loss factor tg delta and the leakage current of tantalum and electrolytic capacitors. During the measurement of the leakage current, the capacitor can be polarized from an internal source with constant voltage regulated continuously from 0 to 100 V, or with a voltage of up to 500 V from an external source. The instrument has a system signalizing the loading state of the capacitor and a system for unloading it. The meter has two readout fields with LED display indicators: 3 and 5-digit for measuring the capacitance and the leakage current; 3-digit for measurement of tg delta and polarization intensity. The choice of the range for capacitance measurement can be done manually or from outside. The capacitance measurement is performed by the four-point technique in a serial replacement system. The meter with the corresponding interface block can operate in measurement systems according to IEC/ISP II standard.

  15. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  16. Magnetic field control. [electromechanical torquing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeussermann, W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A torque control for an electromechanical torquing device of a type where a variable clearance occurs between a rotor and field is described. A Hall effect device senses the field present, which would vary as a function of spacing between field and rotor. The output of the Hall effect device controls the power applied to the field so as to provide a well defined field and thus a controlled torque to the rotor which is well defined.

  17. 25 CFR 226.36 - Control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control devices. 226.36 Section 226.36 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.36 Control devices. In drilling operations in fields... operations to maintain proper control of subsurface strata....

  18. 25 CFR 226.36 - Control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control devices. 226.36 Section 226.36 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.36 Control devices. In drilling operations in fields... operations to maintain proper control of subsurface strata....

  19. 25 CFR 226.36 - Control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control devices. 226.36 Section 226.36 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.36 Control devices. In drilling operations in fields... operations to maintain proper control of subsurface strata....

  20. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  1. Cursor Control Device Test Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, Aniko; Pace, John; Thompson, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    The test battery was developed to provide a standard procedure for cursor control device evaluation. The software was built in Visual Basic and consists of nine tasks and a main menu that integrates the set-up of the tasks. The tasks can be used individually, or in a series defined in the main menu. Task 1, the Unidirectional Pointing Task, tests the speed and accuracy of clicking on targets. Two rectangles with an adjustable width and adjustable center- to-center distance are presented. The task is to click back and forth between the two rectangles. Clicks outside of the rectangles are recorded as errors. Task 2, Multidirectional Pointing Task, measures speed and accuracy of clicking on targets approached from different angles. Twenty-five numbered squares of adjustable width are arranged around an adjustable diameter circle. The task is to point and click on the numbered squares (placed on opposite sides of the circle) in consecutive order. Clicks outside of the squares are recorded as errors. Task 3, Unidirectional (horizontal) Dragging Task, is similar to dragging a file into a folder on a computer desktop. Task 3 requires dragging a square of adjustable width from one rectangle and dropping it into another. The width of each rectangle is adjustable, as well as the distance between the two rectangles. Dropping the square outside of the rectangles is recorded as an error. Task 4, Unidirectional Path Following, is similar to Task 3. The task is to drag a square through a tunnel consisting of two lines. The size of the square and the width of the tunnel are adjustable. If the square touches any of the lines, it is counted as an error and the task is restarted. Task 5, Text Selection, involves clicking on a Start button, and then moving directly to the underlined portion of the displayed text and highlighting it. The pointing distance to the text is adjustable, as well as the to-be-selected font size and the underlined character length. If the selection does not

  2. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  3. Bidirectional Telemetry Controller for Neuroprosthetic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishnu; McCreery, Douglas B.; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We present versatile multifunctional programmable controller with bidirectional data telemetry, implemented using existing commercial microchips and standard Bluetooth protocol, which adds convenience, reliability, and ease-of-use to neuroprosthetic devices. Controller, weighing 190 g, is placed on animal's back and provides bidirectional sustained telemetry rate of 500 kb/s, allowing real-time control of stimulation parameters and viewing of acquired data. In continuously-active state, controller consumes ∼420 mW and operates without recharge for 8 h. It features independent 16-channel current-controlled stimulation, allowing current steering; customizable stimulus current waveforms; recording of stimulus voltage waveforms and evoked neuronal responses with stimulus artifact blanking circuitry. Flexibility, scalability, cost-efficiency, and a user-friendly computer interface of this device allow use in animal testing for variety of neuroprosthetic applications. Initial testing of the controller has been done in a feline model of brainstem auditory prosthesis. In this model, the electrical stimulation is applied to the array of microelectrodes implanted in the ventral cochlear nucleus, while the evoked neuronal activity was recorded with the electrode implanted in the contralateral inferior colliculus. Stimulus voltage waveforms to monitor the access impedance of the electrodes were acquired at the rate of 312 kilosamples/s. Evoked neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus was recorded after the blanking (transient silencing) of the recording amplifier during the stimulus pulse, allowing the detection of neuronal responses within 100 μs after the end of the stimulus pulse applied in the cochlear nucleus. PMID:19933010

  4. Daylight control system, device and method

    DOEpatents

    Paton, John Douglas

    2012-08-28

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  5. Daylight control system device and method

    DOEpatents

    Paton, John Douglas

    2007-03-13

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  6. Daylight control system device and method

    DOEpatents

    Paton, John Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  7. Device Would Provide Controllable Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm J.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed buoyant device attaches to object denser than water and adjusts to obtain neutral overall buoyancy. Conceived to aid training astronauts in handling "weightless" equipment in water tanks. Could be used to support marine environmental monitoring instrument at fixed predetermined depth. In marine salvage operation it holds parts at convenient depth before used or hoisted to surface. Device made in variety of sizes and shapes to suit objects to be supported. Could be equipped with such suitable attachment hardware as U-bolts, clamps, or cable ties. One or more such devices used to support object as necessary. Replaces plastic foam floats, which must be cut to size according to estimates of volume of foam that gives required amount of buoyancy. Device does not become waterlogged or release contaminating particles.

  8. Signal processing device to control microwave output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. G.

    1989-08-01

    The development of an electronic device to control the operation of a commercial microwave oven is discussed. This device when installed in conjunction with the existing circuitry of SHARP MICROWAVE OVEN (model R-9524) is capable of automatically advancing through a sequence of thawing recipes programmed and stored in the memory bank of the oven. The device therefore eliminates or minimizes human operator action needed in previous prototype version of a blood thawing device.

  9. The Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    An annular momentum control device consisting principally of a spinning rim, a set of noncontacting magnetic bearings for supporting the rim, a noncontacting electric motor for driving the rim, and, for some applications, one or more gimbals is described. The device is intended for applications where requirements for control torque and momentum storage exist. Hardware requirements and potential unit configurations are discussed. Theoretical considerations for the passive use of the device are discussed. Potential applications of the device in other than passive configurations for the attitude control, stabilization, and maneuvering of spacecraft are reported.

  10. System for remote control of underground device

    DOEpatents

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  11. Cortical control for prosthetic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew B.; Kipke, D. W.; Perepelkin, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    The work presented in this session is part of a project to develop an arm-control system based on neuronal activity recorded from the cerebral cortex. This will make it possible for amputees or paralyzed individuals to move a prosthetic arm or, using functional neural stimulation, their own limbs as effortlessly and with as much skill as intact individuals. We are developing and testing this system in monkeys and hope to have a prototype working in the next couple of years. This project has been made more feasible because we have been able, in the last 15 years to extract, from the brain, a signal that represents arm trajectory accurately. In this paper, we describe how this technique was developed and how we use this as the basis for our control signal. An alternative approach using a self-organizing feature map, an algorithm to deduce arm configuration given an endpoint trajectory and the development of a telemetry system to transmit the neuronal data is described in subsequent papers.

  12. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  13. Control method for physical systems and devices

    DOEpatents

    Guckenheimer, John

    1997-01-01

    A control method for stabilizing systems or devices that are outside the control domain of a linear controller is provided. When applied to nonlinear systems, the effectiveness of this method depends upon the size of the domain of stability that is produced for the stabilized equilibrium. If this domain is small compared to the accuracy of measurements or the size of disturbances within the system, then the linear controller is likely to fail within a short period. Failure of the system or device can be catastrophic: the system or device can wander far from the desired equilibrium. The method of the invention presents a general procedure to recapture the stability of a linear controller, when the trajectory of a system or device leaves its region of stability. By using a hybrid strategy based upon discrete switching events within the state space of the system or device, the system or device will return from a much larger domain to the region of stability utilized by the linear controller. The control procedure is robust and remains effective under large classes of perturbations of a given underlying system or device.

  14. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2007-01-01

    A test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation: four tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and three from previous studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focused on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. Four cursor control devices were evaluated with and without Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves to identify desirable cursor control device characteristics for NASA missions: 1) the Kensington Expert Mouse, 2) the Hulapoint mouse, 3) the Logitech Marble Mouse, and 4) the Honeywell trackball. Results showed that: 1) the test battery is an efficient tool for differentiating among input devices, 2) gloved operations were about 1 second slower and had at least 15% more errors; 3) devices used with gloves have to be larger, and should allow good hand positioning to counteract the lack of tactile feedback, 4) none of the devices, as designed, were ideal for operation with EVA gloves.

  15. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.; West, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  16. An Optically Controllable Transformation-dc Illusion Device.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Luo, Chen Yang; Ge, Shuo; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-08-19

    The concept of multifunctional transformation-dc devices is proposed and verified experimentally. The functions of dc metamaterials can be remotely altered by illuminating with visible light. If the light-induced dc illusion effect is activated, the electrostatic behavior of the original object is perceived as multiple equivalent objects with different pre-designed geometries. The experimental verification of the functional device makes it possible to control sophisticated transformation-dc devices with external light illumination. PMID:26177597

  17. Temperature-controlled fluidic device A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehsteiner, F. H.

    1970-01-01

    Symmetrical fluidic device directly converts electrical signals to mechanical signals in the form of a fluid-flow parameter. This device eliminates or reduces effects of all undesirable parameters on the departure angle, leaving it a function of the controlled wall and jet temperatures.

  18. Robotics and teleoperator-controlled devices.

    PubMed

    Meieran, H B

    1988-08-01

    This paper presents a rationale for and a summary of tasks and missions to which mobile and stationary robots and other teleoperator-controlled devices could be assigned in response to the accidental release of radioactive and other hazardous/toxic materials to the environment. Many of these vehicles and devices currently support operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and other nuclear industry facilities. This paper also discusses specific missions for these devices at the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant sites at the time of the accidents. Also discussed is the status of devices under development for future applications, as well as research on robotics.

  19. Robotics and teleoperator-controlled devices.

    PubMed

    Meieran, H B

    1988-08-01

    This paper presents a rationale for and a summary of tasks and missions to which mobile and stationary robots and other teleoperator-controlled devices could be assigned in response to the accidental release of radioactive and other hazardous/toxic materials to the environment. Many of these vehicles and devices currently support operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and other nuclear industry facilities. This paper also discusses specific missions for these devices at the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant sites at the time of the accidents. Also discussed is the status of devices under development for future applications, as well as research on robotics. PMID:3410688

  20. Windmill blade stalling and speed control device

    SciTech Connect

    Tassen, D.E.

    1982-10-05

    The windmill stalling and speed control device is mounted in the blade supporting hub of a windmill and is operative in response to blade rotation induced by a blade pitch control unit. The device includes a biasing assembly mounted to oppose blade rotation in at least one direction and a stage adjustment unit which operates to aid the biasing unit and increase the opposition to blade rotation when the windmill hub and blades reach and remain within predetermined speed ranges.

  1. Vortex control for rotor blade devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    To control vortices originating at the tips of a rotor's blades rotating through the air at a revolution frequency f, separation control device(s) are actuated to periodically introduce perturbations into the airflow moving over the blades. The periodic introduction of perturbations is controlled in accordance with a periodic modulating frequency of introduction f.sub.0 while the frequency of the perturbations so-introduced is designated as f.sub.e. Vortex control is achieved when the periodic modulating frequency of introduction f.sub.0 satisfies the relationship nf.ltoreq.f.sub.0.ltoreq.f.sub.e where n is the number of blades.

  2. Osmotically pumped environmental control device

    SciTech Connect

    Basiulis, A.

    1982-01-26

    An osmotically pumped environmental control system comprises a closed circuit heat pipe including an osmotic pump with solvent and solution reservoirs separated from one another by a solvent permeable membrane. Heat is inserted into the closed path at an evaporator from high temperature sources and heat is withdrawn from the system by first and second stage cooling modules (38, 40) to withdraw heat therefrom. A further heat input from low temperature sources slightly warms the condensate for return to a solvent reservoir.

  3. 40 CFR 63.995 - Other control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other control devices. 63.995 Section... Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.995 Other control devices. (a) Other control device equipment and...

  4. Active and intelligent inhaler device development.

    PubMed

    Tobyn, Mike; Staniforth, John N; Morton, David; Harmer, Quentin; Newton, Mike E

    2004-06-11

    The dry powder inhaler, which has traditionally relied on the patient's inspiratory force to deaggregate and deliver the active agent to the target region of the lung, has been a successful delivery device for the provision of locally active agents for the treatment of conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, such devices can suffer from poor delivery characteristics and/or poor reproducibility. More recently, drugs for systemic delivery and more high value compounds have been put into DPI devices. Regulatory, dosing, manufacturing and economic concerns have demanded that a more efficient and reproducible performance is achieved by these devices. Recently strategies have been put in place to produce a more efficient DPI device/formulation combination. Using one novel device as an example the paper will examine which features are important in such a device and some of the strategies required to implement these features. All of these technological advances are invisible, and may be irrelevant, to the patient. However, their inability to use an inhaler device properly has significant implications for their therapy. Use of active device mechanisms, which reduce the dependence on patient inspiratory flow, and sensible industrial design, which give the patient the right clues to use, are important determinants of performance here.

  5. Device for Locking a Control Knob

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grom, Dave

    2003-01-01

    A simple, effective, easy-to-use device locks a control knob in a set position. In the initial application for which this device was conceived, the control knob to be locked is that of a needle valve. Previously, in that application, it was necessary for one technician to hold the knob to keep the valve at the desired flow setting while another technician secured the valve with safety wire -- a time-consuming procedure. After attachment of the wire, it was still possible to turn the knob somewhat. In contrast, a single technician using the present device can secure the knob in the desired position. in about 30 seconds, and the knob cannot thereafter be turned, even in the presence of harsh vibrations, which occur during space shuttle launch. The device includes a special-purpose clamp that fits around the control knob and its shaft and that can be tightened onto the knob, without turning the knob, by means of two thumbscrews. The end of the device opposite the clamp is a tang that contains a slot that, in turn, engages a bolt that protrudes from the panel on which the control knob and its shaft are mounted.

  6. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  7. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  8. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-05-15

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  9. System and method for controlling remote devices

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.; Scott, Jeff W.; Clark, David A.

    2006-02-07

    A system and method for controlling remote devices utilizing a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag device having a control circuit adapted to render the tag device, and associated objects, permanently inoperable in response to radio-frequency control signals. The control circuit is configured to receive the control signals that can include an enable signal, and in response thereto enable an associated object, such as a weapon; and in response to a disable signal, to disable the tag itself, or, if desired, to disable the associated weapon or both the device and the weapon. Permanent disabling of the tag can be accomplished by several methods, including, but not limited to, fusing a fusable link, breaking an electrically conductive path, permanently altering the modulation or backscattering characteristics of the antenna circuit, and permanently erasing an associated memory. In this manner, tags in the possession of unauthorized employees can be remotely disabled, and weapons lost on a battlefield can be easily tracked and enabled or disabled automatically or at will.

  10. Control system and method for prosthetic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the movable body part through the full-shrug position of the movable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the movable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective movable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  11. 14 CFR 23.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Speed control devices. 23.373 Section 23....373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are incorporated....441 and 23.443, with the device extended at speeds up to the placard device extended speed; and (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 23.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Speed control devices. 23.373 Section 23....373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are incorporated....441 and 23.443, with the device extended at speeds up to the placard device extended speed; and (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 23.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Speed control devices. 23.373 Section 23....373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are incorporated....441 and 23.443, with the device extended at speeds up to the placard device extended speed; and (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Speed control devices. 23.373 Section 23....373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are incorporated....441 and 23.443, with the device extended at speeds up to the placard device extended speed; and (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 23.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Speed control devices. 23.373 Section 23....373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are incorporated....441 and 23.443, with the device extended at speeds up to the placard device extended speed; and (b)...

  16. Boundary layer control device for duct silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.

  17. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathies, Richard A. (Inventor); Grover, William H. (Inventor); Skelley, Alison (Inventor); Lagally, Eric (Inventor); Liu, Chung N. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  18. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2008-11-04

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  19. Dielectric resonators in phase-control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezborodov, Iu. M.; Loskutov, V. Iu.; Savel'Ev, A. V.

    1987-07-01

    The paper describes the design and analysis of dielectric-resonator microwave phase-shifters with good electrical properties and weight/size parameters. A reflection-type phase-shifter with a dielectric resonator has been constructed for an active phased array; the phase-shifter provides for both discrete and continuous changes of phase from 0 to 360 deg; the direct phase-shifter loss amounts to 0.5 dB. It is concluded that the proposed device can successfully compete with integrated p-i-n and semiconductor diode devices.

  20. USB-based controller for generic MEM device deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jonathan; Teare, Scott; Wilcox, Christopher; Restaino, Sergio; Martinez, Ty; Payne, Don

    2006-01-01

    The use of Micro-Electro-Machined (MEM) devices as deformable mirrors (DM) for active and adaptive optics is increasing dramatically. Such increases are due to both the cost and simplicity of use of these devices. Our experience with MEM DMs has been positive, however the controlling protocols of these devices presents some issues. Based on our experience and needs we decided to design a generic controller based on a fast communication protocol. These requirements have pushed us to design a system around a USB 2.0 protocol. In this paper we present our architectural design for such controller. We present also experimental data and analysis on the performance of the controller. We describe the pros and cons of such approach versus other techniques. We will address how general such architecture is and how portable is to other systems.

  1. Hydraulic control device for automatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y.; Taga, Y.; Kashihara, Y.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes a hydraulic control device for an automatic transmission including a control unit, a shift gear mechanism, clutches and brakes for controlling the shift gear mechanism, hydraulic servos for actuating the clutches and brakes to control the shift gear mechanism and having hydraulic servo for a forward clutch, and an electronically operated regulating value for regulating pressure according to signals from the control unit. The control device consists of: a selecting value switched by signals indicating stopping and running condition of a vehicle, the selecting valve being connected to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch for engaging and transmitting torque during the forward running conditon, the selecting valve selectively receiving a line pressure and a control pressure from the regulating valve so that hydraulic pressure just below engaging pressure regulated by the regulating valve is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during stopping, and a line pressure is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during running.

  2. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068

  3. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068

  4. Distributed control using linear momentum exchange devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, J. P.; Waites, Henry; Doane, G. B., III

    1987-01-01

    MSFC has successfully employed the use of the Vibrational Control of Space Structures (VCOSS) Linear Momentum Exchange Devices (LMEDs), which was an outgrowth of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory (AFWAL) program, in a distributed control experiment. The control experiment was conducted in MSFC's Ground Facility for Large Space Structures Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The GF/LSSCV's test article was well suited for this experiment in that the LMED could be judiciously placed on the ASTROMAST. The LMED placements were such that vibrational mode information could be extracted from the accelerometers on the LMED. The LMED accelerometer information was processed by the control algorithms so that the LMED masses could be accelerated to produce forces which would dampen the vibrational modes of interest. Experimental results are presented showing the LMED's capabilities.

  5. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  6. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  7. MEMS device for spacecraft thermal control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theordore D. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A micro-electromechanical device that comprises miniaturized mechanical louvers, referred to as Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) louvers are employed to achieve a thermal control function for spacecraft and instruments. The MEMS louvers are another form of a variable emittance control coating and employ micro-electromechanical technology. In a function similar to traditional, macroscopic thermal louvers, the MEMS louvers of the present invention change the emissivity of a surface. With the MEMS louvers, as with the traditional macroscopic louvers, a mechanical vane or window is opened and closed to allow an alterable radiative view to space.

  8. Modelling and Control of an Annular Momentum Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James R.; Johnson, Bruce G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a modelling and control study for an advanced momentum storage device supported on magnetic bearings are documented. The control challenge posed by this device lies in its dynamics being such a strong function of flywheel rotational speed. At high rotational speed, this can lead to open loop instabilities, resulting in requirements for minimum and maximum control bandwidths and gains for the stabilizing controllers. Using recently developed analysis tools for systems described by complex coefficient differential equations, the closed properties of the controllers were analyzed and stability properties established. Various feedback controllers are investigated and discussed. Both translational and angular dynamics compensators are developed, and measures of system stability and robustness to plant and operational speed variations are presented.

  9. EGR control device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, M.; Inoue, N.; Asayama, Y.; Suzuki, H.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes an EGR control device for an internal combustion engine comprising an EGR control valve installed in EGR passageway communicating with an exhaust system and an intake system of an internal combustion engine, an oxygen sensor for detecting the oxygen content of the intake air installed in the downstream of the opening of the EGR passageway in the intake system, a pressure sensor for detecting the atmospheric pressure in the oxygen sensor, and EGR control means for computing a first quantity corresponding to a target EGR rate, correcting the output signal of the oxygen sensor using the output signal of the pressure sensor, and opening or shutting the EGR control valve in proportion to the deviation of the second quantity thus corrected from the first quantity in order to set the operating condition of the engine in conformity with a predetermined target EGR.

  10. Active plasmonic and metamaterials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Ku; Sylvain, Nathan; Benight, Stephanie J.; Kosilkin, Ilya; Bale, Denise H.; Robinson, Bruce H.; Park, Junghun; Geary, Kevin; Jen, Alex K.; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harold R.; Berini, Pierre; Dalton, Larry R.

    2010-08-01

    This communication focuses on the integration of organic nonlinear optical and gain materials into plasmonic and metamaterial device architectures and most specifically focuses on the integration of organic electro-optic (OEO) materials into such structures. The central focus is on structures that lead to sub-optical wavelength concentration of light (mode confinement) and the interaction of photonic and plasmonic modes. Optical loss and bandwidth limitations are serious issues with such structures and optical loss is evaluated for prototype device architectures associated with the use of silver and gold nanoparticles and membranes supporting plasmonic resonances. Electro-optic activity in organic materials requires that chromophores exhibit finite noncentrosymmetric organization. Because of material conductivity and integration issues, plasmonic and metamaterial device architectures are more challenging than conventional triple stack all-organic device architectures and electro-optic of a given OEO material may be an order of magnitude less in such structures. Because of this, we have turned to a variety of materials processing options for such integration including crystal growth, sequential synthesis/self assembly, and electric field poling of materials deposited from solution or by vapor deposition. Recent demonstration of integration of silicon photonic modulator and lithium niobate modulator structures with metallic plasmonic structures represent a severe challenge for organic electro-optic material plasmonic devices as these devices afford high bandwidth operation and attractive VμL performance. Optical loss remains a challenge for all structures.

  11. [Batteries Used in Active Implantable Medical Devices].

    PubMed

    Ma, Bozhi; Hao, Hongwei; Li, Luming

    2015-03-01

    In recent years active implantable medical devices(AIMD) are being developed rapidly. Many battery systems have been developed for different AIMD applications. These batteries have the same requirements which include high safety, reliability, energy density and long service life, discharge indication. History, present and future of batteries used in AIMD are introduced in the article. PMID:26524787

  12. Ferrofluid Microwave Devices With Magnetically Controlled Impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, P. C.; Stefu, N.; Marin, C. N.; Malaescu, I.; Totoreanu, R.

    2010-08-01

    Ferrofluid filled transmission lines are microwave electronic devices. The complex dielectric permittivity and the complex magnetic permeability of a kerosene based ferrofluid with magnetite nanoparticles, in the frequency range (0.5-6) GHz were measured, for several values of polarising field, H. Afterwards, the input impedance of a short-circuited transmission line filled with this ferrofluid was computed using the equation Z = Zc tanh(γl). Here Zc and l are the characteristic impedance and the length of the coaxial line and γ is the propagation constant, depending on the dielectric and magnetic parameters of the material within the line. It is demonstrated how the impedance displays a frequency and polarizing field dependence, which has application in the design of magnetically controlled microwave devices.

  13. Control device for prosthetic urinary sphincter cuff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A device for controlling flow of fluid to and from a resilient inflatable cuff implanted about the urethra to control flow of urine therethrough. The device comprises a flexible bulb reservoir and a control unit that includes a manually operated valve that opens automatically when the bulb is squeezed to force fluid into the cuff for closing the urethra. The control unit also includes a movable valve seat member having a relatively large area exposed to pressure of fluid in a chamber that is connected to the cuff and which moves to a position in which the valve member is unseated by an abutment when fluid pressure in the chamber exceeds a predetermined value to thereby relieve excess fluid pressure in the cuff. The arrangement is such that the valve element is held closed against the seat member by the full differential in fluid pressures acting on both sides of the valve element until the seat member is moved away from the valve element to thus insure positive closing of the valve element until the seat member is moved out of engagement with the valve element by excess pressure differential.

  14. Devices for flow measurement and control -- 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Blechinger, C.J. ); Sherif, S.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference focuses on a small aspect of technological progress, specifically on the devices for flow measurement and control. Papers have been contributed from industry, academia, and government, providing a very broad view of the state of the art and needs for improvement of research. The number of international contributions at this symposium is particularly gratifying to the organizers. There are authors from Great Britain, France, Norway, Germany, and Korea as well as from the US. This implies that flow measurement and control is a topic of significant interest to the international community. It is the editors hope that this symposium volume will serve as a reference for future exchange of ideas and as a catalyst for furthering the state of the art of flow measurement and control. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  16. Vortex-lift roll-control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A wing is described for aircraft of cropped, arrow-type planform with thin leading and side edges. The wing has a pivotable tip to alter the crop angle of the wing during flight. Increasing the crop angle causes the wing side edge to become a trailing edge which reduces the strength of the side edge vortex flow. Decreasing the crop angle causes opposite results, in particular the side edge is now a leading edge and can generate a leading edge vortex flow. The wing constitutes a roll control device for aircraft of the stated design particularly effective at higher angles of attack.

  17. Device Control Using Gestures Sensed from EMG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present neuro-electric interfaces for virtual device control. The examples presented rely upon sampling Electromyogram data from a participants forearm. This data is then fed into pattern recognition software that has been trained to distinguish gestures from a given gesture set. The pattern recognition software consists of hidden Markov models which are used to recognize the gestures as they are being performed in real-time. Two experiments were conducted to examine the feasibility of this interface technology. The first replicated a virtual joystick interface, and the second replicated a keyboard.

  18. DSP control of superconducting quantum interference devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, R.R.; Kung, Pang-Jen; Lewis, P.S.; Flynn, E.R.

    1994-08-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS) are used to defect very law level magnetic fields. Los Alamos National Laboratory is involved in developing digital signal processing (DSP) based instrumentation for these devices in conjunction with detecting magnetic flux from the human brain. This field of application is known as magnetoencephalography (MEG). The magnetic signals generated by the brain are on the order of a billion times smaller than the earth`s magnetic field, yet they can readily be detected with these highly ,sensitive magnetic detectors. Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed and implemented DSP control of the SQUID system. This has been accomplished by using an AT&T DSP32C DSP in conjunction with dual 18 bit a-to-d and d-to-a converters. The DSP performs the signal demodulation by synchronously sampling the recovered signal and applying the appropriate full wave rectification. The signal is then integrated and filtered and applied to the output. Also, the modulation signal is generated with the DSP system. All of the flux lock loop electronics are replaced except for the low noise analog preamplifier at the front of the recovery components. The system has been tested with both an electronic SQUID simulator and a low temperature thin film SQUID from Conductus. A number of experiments have been performed to allow evaluation of the system improvement made possible by use of DSP control.

  19. 14 CFR 25.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Speed control devices. 25.373 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are installed for use in en...

  20. 14 CFR 25.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Speed control devices. 25.373 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are installed for use in en...

  1. 14 CFR 25.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Speed control devices. 25.373 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are installed for use in en...

  2. 14 CFR 25.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Speed control devices. 25.373 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are installed for use in en...

  3. 14 CFR 25.373 - Speed control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Speed control devices. 25.373 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.373 Speed control devices. If speed control devices (such as spoilers and drag flaps) are installed for use in en...

  4. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  5. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  6. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  7. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  8. Brain activity during stepping: a novel MRI-compatible device.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Christoph; Brügger, Mike; Vallery, Heike; Wolf, Peter; Dietz, Volker; Kollias, Spyros; Riener, Robert

    2011-09-30

    Little is known about the impact of supraspinal centers on the control of human locomotion. Analyzing brain activity can help to clarify their impact and to improve the effects of locomotor training. A fMRI-compatible pneumatic robotic device is presented that can generate freely programmable, highly repetitive periodic active and passive leg movements comprised by hip, knee, and ankle joint displacements. Forces of up to 400N can be applied to each foot while the subject is lying in a supine position. Magnetic interference of the device with the magnetic field of the scanner is measurable, but does not affect the image quality as obtained by a usual image analysis procedure. In a first experiment, brain activity of one healthy subject was acquired during nine different gait-like movement conditions. Brain activity in the somatosensory and motor function related areas increased more when the subject actively moved the legs than when the legs were passively moved by the device. In almost all conditions, mean head motion could be limited to 2mm within the duration of one fMRI scan by a specifically developed head and trunk fixation system. Based on these results, it is concluded that our device will significantly contribute to a better understanding of human locomotor control and related therapeutic effects in spinal cord injured and stroke patients, and thereby, to improve training approaches. PMID:21827788

  9. Computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same, said device being made to include a pump flash source and a probe flash source and one or more sample chambers in combination with a light condenser lens system and associated filters and reflectors and collimators, as well as signal conditioning and monitoring means and a programmable computer means and a software programmable source of background irradiance that is operable according to the method of the invention to rapidly, efficiently and accurately measure photosynthetic activity by precisely monitoring and recording changes in fluorescence yield produced by a controlled series of predetermined cycles of probe and pump flashes from the respective probe and pump sources that are controlled by the computer means.

  10. Computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1990-07-17

    A computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same, said device being made to include a pump flash source and a probe flash source and one or more sample chambers in combination with a light condenser lens system and associated filters and reflectors and collimators, as well as signal conditioning and monitoring means and a programmable computer means and a software programmable source of background irradiance that is operable according to the method of the invention to rapidly, efficiently and accurately measure photosynthetic activity by precisely monitoring and recording changes in fluorescence yield produced by a controlled series of predetermined cycles of probe and pump flashes from the respective probe and pump sources that are controlled by the computer means. 13 figs.

  11. Manual shift control lever device and self-contained electronic control for transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.F.

    1986-09-09

    A unitized shift control lever device is described for the remote activation of an electrically controlled transmission comprising: a housing; a manually operable range selector lever pivotally supported in the housing for selective movements to predetermined operating positions respectively indicative of a required operating condition of an associated electrically controlled transmission; means in the housing providing a source of radiations; radiation controlled switching means for generating discrete control signals in response to the presence and non-presence of the radiations; means interposed in the radiation path between the source and the switching means operable in response to the movement of the range selector lever for selectively determining the presence or non-presence of the radiations with respect to the switching means at each range selector position of the lever; and electronic circuit control means having input connections for receiving the generated signals and output connections adapted for connection with electrically activated condition controlling devices on the transmission.

  12. Device Configuration Handler for Accelerator Control Applications at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Matt Bickley; P. Chevtsov; T. Larrieu

    2003-10-01

    The accelerator control system at Jefferson Lab uses hundreds of physical devices with such popular instrument bus interfaces as Industry Pack (IPAC), GPIB, RS-232, etc. To properly handle all these components, control computers (IOCs) must be provided with the correct information about the unique memory addresses of the used interface cards, interrupt numbers (if any), data communication channels and protocols. In these conditions, the registration of a new control device in the control system is not an easy task for software developers. Because the device configuration is distributed, it requires the detailed knowledge about not only the new device but also the configuration of all other devices on the existing system. A configuration handler implemented at Jefferson Lab centralizes the information about all control devices making their registration user-friendly and very easy to use. It consists of a device driver framework and the device registration software developed on the basis of ORACLE database and freely available scripting tools (perl, php).

  13. [Development and application of new temperature control moxibustion device].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Hao; Wang, Lifang; Ma, Haili

    2015-07-01

    To develop a new temperature control moxibustion device so as to improve the clinical therapeutic effect of moxibustion. According to the thermal effect of moxibustion, with the designs such as the modern electronic equipment (temperature control system) adopted and in combination of smoke filtration device and oxygen mask device, a new temperature control moxibustion device was developed. The new temperature control moxibustion device may achieve the automatic regulation of temperature and distance and avoid the pollution and irritation of smoke and flavor, etc. As a result, the traditional moxibustion therapy can better play its efficacy and display its safety and convenience in practice.

  14. Encoding Active Device Elements at Nanowire Tips.

    PubMed

    No, You-Shin; Gao, Ruixuan; Mankin, Max N; Day, Robert W; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-07-13

    Semiconductor nanowires and other one-dimensional materials are attractive for highly sensitive and spatially confined electrical and optical signal detection in biological and physical systems, although it has been difficult to localize active electronic or optoelectronic device function at one end of such one-dimensional structures. Here we report a new nanowire structure in which the material and dopant are modulated specifically at only one end of nanowires to encode an active two-terminal device element. We present a general bottom-up synthetic scheme for these tip-modulated nanowires and illustrate this with the synthesis of nanoscale p-n junctions. Electron microscopy imaging verifies the designed p-Si nanowire core with SiO2 insulating inner shell and n-Si outer shell with clean p-Si/n-Si tip junction. Electrical transport measurements with independent contacts to the p-Si core and n-Si shell exhibited a current rectification behavior through the tip and no detectable current through the SiO2 shell. Electrical measurements also exhibited an n-type response in conductance versus water-gate voltage with pulsed gate experiments yielding a temporal resolution of at least 0.1 ms and ∼90% device sensitivity localized to within 0.5 μm from the nanowire p-n tip. In addition, photocurrent experiments showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V at illumination power of ∼28.1 μW, exhibited linear dependence of photocurrent with respect to incident illumination power with an estimated responsivity up to ∼0.22 A/W, and revealed localized photocurrent generation at the nanowire tip. The tip-modulated concept was further extended to a top-down/bottom-up hybrid approach that enabled large-scale production of vertical tip-modulated nanowires with a final synthetic yield of >75% with >4300 nanowires. Vertical tip-modulated nanowires were fabricated into >50 individually addressable nanowire device arrays showing diode-like current-voltage characteristics. These tip

  15. Active load control using microtabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Dora Te-Lun

    2001-11-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs are introduced for enhancing and controlling the aerodynamic loading on lifting surfaces. These microtabs are mounted near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces, retract and extend approximately normal to the surface and have a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of the device effectively modifies the camber distribution of the lifting surface and hence, the lift generated. The effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional control surfaces with lift changes of 30%--50% in the linear range of the lift curve using a tab with a height of 1% of airfoil chord placed at 5% of chord upstream of the trailing edge on the lower surface. A multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication techniques has been taken to develop and test a "proof of concept" model. Flow simulations, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver, have been conducted to optimize the size and placement of the devices based on trailing edge volume constraints. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices create macro-scale changes in aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative lift control system based on microfabrication techniques introduces a robust, dynamic control device and will allow for the miniaturization of conventional high lift and control systems. The result is a significant reduction in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Also due to the minute size of these tabs, their activation and response times are much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. The "proof of concept" tab design, fabrication techniques, computational and experimental setup, and test results using a representative airfoil are presented in this research. (For more information, see

  16. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  17. Adaptive control system for large annular momentum control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Johnson, C. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A dual momentum vector control concept, consisting of two counterrotating rings (each designated as an annular momentum control device), was studied for pointing and slewing control of large spacecraft. In a disturbance free space environment, the concept provides for three axis pointing and slewing capabilities while requiring no expendables. The approach utilizes two large diameter counterrotating rings or wheels suspended magnetically in many race supports distributed around the antenna structure. When the magnets are energized, attracting the two wheels, the resulting gyroscopic torque produces a rate along the appropriate axis. Roll control is provided by alternating the radiative rotational velocity of the two wheels. Wheels with diameters of 500 to 800 m and with sufficient momentum storage capability require rims only a few centimeters thick. The wheels are extremely flexible; therefore, it is necessary to account for the distributed nature of the rings in the design of the bearing controllers. Also, ring behavior is unpredictably sensitive to ring temperature, spin rate, manufacturing imperfections, and other variables. An adaptive control system designed to handle these problems is described.

  18. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  3. Variable Emittance Electrochromic Devices for Satellite Thermal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    An all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) was designed for electronic variable emissivity (VE) control. In this paper, a low weight (5g/m2) electrochromic thermal control device, the EclipseVEECD™, is detailed as a viable thermal control system for spacecraft outer surface temperatures. Discussion includes the technology's performance, satellite applications, and preparations for space based testing. This EclipseVEECD™ system comprises substrate/mirror electrode/active element/IR transparent electrode layers. This system tunes and modulates reflection/emittance from 5 μm to 15 μm region. Average reflectance/emittance modulation of the system from the 400 K to 250 K region is about 75%, while at room temperature (9.5 micron) reflectance/emittance is around 90%. Activation voltage of the EclipseVEECD™ is around ±1 Volt. The EclipseVEECD™ can be used as a smart thermal modulator for the thermal control of satellites and spacecraft by monitoring and adjusting the amount of energy emitted from the outer surfaces. The functionality of the EclipseVEECD™ was successfully demonstrated in vacuum using a multi-purpose heat dissipation/absorption test module, the EclipseHEAT™. The EclipseHEAT™ has been successfully flight checked and integrated onto the United States Naval Alchemy MidSTAR satellite, scheduled to launch December 2006.

  4. Wearable Sensor/Device (Fitbit One) and SMS Text-Messaging Prompts to Increase Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Natarajan, Loki; White, Martha M.; Madanat, Hala; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Studies have shown self-monitoring can modify health behaviors, including physical activity (PA). This study tested the utility of a wearable sensor/device (Fitbit® One™; Fitbit Inc., San Francisco, CA) and short message service (SMS) text-messaging prompts to increase PA in overweight and obese adults. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adults wore a Fitbit One tracker for 6 weeks; half were randomized to also receive three daily SMS-based PA prompts. The Fitbit One consisted of a wearable tracker for instant feedback on performance and a Web site/mobile application (app) for detailed summaries. Outcome measures were objectively measured steps and minutes of PA by intensity using two accelerometers: Actigraph™ (Pensacola, FL) GT3X+ (primary measure) at baseline and Week 6 and Fitbit One (secondary measure) at baseline and Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Results: Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of primary measures indicated a significant within-group increase of +4.3 (standard error [SE]=2.0) min/week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) at 6-week follow-up (p=0.04) in the comparison group (Fitbit only), but no study group differences across PA levels. Secondary measures indicated the SMS text-messaging effect lasted for only 1 week: the intervention group increased by +1,266 steps (SE=491; p=0.01), +17.8 min/week MVPA (SE=8.5; p=0.04), and +38.3 min/week total PA (SE=15.9; p=0.02) compared with no changes in the comparison group, and these between-group differences were significant for steps (p=0.01), fairly/very active minutes (p<0.01), and total active minutes (p=0.02). Conclusions: These data suggest that the Fitbit One achieved a small increase in MVPA at follow-up and that the SMS-based PA prompts were insufficient in increasing PA beyond 1 week. Future studies can test this intervention in those requiring less help and/or test strategies to increase participants' engagement levels. PMID:26431257

  5. Graphene active plasmonics for terahertz device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Dubinov, Alexander; Ryzhii, Maxim; Boubanga Tombet, Stephane; Satou, Akira; Mitin, Vladimir; Shur, Michael S.; Ryzhii, Victor

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the double-graphene-layer (DGL) active plasmonic heterostructures for the terahertz (THz) device applications. The DGL consists of a core shell in which a thin tunnel barrier layer is sandwiched by the two GLs being independently connected with the side contacts and outer gate stack layers at both sides. The DGL core shell works as a nano-capacitor, exhibiting inter-GL resonant tunneling (RT) when the band offset between the two GLs is aligned. The RT produces a strong nonlinearity with a negative differential conductance in the DGL current-voltage characteristics. The excitation of the graphene plasmons by the THz radiation resonantly modulates the tunneling currentvoltage characteristics. When the band offset is aligned to the THz photon energy, the DGL structure can mediate photonassisted RT, resulting in resonant emission or detection of the THz radiation. The cooperative double-resonant excitation with structure-sensitive graphene plasmons gives rise to various functionalities such as rectification (detection), photomixing, higher harmonic generation, and self-oscillation, in the THz device implementations.

  6. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  7. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  8. Multi-band terahertz active device with complementary metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin Sun, Linlin; Sun, Han; Xu, Gaiqi; Zhao, Yuncheng; Yang, Ziqiang; Liang, Shixiong

    2015-09-28

    We describe a multi-band terahertz-active device using a composite structure made of complementary metamaterial and doped silicon that can be dynamically controlled. This special complementary metamaterial exhibits three resonances that produce three pass-bands. The pass-bands can be uniformly manipulated by exploiting the photoinduced characteristics of the doped silicon. Simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic field and surface current distributions. The simulation results agree well with experimental results obtained from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Using an 808-nm-wavelength laser beam, a modulation depth of up to 80% was obtained. In numerical simulations, we used a conductivity mode to characterize photoinduction. The development of multi-band terahertz-active devices has many potential applications, for example, in filters, modulators, switches, and sensors.

  9. Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.; Micklich, B.J.

    1983-06-01

    This invention pertains to methods of controlling in the steady state, neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices, and in particular, to methods of controlling the flux and energy distribution of collided neutrons which are incident on an outboard wall of a toroidal fusion device.

  10. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  11. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  12. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  13. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  14. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  15. 40 CFR 65.151 - Condensers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Condensers used as control devices. 65... System or a Process § 65.151 Condensers used as control devices. (a) Condenser equipment and...

  16. Light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices.

    PubMed

    Stenhammar, Joakim; Wittkowski, Raphael; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Self-propelled colloidal objects, such as motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, have microscopically irreversible individual dynamics-a feature they share with all living systems. The incoherent behavior of individual swimmers can be harnessed (or "rectified") by microfluidic devices that create systematic motions that are impossible in equilibrium. We present a computational proof-of-concept study showing that such active rectification devices could be created directly from an unstructured "primordial soup" of light-controlled motile particles, solely by using spatially modulated illumination to control their local propulsion speed. Alongside both microscopic irreversibility and speed modulation, our mechanism requires spatial symmetry breaking, such as a chevron light pattern, and strong interactions between particles, such as volume exclusion, which cause a collisional slowdown at high density. Together, we show how these four factors create a novel, many-body rectification mechanism. Our work suggests that standard spatial light modulator technology might allow the programmable, light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices from an unstructured particle bath.

  17. Light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices

    PubMed Central

    Stenhammar, Joakim; Wittkowski, Raphael; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Self-propelled colloidal objects, such as motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, have microscopically irreversible individual dynamics—a feature they share with all living systems. The incoherent behavior of individual swimmers can be harnessed (or “rectified”) by microfluidic devices that create systematic motions that are impossible in equilibrium. We present a computational proof-of-concept study showing that such active rectification devices could be created directly from an unstructured “primordial soup” of light-controlled motile particles, solely by using spatially modulated illumination to control their local propulsion speed. Alongside both microscopic irreversibility and speed modulation, our mechanism requires spatial symmetry breaking, such as a chevron light pattern, and strong interactions between particles, such as volume exclusion, which cause a collisional slowdown at high density. Together, we show how these four factors create a novel, many-body rectification mechanism. Our work suggests that standard spatial light modulator technology might allow the programmable, light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices from an unstructured particle bath. PMID:27051883

  18. [Infection prevention and control in intravascular devices].

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Russolillo, C

    2003-04-01

    Intravascular devices (IVD) are indispensable in the care of the critical patient; even so, their use can be complicated by infection, which is generally associated with longer hospital stay and ensuing higher hospital costs. It is therefore imperative that guidelines are applied that constitute a basis of information upon which the individual facility can develop its own strategy. The strategy can be outlined under the following points: a) staff training, b) surveillance of IVD-associated infections, c) hand washing, d) barrier measures during catheter introduction and management, e) insertion site management and medication systems for the insertion site, f) choice and replacement of the IVD, g) replacement of intravenous administration devices and liquids, h) antimicrobial prophylaxis. In the management of central venous catheters (CVC), recommendations call for: 1) the use of a single lumen CVC, unless multiple accesses are needed; 2) the peripheral placement of CVCs, both in the use of tunneled catheters and/or implantable vascular devices in patients over 4 years of age in which long-term vascular access (> 30 days) is planned; 3) the use of completely implantable devices in pediatric patients less than 4 years of age requiring long-term vascular access; 4) the use of the subclavian artery as the site of CVC insertion unless clinically contraindicated (e.g. coagulopathy, anatomic alterations); 5) the application of barrier precautions during CVC introduction and in the management of the catheter and the insertion site. PMID:12766724

  19. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  20. Development of an autonomous 32-bit intelligent device controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, D.; Waters, G.; Dale, D.; Ewert, T.; Harrison, D.; Lam, J.; Keitel, R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the development and present status of an intelligent device controller for embedded systems. The controller is a low-cost single-board module in Euro-card format based on a Motorola MC68332 microcontroller. An onboard Ethernet interface allows software downloading and remote device control. Also included are 12 ADC channels, 4 DAC channels, 56 bits of digital I/O and 3 serial ports. Custom modules may be added using a backplane bus. The controller is designed to function as a VME slave device. A multitasking environment is provided by the VxWorks kernel.

  1. INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

  2. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  3. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller a via network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. In one embodiment, the bus controller transmits messages to the network device interface containing a plurality of bits having a value defined by a transition between first and second states in the bits. The network device interface determines timing of the data sequence of the message and uses the determined timing to communicate with the bus controller.

  4. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is then converted by the network device interface into digital signals and transmitted back to the controller. In one advantageous embodiment, the network device interface is a state machine, such as an ASIC, that operates independent of a processor in communicating with the bus controller and data channels.

  5. CFD Modeling for Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes current work under UEET Active Flow Control CFD Research Tool Development. The goal of this work is to develop computational tools for inlet active flow control design. This year s objectives were to perform CFD simulations of fully gridded vane vortex generators, micro-vortex genera- tors, and synthetic jets, and to compare flowfield results with wind tunnel tests of simple geometries with flow control devices. Comparisons are shown for a single micro-vortex generator on a flat plate, and for flow over an expansion ramp with sidewall effects. Vortex core location, pressure gradient and oil flow patterns are compared between experiment and computation. This work lays the groundwork for evaluating simplified modeling of arrays of devices, and provides the opportunity to test simple flow control device/sensor/ control loop interaction.

  6. Smart Rehabilitation Devices: Part I – Force Tracking Control

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, J. Q.; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been widely reported to have positive rehabilitation effects for patients with neuromuscular and orthopaedic conditions. This article presents prototypes of smart variable resistance exercise devices using magneto-rheological fluid dampers. An intelligent supervisory control for regulating the resistive force or torque of the device is developed, and is validated both numerically and experimentally. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training for the human joints including knee, elbow, hip, and ankle. PMID:18504509

  7. Cognitive Inference Device for Activity Supervision in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human activity, life span, and quality of life are enhanced by innovations in science and technology. Aging individual needs to take advantage of these developments to lead a self-regulated life. However, maintaining a self-regulated life at old age involves a high degree of risk, and the elderly often fail at this goal. Thus, the objective of our study is to investigate the feasibility of implementing a cognitive inference device (CI-device) for effective activity supervision in the elderly. To frame the CI-device, we propose a device design framework along with an inference algorithm and implement the designs through an artificial neural model with different configurations, mapping the CI-device's functions to minimise the device's prediction error. An analysis and discussion are then provided to validate the feasibility of CI-device implementation for activity supervision in the elderly. PMID:25405211

  8. Self-regulating flow control device

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, Duane A.

    1984-01-01

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  9. Smart Rehabilitation Devices: Part II – Adaptive Motion Control

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, J. Q.; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study of adaptive motion control of smart versatile rehabilitation devices using MR fluids. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and is reconfigurable for several human joints. Adaptive controls are developed to regulate resistance force based on the prescription of the therapist. Special consideration has been given to the human–machine interaction in the adaptive control that can modify the behavior of the device to account for strength gains or muscle fatigue of the human subject. PMID:18548131

  10. Controllable optical transparency using an acoustic standing-wave device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Kamran; El-Zahab, Bilal

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a suspended-particle device with controllable light transmittance was developed based on acoustic stimuli. Using a glass compartment and carbon particle suspension in an organic solvent, the device responded to acoustic stimulation by alignment of particles. The alignment of light-absorbing carbon particles afforded an increase in light transmittance as high as 84.5% and was controllable based on the control of the frequency and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The device also demonstrated alignment memory rendering it energy-efficient.

  11. LAM actuated propellant flow control device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Cust, Kevin M.

    1992-02-01

    An advanced design LAM (limited angle motor) positions an integral flow control element for bi-level flow control of storable propellants. The LAM incorporates permanent magnet latching to maintain the flow control element in either the low or high flow position without continuous electrical energization. The LAM stator and rotor are fully sheathed within stainless steel. This construction method permits the LAM to control storable propellants without using dynamic seals to isolate the LAM from the propellants. All welded construction prevents external leakage. The design concept selection rationale and the computer FEA (finite element analysis) methods employed to optimize design characteristics are presented. Correlations of analyses to test results are described.

  12. Active vibration control of lightweight floor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, J.; Fontana, M.

    2016-04-01

    Wide-span and lightweight floors are often prone to structural vibrations due to their low resonance frequency and poor material damping. Their dynamic behaviour can be improved using passive, semi-active or active vibration control devices. The following article proposes a novel method for the controller synthesis for active vibration control. An existing passive TMD (tuned mass damper) is modelled and equipped with an actuator in order to provide more efficient damping. Using an iterative optimization approach under constraints, an optimal controller is found which minimizes a quadratic cost function in frequency domain. A simulation of an existing test bench shows that the active vibration control device is able to provide increased damping compared to the passive TMD.

  13. Inverted Control Rod Lock-In Device

    DOEpatents

    Brussalis, W. G.; Bost, G. E.

    1962-12-01

    A mechanism which prevents control rods from dropping out of the reactor core in the event the vessel in which the reactor is mounted should capsize is described. The mechanism includes a pivoted toothed armature which engages the threaded control rod lead screw and prevents removal of the rod whenever the armature is not attracted by the provided electromagnetic means. (AEC)

  14. VME insertion device control at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Ramanathan, M.; Grimmer, J.; Merritt, M.

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed and operating. The need to remotely diagnose and correct problems has become increasingly important. This has been accomplished through the development of a new control system with greatly enhanced input/output (I/O) capabilities specifically targeted to this control task. The system features a custom VME control card and three rack-mounted interface chassis for ID control, encoder interface, and motor drive shutdown. The card provides device interlocks, limit switch logic, motor axis selection, digital I/O, and status feedback. This VME insertion device control was designed to operate with an eight-axis intelligent motor controller and a stepper-motor drive that accepts step and direction inputs. The front panel of the card has two connectors for all of the control signals for the stepper-motor drives. There is a third connector for the ID limit switch inputs and the emergency stop circuit, and a fourth connector provides 23 bits of digital outputs and 16 bits of digital inputs. Light-emitting diodes indicate which motions are inhibited by the limit switch logic. An experimental physics industrial control system (EPICS) (http://www.APS.ANL-GOV/EPICS) device driver was developed to access all the registers on the VME control card. Using standard EPICS records, the insertion device status can be viewed remotely. This minimizes downtime for APS ID beamline users by allowing faster resolution of any problems preventing a user from operating the insertion device. This new insertion device control has been in use at the APS since July of 1999. The design features of the control system and rationale for them will be presented, along with our experience in building, testing, installing, and operating the control system.

  15. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is then converted by the network device interface into digital signals and transmitted back to the controller. In one advantageous embodiment, the network device interface uses a specialized protocol for communicating across the network bus that uses a low-level instruction set and has low overhead for data communication.

  16. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is then converted by the network device interface into digital signals and transmitted back to the controller. In one advantageous embodiment, the network device interface uses a specialized protocol for communicating across the network bus that uses a low-level instruction set and has low overhead for data communication.

  17. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... automatic positioning or load limiting device, without further attention by the pilots. (b) Each lift and... response to the operation of the control and the characteristics of the automatic positioning or...

  18. Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices

    DOEpatents

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

  19. Controlling Mass Transport in Microfluidic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Jason S.; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2011-07-01

    Microfluidic platforms offer exquisite capabilities in controlling mass transport for biological studies. In this review, we focus on recent developments in manipulating chemical concentrations at the microscale. Some techniques prevent or accelerate mixing, whereas others shape the concentration gradients of chemical and biological molecules. We also highlight several in vitro biological studies in the areas of organ engineering, cancer, and blood coagulation that have benefited from accurate control of mass transfer.

  20. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is then converted into digital signals and transmitted back to the controller. In one embodiment, the bus controller sends commands and data a defined bit rate, and the network device interface senses this bit rate and sends data back to the bus controller using the defined bit rate.

  1. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. [Annual report], February 24, 1992--February 23, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1993-03-15

    The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the utility of a device called the ``beach cone`` in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the US Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. One of the initial sites was abandoned because it was found to be unsuitable for beach cone placement. The test sites have been observed for six months and preliminary findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. It is too soon to state the categorical success of the beach cones, but results to date are encouraging.

  2. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-12-21

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-12-01

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Molecular gels-based controlled release devices for pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2-Heptanone is a volatile solvent that is effective in controlling parasitic mites (Varroa) in honeybee. Controlled-release of 2-heptanone is needed to avoid overdosing, minimize chemical usage, and provide a sustained release over a several week period. Control-release devices comprised of a reserv...

  5. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25... their controls in flight if that operation could be hazardous. (c) The rate of motion of the surfaces in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls....

  6. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25... their controls in flight if that operation could be hazardous. (c) The rate of motion of the surfaces in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls....

  7. Activated-Carbon Sorbent With Integral Heat-Transfer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1996-01-01

    Prototype adsorption device used, for example, in adsorption heat pump, to store natural gas to power automobile, or to separate components of fluid mixtures. Device includes activated carbon held together by binder and molded into finned heat-transfer device providing rapid heating or cooling to enable rapid adsorption or desorption of fluids. Concepts of design and fabrication of device equally valid for such other highly thermally conductive devices as copper-finned tubes, and for such other high-surface-area sorbents as zeolites or silicates.

  8. DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING INSERTION OF ROD

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, B.J.

    1958-10-14

    A device for rapidly inserting a safety rod into a nuclear reactor upon a given signal or in the event of a power failure in order to prevent the possibility of extensive damage caused by a power excursion is described. A piston is slidably mounted within a vertical cylinder with provision for an electromagnetic latch at the top of the cylinder. This assembly, with a safety rod attached to the piston, is mounted over an access port to the core region of the reactor. The piston is normally latched at the top of the cylinder with the safety rod clear of the core area, however, when the latch is released, the piston and rod drop by their own weight to insert the rod. Vents along the side of the cylinder permit the escape of the air entrapped under the piston over the greater part of the distance, however, at the end of the fall the entrapped air is compressed thereby bringing the safety rod gently to rest, thus providing for a rapid automatic insertion of the rod with a minimum of structural shock.

  9. Knowledge system and method for simulating chemical controlled release device performance

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Christina E.; Van Voris, Peter; Streile, Gary P.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Burton, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge system for simulating the performance of a controlled release device is provided. The system includes an input device through which the user selectively inputs one or more data parameters. The data parameters comprise first parameters including device parameters, media parameters, active chemical parameters and device release rate; and second parameters including the minimum effective inhibition zone of the device and the effective lifetime of the device. The system also includes a judgemental knowledge base which includes logic for 1) determining at least one of the second parameters from the release rate and the first parameters and 2) determining at least one of the first parameters from the other of the first parameters and the second parameters. The system further includes a device for displaying the results of the determinations to the user.

  10. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Annual report, February 24, 1993--February 23, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1994-07-07

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the ``beach cone`` in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations, and six sites were actually used. Six hundred beach cones were installed at the six sites in late July and early August, 1992. An additional 109 cones were installed at an eighth site in December of 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. The average increase in elevation was about 7 inches (0. 18 in) with a maximum buildup of 3 ft. (I in). At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard of sand or approximately $500,000 per mile of beach, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced. The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is negligible, does not hinder their effectiveness. We do not yet have sufficient data to state the categorical success of the beach cones, but results to date are encouraging.

  11. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing functions. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM- based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) device or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using DSP devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment encountered on spacemap. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive-control algorithm

  12. Control of Combustion-Instabilities Through Various Passive Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Nesman, Tom; Canabal, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Results of a computational study on the effectiveness of various passive devices for the control of combustion instabilities are presented. An axi-symmetric combustion chamber is considered. The passive control devices investigated are, baffles, Helmholtz resonators and quarter-waves. The results show that a Helmholtz resonator with a smooth orifice achieves the best control results, while a baffle is the least effective for the frequency tested. At high sound pressure levels, the Helmholtz resonator is less effective. It is also found that for a quarter wave, the smoothness of the orifice has the opposite effect than the Helmholtz resonator, i.e. results in less control.

  13. DEVICE CONTROL TOOL FOR CEBAF BEAM DIAGNOSTICS SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Chevtsov

    2008-02-11

    Continuously monitoring the beam quality in the CEBAF accelerator, a variety of beam diagnostics software created at Jefferson Lab makes a significant contribution to very high availability of the machine for nuclear physics experiments. The interface between this software and beam instrumentation hardware components is provided by a device control tool, which is optimized for beam diagnostics tasks. As a part of the device/driver development framework at Jefferson Lab, this tool is very easy to support and extend to integrate new beam instrumentation components. All device control functions are based on the configuration (ASCII text) files that completely define the used hardware interface standards (CAMAC, VME, RS-232, GPIB, etc.) and communication protocols. The paper presents the main elements of the device control tool for beam diagnostics software at Jefferson Lab.

  14. A Wirelessly Powered and Controlled Device for Optical Neural Control of Freely-Behaving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists’ capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted LED, tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the high-frequency pulse trains often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 grams capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 gram) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be simultaneously controlled from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control. PMID:21701058

  15. A wirelessly powered and controlled device for optical neural control of freely-behaving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-08-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists' capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically, awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted light-emitting diode (LED), tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the extended illumination periods often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 g capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2 W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3 W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 g) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be controlled simultaneously from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control.

  16. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  17. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is converted into digital signals and transmitted to the controller. In some embodiments, network device interfaces associated with different data channels coordinate communications with the other interfaces based on either a transition in a command message sent by the bus controller or a synchronous clock signal.

  18. Using DNA devices to track anticancer drug activity.

    PubMed

    Kahanda, Dimithree; Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Mcwilliams, Marc A; Boothman, David A; Slinker, Jason D

    2016-06-15

    It is beneficial to develop systems that reproduce complex reactions of biological systems while maintaining control over specific factors involved in such processes. We demonstrated a DNA device for following the repair of DNA damage produced by a redox-cycling anticancer drug, beta-lapachone (β-lap). These chips supported ß-lap-induced biological redox cycle and tracked subsequent DNA damage repair activity with redox-modified DNA monolayers on gold. We observed drug-specific changes in square wave voltammetry from these chips at therapeutic ß-lap concentrations of high statistical significance over drug-free control. We also demonstrated a high correlation of this change with the specific ß-lap-induced redox cycle using rational controls. The concentration dependence of ß-lap revealed significant signal changes at levels of high clinical significance as well as sensitivity to sub-lethal levels of ß-lap. Catalase, an enzyme decomposing peroxide, was found to suppress DNA damage at a NQO1/catalase ratio found in healthy cells, but was clearly overcome at a higher NQO1/catalase ratio consistent with cancer cells. We found that it was necessary to reproduce key features of the cellular environment to observe this activity. Thus, this chip-based platform enabled tracking of ß-lap-induced DNA damage repair when biological criteria were met, providing a unique synthetic platform for uncovering activity normally confined to inside cells. PMID:26901461

  19. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOEpatents

    You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  20. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment

  1. Microgravity cursor control device evaluation for Space Station Freedom workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Susan; Holden, Kritina L.; Gillan, Douglas; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    This research addressed direct manipulation interface (curser-controlled device) usability in microgravity. The data discussed are from KC-135 flights. This included pointing and dragging movements over a variety of angles and distances. Detailed error and completion time data provided researchers with information regarding cursor control shape, selection button arrangement, sensitivity, selection modes, and considerations for future research.

  2. Heat control device for a wood or coal burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, P.W.

    1983-05-17

    A heat control device for a stove which burns solid fuel and in which the heat output of fuel combustion is regulated in order to control within preselected temperature ranges the temperature of the combustion chamber of the stove and the ambient air temperature of the environment being heated by the stove.

  3. Rehabilitation device with variable resistance and intelligent control

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, J.Q.; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been widely reported to have positive rehabilitation effects for patients with neuromuscular and orthopaedic conditions. This paper presents an optimal design of magneto-rheological fluid dampers for variable resistance exercise device in the form of a knee brace. An intelligent supervisory control for regulating the resistive force or torque of the knee brace has also been studied. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training for the knee. PMID:15694609

  4. Active resonant subwavelength grating devices for high speed spectroscopic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe progress towards a multi-color spectrometer and radiometer based upon an active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG). This active RSG component acts as a tunable high-speed optical filter that allows device miniaturization and ruggedization not realizable using current sensors with conventional bulk optics. Furthermore, the geometrical characteristics of the device allow for inherently high speed operation. Because of the small critical dimensions of the RSG devices, the fabrication of these sensors can prove challenging. However, we utilize the state-of-the-art capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to realize these subwavelength grating devices. This work also leverages previous work on passive RSG devices with greater than 98% efficiency and ~1nm FWHM. Rigorous coupled wave analysis has been utilized to design RSG devices with PLZT, PMN-PT and BaTiO3 electrooptic thin films on sapphire substrates. The simulated interdigitated electrode configuration achieves field strengths around 3×107 V/m. This translates to an increase in the refractive index of 0.05 with a 40V bias potential resulting in a 90% contrast of the modulated optical signal. We have fabricated several active RSG devices on selected electro-optic materials and we discuss the latest experimental results on these devices with variable electrostatic bias and a tunable wavelength source around 1.5μm. Finally, we present the proposed data acquisition hardware and system integration plans.

  5. EXOS research on master controllers for robotic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Beth A.; An, Ben; Eberman, Brian

    1992-01-01

    Two projects are currently being conducted by EXOS under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program with NASA. One project will develop a force feedback device for controlling robot hands, the other will develop an elbow and shoulder exoskeleton which can be integrated with other EXOS devices to provide whole robot arm and hand control. Aspects covered are the project objectives, important research issues which have arisen during the developments, and interim results of the projects. The Phase 1 projects currently underway will result in hardware prototypes and identification of research issues required for complete system development and/or integration.

  6. Near-infrared–actuated devices for remotely controlled drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Brian P.; Arruebo, Manuel; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; McAlvin, J. Brian; Okonkwo, Obiajulu S.; Mizrahi, Boaz; Stefanescu, Cristina F.; Gomez, Leyre; Zhu, Jia; Zhu, Angela; Santamaria, Jesus; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    A reservoir that could be remotely triggered to release a drug would enable the patient or physician to achieve on-demand, reproducible, repeated, and tunable dosing. Such a device would allow precise adjustment of dosage to desired effect, with a consequent minimization of toxicity, and could obviate repeated drug administrations or device implantations, enhancing patient compliance. It should exhibit low off-state leakage to minimize basal effects, and tunable on-state release profiles that could be adjusted from pulsatile to sustained in real time. Despite the clear clinical need for a device that meets these criteria, none has been reported to date to our knowledge. To address this deficiency, we developed an implantable reservoir capped by a nanocomposite membrane whose permeability was modulated by irradiation with a near-infrared laser. Irradiated devices could exhibit sustained on-state drug release for at least 3 h, and could reproducibly deliver short pulses over at least 10 cycles, with an on/off ratio of 30. Devices containing aspart, a fast-acting insulin analog, could achieve glycemic control after s.c. implantation in diabetic rats, with reproducible dosing controlled by the intensity and timing of irradiation over a 2-wk period. These devices can be loaded with a wide range of drug types, and therefore represent a platform technology that might be used to address a wide variety of clinical indications. PMID:24474759

  7. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  8. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  9. The effectiveness of activating electrical devices using alpha wave synchronisation contingent with eye closure.

    PubMed

    Craig, A; Tran, Y; McIsaac, P; Moses, P; Kirkup, L; Searle, A

    2000-08-01

    Increases in alpha wave amplitude occur with eye closure (EC) and decreases occur when the eyes are opened (EO). The research reports in this paper emphasise effectiveness of people using these alpha wave changes to activate electrical devices. Effectiveness was measured in terms of time taken and errors made when selecting the correct device. Ten non-disabled subjects significantly decreased the time taken and errors made to activate correctly a device using a six-option environmental control system (ECS) in the laboratory. In addition, a severely disabled person was shown to use the ECS successfully to control her television in her home environment. This research demonstrates that alpha wave manipulation contingent with EC and EO can be the basis for a reliable and quick switching system for controlling electrical devices. Applications to disability are discussed. PMID:10975664

  10. Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Significant accomplishments include: (1) Completion of an initial identification of the more important problems in process control for integrated circuit fabrication and assembly; (2) preparations for making silicon bulk resistivity wafer standards available to the industry; and (3) establishment of the relationship between carrier mobility and impurity density in silicon. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; characterization of generation-recombination-trapping centers, including gold, in silicon; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; study of scanning electron microscopy for wafer inspection and test; measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices; determination of S-parameters and delay time in junction devices; and characterization of noise and conversion loss of microwave detector diodes.

  11. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  12. Geometric investigation of a gaming active device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, Fabio; Remondino, Fabio; Battisti, Roberto; Nocerino, Erica

    2011-07-01

    3D imaging systems are widely available and used for surveying, modeling and entertainment applications, but clear statements regarding their characteristics, performances and limitations are still missing. The VDI/VDE and the ASTME57 committees are trying to set some standards but the commercial market is not reacting properly. Since many new users are approaching these 3D recording methodologies, clear statements and information clarifying if a package or system satisfies certain requirements before investing are fundamental for those users who are not really familiar with these technologies. Recently small and portable consumer-grade active sensors came on the market, like TOF rangeimaging cameras or low-cost triangulation-based range sensor. A quite interesting active system was produced by PrimeSense and launched on the market thanks to the Microsoft Xbox project with the name of Kinect. The article reports the geometric investigation of the Kinect active sensors, considering its measurement performances, the accuracy of the retrieved range data and the possibility to use it for 3D modeling application.

  13. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A communications system and method are provided for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is converted into digital signals and transmitted to the controller. Network device interfaces associated with different data channels can coordinate communications with the other interfaces based on either a transition in a command message sent by the bus controller or a synchronous clock signal.

  14. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1984-01-27

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  15. Devices for control of contamination in liquid drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyi, Olexander I.; Getman, Vasyl B.; Konyev, Fedir A.; Sapunkov, A. G.; Sapunkov, Pavlo G.; Ferensovich, Yaroslav P.

    1999-11-01

    Parameters of filtration of liquid solutions used in drugs production in pharmaceutics is considered in the paper. The devices intended for checking the content of microparticles in 4 dimension bands simultaneously in deionized water and injection solutions in pharmaceutics production are described. The results of control the purity in solutions glucose are presented.

  16. 40 CFR 65.151 - Condensers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... providing a continuous record or a condenser exit (product side) temperature monitoring device capable of... parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40 CFR... the design evaluation for storage vessels and low-throughput transfer rack controls. As provided...

  17. Biopolymers in controlled release devices for agricultural applications.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biopolymers such as starch for agricultural applications including controlled release devices is growing due the environmental benefits. Recently, concerns have grown about the worldwide spread of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) that infect colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). ...

  18. CMOS Imaging Device for Optical Imaging of Biological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishido, Sanshiro; Oguro, Yasuhiro; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    In this paper, we propose a CMOS image sensor device placed on the brain surface or cerebral sulcus (Fig. 1). The device has a photo detector array where a single optical detector is usually used. The proposed imaging device enables the analysis which reflects a surface blood pattern in the observed area. It is also possible to improve effective sensitivity by image processing and to simplify the measurement system by the CMOS sensor device with on-chip light source. We describe the design details and characterization of proposed device. We also demonstrate detection of hemoglobin oxygenation level with external light source, imaging capability of biological activities, and image processing for sensitivity improvement is also realized.

  19. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  20. Remote control of reversible localized protein adsorption in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Hao, Nan; Li, Jin-Yi; Xiong, Meng; Xia, Xing-Hua; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-08-13

    We present a facilely prepared graphene oxide (GO)/ poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composite by dispersing nanosized GO in PDMS. On the basis of the combination of photothermal effects of GO and grafted thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), an optical-driving approach for remote control of localized wettability is realized. And this method has been successfully applied in the spatially controlled reversible protein adsorption in microfluidic devices. PMID:25068799

  1. 242-A Control System device logic software documentation. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-05-19

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534. This computer-based control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and Monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment System Engineering Group of Westinghouse. This document describes the Device Logic for this system.

  2. Micropatterned photoalignment for wavefront controlled switchable optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazar, Nikolaus

    Photoalignment is a well-established technique for surface alignment of the liquid crystal director. Previously, chrome masks were necessary for patterned photoalignment but were difficult to use, costly, and inflexible. To extend the capabilities of photoalignment we built an automated maskless multi-domain photoalignment device based on a DMD (digital multimirror device) projection system. The device is capable of creating arbitrary photoalignment patterns with micron-sized features. Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PB-phase) is a geometric phase that arises from cyclic change of polarization state. By varying the azimuthal anchoring angle in a hybrid-aligned liquid crystal cell we can control the spatial variation of the PB-phase shift. Using our automated photoalignment device to align the liquid crystal arbitrary wave front manipulations are possible. The PB-phase shift effect is maximized when the cell is tuned to have a half-wave retardation and disappears at full-wave retardation, so the cell can be switched on and off by applying a voltage. Two wavefront controlled devices developed using this technique will be discussed: A switchable liquid crystal phase shift mask for creating sub-diffraction sized photolithographic features, and a transparent diffractive display that utilizes a switchable liquid crystal diffraction grating.

  3. A dynamic control algorithm based on physiological parameters and wearable interfaces for adaptive ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tortora, G; Fontana, R; Argiolas, S; Vatteroni, M; Dario, P; Trivella, M G

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the dynamic control of ventricular assist devices (VADs), based on the acquisition of continuous physiological and functional parameters such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, temperature, and patient movements. Such parameters are acquired by wearable devices (MagIC & Winpack) and sensors implanted close to the VAD. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to dynamically control the hydraulic power of the VAD as a function of the detected parameters, patient's activity and emotional status. In this way, the cardiac dynamics regulated by the proposed autoregulation control algorithm for sensorized VADs, thus providing new therapy approaches for heart failure. PMID:26737403

  4. A dynamic control algorithm based on physiological parameters and wearable interfaces for adaptive ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tortora, G; Fontana, R; Argiolas, S; Vatteroni, M; Dario, P; Trivella, M G

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the dynamic control of ventricular assist devices (VADs), based on the acquisition of continuous physiological and functional parameters such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, temperature, and patient movements. Such parameters are acquired by wearable devices (MagIC & Winpack) and sensors implanted close to the VAD. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to dynamically control the hydraulic power of the VAD as a function of the detected parameters, patient's activity and emotional status. In this way, the cardiac dynamics regulated by the proposed autoregulation control algorithm for sensorized VADs, thus providing new therapy approaches for heart failure.

  5. Microwave photonic bandgap devices with active plasma elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benjamin; Colon Quinones, Roberto; Biggs, David; Underwood, Thomas; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Cappelli, Mark; Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2015-09-01

    A 3-D alumina rod based microwave photonic crystal device with integrated gaseous plasma elements is designed and characterized. Modulation of the plasma density of the active plasma elements is shown to allow for high fidelity modulation of the output signal of the photonic crystal device. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the device are presented, and the functional effects of the plasma electron density, plasma collision frequency, and plasma dimensions are studied. Experimental characterization of the transmission of the device shows active tunability through adjustments of plasma parameters, including discharge current and plasma size. Additional photonic crystal structures with integrated plasma elements are explored. Sponsored by the AFSOR MURI and DOD NDSEG.

  6. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  7. Growth control of sessile microbubbles in PDMS devices.

    PubMed

    Volk, Andreas; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Marin, Alvaro

    2015-12-21

    In a microfluidic environment, the presence of bubbles is often detrimental to the functionality of the device, leading to clogging or cavitation, but microbubbles can also be an indispensable asset in other applications such as microstreaming. In either case, it is crucial to understand and control the growth or shrinkage of these bodies of air, in particular in common soft-lithography devices based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is highly permeable to gases. In this work, we study the gas transport into and out of a bubble positioned in a microfluidic device, taking into account the direct gas exchange through PDMS as well as the transport of gas through the liquid in the device. Hydrostatic pressure regulation allows for the quantitative control of growth, shrinkage, or the attainment of a stable equilibrium bubble size. We find that the vapor pressure of the liquid plays an important role for the balance of gas transport, accounting for variability in experimental conditions and suggesting additional means of bubble size control in applications. PMID:26517506

  8. Growth control of sessile microbubbles in PDMS devices.

    PubMed

    Volk, Andreas; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Marin, Alvaro

    2015-12-21

    In a microfluidic environment, the presence of bubbles is often detrimental to the functionality of the device, leading to clogging or cavitation, but microbubbles can also be an indispensable asset in other applications such as microstreaming. In either case, it is crucial to understand and control the growth or shrinkage of these bodies of air, in particular in common soft-lithography devices based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is highly permeable to gases. In this work, we study the gas transport into and out of a bubble positioned in a microfluidic device, taking into account the direct gas exchange through PDMS as well as the transport of gas through the liquid in the device. Hydrostatic pressure regulation allows for the quantitative control of growth, shrinkage, or the attainment of a stable equilibrium bubble size. We find that the vapor pressure of the liquid plays an important role for the balance of gas transport, accounting for variability in experimental conditions and suggesting additional means of bubble size control in applications.

  9. 77 FR 28455 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... clarify the use of engineering judgment and studies in the application of traffic control devices. DATES... remove conflicting language and provide consistency in the intended use of engineering judgment and engineering studies. After issuance of the Final Rule for the 2009 MUTCD, FHWA received correspondence...

  10. 76 FR 54156 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... information relating to target compliance dates for traffic control devices. Consistent with Executive Order... and local highway agencies and to streamline and simplify the information. DATES: Comments must be... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Hari Kalla, Office of Transportation Operations, (202) 366-5915; or...

  11. 76 FR 46213 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... certain standards, guidance, options, and supporting information relating to traffic control devices in... 19477-78) or you may visit http://dms.dot.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Hari Kalla, Office.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic Access and Filing You may submit or retrieve comments online through...

  12. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2004-08-31

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by either fluid or gas pressure against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  13. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2005-11-11

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  14. The control of radon progeny by air treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Rajala, M; Janka, K; Lehtimäki, M; Kulmala, V; Graeffe, G; Keskinen, J

    1985-10-01

    The effect of air treatment devices on the behaviour of radon decay products has been studied in laboratory conditions. An HEPA filter and an electrostatic precipitator were used. Both of the filters were found to decrease the equilibrium factor of daughters and increase the unattached fraction of decay products. In a clean air they also decreased the activity of unattached daughters. The effect of the devices on the health risk caused by radon progeny was estimated by dosimetric calculations. The results corresponding to different models show considerable discrepancy, mainly due to different assumptions about the influence of unattached decay products on the dose.

  15. Control strategies for afterload reduction with an artificial vasculature device.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Cheng, Rolando Chip; Glower, Jacob S; Ewert, Daniel L; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been used successfully as a bridge to transplant in heart failure patients by unloading ventricular volume and restoring the circulation. An artificial vasculature device (AVD) is being developed that may better facilitate myocardial recovery than VAD by controlling the afterload experienced by the native heart and controlling the pulsatile energy entering into the arterial system from the device, potentially reconditioning the arterial system properties. The AVD is a valveless, 80 ml blood chamber with a servo-controlled pusher plate connected to the ascending aorta by a vascular graft. Control algorithms for the AVD were developed to maintain any user-defined systemic input impedance (IM) including resistance, elastance, and inertial components. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of the cardiovascular system were used to test the efficacy of two control strategies for the AVD: 1) average impedance position control (AIPC)-to maintain an average value of resistance during left ventricular (LV) systole and 2) instantaneous impedance force feedback (IIFF) and position control (IIPC)-to maintain a desired value or profile of resistance and compliance. Computer simulations and mock loop tests were performed to predict resulting cardiovascular pressures, volumes, flows, and the resistance and compliance experienced by the native LV during ejection for simulated normal, failing, and recovering LV. These results indicate that the LV volume and pressure decreased, and the LV stroke volume increased with decreasing IM, resulting in an increased ejection fraction. Although the AIPC algorithm is more stable and can tolerate higher levels of sensor errors and noise, the IIFF and IIPC control algorithms are better suited to maintain any instantaneous IM or an IM profile. The developed AVD impedance control algorithms may be implemented with current VADs to promote myocardial recovery and facilitate weaning. PMID:22635010

  16. Control strategies for afterload reduction with an artificial vasculature device.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Cheng, Rolando Chip; Glower, Jacob S; Ewert, Daniel L; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been used successfully as a bridge to transplant in heart failure patients by unloading ventricular volume and restoring the circulation. An artificial vasculature device (AVD) is being developed that may better facilitate myocardial recovery than VAD by controlling the afterload experienced by the native heart and controlling the pulsatile energy entering into the arterial system from the device, potentially reconditioning the arterial system properties. The AVD is a valveless, 80 ml blood chamber with a servo-controlled pusher plate connected to the ascending aorta by a vascular graft. Control algorithms for the AVD were developed to maintain any user-defined systemic input impedance (IM) including resistance, elastance, and inertial components. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of the cardiovascular system were used to test the efficacy of two control strategies for the AVD: 1) average impedance position control (AIPC)-to maintain an average value of resistance during left ventricular (LV) systole and 2) instantaneous impedance force feedback (IIFF) and position control (IIPC)-to maintain a desired value or profile of resistance and compliance. Computer simulations and mock loop tests were performed to predict resulting cardiovascular pressures, volumes, flows, and the resistance and compliance experienced by the native LV during ejection for simulated normal, failing, and recovering LV. These results indicate that the LV volume and pressure decreased, and the LV stroke volume increased with decreasing IM, resulting in an increased ejection fraction. Although the AIPC algorithm is more stable and can tolerate higher levels of sensor errors and noise, the IIFF and IIPC control algorithms are better suited to maintain any instantaneous IM or an IM profile. The developed AVD impedance control algorithms may be implemented with current VADs to promote myocardial recovery and facilitate weaning.

  17. Non-Hebbian Learning Implementation in Light-Controlled Resistive Memory Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ungureanu, Mariana; Stoliar, Pablo; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2012-01-01

    Non-Hebbian learning is often encountered in different bio-organisms. In these processes, the strength of a synapse connecting two neurons is controlled not only by the signals exchanged between the neurons, but also by an additional factor external to the synaptic structure. Here we show the implementation of non-Hebbian learning in a single solid-state resistive memory device. The output of our device is controlled not only by the applied voltages, but also by the illumination conditions under which it operates. We demonstrate that our metal/oxide/semiconductor device learns more efficiently at higher applied voltages but also when light, an external parameter, is present during the information writing steps. Conversely, memory erasing is more efficiently at higher applied voltages and in the dark. Translating neuronal activity into simple solid-state devices could provide a deeper understanding of complex brain processes and give insight into non-binary computing possibilities. PMID:23251679

  18. Laser Activated Flow Regulator for Glaucoma Drainage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jeffrey L.; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Bhandari, Ramanath

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capabilities of a new glaucoma drainage device regulator in controlling fluid flow as well as to demonstrate that this effect may be titratable by noninvasive means. Methods A rigid eye model with two main ports was used. On the first port, we placed a saline solution column. On the second, we placed a glaucoma shunt. We then measured the flow and flow rate through the system. After placing the regulator device on the tip of the tube, we measured again with the intact membrane and with the membrane open 50% and 100%. For the ex vivo testing we used a similar setting, using a cadaveric porcine eye, we measured again the flow and flow rate. However, this time we opened the membrane gradually using laser shots. A one-way analysis of variance and a Fisher's Least Significant Difference test were used for statistical significance. We also calculated the correlation between the numbers of laser shots applied and the main outcomes. Results The flow through the system with the glaucoma drainage device regulator (membrane intact and 50% open) was statistically lower than with the membrane open 100% and without device (P < 0.05). The flow was successfully controlled by the number of laser shots applied, and showed a positive correlation (+ 0.9). The flow rate was almost doubled every 10 shots and statistically lower than without device at all time (P < 0.05). Conclusions The glaucoma drainage device regulator can be controlled noninvasively with laser, and allows titratable control of aqueous flow. Translational Relevance Initial results and evidence from this experiment will justify the initiation of in vivo animal trials with the glaucoma drainage device regulator; which brings us closer to possible human trials and the chance to significantly improve the existing technology to treat glaucoma surgically. PMID:25374772

  19. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOEpatents

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  20. EDITORIAL: MHD stability control in toroidal devices MHD stability control in toroidal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, Michio

    2010-10-01

    The annual workshop on MHD stability control has been held since 1996 with an emphasis on controlling MHD stability, which is considered to be an obstacle to achieving high performance in fusion reactors. The meeting is organized as a joint US/Japan undertaking with the meeting held in the US and Japan in alternating years. Each year, a specific theme is selected, based on the interest of our community, ranging from burning plasmas to fundamental physics processes essential for MHD stability. The 2009 meeting with the theme of 'Assuring successful MHD control in ITER' was held at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University. With ITER construction progressing at full speed, there is increasing interest in assuring successful MHD control in ignited plasmas and beyond. Focusing on planned hardware and development of plasma profile control systems in ITER operational scenarios, subjects included instabilities such as sawteeth, fishbones and TAEs, NTMs, locked modes, RWMs, and ELMs. Control aspects included mode control, non-axis-symmetric error-field control, and disruption control in tokamaks, RFPs, and stellarators. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2009 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These papers give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, all of which may be found at http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd09/ The program committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community has shown for more than a decade in this workshop series. Without doubt, we will extend our workshop along with the progress of fusion research toward successful reactors.

  1. Exhaust gas recirculation control device for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, T.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes an EGR control device for controlling an EGR value in a diesel engine, the EGR control device comprising: an electric control unit means for receiving input from an engine load sensor means for detecting engine load, an engine revolution sensor means for detecting an engine speed and a thermo-sensor means for detecting an engine temperature state. The electric control unit means has a first EGR MAP for preventing EGR under a low engine revolution idling speed during low engine temperature states, a second EGR MAP for permitting EGR under the low engine revolution idling speed during high engine temperature states, and a means for selecting either the first EGR MAP or the second EGR MAP in accordance with engine operating conditions. The first EGR MAP issues an output signal for EGR in a stage of fuel injection and an engine speed greater than a first predetermined engine speed that is higher than the idling speed and the second EGR MAP issues an output signal for EGR in the stage of fuel injection and at an engine speed greater than a second predetermined engine speed that is lower than the idling speed; and an electric vacuum regulating valve means connected to the electric control unit means and receiving an output signal therefrom. The electric vacuum regulating valve means regulates an opening degree of the EGR valve in accordance with the output signal from the electric control unit.

  2. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... rulemaking activity. \\1\\ 72 FR 3904; January 26, 2007. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT... would limit the speed of certain heavy trucks. Based on information received in response to a...

  3. Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Burrows, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Mast, Eric S.; Hall, Michael G.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Williford, Rick E.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional single layer barrier coatings are not adequate in preventing degradation of the performance of organic molecular electronic and other active devices. Most advanced devices used in display technology now consist of micro and nanostructured small molecule, polymer and inorganic coatings with thin high reactive group 1A metals. This includes organic electronics such as organic light emitting devices (OLED). The lifetimes of these devices rapidly degrades when they are exposed to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor. Thin film photovoltaics and batteries are also susceptible to degradation by moisture and oxygen. Using in-line coating techniques we apply a composite nanostructured inorganic/polymer thin film barrier that restricts moisture and oxygen permeation to undetectable levels using conventional permeation test equipment. We describe permeation mechanisms for this encapsulation coating and flat panel display and other device applications. Permeation through the multilayer barrier coating is defect and pore limited and can be described by Knudsen diffusion involving a long and tortuous path. Device lifetime is also enhanced by the long lag times required to reach the steady state flux regime. Permeation rates in the range of 10-6 cc,g/m2/d have been achieved and OLED device lifetimes. The structure is robust, yet flexible. The resulting device performance and lifetimes will also be described. The barrier film can be capped with a thin film of transparent conductive oxide yielding an engineered nanostructured device for next generation, rugged, lightweight or flexible displays. This enables, for the first time, thin film encapsulation of emissive organic displays.

  4. Compliance assurance monitoring (CAM) plans/illustrations for control devices with prevalent applicability

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, T.S.; Levy, J.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The Compliance Assurance Monitoring (CAM) rule was promulgated on October 22, 1997 as 62 FR 54899. This rule generally requires that Title V facilities with active control devices apply CAM to pollutant-specific emission units to ensure that Federally enforceable emissions limitations are being met. At Title V permit renewal, smaller sources at Title V facilities also may become subject to CAM. EPA has published a draft Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for CAM (revised draft dated August 1998). This document contains applicability information, flow diagrams, indicator range development approach data, measurement system data, sample CAM plans, sample CAM illustrations, and other guidelines useful in meeting the CAM requirements for control devices on applicable pollutant-specific emission units. This poster paper illustrates CAM plans and provides illustrations of control devices likely to have prevalent CAM applicability. The poster contains a clear applicability diagram of the CAM requirements which guides the reader to other diagrams showing apparent CAM applicability for key major industry sources. Within the identified industrial sources, the most prevalent control devices have been researched and CAM plan elements displayed along with a short bibliography of references used to identify indicators and indicator ranges. Control devices currently not covered in the TGD are covered in this poster paper in addition to a couple of examples from the TGD (e.g., condensers, baghouses/dust collectors). Emphasis is given to control devices likely to be covered under CAM which have not been covered in the TGD. Examples of such control devices include sulfur recovery plant tail gas units and flue gas desulfurization units. Additionally, this poster paper graphically demonstrates a recommended approach to CAM plan development in a step-by-step manner with an explanation provided for each step.

  5. A compact inflow control device for simulating flight fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homyak, L.; McArdle, J. G.; Heidelberg, L. J.

    Inflow control device (ICD's) of various shapes and sizes have been used to simulate inflight fan tone noise during ground static tests. A small, simple inexpensive ICD design was optimized from previous design and fabrication techniques. This compact two-fan-diameter ICD exhibits satisfactory acoustic performance characteristics without causing noise attenuation or redirection. In addition, it generates no important new noise sources. Design and construction details of the compact ICD are discussed and acoustic performance test results are presented.

  6. A compact inflow control device for simulating flight fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homyak, L.; McArdle, J. G.; Heidelberg, L. J.

    1983-04-01

    Inflow control device (ICD's) of various shapes and sizes have been used to simulate inflight fan tone noise during ground static tests. A small, simple inexpensive ICD design was optimized from previous design and fabrication techniques. This compact two-fan-diameter ICD exhibits satisfactory acoustic performance characteristics without causing noise attenuation or redirection. In addition, it generates no important new noise sources. Design and construction details of the compact ICD are discussed and acoustic performance test results are presented.

  7. A compact inflow control device for simulating flight fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homyak, L.; Mcardle, J. G.; Heidelberg, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Inflow control device (ICD's) of various shapes and sizes have been used to simulate inflight fan tone noise during ground static tests. A small, simple inexpensive ICD design was optimized from previous design and fabrication techniques. This compact two-fan-diameter ICD exhibits satisfactory acoustic performance characteristics without causing noise attenuation or redirection. In addition, it generates no important new noise sources. Design and construction details of the compact ICD are discussed and acoustic performance test results are presented.

  8. Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD). Volume 1: Laboratory model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The annular momentum control device (AMCD) a thin hoop-like wheel with neither shaft nor spokes is described. The wheel floats in a magnetic field and can be rotated by a segmented motor. Potential advantages of such a wheel are low weight, configuration flexibility, a wheel that stiffens with increased speed, vibration isolation, and increased reliability. The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing is described of the laboratory model of the AMCD.

  9. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  10. Parametric analysis of a passive cyclic control device for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, H.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study of a passive device which provides a cyclic longitudinal control moment for a helicopter rotor was performed. It utilizes a rotor blade tip which is structurally decoupled from the blade inboard section. This rotor configuration is generally called the Free-Tip Rotor. A two dimensional numerical model was used to review the Constant Lift Tip Rotor, a predecessor of the current configuration, and then the same model was applied to the Passive Cyclic Control Device. The Constant Lift Tip was proven to have the ability to suppress the vibratory lift loading on the tip around the azimuth and to eliminate a significant negative lift peak on the advancing tip. The Passive Cyclic Control Device showed a once-per-revolution lift oscillation with a large amplitude, while minimizing the higher harmonic terms of the lift oscillation. This once-per-revolution oscillation results in the cyclic moment to trim the rotor longitudinally. A rotor performance analysis was performed by a three dimensional numerical model. It indicated that the vortices shed from the junction between the tip and the inboard section has a strong influence on the tip, and it may severely limit the tip performance. It was also shown that the Free-Tip allows the inboard section to have a larger twist, which results in a better performance.

  11. 40 CFR 63.943 - Standards-Surface impoundment vented to control device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the cover not vented to the control device shall be equipped with a closure device. If the pressure in the vapor headspace underneath the cover is less than atmospheric pressure when the control device is... headspace underneath the cover is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure when the control device...

  12. 40 CFR 63.943 - Standards-Surface impoundment vented to control device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the cover not vented to the control device shall be equipped with a closure device. If the pressure in the vapor headspace underneath the cover is less than atmospheric pressure when the control device is... headspace underneath the cover is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure when the control device...

  13. 40 CFR 63.943 - Standards-Surface impoundment vented to control device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the cover not vented to the control device shall be equipped with a closure device. If the pressure in the vapor headspace underneath the cover is less than atmospheric pressure when the control device is... headspace underneath the cover is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure when the control device...

  14. 40 CFR 63.943 - Standards-Surface impoundment vented to control device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the cover not vented to the control device shall be equipped with a closure device. If the pressure in the vapor headspace underneath the cover is less than atmospheric pressure when the control device is... headspace underneath the cover is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure when the control device...

  15. Dielectric elastomer actuators for active microfluidic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David; Murray, Coleman; Di Carlo, Dino; Pei, Qibing

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers with low modulus and large actuation strain have been investigated for applications in which they serve as "active" microfluidic channel walls. Anisotropically prestrained acrylic elastomer membranes are bonded to cover open trenches formed on a silicone elastomer substrate. Actuation of the elastomer membranes increases the cross-sectional area of the resulting channels, in turn controlling hydraulic flow rate and pressure. Bias voltage increases the active area of the membranes, allowing intrachannel pressure to alter channel geometry. The channels have also demonstrated the ability to actively clear a blockage. Applications may include adaptive microfilters, micro-peristaltic pumps, and reduced-complexity lab-on-a-chip devices.

  16. Numerical computer peripheral interactive device with manual controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Brokl, S. S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A computer peripheral device is disclosed which includes a joystick whose displacement from a counter position along two axes X and Y in either a plus (+) or a minus (-) direction is sensed. The displacement magnitude in either direction controls the rate of clock pulses provided by a variable frequency clock. The clock pulses from the two clocks are accumulated in two separate counters, whose contents are displayed. The contents of the counters are suppliable to a computer to update the contents of specific cells which define the position of a cursor on a display which is under computer control.

  17. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  18. A device for automatic photoelectric control of the analytical gap for emission spectrographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, John A.; Cooley, Elmo F.; Curry, Kenneth J.

    1977-01-01

    A photoelectric device has been built that automatically controls the analytical gap between electrodes during excitation period. The control device allows for precise control of the analytical gap during the arcing process of samples, resulting in better precision of analysis.

  19. Failure Analysis and Quality Control of Microwave Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Zhimao; Zong, Bo; Bai, Xiaoshu

    2016-02-01

    Microwave devices have been widely used in the communication and navigation and navigation fields. The reliability level of microwave devices is an important factor to affect the reliability of electronic equipment. The statistical analysis for the failure of sixty microwave devices was presented and the main causes of failure were given. The failure is mainly analyzed from three aspects below, the surface failure mechanism, the interior failure mechanism and the failure mechanism of electrode system and encapsulation. The surface failure mechanism is analyzed from four aspects, ionic contamination on the surface, silicon dioxide layer defect, the influence of interface states between silicon and silicon dioxide, radiation ionization trap. The interior failure mechanism is analyzed from two aspects, failure caused by thermal breakdown and failure due to latch-up effect of integrated circuit. The failure mechanism of electrode system and encapsulation is analyzed from two aspects, failure mechanism of metallization system and failure mechanism of metallization system of bonding. Meanwhile, the results showed that operation, process, adjustment, components and using problems were the main causes of failure. The valuable statistical data and analysis results were provided for the quality control of microwave devices.

  20. Local gate control in carbon nanotube quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biercuk, Michael Jordan

    This thesis presents transport measurements of carbon nanotube electronic devices operated in the quantum regime. Nanotubes are contacted by source and drain electrodes, and multiple lithographically-patterned electrostatic gates are aligned to each device. Transport measurements of device conductance or current as a function of local gate voltages reveal that local gates couple primarily to the proximal section of the nanotube, hence providing spatially localized control over carrier density along the nanotube length. Further, using several different techniques we are able to produce local depletion regions along the length of a tube. This phenomenon is explored in detail for different contact metals to the nanotube. We utilize local gating techniques to study multiple quantum dots in carbon nanotubes produced both by naturally occurring defects, and by the controlled application of voltages to depletion gates. We study double quantum dots in detail, where transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams. We extract values of energy-level spacings, capacitances, and interaction energies for this system, and demonstrate independent control over all relevant tunneling rates. We report rf-reflectometry measurements of gate-defined carbon nanotube quantum dots with integrated charge sensors. Aluminum rf-SETs are electrostatically coupled to carbon nanotube devices and detect single electron charging phenomena in the Coulomb blockade regime. Simultaneous correlated measurements of single electron charging are made using reflected rf power from the nanotube itself and from the rf-SET on microsecond time scales. We map charge stability diagrams for the nanotube quantum dot via charge sensing, observing Coulomb charging diamonds beyond the first order. Conductance measurements of carbon nanotubes containing gated local depletion regions exhibit plateaus as a function of gate voltage, spaced by approximately 1e2/h, the quantum of conductance for a single

  1. Active control of convection

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.

  2. Control device for clutch and transmission in vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazawa, T.; Sueshige, H.; Niikawa, Y.; Shimokawa, M.

    1986-09-09

    A control device is described for a clutch and a transmission in a vehicle, comprising: (a) a clutch including a release lever and a clutch spring, and disconnectable by the release lever; (b) a transmission including a plurality of gears for changing the speed of the vehicle and a shifter for selecting one of the gears at a time for operation; (c) a substantially single control lever angularly moveable about at least one shaft for actuating the clutch and the transmission; (d) a first link mechanism for transmitting angular movement of the control lever to the release lever of the clutch; (e) a second link mechanism for transmitting angular movement of the control lever to the shifter of the transmission; (f) a damper for imposing a dampening force during engagement of the clutch, the damper is a hydraulic damper connected to the second link mechanism.

  3. Microfluidic devices for the controlled manipulation of small volumes

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Michael J; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2012-09-18

    A method for conducting a broad range of biochemical analyses or manipulations on a series of nano- to subnanoliter reaction volumes and an apparatus for carrying out the same are disclosed. The invention is implemented on a fluidic microchip to provide high serial throughput. In particular, the disclosed device is a microfabricated channel device that can manipulate nanoliter or subnanoliter reaction volumes in a controlled manner to produce results at rates of 1 to 10 Hz per channel. The reaction volumes are manipulated in serial fashion analogous to a digital shift register. The invention has application to such problems as screening molecular or cellular targets using single beads from split-synthesis combinatorial libraries, screening single cells for RNA or protein expression, genetic diagnostic screening at the single cell level, or performing single cell signal transduction studies.

  4. Microfluidic devices for the controlled manipulation of small volumes

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-03

    A method for conducting a broad range of biochemical analyses or manipulations on a series of nano- to subnanoliter reaction volumes and an apparatus for carrying out the same are disclosed. The invention is implemented on a fluidic microchip to provide high serial throughput. In particular, the disclosed device is a microfabricated channel device that can manipulate nanoliter or subnanoliter reaction volumes in a controlled manner to produce results at rates of 1 to 10 Hz per channel. The reaction volumes are manipulated in serial fashion analogous to a digital shift register. The invention has application to such problems as screening molecular or cellular targets using single beads from split-synthesis combinatorial libraries, screening single cells for RNA or protein expression, genetic diagnostic screening at the single cell level, or performing single cell signal transduction studies.

  5. Method and device for controlling plume during laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Fuerschbach, Phillip W.; Jellison, James L.; Keicher, David M.; Oberkampf, William L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for enhancing the weldment of a laser welding system is provided. The laser weld plume control device includes a cylindrical body defining an upside-down cone cavity; the upper surface of the body circumscribes the base of the cone cavity, and the vertex of the cone cavity forms an orifice concentrically located with respect to the laser beam and the plume which forms as a result of the welding operation. According to the method of the invention, gas is directed radially inward through inlets in the upper surface of the body into and through channels in the wall of the body and finally through the orifice of the body, and downward onto the surface of the weldment. The gas flow is then converted by the orifice of the device from radial flow to an axisymmetric gas jet flowing away from the weldment surface in a direction perpendicular to the surface and opposite to that of the laser.

  6. Modeling of power control schemes in induction cooking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beato, Alessio; Conti, Massimo; Turchetti, Claudio; Orcioni, Simone

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, with remarkable advancements of power semiconductor devices and electronic control systems, it becomes possible to apply the induction heating technique for domestic use. In order to achieve the supply power required by these devices, high-frequency resonant inverters are used: the force commutated, half-bridge series resonant converter is well suited for induction cooking since it offers an appropriate balance between complexity and performances. Power control is a key issue to attain efficient and reliable products. This paper describes and compares four power control schemes applied to the half-bridge series resonant inverter. The pulse frequency modulation is the most common control scheme: according to this strategy, the output power is regulated by varying the switching frequency of the inverter circuit. Other considered methods, originally developed for induction heating industrial applications, are: pulse amplitude modulation, asymmetrical duty cycle and pulse density modulation which are respectively based on variation of the amplitude of the input supply voltage, on variation of the duty cycle of the switching signals and on variation of the number of switching pulses. Each description is provided with a detailed mathematical analysis; an analytical model, built to simulate the circuit topology, is implemented in the Matlab environment in order to obtain the steady-state values and waveforms of currents and voltages. For purposes of this study, switches and all reactive components are modelled as ideal and the "heating-coil/pan" system is represented by an equivalent circuit made up of a series connected resistance and inductance.

  7. Magnetic Control of Locked Modes in Present Devices and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, F. A.; Sabbagh, S.; Sweeney, R.; Hender, T.; Kirk, A.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Rao, B.; Fietz, S.; Maraschek, M.; Frassinetti, L.; in, Y.; Jeon, Y.; Sakakihara, S.

    2014-10-01

    The toroidal phase of non-rotating (``locked'') neoclassical tearing modes was controlled in several devices by means of applied magnetic perturbations. Evidence is presented from various tokamaks (ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET, J-TEXT, KSTAR), spherical tori (MAST, NSTX) and a reversed field pinch (EXTRAP-T2R). Furthermore, the phase of interchange modes was controlled in the LHD helical device. These results share a common interpretation in terms of torques acting on the mode. Based on this interpretation, it is predicted that control-coil currents will be sufficient to control the phase of locking in ITER. This will be possible both with the internal coils and with the external error-field-correction coils, and might have promising consequences for disruption avoidance (by aiding the electron cyclotron current drive stabilization of locked modes), as well as for spatially distributing heat loads during disruptions. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0008520, DE-FC-02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Evaluation of four cursor control devices during a target acquisition task for laparoscopic tool control.

    PubMed

    Herring, S R; Trejo, A E; Hallbeck, M S

    2010-01-01

    Current laparoscopic surgery instruments create awkward postures which produce fatigue and pressure points in surgeons. In order to alleviate some of this discomfort a new laparoscopic tool had been developed with the inclusion of an articulating end-effector manipulated by a trackball. The current study was developed to access the performance of four input devices which could replace the manual trackball in a powered laparoscopic tool. A simple Fitts' law task was conducted and the devices' performance was evaluated with both subjective and objective measures. This article makes three main contributions to the scientific community. First, it provides a comparison of four control devices (TouchPad, Mouse Button Module, MiniJoystick Module and MicroJoystick) for use in a powered laparoscopic tool. Second, it provides an understanding of how the non-traditional measure of target re-entry can be utilized to compare control devices and how this relates to the more traditional measures of throughput and error rate. Finally, it contributes to the understanding of how a user's familiarity with a control device could affect the subjective and objective performance of the device. The main results indicate that the TouchPad and MicroJoystick are the best candidate-devices for use in a powered laparoscopic tool. The article also provides support for utilizing the new measure target re-entry when comparing control performance. Although studied in the application of laparoscopic surgery, the results can be generalized for the design of any hand-held device in which the speed and accuracy of the control device is critical.

  9. Active weld control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Bradley W.; Burroughs, Ivan A.

    1994-01-01

    Through the two phases of this contract, sensors for welding applications and parameter extraction algorithms have been developed. These sensors form the foundation of a weld control system which can provide action weld control through the monitoring of the weld pool and keyhole in a VPPA welding process. Systems of this type offer the potential of quality enhancement and cost reduction (minimization of rework on faulty welds) for high-integrity welding applications. Sensors for preweld and postweld inspection, weld pool monitoring, keyhole/weld wire entry monitoring, and seam tracking were developed. Algorithms for signal extraction were also developed and analyzed to determine their application to an adaptive weld control system. The following sections discuss findings for each of the three sensors developed under this contract: (1) weld profiling sensor; (2) weld pool sensor; and (3) stereo seam tracker/keyhole imaging sensor. Hardened versions of these sensors were designed and built under this contract. A control system, described later, was developed on a multiprocessing/multitasking operating system for maximum power and flexibility. Documentation for sensor mechanical and electrical design is also included as appendices in this report.

  10. 75 FR 44172 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II Devices and Exemption From... Register of April 5, 2010 (75 FR 17093). The document proposed to amend certain neurological and physical medicine device regulations to establish special controls for these class II devices and to exempt some...

  11. Development and control of a lower extremity assistive device (LEAD) for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bingquan; Li, Jinfu; Bai, Fengjun; Chew, Chee-Meng

    2013-06-01

    This research developed a wearable lower extremity assistive device intended to aid stroke patient during rehabilitation. The device specifically aims to assist the patient in sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, and level-walking tasks in order to promote active gait rehabilitation exercises. The device adopts an anthropomorphic structure with hip and knee joint actuated in sagittal plane. A finite state machine strategy was proposed to control the device. At different states, appropriate assist torque is added to each joint. EMG signals are used to assess the assist performance. Tests on an able-bodied subject show that the device could successfully detect and transit between states. In sit-to-stand tasks, the integrated EMG (iEMG) of the Vastus Medialis for standing up with 11 Nm of assistance torque were found to be significantly less (P = 0.00187) than the iEMG of without assistance for standing up which indicate reduced muscle effort with the device assistance. Results show the device could potentially assist stroke patient in similar tasks.

  12. Controlled growth of Si nanowire arrays for device integration.

    PubMed

    Hochbaum, Allon I; Fan, Rong; He, Rongrui; Yang, Peidong

    2005-03-01

    Silicon nanowires were synthesized, in a controlled manner, for their practical integration into devices. Gold colloids were used for nanowire synthesis by the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Using SiCl4 as the precursor gas in a chemical vapor deposition system, nanowire arrays were grown vertically aligned with respect to the substrate. By manipulating the colloid deposition on the substrate, highly controlled growth of aligned silicon nanowires was achieved. Nanowire arrays were synthesized with narrow size distributions dictated by the seeding colloids and with average diameters down to 39 nm. The density of wire growth was successfully varied from approximately 0.1-1.8 wires/microm2. Patterned deposition of the colloids led to confinement of the vertical nanowire growth to selected regions. In addition, Si nanowires were grown directly into microchannels to demonstrate the flexibility of the deposition technique. By controlling various aspects of nanowire growth, these methods will enable their efficient and economical incorporation into devices. PMID:15755094

  13. Control system with magnetorheological fluid device for mitigation of the railway vehicle hunting oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiasu, D.; Ghita, G.; Sebesan, I.

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents the opportunity of using a magnetorheological device to control the lateral oscillations of a passenger railway vehicle to increase its comfort and speed features. High speed generates large amplitude oscillations in horizontal plan at the axles, bogies and carbody levels which beyond a specific value - the critical speed - leads to unstable movement of the vehicle. The lateral dynamics of the vehicle is simulated using the multibody method. It is build a model with 17 degrees of freedom considering the lateral, yawing and rolling oscillations. An original device with magnetorheological fluid based on the balance logic strategy to control the anti-yaw damper is integrated in the secondary suspension of the railway vehicle. The conception and the design of the magnetorheological device are presented. It is demonstrated that the magnetorheological semi-active suspension improves the safety and the comfort of the railway vehicle.

  14. Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Micklich, Bradley J.

    1986-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for controlling neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices having inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls for containment of the neutrons of a fusion plasma. Neutron albedo material is disposed immediately adjacent the inboard wall, and is movable, preferably in vertical directions, so as to be brought into and out of neutron modifying communication with the fusion neutrons. Neutron albedo material preferably comprises a liquid form, but may also take pebble, stringer and curtain-like forms. A neutron flux valve, rotatable about a vertical axis is also disclosed.

  15. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

  16. Modeling and Control of the Automated Radiator Inspection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Darren

    1991-01-01

    Many of the operations performed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are dangerous and repetitive tasks which make them ideal candidates for robotic applications. For one specific application, KSC is currently in the process of designing and constructing a robot called the Automated Radiator Inspection Device (ARID), to inspect the radiator panels on the orbiter. The following aspects of the ARID project are discussed: modeling of the ARID; design of control algorithms; and nonlinear based simulation of the ARID. Recommendations to assist KSC personnel in the successful completion of the ARID project are given.

  17. Device for controlling the pouring of molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Moore, A.F.; Duncan, A.L.

    1994-02-15

    A device is described for controlling the pouring of a molten material from a crucible or other container. The device includes an annular retainer ring for mounting in the drain opening in the bottom of a conventional crucible, the retainer ring defining a opening there through. The device also includes a plug member having an annular forward end portion for force-fit reception in the opening of the retainer ring to selectively seal the opening and for being selectively forced through the opening. The plug member has a rear end portion for being positioned within the crucible, the rear end portion including stop means for prohibiting the rear end portion from passing through the opening in the retainer ring when the forward end portion is selectively forced through the opening. The plug member defines at least one, and preferably a plurality of flutes, each extending from a point rearward the annular forward end portion of the plug member, and forward the stop means, to a point rearward of the stop means. The flutes permit fluid communication between the interior and exterior of the crucible when the forward end portion of the plug member is forced through the opening in the retaining ring such that the molten material is allowed to flow from the crucible. 5 figures.

  18. Device for controlling the pouring of molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Alan F.; Duncan, Alfred L.

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlling the pouring of a molten material from a crucible or other container. The device (10) includes an annular retainer ring (12) for mounting in the drain opening in the bottom of a conventional crucible (16), the retainer ring defining a opening (14) therethrough. The device (10) also includes a plug member (22) having an annular forward end portion (24) for force-fit reception in the opening (14) of the retainer ring (12) to selectively seal the opening (14) and for being selectively forced through the opening (14). The plug member (22) has a rear end portion (26) for being positioned within the crucible (16), the rear end portion (26) including stop means for prohibiting the rear end portion from passing through the opening (14) in the retainer ring (12) when the forward end portion (24) is selectively forced through the opening. The plug member (22) defines at least one, and preferably a plurality of flutes (32), each extending from a point rearward the annular forward end portion (24) of the plug member (22), and forward the stop means, to a point rearward of the stop means. The flutes (32) permit fluid communication between the interior and exterior of the crucible (16) when the forward end portion (24) of the plug member (22) is forced through the opening (14) in the retaining ring (12) such that the molten material is allowed to flow from the crucible (16).

  19. Microfluidic devices for the controlled manipulation of small volumes

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN

    2003-02-25

    A method for conducting a broad range of biochemical analyses or manipulations on a series of nano- to subnanoliter reaction volumes and an apparatus for carrying out the same are disclosed. The method and apparatus are implemented on a fluidic microchip to provide high serial throughput. The method and device of the invention also lend themselves to multiple parallel analyses and manipulation to provide greater throughput for the generation of biochemical information. In particular, the disclosed device is a microfabricated channel device that can manipulate nanoliter or subnanoliter biochemical reaction volumes in a controlled manner to produce results at rates of 1 to 10 Hz per channel. The individual reaction volumes are manipulated in serial fashion analogous to a digital shift register. The method and apparatus according to this invention have application to such problems as screening molecular or cellular targets using single beads from split-synthesis combinatorial libraries, screening single cells for RNA or protein expression, genetic diagnostic screening at the single cell level, or performing single cell signal transduction studies.

  20. Nanoscale architectural tuning of parylene patch devices to control therapeutic release rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierstorff, Erik; Lam, Robert; Ho, Dean

    2008-11-01

    The advent of therapeutic functionalized implant coatings has significantly impacted the medical device field by enabling prolonged device functionality for enhanced patient treatment. Incorporation of drug release from a stable, biocompatible surface is instrumental in decreasing systemic application of toxic therapeutics and increasing the lifespan of implants by the incorporation of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we have developed a parylene C-based device for controlled release of Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer chemotherapy and definitive read-out for preserved drug functionality, and further characterized the parylene deposition condition-dependent tunability of drug release. Drug release is controlled by the deposition of a layer of 20-200 nm thick parylene over the drug layer. This places a porous layer above the Doxorubicin, limiting drug elution based on drug accessibility to solvent and the solvent used. An increase in the thickness of the porous top layer prolongs the elution of active drug from the device from, in the conditions tested, the order of 10 min to the order of 2 d in water and from the order of 10 min to no elution in PBS. Thus, the controlled release of an anti-cancer therapeutic has been achieved via scalably fabricated, parylene C-encapsulated drug delivery devices.

  1. Flame-powered trigger device for activating explosion suppression barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, R.A.; Sapko, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a flame-radiation-powered trigger device to explosively activate suppression barriers to quench gas and coal dust explosions. The major component of the device is a silicon solar panel, which concerts radiation from the developing explosion into electrical energy to initiate an electric detonator, which releases an extinguishing agent into the advancing flame front. Solar panels that are rated to produce 20 W of electrical power when exposed to the sunlight are producing about 200 W when exposed to a full-scale dust explosion. The solar panel is electrically isolated from the detonator by a pressure-sensitive switch until the arrival of the precursor pressure pulse, which always precedes a deflagration. This combination of pressure arming and flame-powered photogenerator prevents false barrier activation and requires no external power supply.

  2. Device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-García, M. P.; Rey-Ronco, M. A.; Alonso-Sánchez, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis (CNAA). The aim of this investigation is defining through this device the fluorite content present on different samples from fluorspar concentration plant through the DGNAA (Delayed Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) method. This device is made of americium-beryllium neutron source, NaI (2"×2") and BGO (2"×2") gamma rays detectors, multichannel and an automatic mechanism which moves the samples from activation and reading position. This mechanism is controlled by a software which allows moving the samples precisely and in a safe way (~ms), which it is very useful when the radioactive isotopes have to be detected with a half time less than 8s.

  3. 76 FR 71041 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device Recall Authority AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... on the information collection requirements for medical device recall authority. DATES: Submit either... of information technology. Medical Device Recall Authority--21 CFR Part 810 (OMB Control Number...

  4. Equilibria near asteroids for solar sails with reflection control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng

    2015-02-01

    Solar sails are well-suited for long-term, multiple-asteroid missions. The dynamics of solar sails near an asteroid have not yet been studied in detail. In this paper, out-of-plane artificial equilibria in a Sun-asteroid rotating frame and hovering points in a body-fixed rotating frame are studied (using a solar sail equipped with reflection control devices). First, the dynamics and the stability of out-of-plane artificial equilibria are studied as an elliptical restricted three body problem. Next, the body-fixed hovering problem is discussed as a two-body problem. Hovering flight is only possible for certain values of the latitude of the asteroid's orbit. In addition, the feasible range of latitudes is determined for each landmark on the asteroid's surface. The influence of the sail lightness number on the feasible range is also illustrated. Several special families of hovering points are discussed. These points include points above the equator and poles and points with an altitude equal to the radius of the synchronous orbit. In both of these types of problems, the solar sail (equipped with reflection control devices) can equilibrate over a large range of locations.

  5. Use of piezoelectric devices to control snowboard vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Emanuele; Spangler, Ronald L., Jr.; Andrus, Cameron

    1998-07-01

    This paper explains how piezoelectric devices can be used to control vibrations in a snowboard. Furthermore the details of the approach, testing, design and analysis of a piezoelectric damper applied to a production snowboard are described here. The approach consisted of determining the principal modes of vibration of a snowboard during its operation (on-slope). This information was used to develop a finite element model of the structure. The finite element model was used to find the areas of higher strain energy where a piezoelectric device could be applied and be effective in reducing undesired vibrations. Several prototype piezoelectric dampers were built, applied to snowboards and tested on snow. The proper amount of damping was selected by the test riders, so that a configuration could be selected for production of the 1998 K2 Electra snowboard. The piezoelectric damper selected reduced the snowboard vibration by 75% at the mode to which it was tuned, allowing for a smoother ride and a more precise control of the snowboard in any kind of snow condition.

  6. Design and control of RUPERT: a device for robotic upper extremity repetitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Thomas G; He, Jiping; Koeneman, Edward J; Koeneman, James B; Herman, Richard; Huang, H; Schultz, Robert S; Herring, D E; Wanberg, J; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Swenson, Pete; Ward, Jeffrey A

    2007-09-01

    The structural design, control system, and integrated biofeedback for a wearable exoskeletal robot for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation are presented. Assisted with clinical evaluation, designers, engineers, and scientists have built a device for robotic assisted upper extremity repetitive therapy (RUPERT). Intense, repetitive physical rehabilitation has been shown to be beneficial overcoming upper extremity deficits, but the therapy is labor intensive and expensive and difficult to evaluate quantitatively and objectively. The RUPERT is developed to provide a low cost, safe and easy-to-use, robotic-device to assist the patient and therapist to achieve more systematic therapy at home or in the clinic. The RUPERT has four actuated degrees-of-freedom driven by compliant and safe pneumatic muscles (PMs) on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. They are programmed to actuate the device to extend the arm and move the arm in 3-D space. It is very important to note that gravity is not compensated and the daily tasks are practiced in a natural setting. Because the device is wearable and lightweight to increase portability, it can be worn standing or sitting providing therapy tasks that better mimic activities of daily living. The sensors feed back position and force information for quantitative evaluation of task performance. The device can also provide real-time, objective assessment of functional improvement. We have tested the device on stroke survivors performing two critical activities of daily living (ADL): reaching out and self feeding. The future improvement of the device involves increased degrees-of-freedom and interactive control to adapt to a user's physical conditions.

  7. Turbocharger control device with optical turbocharger shaft speed sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, M.; Kawahata, Y.; Akagi, M.

    1986-02-25

    A turbocharger control device for use in conjunction with an internal combustion engine, is described which consists of: a turbine operatively connected to an exhaust manifold of the engine to be driven to rotate by exhaust gases; a centrifugal compressor; a shaft connecting the compressor for rotation with the turbine; a casing surrounding, in part, the compressor and the shaft; photo projecting means positioned adjacent to the shaft within the casing; photo receiving means positioned diametrically opposite the photo projecting means on the opposite side and adjacent to the shaft within the casing; the shaft being provided with a diametrically penetrating hole; light source means; first means for coupling the light source means and the photo projecting means in respect to the transmission of light and for isolating the light source means from the casing in respect to the transmission of vibration and heat, converter means, including a photo-voltage converter; second means for coupling the converter means and the photo receiving means in respect to the transmission of light and for isolating the photo-voltage converter from the casing in respect to the transmission of vibration and heat; the photo-voltage converter generating an electrical signal in response to light pulse signals transmitted from the photo receiving means; control means connected electrically to the converter means for generating a control signal in response to the electrical signal; an actuator operatively connected to the control means for movement in response to the control signal.

  8. Stable and Intuitive Control of an Intelligent Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Duchaine, V; Mayer St-Onge, Boris; Dalong Gao; Gosselin, C

    2012-01-01

    Safety and dependability are of the utmost importance for physical human-robot interaction due to the potential risks that a relatively powerful robot poses to human beings. From the control standpoint, it is possible to improve safety by guaranteeing that the robot will never exhibit any unstable behavior. However, stability is not the only concern in the design of a controller for such a robot. During human-robot interaction, the resulting cooperative motion should be truly intuitive and should not restrict in any way the human performance. For this purpose, we have designed a new variable admittance control law that guarantees the stability of the robot during constrained motion and also provides a very intuitive human interaction. The former characteristic is provided by the design of a stability observer while the latter is based on a variable admittance control scheme that uses the time derivative of the contact force to assess human intentions. The stability observer is based on a previously published stability investigation of cooperative motion which implies the knowledge of the interaction stiffness. A method to accurately estimate this stiffness online using the data coming from the encoder and from a multiaxis force sensor at the end effector is also provided. The stability and intuitivity of the control law are verified in a user study involving a cooperative drawing task with a 3 degree-of-freedom (dof) parallel robot as well as in experiments performed with a prototype of an industrial Intelligent Assist Device. PMID:26964071

  9. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  10. Active Control of Environmental Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. E.; Vuksanovic, B.

    1996-02-01

    Most of the current research on active noise control is confined to restricted spaces such as earphones, active silencers, air-conditioning ducts, truck cabins and aircraft fuselages. In this paper the basic concepts of environmental noise reduction by using active noise control in unconfined spaces are explored. The approach is to develop a controlled acoustic shadow, generated by a wall of secondary sources, to reduce unwanted sound in the direction of a complaint area. The basic acoustic theory is considered, followed by computer modelling, and some results to show the effectiveness of the approach. EA Technology and Yorkshire electric in the United Kingdom are supporting this work.

  11. 23 CFR 630.1110 - Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. 630... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices § 630.1110 Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. To provide for the continued effectiveness of...

  12. 23 CFR 630.1110 - Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. 630... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices § 630.1110 Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. To provide for the continued effectiveness of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.2251 - What are the requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption? (a) You may request a routine control device..., explain why the maintenance cannot be accomplished during process shutdowns, describe how you plan to make... device is used to control a green rotary dryer, tube dryer, rotary strand dryer, or pressurized...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2251 - What are the requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the routine control device maintenance exemption? (a) You may request a routine control device..., explain why the maintenance cannot be accomplished during process shutdowns, describe how you plan to make... device is used to control a green rotary dryer, tube dryer, rotary strand dryer, or pressurized...

  15. 40 CFR 63.2251 - What are the requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption? (a) You may request a routine control device..., explain why the maintenance cannot be accomplished during process shutdowns, describe how you plan to make... device is used to control a green rotary dryer, tube dryer, rotary strand dryer, or pressurized...

  16. 40 CFR 63.2251 - What are the requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption? (a) You may request a routine control device..., explain why the maintenance cannot be accomplished during process shutdowns, describe how you plan to make... device is used to control a green rotary dryer, tube dryer, rotary strand dryer, or pressurized...

  17. 40 CFR 63.2251 - What are the requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the routine control device maintenance exemption? (a) You may request a routine control device..., explain why the maintenance cannot be accomplished during process shutdowns, describe how you plan to make... device is used to control a green rotary dryer, tube dryer, rotary strand dryer, or pressurized...

  18. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  19. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved]...

  20. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  1. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  2. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  3. 40 CFR 265.1088 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 265.1033(k). (c) The control device shall meet the following requirements: (1) The... is removed from the control device shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 265... operator using a control device other than a thermal vapor incinerator, flare, boiler, process...

  4. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  5. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  6. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  7. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  8. Control device for controlling the operation of a supercharger in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Horii, K.

    1987-04-28

    An internal combustion engine is described having a crankshaft and a supercharger mechanically driven by and connected to the crankshaft via an electromagentic clutch, a control device for controlling the operation of the supercharger in response to engine operating conditions, comprising, a first sensor means for detecting a temperature of the engine, a second sensor means for detecting racing of the engine, and a control means responsive to outputs from the first and second sensors for causing the electromagnetic clutch to be disengaged.

  9. Idling control device for internal combustion engine with turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, H.; Kondo, T.

    1986-09-23

    An idling control device is described for an internal combustion engine with a turbocharger, comprising: an air intake pipe having an inlet at an upstream end thereof adapted to accept air which is to be supplied through the air intake pipe to the internal combustion engine a turbocharger having a housing incorporated in the air intake pipe between the inlet and the outlet, a throttle valve incorporated in the air intake pipe between the turbocharger and the outlet, a surge tank incorporated in the air intake pipe between the throttle valve and the outlet; a bypass air passage means provided in parallel with the air intake pipe between upstream of the turbocharger and downstream of the throttle valve; a flow-control valve incorporated in the bypass air passage means; an actuator operatively associated with the flow-control valve, a computer operatively associated with the actuator and arranged to receive signals relating to operating conditions of the engine; a check valve incorporated in the bypass air passage means downstream of the flow-control valve.

  10. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  11. Evaporative emission control device of an internal combustion engine for vehicle use

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, M.; Yuzawa, T.

    1983-05-03

    An improved evaporative emission control device of an internal combustion engine having a variable venturi type carburetor which is effective to reduce unburnt components in the exhaust gas over the entire range of engine operation. Fuel vaporized in a fuel tank, a float chamber or the like and stored in a canister containing activated charcoal is supplied to an intake passage of the carburetor through a supply port which opens into the intake passage at a location between a throttle valve and a venturi valve which is disposed in the intake passage to vary the opening area of the venturi. A valve is disposed in a line connecting the supply port and the canister to control fuel vapor passing through the line. The valve is controlled to open and close in response to the operations of a clutch and/or a transmission device interposed in a power transmission system for conducting power from the engine to driving wheels.

  12. Integration of active devices on smart polymers for neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendano-Bolivar, Adrian Emmanuel

    The increasing ability to ever more precisely identify and measure neural interactions and other phenomena in the central and peripheral nervous systems is revolutionizing our understanding of the human body and brain. To facilitate further understanding, more sophisticated neural devices, perhaps using microelectronics processing, must be fabricated. Materials often used in these neural interfaces, while compatible with these fabrication processes, are not optimized for long-term use in the body and are often orders of magnitude stiffer than the tissue with which they interact. Using the smart polymer substrates described in this work, suitability for processing as well as chronic implantation is demonstrated. We explore how to integrate reliable circuitry onto these flexible, biocompatible substrates that can withstand the aggressive environment of the body. To increase the capabilities of these devices beyond individual channel sensing and stimulation, active electronics must also be included onto our systems. In order to add this functionality to these substrates and explore the limits of these devices, we developed a process to fabricate single organic thin film transistors with mobilities up to 0.4 cm2/Vs and threshold voltages close to 0V. A process for fabricating organic light emitting diodes on flexible substrates is also addressed. We have set a foundation and demonstrated initial feasibility for integrating multiple transistors onto thin-film flexible devices to create new applications, such as matrix addressable functionalized electrodes and organic light emitting diodes. A brief description on how to integrate waveguides for their use in optogenetics is addressed. We have built understanding about device constraints on mechanical, electrical and in vivo reliability and how various conditions affect the electronics' lifetime. We use a bi-layer gate dielectric using an inorganic material such as HfO 2 combined with organic Parylene-c. A study of

  13. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, Ginetom S.; Guassi, Marcos R.; Qu, Fanyao

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  14. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, Ginetom S. Guassi, Marcos R.; Qu, Fanyao

    2014-09-21

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  15. Virtual collaborative environments: programming and controlling robotic devices remotely

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Brady R.; McDonald, Michael J., Jr.; Harrigan, Raymond W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes a technology for remote sharing of intelligent electro-mechanical devices. An architecture and actual system have been developed and tested, based on the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway, to facilitate programming and control of intelligent programmable machines (like robots, machine tools, etc.). Using appropriate geometric models, integrated sensors, video systems, and computing hardware; computer controlled resources owned and operated by different (in a geographic sense as well as legal sense) entities can be individually or simultaneously programmed and controlled from one or more remote locations. Remote programming and control of intelligent machines will create significant opportunities for sharing of expensive capital equipment. Using the technology described in this paper, university researchers, manufacturing entities, automation consultants, design entities, and others can directly access robotic and machining facilities located across the country. Disparate electro-mechanical resources will be shared in a manner similar to the way supercomputers are accessed by multiple users. Using this technology, it will be possible for researchers developing new robot control algorithms to validate models and algorithms right from their university labs without ever owning a robot. Manufacturers will be able to model, simulate, and measure the performance of prospective robots before selecting robot hardware optimally suited for their intended application. Designers will be able to access CNC machining centers across the country to fabricate prototypic parts during product design validation. An existing prototype architecture and system has been developed and proven. Programming and control of a large gantry robot located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was demonstrated from such remote locations as Washington D.C., Washington State, and Southern California.

  16. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced.

  17. Training augmentation device for the Air Force satellite Control Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoates, Keith B.

    1993-01-01

    From the 1960's and into the early 1980's satellite operations and control were conducted by Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), now Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), out of the Satellite Control Facility at Onizuka AFB, CA. AFSC was responsible for acquiring satellite command and control systems and conducting routine satellite operations. The daily operations, consisting of satellite health and status contacts and station keeping activities, were performed for AFSC by a Mission Control Team (MCT) staffed by civilian contractors who were responsible for providing their own technically 'qualified' personnel as satellite operators. An MCT consists of five positions: mission planner, ground controller, planner analyst, orbit analyst, and ranger controller. Most of the training consisted of On-the-Job-Training (OJT) with junior personnel apprenticed to senior personnel until they could demonstrate job proficiency. With most of the satellite operators having 15 to 25 years of experience, there was minimal risk to the mission. In the mid 1980's Air Force Space Command (AFSPACOM) assumed operational responsibility for a newly established control node at Falcon AFB (FAFB) in CO. The satellites and ground system program offices (SPO's) are organized under AFSC's Space and Missiles Systems Center (SMC) to function as a systems engineering and acquisition agency for AFSPACECOM. The collection of the satellite control nodes, ground tracking stations, computer processing equipment, and connecting communications links is referred to as the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN).

  18. The Use of Multiple Slate Devices to Support Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nicholas Yen-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reading activities in the classroom and workplace occur predominantly on paper. Since existing electronic devices do not support these reading activities as well as paper, users have difficulty taking full advantage of the affordances of electronic documents. This dissertation makes three main contributions toward supporting active reading…

  19. NIRS monitoring of muscle contraction to control a prosthetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Beltrami, Giorgio; Verni, Gennaro

    1999-01-01

    The fitting of upper-extremity amputees requires special efforts, and its significance has been increased by the development of the myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arm. This solution is not free of problems due to the nature of the amputation, to the electromagnetic noise affecting the myelectrical signal and to the perspiration due to the contact between socket and the residual limb. Starting from the fact that NIRS and electromyographic signals are similar during a muscle contraction, we have first studied the NIRS signal during forearm muscle contractions in normal and amputee subjects. Then a new system to interface the NIRS unit and the myoelectrical prosthetic hand has been developed. The NIRS unit has been used as optical sensor and all the operations (I/O and signal processing) are performed via software. This system has been tested on normal and amputee subjects performing hand grasping using a visual biofeedback control scheme. All the subjects have been able to perform these operations demonstrating the NIRS technique. This could represent an alternative solution for controlling a prosthetic device.

  20. 40 CFR 65.145 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels or low-throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulated material are routed to the control device and halogen reduction device, except during periods of... enters the control device, including flow and regulated material content; and additionally for storage... temperature of 760 °C is used to meet the emission reduction requirement specified in § 65.42(b)(5)...

  1. Rotor position and vibration control for aerospace flywheel energy storage devices and other vibration based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, B. X. S.

    Flywheel energy storage has distinct advantages over conventional energy storage methods such as electrochemical batteries. Because the energy density of a flywheel rotor increases quadratically with its speed, the foremost goal in flywheel design is to achieve sustainable high speeds of the rotor. Many issues exist with the flywheel rotor operation at high and varying speeds. A prominent problem is synchronous rotor vibration, which can drastically limit the sustainable rotor speed. In a set of projects, the novel Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) is applied to various problems of flywheel rotor operation. These applications include rotor levitation, steady state rotation at high speeds and accelerating operation. Several models such as the lumped mass model and distributed three-mass models have been analyzed. In each of these applications, the ADRC has been extended to cope with disturbance, noise, and control effort optimization; it also has been compared to various industry-standard controllers such as PID and PD/observer, and is proven to be superior. The control performance of the PID controller and the PD/observer currently used at NASA Glenn has been improved by as much as an order of magnitude. Due to the universality of the second order system, the results obtained in the rotor vibration problem can be straightforwardly extended to other vibrational systems, particularly, the MEMS gyroscope. Potential uses of a new nonlinear controller, which inherits the ease of use of the traditional PID, are also discussed.

  2. Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2008-02-01

    Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting device (AMOLED) realizing top emission by using bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure was proposed. The multilayer structure of OLED deposited in the conventional sequence is not on the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane but on the OLED plane. The contact between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of TFT backplane and metal cathode of OLED plane is implemented by using transfer electrode. The stringent pixel design for aperture ratio of the bottom-emitting AMOLED, as well as special technology for the top ITO electrode of top-emitting AMOLED, is unnecessary in the laminated AMOLED.

  3. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  4. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  5. 40 CFR 65.162 - Nonflare control and recovery device monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control and halogen reduction device monitoring records. (1) Each owner or operator using a combustion control or halogen reduction device to comply with this subpart shall keep, as applicable, up-to-date and... process heater monitoring); § 65.154(c) (halogen reduction device monitoring); § 65.155(c) (other...

  6. 40 CFR 65.162 - Nonflare control and recovery device monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control and halogen reduction device monitoring records. (1) Each owner or operator using a combustion control or halogen reduction device to comply with this subpart shall keep, as applicable, up-to-date and... process heater monitoring); § 65.154(c) (halogen reduction device monitoring); § 65.155(c) (other...

  7. 40 CFR 65.162 - Nonflare control and recovery device monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control and halogen reduction device monitoring records. (1) Each owner or operator using a combustion control or halogen reduction device to comply with this subpart shall keep, as applicable, up-to-date and... process heater monitoring); § 65.154(c) (halogen reduction device monitoring); § 65.155(c) (other...

  8. 40 CFR 63.996 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 63.996 Section 63.996 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.996 General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirements applicability. (1) This section...

  9. 40 CFR 63.996 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 63.996 Section 63.996 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.996 General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirements applicability. (1) This section...

  10. Validity and reliability of a controlled pneumatic resistance exercise device.

    PubMed

    Paulus, David C; Reynolds, Michael C; Schilling, Brian K

    2008-01-01

    During the concentric portion of the free-weight squat exercise, accelerating the mass from rest results in a fluctuation in ground reaction force. It is characterized by an initial period of force greater than the load while accelerating from rest followed by a period of force lower than the external load during negative acceleration. During the deceleration phase, less force is exerted and muscles are loaded sub-optimally. Thus, using a reduced inertia form of resistance such as pneumatics has the capability to minimize these inertial effects as well as control the force in real time to maximize the force exerted over the exercise cycle. To improve the system response of a preliminary design, a squat device was designed with a reduced mass barbell and two smaller pneumatic cylinders. The resistance was controlled by regulating cylinder pressure such that it is capable of adjusting force within a repetition to maximize force exerted during the lift. The resistance force production of the machine was statically validated with the input voltage and output force R2 =0.9997 for at four increments of the range of motion, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between trials at the different heights equaled 0.999. The slew rate at three forces was 749.3 N/s +/- 252.3. Dynamic human subject testing showed the desired input force correlated with average and peak ground reaction force with R2 = 0.9981 and R2 = 0.9315, respectively. The ICC between desired force and average and peak ground reaction force was 0.963. Thus, the system is able to deliver constant levels of static and dynamic force with validity and reliability. Future work will be required to develop the control strategy required for real-time control, and performance testing is required to determine its efficacy.

  11. Actively Controlled Components. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, W.; Hiller, S.-J.; Pfoertner, H.; Schadow, K.; Rosenfeld, T.; Garg, S.

    2009-01-01

    Active Control can help to meet future engine requirements by an active improvement of the component characteristics. The concept is based on an intelligent control logic, which senses actual operating conditions and reacts with adequate actuator action. This approach can directly improve engine characteristics as performance, operability, durability and emissions on the one hand. On the other hand active control addresses the design constrains imposed by unsteady phenomena like inlet distortion, compressor surge, combustion instability, flow separations, vibration and noise, which only occur during exceptional operating conditions. The feasibility and effectiveness of active control technologies have been demonstrated in lab-scale tests. This chapter describes a broad range of promising applications for each engine component. Significant efforts in research and development remain to implement these technologies in engine rig and finally production engines and to demonstrate today s engine generation airworthiness, safety, reliability, and durability requirements. Active control applications are in particular limited by the gap between available and advanced sensors and actuators, which allow an operation in the harsh environment in an aero engine. The operating and performance requirements for actuators and sensors are outlined for each of the gas turbine sections from inlet to nozzle.

  12. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  13. Polarization control for enhanced defect detection on advanced memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Ho; Ihm, Dong-Chul; Yeo, Jeong-Ho; Gluk, Yael; Meshulach, Doron

    2006-03-01

    Dense repetitive wafer structures, such as memory cells, with a pitch below the wavelength of the illumination light may take on effective birefringent properties, especially in layers of high refractive index materials such as silicon or conductors. Such induced "form birefringence" effects may result in dependency of the optical response on the illumination polarization and direction. In such structures, control over the polarization of the light becomes important to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of pattern defects. We present defect detection results and analysis using DUV laser illumination for different polarization configurations and collection perspectives on Flash RAM devices. Improvement in detection SNR of bridge defect type is observed with linear illumination polarization perpendicular to the pattern lines. Generally, for small design rules (smaller than wavelength) polarization effects become more evident. Also, for smaller defect sizes, detection strongly depends on control of the illumination polarization. Linear polarization perpendicular to the pattern showed penetration into the structure even though the pitch is smaller than the illumination wavelength.

  14. Seismic active control by neutral networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu

    1995-12-31

    A study on the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to active structural control under seismic loads is carried out. The structure considered is a single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system with an active bracing device. The control force is computed by a trained neural network. The feedforward neural network architecture and an adaptive backpropagation training algorithm is used in the study. The neural net is trained to reproduce the function that represents the response-excitation relationship of the SDF system under seismic loads. The input-output training patterns are generated randomly. In the backpropagation training algorithm, the learning rate is determined by ensuring the decrease of the error function at each epoch. The computer program implemented is validated by solving the classification of the XOR problem. Then, the trained ANN is used to compute the control force according to the control strategy. If the control force exceeds the actuator`s capacity limit, it is set equal to that limit. The concept of the control strategy employed herein is to apply the control force at every time step to cancel the system velocity induced at the preceding time step so that the gradual rhythmic buildup of the response is destroyed. The ground motions considered in the numerical example are the 1940 El Centro earthquake and the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake in California. The system responses with and without the control are calculated and compared. The feasibility and potential of applying ANNs to seismic active control is asserted by the promising results obtained from the numerical examples studied.

  15. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  16. Gate controllable resistive random access memory devices using reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Preetam; Resmi, A. N.; Jinesh, K. B.

    2016-04-01

    The biggest challenge in the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology is that the basic operational parameters, such as the set and reset voltages, the current on-off ratios (hence the power), and their operational speeds, strongly depend on the active and electrode materials and their processing methods. Therefore, for its actual technological implementations, the unification of the operational parameters of the ReRAM devices appears to be a difficult task. In this letter, we show that by fabricating a resistive memory device in a thin film transistor configuration and thus applying an external gate bias, we can control the switching voltage very accurately. Taking partially reduced graphene oxide, the gate controllable switching is demonstrated, and the possible mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Inferring Human Activity in Mobile Devices by Computing Multiple Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruizhi; Chu, Tianxing; Liu, Keqiang; Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for inferring human activities in mobile devices by computing spatial contexts, temporal contexts, spatiotemporal contexts, and user contexts. A spatial context is a significant location that is defined as a geofence, which can be a node associated with a circle, or a polygon; a temporal context contains time-related information that can be e.g., a local time tag, a time difference between geographical locations, or a timespan; a spatiotemporal context is defined as a dwelling length at a particular spatial context; and a user context includes user-related information that can be the user’s mobility contexts, environmental contexts, psychological contexts or social contexts. Using the measurements of the built-in sensors and radio signals in mobile devices, we can snapshot a contextual tuple for every second including aforementioned contexts. Giving a contextual tuple, the framework evaluates the posteriori probability of each candidate activity in real-time using a Naïve Bayes classifier. A large dataset containing 710,436 contextual tuples has been recorded for one week from an experiment carried out at Texas A&M University Corpus Christi with three participants. The test results demonstrate that the multi-context solution significantly outperforms the spatial-context-only solution. A classification accuracy of 61.7% is achieved for the spatial-context-only solution, while 88.8% is achieved for the multi-context solution. PMID:26343665

  18. Control techniques for millimeter-wave active arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Sjogren, L.B.; Liu, H.L.; Liu, T.; Wang, F.; Domier, C.W.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr. )

    1993-06-01

    Control techniques for millimeter-wave active arrays are considered. In addition to voltage control, optical and quasi-optical approaches are discussed as analog control techniques. Digital control techniques discussed include on/off switching arrays and designs with superimposed device and/or grid structures for multi-bit capability. A quasi-optical Q switch, capable of high peak power pulse generation, is discussed as an example application of these techniques. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Cooling device featuring thermoelectric and diamond materials for temperature control of heat-dissipating devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Ian W. (Inventor); Ewell, Richard (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Lyon, Hylan B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A cooling device for lowering the temperature of a heat-dissipating device. The cooling device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with the heat-dissipating device. During operation, heat flows from the heat-dissipating device into the heat-conducting substrate, where it is spread out over a relatively large area. A thermoelectric cooling material (e.g., a Bi.sub.2 Te.sub.3 -based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. Application of electrical power to the thermoelectric material drives the thermoelectric material to pump heat into a second heat-conducting substrate which, in turn, is attached to a heat sink.

  20. A generic approach for examining the effectiveness of traffic control devices in school zones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohua; Li, Jiahui; Ding, Han; Zhang, Guohui; Rong, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness and performance of traffic control devices in school zones have been impacted significantly by many factors, such as driver behavioral attributes, roadway geometric features, environmental characteristics, weather and visibility conditions, region-wide traffic regulations and policies, control modes, etc. When deploying traffic control devices in school zones, efforts are needed to clarify: (1) whether traffic control device installation is warranted; and (2) whether other device effectively complements this traffic control device and strengthens its effectiveness. In this study, a generic approach is developed to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of various traffic control devices deployed in school zones through driving simulator-based experiments. A Traffic Control Device Selection Model (TCDSM) is developed and two representative school zones are selected as the testbed in Beijing for driving simulation implementation to enhance its applicability. Statistical analyses are conducted to extract the knowledge from test data recorded by a driving simulator. Multiple measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are developed and adopted including average speed, relative speed difference, and standard deviation of acceleration for traffic control device performance quantification. The experimental tests and analysis results reveal that the appropriateness of the installation of certain traffic control devices can be statistically verified by TCDSM. The proposed approach provides a generic framework to assess traffic control device performance in school zones including experiment design, statistical formulation, data analysis, simulation model implementation, data interpretation, and recommendation development. PMID:26072182

  1. A generic approach for examining the effectiveness of traffic control devices in school zones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohua; Li, Jiahui; Ding, Han; Zhang, Guohui; Rong, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness and performance of traffic control devices in school zones have been impacted significantly by many factors, such as driver behavioral attributes, roadway geometric features, environmental characteristics, weather and visibility conditions, region-wide traffic regulations and policies, control modes, etc. When deploying traffic control devices in school zones, efforts are needed to clarify: (1) whether traffic control device installation is warranted; and (2) whether other device effectively complements this traffic control device and strengthens its effectiveness. In this study, a generic approach is developed to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of various traffic control devices deployed in school zones through driving simulator-based experiments. A Traffic Control Device Selection Model (TCDSM) is developed and two representative school zones are selected as the testbed in Beijing for driving simulation implementation to enhance its applicability. Statistical analyses are conducted to extract the knowledge from test data recorded by a driving simulator. Multiple measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are developed and adopted including average speed, relative speed difference, and standard deviation of acceleration for traffic control device performance quantification. The experimental tests and analysis results reveal that the appropriateness of the installation of certain traffic control devices can be statistically verified by TCDSM. The proposed approach provides a generic framework to assess traffic control device performance in school zones including experiment design, statistical formulation, data analysis, simulation model implementation, data interpretation, and recommendation development.

  2. The study of passive flow control device performance at low inlet subcooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, S. G.; Chen, I. Y.; Chang, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    Passive flow control devices (PFCDs) are normally used for flow measurement and flow regulation in many liquid flow systems. The typical PFCDs are venturis, orifices, nozzles, and capillary tubes. The PFCDs have several advantages over active flow control valves in thermal-fluid systems. They require no electrical power, data, command signal for operation and are not subject to wear or breakage, as well as the need of feedback control. When liquid flow venturi cavitates, it has the ability to passively control the flow in thermal-fluid systems at the choked flow regime. However, when the cavitating venturi (CV) operates at low value of inlet subcooling to conserve electrical power, an all-liquid overflow phenomenon can occur. If cavitation cannot be guaranteed in CV, then the constant flow rate performance of CV could not be obtained. Then, the CV may not be the best choice for the thermal-fluid control systems. For this reason, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of possible PFCDs at low inlet subcooling. Experiments were performed for the alternate PFCDs of orifice, nozzle, and capillary tube at low levels of inlet subcooling in order to explore the physical phenomena of the PFCD relevant to their operation parameters. The test results of PFCDs are compared with CV's performance, and recommendations are made for the best type of passive flow control device at low inlet subcooling for the industrial and aerospace thermal-fluid control system applications.

  3. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  4. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  5. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  6. Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Akashi, T.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio. A first synchronizer connects the input shaft and the output shaft via a series connection of the first on-off clutch, the first one way clutch, and the first gear train when the first synchronizer is shifted to a first side of a neutral position thereof so as to transmit rotational power from the input shaft to the output shaft in a normal rotational direction at a first speed stage and which connects the input shaft and the output shaft via series connection of the first on-off clutch.

  7. Vector control in internal midface distraction using temporary anchorage devices.

    PubMed

    Francis, Cameron; Rommer, Elizabeth; Mancho, Salim; Carey, Joseph; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Urata, Mark M

    2012-11-01

    Le Fort III and monobloc distraction osteogenesis serve as the primary surgical treatment for children with severe midface hypoplasia. The orbital retrusion and class III malocclusion of patients with midface hypoplasia is best addressed with bodily advancement of the midface segment parallel to the cephalometric Frankfort horizontal plane. Use of internal distraction devices allows for advancement of the midface without extensive external hardware but comes at the cost of less vectorial control, resulting in a distraction vector that can cause a clockwise rotation of the entire midface or frontofacial component creating hollow appearing orbits. To counteract this clockwise rotation, we have developed a technique using orthodontic microimplants to anchor interarch class III relationship elastics. We report our experiences with this technique on a cadaveric model and as a case series of 17 patients who underwent midface distraction. A Le Fort III distraction procedure was carried out on a cadaver, and the orbital height was measured at 0-, 10-, and 20-mm distraction advancement with and without elastics in a class III relationship. Improvement of both subjective hollow appearance of the orbits and objective measurement of the orbital height with class III relationship elastics demonstrated the efficacy of class III relationship elastics in counteracting the clockwise rotation of the midface segment. A review of 17 patients with midface or frontofacial hypoplasia treated with Le Fort III or monobloc distraction with simultaneous microimplant anchored class III relationship elastics revealed correction of malocclusion and improved midface projection without significant increase in vertical height of the orbits.

  8. Device for controlling ignition timing in internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, A.

    1988-01-12

    A device for controlling ignition timing in an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a. combustion state detection means disposed in the vicinity of the combustion chamber of each cylinder of an internal combustion engine for detecting the state of combustion in the combustion chamber, b. crankshaft angle detection means disposed in the vicinity of the rotating member of the internal combustion engine for detecting the angular position of a crankshaft of the internal combustion engine, c. maximum cylinder pressure angle calculation means which receives the outputs of the combustion state detection means and the crankshaft angle detection means and calculates the maximum cylinder pressure angle, d. cylinder pressure calculation means which receives the output of the combustion state detection means and calculates the cylinder pressure, e. ignition timing calculation means which receives the outputs of the crankshaft angle detection means, the maximum cylinder pressure angle calculation means and the cylinder pressure calculation means and calculates the ignition timing such that the maximum cylinder pressure angle converges on a target angle, and f. ignition means which receives the output of the ignition timing calculation means and ignites a fuel and air mixture in the combustion chamber, whereby the ignition timing calculation means detecting transient conditions in the engine driving operation on the basis of the output of the cylinder pressure calculation means.

  9. Understanding the brain by controlling neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Kristine; Salzman, C. Daniel; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Causal methods to interrogate brain function have been employed since the advent of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Initially, randomly placed electrodes and stimulation of parts of the living brain were used to localize specific functions to these areas. Recent technical developments have rejuvenated this approach by providing more precise tools to dissect the neural circuits underlying behaviour, perception and cognition. Carefully controlled behavioural experiments have been combined with electrical devices, targeted genetically encoded tools and neurochemical approaches to manipulate information processing in the brain. The ability to control brain activity in these ways not only deepens our understanding of brain function but also provides new avenues for clinical intervention, particularly in conditions where brain processing has gone awry. PMID:26240417

  10. Active Microfluidic Devices for Single-Molecule Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2003-03-01

    Microfluidic chips have become an increasingly powerful and versatile tool in the life sciences. Multilayer devices fabricated from soft silicone elastomers in a replication molding technique are especially promising, because they permit flexible integration of active elements such as valves and pumps. In addition, they are fairly easy and inexpensive to produce. In a wide range of applications, microfluidic chips are used in conjunction with optical detection and manipulation techniques. However their widespread use has been hampered due to problems with interconnect stability, optical accessibility, and ability to perform surface chemistry. We have developed a packaging technique that encapsulates the elastomer in an epoxy resin of high optical quality. This stabilizes the interconnects so that a chip can be repeatedly plugged in and out of a socket. Our technique also eliminates the need for a baking step that is conventionally used to attach a glass cover slip to the elastomer surface. This allows us to assemble devices that contain a cover slip coated with proteins, thereby permitting subsequent in situ attachment of DNA molecules to the bottom of the flow channels. We demonstrate the utility of our chips in single-molecule applications involving tethered-particles and optical tweezers. Support: NIH R01 GM065934 & Research Corporation

  11. Inventory Control. Easily Made Electronic Device for Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadek, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how to construct an electronic device to be used in conductivity experiments using a 35 millimeter film canister, nine volt battery replacement snaps, a 200-300 ohm resistor, and a light-emitting diode. Provides a diagram and photographs of the device. (TW)

  12. Evaluation of a two cursor control device for development of a powered laparoscopic surgical tool.

    PubMed

    Herring, S R; Hallbeck, M S

    2009-08-01

    The current study was performed to test two electronic cursor control devices (a Touchpad and a MicroJoystick) for use in an articulating powered laparoscopic tool. A simple target acquisition test was conducted to test how well the cursor control devices could be manipulated and how accurate they were (including endpoint and movement path). The study varied the width (0.27, 0.54 and 1.07 cm) of the target as well as the hand position used (thumb and index finger control). Additionally, each participant was able to choose their ideal operating cursor speed for each cursor control device. The MicroJoystick had a higher throughput and movement variability than the Touchpad. In all other categories tested, the cursor control devices did not differ significantly. The speed of the cursor control devices did not affect the performance of the devices; therefore, the ideal cursor speed could be chosen by the participant. Finally, the hand position did not affect the performance of the devices. This experiment found both hand positions, cursor control devices and all speeds could be used to effectively manipulate an articulating end-effector in a powered, cauterising, laparoscopic tool. This article addresses the advantages and limitations of two control mechanisms for laparoscopic tool controls considering both the subjective and objective data. The controls are tested in two hand positions to test how well the participants can manipulate the device while minimising perceived fatigue.

  13. Simulation of magnetic active polymers for versatile microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Özelt, Harald; Fischbacher, Johann; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Kataeva, Nadezhda; Binder, Claudia; Brückl, Hubert; Schrefl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use a compound of magnetic nanoparticles (20-100 nm) embedded in a flexible polymer (Polydimethylsiloxane PDMS) to filter circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The analysis of CTCs is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. The combination of experiments and simulations lead to a versatile microfluidic lab-on-chip device. Simulations are essential to understand the influence of the embedded nanoparticles in the elastic PDMS when applying a magnetic gradient field. It combines finite element calculations of the polymer, magnetic simulations of the embedded nanoparticles and the fluid dynamic calculations of blood plasma and blood cells. With the use of magnetic active polymers a wide range of tunable microfluidic structures can be created. The method can help to increase the yield of needed isolated CTCs.

  14. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  15. 40 CFR 65.146 - Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment leaks only. 65.146 Section 65.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.146 Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only... nonflare control device used only to control emissions from equipment leaks. (c) Monitoring...

  16. 40 CFR 65.146 - Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment leaks only. 65.146 Section 65.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.146 Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only... nonflare control device used only to control emissions from equipment leaks. (c) Monitoring...

  17. 40 CFR 65.146 - Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leaks only. 65.146 Section 65.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.146 Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only... nonflare control device used only to control emissions from equipment leaks. (c) Monitoring...

  18. 40 CFR 65.146 - Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leaks only. 65.146 Section 65.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.146 Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only... nonflare control device used only to control emissions from equipment leaks. (c) Monitoring...

  19. 40 CFR 65.146 - Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment leaks only. 65.146 Section 65.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.146 Nonflare control devices used for equipment leaks only... nonflare control device used only to control emissions from equipment leaks. (c) Monitoring...

  20. 40 CFR 61.349 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 60.18. (iv) A control device other than those described in paragraphs (a)(2) (i) through (iii... Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations § 61.349 Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices... efficiency of 95 weight percent or greater, or shall recover or control the benzene emissions vented to...

  1. 40 CFR 61.349 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 60.18. (iv) A control device other than those described in paragraphs (a)(2) (i) through (iii... Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations § 61.349 Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices... efficiency of 95 weight percent or greater, or shall recover or control the benzene emissions vented to...

  2. 40 CFR 61.349 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 60.18. (iv) A control device other than those described in paragraphs (a)(2) (i) through (iii... Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations § 61.349 Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices... efficiency of 95 weight percent or greater, or shall recover or control the benzene emissions vented to...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1060 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed-vent systems and...: Closed-vent systems and control devices. (a) Owners and operators of closed-vent systems and control... owner or operator of an existing facility who can not install a closed-vent system and control device...

  4. 40 CFR 63.997 - Performance test and compliance assessment requirements for control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration at the outlet of a control device, use Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, or ASTM D6420-99... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control... existing control device, a flare compliance demonstration shall be performed using the methods specified...

  5. 40 CFR 63.997 - Performance test and compliance assessment requirements for control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration at the outlet of a control device, use Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, or ASTM D6420-99... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control... existing control device, a flare compliance demonstration shall be performed using the methods specified...

  6. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.

    1988-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  7. 78 FR 36702 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems (IABP) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... the 90-day period. Since these devices were classified in 1980, the 30-month period has expired (45 FR.... II. Regulatory History of the Device In the preamble to the proposed rule (44 FR 13369; March 9, 1979... and control system devices into class III after receiving no comments on the proposed rule (45 FR...

  8. Semi Active Control of Civil Structures, Analytical and Numerical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerboua, M.; Benguediab, M.; Megnounif, A.; Benrahou, K. H.; Kaoulala, F.

    Structural control for civil structures was born out of a need to provide safer and more efficient designs with the reality of limited resources. The purpose of structural control is to absorb and to reflect the energy introduced by dynamic loads such as winds, waves, earthquakes, and traffic. Today, the protection of civil structures from severe dynamic loading is typically achieved by allowing the structures to be damaged. Semi-active control devices, also called "smart" control devices, assume the positive aspects of both the passive and active control devices. A semi-active control strategy is similar to the active control strategy. Only here, the control actuator does not directly apply force to the structure, but instead it is used to control the properties of a passive energy device, a controllable passive damper. Semi-active control strategies can be used in many of the same civil applications as passive and active control. One method of operating smart cable dampers is in a purely passive capacity, supplying the dampers with constant optimal voltage. The advantages to this strategy are the relative simplicity of implementing the control strategy as compared to a smart or active control strategy and that the dampers are more easily optimally tuned in- place, eliminating the need to have passive dampers with unique optimal damping coefficients. This research investigated semi-active control of civil structures for natural hazard mitigation. The research has two components, the seismic protection of buildings and the mitigation of wind-induced vibration in structures. An ideal semi-active motion equation of a composite beam that consists of a cantilever beam bonded with a PZT patch using Hamilton's principle and Galerkin's method was treated. A series R-L and a parallel R-L shunt circuits are coupled into the motion equation respectively by means of the constitutive relation of piezoelectric material and Kirchhoff's law to control the beam vibration. A

  9. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  10. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  11. Active controls for ride smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Thompson, G. O.

    1976-01-01

    Active controls technology offers great promise for significantly smoothing the ride, and thus improving public and air carrier acceptance, of certain types of transport aircraft. Recent findings which support this promise are presented in the following three pertinent areas: (1) Ride quality versus degree of traveler satisfaction; (2) significant findings from a feasibility study of a ride smoothing system; and (3) potential ride problems identified for several advanced transport concepts.

  12. 40 CFR 65.150 - Absorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... providing a continuous record or a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity... parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40...

  13. 40 CFR 65.150 - Absorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... providing a continuous record or a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity... parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40...

  14. 40 CFR 65.150 - Absorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... providing a continuous record or a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity... parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40...

  15. 40 CFR 65.150 - Absorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... providing a continuous record or a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity... parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40...

  16. 40 CFR 65.150 - Absorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... providing a continuous record or a scrubbing liquid temperature monitoring device and a specific gravity... parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  19. Novel Rigid External Distraction Device Improves Stability and Controls the Vector During Midfacial Advancement.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Cory M; Rottgers, Stephen Alex; Langenfeld, Christopher C; Mulliken, John B; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2016-06-01

    The major limitation of the rigid external devices currently used for midfacial distraction after subcranial Le Fort III osteotomies is the ductile wire that connects the midface to the device, which makes it difficult to control the vector and force during distraction. The authors describe a novel external appliance that addresses this and other problems of contemporary devices, and application of a custom cranial template that facilitates precise placement of the device to achieve the planned vector of distraction.

  20. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine–xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals’ body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  1. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-11-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals' body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  2. Protein assembly onto patterned microfabricated devices through enzymatic activation of fusion pro-tag.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Angela T; Yi, Hyunmin; Luo, Xiaolong; Payne, Gregory F; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary W; Bentley, William E

    2008-02-15

    We report a versatile approach for covalent surface-assembly of proteins onto selected electrode patterns of pre-fabricated devices. Our approach is based on electro-assembly of the aminopolysaccharide chitosan scaffold as a stable thin film onto patterned conductive surfaces of the device, which is followed by covalent assembly of the target protein onto the scaffold surface upon enzymatic activation of the protein's "pro-tag." For our demonstration, the model target protein is green fluorescent protein (GFP) genetically fused with a pentatyrosine pro-tag at its C-terminus, which assembles onto both two-dimensional chips and within fully packaged microfluidic devices in situ and under flow. Our surface-assembly approach enables spatial selectivity and orientational control under mild experimental conditions. We believe that our integrated approach harnessing genetic manipulation, in situ enzymatic activation, and electro-assembly makes it advantageous for a wide variety of bioMEMS and biosensing applications that require facile "biofunctionalization" of microfabricated devices. PMID:17625789

  3. Experimental control of a fast chaotic time-delay opto-electronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan Neal

    2003-10-01

    The focus of this thesis is the experimental investigation of the dynamics and control of a new type of fast chaotic opto-electronic device: an active interferometer with electronic bandpass filtered delayed feedback displaying chaotic oscillations with a fundamental frequency as high as 100 MHz. To stabilize the system, I introduce a new form of delayed feedback control suitable for fast time-delay systems. The method provides a new tool for the fundamental study of fast dynamical systems as well as for technological exploitation of chaos. The new opto-electronic device consists of a semiconductor laser, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and an electronic feedback loop. The device offers a high degree of design flexibility at a much lower cost than other known sources of fast optical chaos. Both the nonlinearity and the timescale of the oscillations are easily manipulated experimentally. To characterize the dynamics of the system, I observe experimentally its behavior in the time and frequency domains as the feedback-loop gain is varied. The system displays a route to chaos that begins with a Hopf bifurcation from a steady state to a periodic oscillation at the so-called fundamental frequency. Further bifurcations give rise to a chaotic regime with a broad, flattened power spectrum. I develop a mathematical model of the device that shows very good agreement with the observed dynamics. To control chaos in the device, I introduce a new control method suitable for fast time-delay systems, in particular. The method is a modification of a well known control approach called time-delay autosynchronization (TDAS) in which the control perturbation is formed by comparing the current value of a system variable to its value at a time in the past equal to the period of the orbit to be stabilized. The current state of a time-delay dynamical system retains a memory of the state of the system one feedback delay time in the past. As a result, the past state of the system can be used

  4. Modeling and control of a brushless DC axial flow ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Skliar, Mikhail; Olsen, Donald B; Pantalos, George M

    2002-01-01

    This article presents an integrated model of the human circulatory system that incorporates circulatory support by a brushless DC axial flow ventricular assist device (VAD), and a feedback VAD controller designed to maintain physiologically sufficient perfusion. The developed integrated model combines a network type model of the circulatory system with a nonlinear dynamic model of the brushless DC pump We show that maintaining a reference differential pressure between the left ventricle and aorta leads to adequate perfusion for different pathologic cases, ranging from normal heart to left heart asystole, and widely varying physical activity scenarios from rest to exercise.

  5. Acidity-Controlled Conducting Polymer Films for Organic Thermoelectric Devices with Horizontal and Vertical Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woongki; Song, Myeonghun; Park, Soohyung; Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Organic thermoelectric devices (OTEDs) are recognized one of the next generation energy conversion platforms because of their huge potentials for securing electricity continuously from even tiny heat sources in our daily life. The advantage of OTEDs can be attributable to the design freedom in device shapes and the low-cost fabrication by employing solution coating processes at low temperatures. As one of the major OTE materials to date, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been used, but no study has been yet carried out on its acidity control even though the acidic components in OTEDs can seriously affect the device performance upon operation. Here we demonstrate that the addition of aniline (a weak base) can control the acidity of PEDOT:PSS and enhance the performance of OTEDs. In particular, the vertical OTEDs with aniline-doped PEDOT:PSS films (active area = 1.0 cm2) could continuously generate electricity (0.06 nW) even at low temperatures (<38 °C) when they were mounted on a desk lamp (power = 24 W). PMID:27667013

  6. Development of a confocal ultrasound device using an inertial cavitation control for transfection in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestas, J. L.; Chettab, K.; Roux, S.; Prieur, F.; Lafond, M.; Dumontet, C.; Lafon, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. We developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (peGFP- C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The frequency spectrum of the signal receive by a hydrophone is used to compute a cavitation index (CI) representative of the inertial cavitation activity. The influence of the CI on transfection efficiency, as well as reproducibility were determined. A real-time feedback loop control on CI was integrated in the process to regulate the cavitation level during sonoporation. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device produced a highly efficient transfection of peGFP-C1 (40-80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. Moreover, the sonoporation of non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 was found to be equivalent to nucleofection in terms of efficiency and toxicity while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection with lipofection.

  7. Ionic Liquid Activation of Amorphous Metal-Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Transparent Electronic Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Haglund, Amanda V.; Dai, Sheng; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-02-09

    To begin this abstract, amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors offer the high carrier mobilities and excellent large-area uniformity required for high performance, transparent, flexible electronic devices; however, a critical bottleneck to their widespread implementation is the need to activate these materials at high temperatures which are not compatible with flexible polymer substrates. The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Activation is controlled by electric field-induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. In addition to activation of unannealed devices, it is shown that threshold voltages of a transistormore » can be linearly tuned between the enhancement and depletion modes. Finally, the first ever example of transparent flexible thin film metal oxide transistor on a polyamide substrate created using this simple technique is demonstrated. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.« less

  8. INVITED PAPER: Application of an active device for helicopter noise reduction in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    2010-02-01

    Important issues in noise problems for current helicopters are described. An active tab (AT) was developed as a new active device for noise/vibration reduction under research cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Kawada Industries, Inc. The wind tunnel test was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the AT on the aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter. From the wind tunnel test, the capability of reducing blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise by an AT was verified. A new control law using instantaneous pressure change on a blade during BVI phenomena was introduced and applied to the wind tunnel testing. This new control law shows reasonable controllability for helicopter noise reduction. Furthermore, in order to analyze noise characteristics, the advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code named JAXA_ov3d was developed in JAXA and extended to include CFD-CSD (computational structure dynamics) coupling by using the beam theory for blade deformation.

  9. On-line Monitoring and Active Control for Transformer Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiabi; Zhao, Tong; Tian, Chun; Wang, Xia; He, Zhenhua; Duan, Lunfeng

    This paper introduces the system for on-line monitoring and active noise control towards the transformer noise based on LabVIEW and the hardware equipment including the hardware and software. For the hardware part, it is mainly focused on the composition and the role of hardware devices, as well as the mounting location in the active noise control experiment. And the software part introduces the software flow chats, the measurement and analysis module for the sound pressure level including A, B, C weighting methods, the 1/n octave spectrum and the power spectrum, active noise control module and noise data access module.

  10. Contemporary and futuristic views of pollution control devices in foundries.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R

    2015-10-01

    Foundry practices are used in contemporary world to produce large volume of components and products. Foundry practices involve the melting of metals and pouring the molten metal into the cavities called molds. On solidification, the metals which assume the shape of molds are removed as castings. Foundries that employ these practices were growing in large number till the middle part of the twentieth century in the world. After the middle part of the twentieth century, the world community begun to realize that, foundries were emitting pollutants which were affecting the health of humans. In order to overcome this situation, several countries in the world promulgated laws stipulating the maximum level of pollutants that can emit by foundries. These laws affected the functioning and growth of foundries. In order to sustain amidst these constraints, foundries begun to install energy efficient melting technologies and pollution control devices (PCDs). In this back ground, this paper reports to assess the contemporary scenario and project the future needs for sustaining the foundries. During the conduct of this literature review, it was discernable that, research papers have reported three categories of researches. In the first category of research papers, the researches reporting the achievement of cleaner production technologies in foundries using PCDs have appeared. In the second category of research papers, the application of cleaner production technology in foundries located in different countries has been examined. In the third category of research papers, the application of efficient melting technologies and PCDs in different clusters of foundries located in different parts of world has been explored. Subsequently implementation technics of Environmental Management System in cleaner production technics in foundries has been described the analysis of the information and knowledge drawn from these three categories of papers has revealed that, researches exploring the

  11. Neuronal activity controls transsynaptic geometry

    PubMed Central

    Glebov, Oleg O.; Cox, Susan; Humphreys, Lawrence; Burrone, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal synapse is comprised of several distinct zones, including presynaptic vesicle zone (SVZ), active zone (AZ) and postsynaptic density (PSD). While correct relative positioning of these zones is believed to be essential for synaptic function, the mechanisms controlling their mutual localization remain unexplored. Here, we employ high-throughput quantitative confocal imaging, super-resolution and electron microscopy to visualize organization of synaptic subdomains in hippocampal neurons. Silencing of neuronal activity leads to reversible reorganization of the synaptic geometry, resulting in a increased overlap between immunostained AZ and PSD markers; in contrast, the SVZ-AZ spatial coupling is decreased. Bayesian blinking and bleaching (3B) reconstruction reveals that the distance between the AZ-PSD distance is decreased by 30 nm, while electron microscopy shows that the width of the synaptic cleft is decreased by 1.1 nm. Our findings show that multiple aspects of synaptic geometry are dynamically controlled by neuronal activity and suggest mutual repositioning of synaptic components as a potential novel mechanism contributing to the homeostatic forms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:26951792

  12. 32 CFR 636.21 - Obedience to official traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obedience to official traffic control devices... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.21 Obedience to official traffic control devices. (a) All...

  13. 32 CFR 636.21 - Obedience to official traffic control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obedience to official traffic control devices... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.21 Obedience to official traffic control devices. (a) All...

  14. 40 CFR 265.1088 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 265.1033(k). (c) The control device shall meet the following requirements: (1) The... is removed from the control device shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 265... specified in paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section or a design analysis as specified in paragraph...

  15. Gain spectrum self controlling device and algorithm for mutiply pumped Raman amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia Ying

    2004-05-01

    For both forward- and backward-pumped Raman amplifiers, devices to perform gain-spectrum self-control of multi-laser pumps are depicted in this paper. The algorithm supporting the devices is presented also. The function of automatic control is suitable for on-line maintenance of WDM equipment.

  16. 40 CFR 265.1088 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 265.1033(k). (c) The control device shall meet the following requirements: (1) The... is removed from the control device shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 265... CFR part 270 and has designed and operates the unit in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 265.1088 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 265.1033(k). (c) The control device shall meet the following requirements: (1) The... is removed from the control device shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 265... CFR part 270 and has designed and operates the unit in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR...

  18. 40 CFR 61.242-11 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed-vent systems and... systems and control devices. (a) Owners or operators of closed-vent systems and control devices used to... provided in § 61.242-1(c). (b) Vapor recovery systems (for example, condensers and absorbers) shall...

  19. 40 CFR 60.482-10a - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed vent systems and... vent systems and control devices. (a) Owners or operators of closed vent systems and control devices...) Vapor recovery systems (for example, condensers and absorbers) shall be designed and operated to...

  20. 40 CFR 265.1088 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 265.1033(k). (c) The control device shall meet the following requirements: (1) The... is removed from the control device shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 265... CFR part 270 and has designed and operates the unit in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR...

  1. Three-dimensional integration of passive and active polymer waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Sean Matthew

    This thesis presents the design, fabrication, and experimental results of three dimensionally integrated optics. This vertical and horizontal integration of polymer waveguide structures increases the integration density, reduces interconnection routing difficulties, and expands the functional diversity of adjacent devices. The devices discussed depend on the fabrication of vertical slopes using unconventional photolithography and reactive ion etching techniques. The slopes produced allow fully functional three dimensionally integrated optics that incorporate both passive and active waveguide elements. Passive structures such as vertical waveguide bends, power splitters, and polarization splitters enable three dimensional routing of the optical power among multiple vertical levels. Single mode vertical waveguide bends are demonstrated with polarization insensitive excess losses of 0.2dB. These waveguide structures incorporated bending angles up to 1.5°. Three dimensional 1 x 4 splitters, possess excess losses of 0.5dB and show the ability to fabricate complex waveguide structures in both the horizontal and vertical directions. These vertical power splitters showed controllable power splitting ratios in the output waveguides by controlling the spin cast film thickness within 0.5μM and the slope angle within 0.5°. The vertical polarization splitters incorporated birefringent polymer materials to create an adiabatic mode splitter. These possessed power extinction ratios of about 15dB for both input polarizations. The passive structures of vertical waveguide bends, power splitters, and polarization splitters enable practical three dimensional integrated optics by providing vertical routing capability of the optical signal analogous to those typically found in conventional two dimensional waveguide interconnects. Three dimensionally integrated active devices such as low-loss hybrid modulators and vertically integrated modulator designs create fully functional

  2. Mathematical modeling of a flat-membrane-controlled release device

    SciTech Connect

    Ramraj, R.; Farrell, S.; Loney, N.W.

    1999-08-01

    The closed form solution to a mathematical model of a flat membrane device successfully predicts the release profile of benzoic acid. Physically, the device consists of a given concentration of benzoic acid in octanol (reservoir) bounded by a microporous flat film (Cellgard 2400) with water-filled pores. The prediction shows excellent agreement with the experimentally derived release profile (maximum difference < 10%). Predicted results are obtained from the use of the steady state plus the first term of the transient solution (infinite series) and with the use of the first nonzero eigenvalue.

  3. PREFACE: Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuji; Kasai, Hideaki

    2011-10-01

    To realize next generation functional devices, atomic level controllability of the application and fabrication techniques is necessary. The conventional route to advance solid state devices, which involves improvement of 'instrumental accuracy', is now facing a major paradigm shift towards 'phenomenal accuracy'. Therefore, to keep up with this critical turn in the development of devices, pioneering research (both theoretical and experimental) on relevant materials, focusing on new physics at the atomic scale, is inevitable. This special section contains articles on the advancements in fabrication of functional devices with an emphasis on the exploration, clarification and understanding of atomistic phenomena. Research articles reporting theoretical and experimental findings on various materials such as semiconductors, metals, magnetic and organic systems, collectively present and 'capture' the appropriate processes and mechanisms of this rapidly developing field. The theoretical investigations employ first-principles quantum-mechanical simulations to clarify and bring about design principles and guidelines, or to develop more reliable computational methods. Experimental studies, on the other hand, introduce novel capabilities to build, view and manipulate materials at the atomic scale by employing pioneering techniques. Thus, the section pays significant attention to novel structures and properties and the accompanying fabrication techniques and design arising from the understanding of properties and structures at the atomic scale. We hope that researchers in the area of physics, materials science and engineering, interested in the development of functional devices via atomic level control, will find valuable information in this collaborative work. We are grateful to all of the authors for their contributions. Atomically controlled fabrication contents On the mechanism of carbon nanotube formation: the role of the catalyst G N Ayre, T Uchino, B Mazumder, A L Hector

  4. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  5. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear motion device, more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core, is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  6. 40 CFR 65.151 - Condensers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements. (1) Owners or operators using condensers to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume outlet concentration requirements as specified in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40 CFR... providing a continuous record or a condenser exit (product side) temperature monitoring device capable...

  7. 49 CFR 178.338-11 - Discharge control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... devices. (a) Excess-flow valves are not required. (b) Each liquid filling and liquid discharge line must be provided with a shut-off valve located as close to the tank as practicable. Unless this valve is manually operable at the valve, the line must also have a manual shut-off valve. (c) Except for a...

  8. Theory of electrically controlled resonant tunneling spin devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    We report device concepts that exploit spin-orbit coupling for creating spin polarized current sources using nonmagnetic semiconductor resonant tunneling heterostructures, without external magnetic fields. The resonant interband tunneling psin filter exploits large valence band spin-orbit interaction to provide strong spin selectivity.

  9. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    SciTech Connect

    Fedewa, Andrew M

    2014-01-07

    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  10. Description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolley, C. T.; Groom, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    A description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory model is presented. The AMCD is a momentum exchange device which is under development as an advanced control effector for spacecraft attitude control systems. The digital computer simulation of this device incorporates the following models: six degree of freedom rigid body dynamics; rim warp; controller dynamics; nonlinear distributed element axial bearings; as well as power driver and power supply current limits. An annotated FORTRAN IV source code listing of the computer program is included.

  11. The demonstration of the Si nano-tube device with the promising short channel control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.-H.; Chen, P.-G.

    2015-10-01

    In addition to the development of the nano-wire device, the vertical gate-all-around (V-GAA) Si nano-tube (NT) device structure is proposed with the promising device performance in this work. The vertical device structure makes the transistor easy to be scaled down continuously to meet the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor scaling needs of the 10/7 nm technology node and beyond. The NT device with the center hollow structure has the capability to deplete the out-of gate control carriers in the center of the nano-wire device and further results in the better device short channel control. Based on the simulation data, the V-GAA Si NT device can keep the Ion-state current the same and reduce the Ioff-state stand-by power. With the demonstration of the promising device performance, the proposed V-GAA Si NT device can be regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the future application of the sub-10/7 nm logic device.

  12. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  13. Improving Memory Characteristics of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Nonvolatile Memory Devices by Controlling Germanium Contents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwoong; Jang, Kyungsoo; Phu, Nguyen Thi Cam; Trinh, Thanh Thuy; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Taeyong; Cho, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangho; Park, Jinjoo; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) with silicon dioxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxynitride (ONO(n)) charge trap structure is a promising flash memory technology duo that will fulfill process compatibility for system-on-panel displays, down-scaling cell size and low operation voltage. In this research, charge trap flash devices were fabricated with ONO(n) stack gate insulators and an active layer using hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon germanium (nc-SiGe:H) films at a low temperature. In this study, the effect of the interface trap density on the performance of devices, including memory window and retention, was investigated. The electrical characteristics of NVM devices were studied controlling Ge content from 0% to 28% in the nc-SiGe:H channel layer. The optimal Ge content in the channel layer was found to be around 16%. For nc-SiGe:H NVM with 16% Ge content, the memory window was 3.13 V and the retention data exceeded 77% after 10 years under the programming condition of 15 V for 1 msec. This showed that the memory window increased by 42% and the retention increased by 12% compared to the nc-Si:H NVM that does not contain Ge. However, when the Ge content was more than 16%, the memory window and retention property decreased. Finally, this research showed that the Ge content has an effect on the interface trap density and this enabled us to determine the optimal Ge content. PMID:27483856

  14. Thermoelectric devices and diamond films for temperature control of high density electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Ewell, Richard; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Lyon, Hylan B.

    1994-08-01

    The increased speeds of integrated circuits is accompanied by increased power levels and the need to package the IC chips very close together. Combined, these spell very high power densities and severe thermal problems at the package level. Conventional packaging materials have difficulty dealing with these thermal management problems. However, it is possible to combine both active and passive cooling by using thin film bismuth-telluride thermoelectric coolers (microcoolers) and diamond substrates for the temperature control of these high density electronic circuits. The highest power components would be mounted directly onto thin film thermoelectric elements, which would maintain the temperature of these components from a few degrees to tens of degrees below that of the diamond substrate. This allows these components to operate within their required temperature range, effectively manage temperature spikes and junction temperatures, and increase clockspeed. To optimize the design of the thermoelectric cooler and operate at maximum efficiency, diamond films acting as thermal lenses would also be used to spread the heat from the small power device to the larger coolers. In those instances where the devices are all operating above ambient temperature, high thermal conductivity diamond films alone are sufficient to cool these devices, by effectively conducting the heat throughout the board.

  15. A Computational Procedure for Assessing the Dynamic Performance of Diffusion-Controlled Transdermal Delivery Devices

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic performances of two different controlled-release systems were analyzed. In a reservoir-type drug-delivery patch, the transdermal flux is influenced by the properties of the membrane. A constant thermodynamic drug activity is preserved in the donor compartment. Monolithic matrices are among the most inexpensive systems used to direct drug delivery. In these structures, the active pharmaceutical ingredients are encapsulated within a polymeric material. Despite the popularity of these two devices, to tailor the properties of the polymer and additives to specific transient behaviors can be challenging and time-consuming. The heuristic approaches often considered to select the vehicle formulation provide limited insight into key permeation mechanisms making it difficult to predict the device performance. In this contribution, a method to calculate the flux response time in a system consisting of a reservoir and a polymeric membrane was proposed and confirmed. Nearly 8.60 h passed before the metoprolol delivery rate reached ninety-eight percent of its final value. An expression was derived for the time it took to transport the active pharmaceutical ingredient out of the polymer. Ninety-eight percent of alpha-tocopherol acetate was released in 461.4 h following application to the skin. The effective time constant can be computed to help develop optimum design strategies. PMID:24310592

  16. New cosurface capacitive stimulators for the development of active osseointegrative implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Marote, Ana; Santos, T; Torrão, João; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B; Furlani, Edward P; Vieira, Sandra I; Ferreira, Jorge A F

    2016-01-01

    Non-drug strategies based on biophysical stimulation have been emphasized for the treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. However, to date, an effective stimulation system for intracorporeal therapies has not been proposed. This is particularly true for active intramedullary implants that aim to optimize osseointegration. The increasing demand for these implants, particularly for hip and knee replacements, has driven the design of innovative stimulation systems that are effective in bone-implant integration. In this paper, a new cosurface-based capacitive system concept is proposed for the design of implantable devices that deliver controllable and personalized electric field stimuli to target tissues. A prototype architecture of this system was constructed for in vitro tests, and its ability to deliver controllable stimuli was numerically analyzed. Successful results were obtained for osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in the in vitro tests. This work provides, for the first time, a design of a stimulation system that can be embedded in active implantable devices for controllable bone-implant integration and regeneration. The proposed cosurface design holds potential for the implementation of novel and innovative personalized stimulatory therapies based on the delivery of electric fields to bone cells. PMID:27456818

  17. New cosurface capacitive stimulators for the development of active osseointegrative implantable devices

    PubMed Central

    Soares dos Santos, Marco P.; Marote, Ana; Santos, T.; Torrão, João; Ramos, A.; Simões, José A. O.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Furlani, Edward P.; Vieira, Sandra I.; Ferreira, Jorge A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-drug strategies based on biophysical stimulation have been emphasized for the treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. However, to date, an effective stimulation system for intracorporeal therapies has not been proposed. This is particularly true for active intramedullary implants that aim to optimize osseointegration. The increasing demand for these implants, particularly for hip and knee replacements, has driven the design of innovative stimulation systems that are effective in bone-implant integration. In this paper, a new cosurface-based capacitive system concept is proposed for the design of implantable devices that deliver controllable and personalized electric field stimuli to target tissues. A prototype architecture of this system was constructed for in vitro tests, and its ability to deliver controllable stimuli was numerically analyzed. Successful results were obtained for osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in the in vitro tests. This work provides, for the first time, a design of a stimulation system that can be embedded in active implantable devices for controllable bone-implant integration and regeneration. The proposed cosurface design holds potential for the implementation of novel and innovative personalized stimulatory therapies based on the delivery of electric fields to bone cells. PMID:27456818

  18. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  19. Temperature Control During Therapeutic Hypothermia for Newborn Encephalopathy Using Different Blanketrol Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Howard; Shepherd, Edward; McDonald, Scott A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Truog, William; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia improves the survival and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with newborn encephalopathy of a hypoxic-ischemic origin. The NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Whole Body Cooling trial used the Cincinnati Sub-Zero Blanketrol II to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. The Blanketrol III is now available and provides additional cooling modes that may result in better temperature control. This report is a retrospective comparison of infants undergoing hypothermia using two different cooling modes of the Blanketrol device. Infants from the NRN trial were cooled with the Blanketrol II using the Automatic control mode (B2 cohort) and were compared with infants from two new NRN centers that adopted the NRN protocol and used the Blanketrol III in a gradient mode (B3 cohort). The primary outcome was the percent time the esophageal temperature stayed between 33°C and 34°C (target 33.5°C) during maintenance of hypothermia. Cohorts had similar birth weight, gestational age, and level of encephalopathy at the initiation of therapy. Baseline esophageal temperature differed between groups (36.6°C±1.0°C for B2 vs. 33.9°C±1.2°C for B3, p<0.0001) reflecting the practice of passive cooling during transport prior to initiation of active device cooling in the B3 cohort. This difference prevented comparison of temperatures during induction of hypothermia. During maintenance of hypothermia the mean and standard deviation of the percent time between 33°C and 34°C was similar for B2 compared to B3 cohorts (94.8%±0.1% vs. 95.8%±0.1%, respectively). Both the automatic and gradient control modes of the Blanketrol devices appear comparable in maintaining esophageal temperature within the target range during maintenance of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:25285767

  20. Remote Control of T Cell Activation Using Magnetic Janus Particles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwahun; Yi, Yi; Yu, Yan

    2016-06-20

    We report a strategy for using magnetic Janus microparticles to control the stimulation of T cell signaling with single-cell precision. To achieve this, we designed Janus particles that are magnetically responsive on one hemisphere and stimulatory to T cells on the other side. By manipulating the rotation and locomotion of Janus particles under an external magnetic field, we could control the orientation of the particle-cell recognition and thereby the initiation of T cell activation. This study demonstrates a step towards employing anisotropic material properties of Janus particles to control single-cell activities without the need of complex magnetic manipulation devices.

  1. Hollow cathode plasma source for active spacecraft charge control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deininger, William D.; Aston, Graeme; Pless, Lewis C.

    1987-06-01

    A prototype plasma source spacecraft discharge device has been developed to control overall and differential spacecraft surface charging. The plasma source is based on a unique hollow cathode discharge, where the plasma generation process is contained completely within the cathode. This device can be operated on argon, krypton, or xenon and has a rapid cold start time of less than 4 s. The discharge system design includes a spacecraft-discharge/net-charge sensing circuit which provides the ability to measure the polarity, magnitude, pulse shape, and time duration of a discharging event. Ion currents of up to 325 microA and electron currents ranging from 0.02 to 6.0 A have been extracted from the device. In addition, the spacecraft discharge device successfully discharged capacitively biased plates, from as high as + or - 2500 V, to ground potential, and discharged and clamped actively biased plates at +5 V with respect to ground potential during ground simulation testing.

  2. Algorithm for Public Electric Transport Schedule Control for Intelligent Embedded Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alps, Ivars; Potapov, Andrey; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In this paper authors present heuristics algorithm for precise schedule fulfilment in city traffic conditions taking in account traffic lights. The algorithm is proposed for programmable controller. PLC is proposed to be installed in electric vehicle to control its motion speed and signals of traffic lights. Algorithm is tested using real controller connected to virtual devices and real functional models of real tram devices. Results of experiments show high precision of public transport schedule fulfilment using proposed algorithm.

  3. Augmented thermal bus wih multiple thermoelectric devices individually controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  4. Acute Effects of a Therapeutic Mobility Device on Physical Activity and Heart Rate in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Janet L.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this feasibility study was to provide an opportunity to increase physical activity (PA) and heart rate (HR) for children with Down syndrome (DS) during unstructured group exercise utilizing a riding device called the Power Pumper®. Method: Twenty-four children aged 5 to 7 years old participated in this case-control study,…

  5. Assistive Device Use in Visually Impaired Older Adults: Role of Control Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stefanie; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Burmedi, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate whether psychological control, conceptually framed within the life-span theory of control by Heckhausen and Schulz, drives assistive device use in visually impaired elders. In particular, we expect the two primary control modes differentiated in the life-span theory of control (i.e., selective primary and compensatory…

  6. Active Spacecraft Potential Control Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Tajmar, M.; Scharlemann, C.; Jeszenszky, H.; Laky, G.; Fremuth, G.; Escoubet, C. P.; Svenes, K.

    2016-03-01

    In tenuous plasma the floating potential of sunlit spacecraft reaches tens of volts, positive. The corresponding field disturbs measurements of the ambient plasma by electron and ion sensors and can reduce micro-channel plate lifetime in electron detectors owing to large fluxes of attracted photoelectrons. Also the accuracy of electric field measurements may suffer from a high spacecraft potential. The Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics. New features include the use of capillaries instead of needles, new materials for the emitters and their internal thermal insulators, an extended voltage and current range of the electronics, both for ion emission and heating purposes, and a more capable control software. This enables lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Results from on-ground testing demonstrate compliance with requirements. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. Finally, the various operating modes to adapt to changing boundary conditions are described along with the main data products.

  7. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control device. (B) If an enclosed combustion device with a minimum residence time of 0.5 seconds and a... been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266... requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (iii) A hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or...

  8. Adhesion control by inflation: implications from biology to artificial attachment device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dening, Kirstin; Heepe, Lars; Afferrante, Luciano; Carbone, Giuseppe; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for materials that incorporate advanced adhesion properties, such as an ability to adhere in a reversible and controllable manner. In biological systems, these features are known from adhesive pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea, and the bush-cricket, Tettigonia viridissima. These species have convergently developed soft, hemispherically shaped pads that might be able to control their adhesion through active changing the curvature of the pad. Inspired by these biological systems, an artificial model system is developed here. It consists of an inflatable membrane clamped to the metallic cylinder and filled with air. Pull-off force measurements of the membrane surface were conducted in contact with the membrane at five different radii of curvature r c with (1) a smooth polyvinylsiloxane membrane and (2) mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructured membrane made of the same polymer. The hypothesis that an increased internal pressure, acting on the membrane, reduces the radius of the membrane curvature, resulting in turn in a lower pull-off force, is verified. Such an active control of adhesion, inspired by biological models, will lead to the development of industrial pick-and-drop devices with controllable adhesive properties.

  9. Reconstructing surface EMG from scalp EEG during myoelectric control of a closed looped prosthetic device.

    PubMed

    Paek, Andrew Y; Brown, Jeremy D; Gillespie, R Brent; O'Malley, Marcia K; Shewokis, Patricia A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, seven able-bodied human subjects controlled a robotic gripper with surface electromyography (sEMG) activity from the biceps. While subjects controlled the gripper, they felt the forces measured by the robotic gripper through an exoskeleton fitted on their non-dominant left arm. Subjects were instructed to identify objects with the force feedback provided by the exoskeleton. While subjects operated the robotic gripper, scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) were recorded. We developed neural decoders that used scalp EEG to reconstruct the sEMG used to control the robotic gripper. The neural decoders used a genetic algorithm embedded in a linear model with memory to reconstruct the sEMG from a plurality of EEG channels. The performance of the decoders, measured with Pearson correlation coefficients (median r-value = 0.59, maximum r-value = 0.91) was found to be comparable to previous studies that reconstructed sEMG linear envelopes from neural activity recorded with invasive techniques. These results show the feasibility of developing EEG-based neural interfaces that in turn could be used to control a robotic device.

  10. Extending the Device Support for the ALMA Control Subsystem Code Generation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reveco, J.; Mora, M.; González, V.; Sáez, N.; Ibsen, J.; Staig, T.; Reyes, C.; Kern, J.; Juerges, T.

    2010-12-01

    The existing code generation framework in the ALMA Control subsystem provides basic and functional code for ALMA antenna devices using CAN bus as communication interface. There are also devices which use Ethernet communication. This paper explains how the code generation framework, based on openArchitectureWare, was extended to include the code generation of Ethernet control components, working on top of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework. In order to achieve this, a new datamodel and new class templates were created, and the device components design adapted.

  11. The service telemetry and control device for space experiment “GRIS”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyanenko, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Problems of scientific devices control (for example, fine control of measuring paths), collecting auxiliary (service information about working capacity, conditions of experiment carrying out, etc.) and preliminary data processing are actual for any space device. Modern devices for space research it is impossible to imagine without devices that didn't use digital data processing methods and specialized or standard interfaces and computing facilities. For realization of these functions in “GRIS” experiment onboard ISS for purposes minimization of dimensions, power consumption, the concept “system-on-chip” was chosen and realized. In the programmable logical integrated scheme by Microsemi from ProASIC3 family with maximum capacity up to 3M system gates, the computing kernel and all necessary peripherals are created. In this paper we discuss structure, possibilities and resources the service telemetry and control device for “GRIS” space experiment.

  12. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  13. Synchronous response modelling and control of an annular momentum control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard; Johnson, Bruce G.; Misovec, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Research on the synchronous response modelling and control of an advanced Annular Momentun Control Device (AMCD) used to control the attitude of a spacecraft is described. For the flexible rotor AMCD, two sources of synchronous vibrations were identified. One source, which corresponds to the mass unbalance problem of rigid rotors suspended in conventional bearings, is caused by measurement errors of the rotor center of mass position. The other sources of synchronous vibrations is misalignment between the hub and flywheel masses of the AMCD. Four different control algorithms were examined. These were lead-lag compensators that mimic conventional bearing dynamics, tracking notch filters used in the feedback loop, tracking differential-notch filters, and model-based compensators. The tracking differential-notch filters were shown to have a number of advantages over more conventional approaches for both rigid-body rotor applications and flexible rotor applications such as the AMCD. Hardware implementation schemes for the tracking differential-notch filter were investigated. A simple design was developed that can be implemented with analog multipliers and low bandwidth, digital hardware.

  14. System ID modern control algorithms for active aerodynamic load control and impact on gearbox loading.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Halse, Chris; Crowther, Ashley; Barlas, Thanasis; Wilson, David Gerald; Berg, Dale E.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-06-01

    Prior work on active aerodynamic load control (AALC) of wind turbine blades has demonstrated that appropriate use of this technology has the potential to yield significant reductions in blade loads, leading to a decrease in wind cost of energy. While the general concept of AALC is usually discussed in the context of multiple sensors and active control devices (such as flaps) distributed over the length of the blade, most work to date has been limited to consideration of a single control device per blade with very basic Proportional Derivative controllers, due to limitations in the aeroservoelastic codes used to perform turbine simulations. This work utilizes a new aeroservoelastic code developed at Delft University of Technology to model the NREL/Upwind 5 MW wind turbine to investigate the relative advantage of utilizing multiple-device AALC. System identification techniques are used to identify the frequencies and shapes of turbine vibration modes, and these are used with modern control techniques to develop both Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) LQR flap controllers. Comparison of simulation results with these controllers shows that the MIMO controller does yield some improvement over the SISO controller in fatigue load reduction, but additional improvement is possible with further refinement. In addition, a preliminary investigation shows that AALC has the potential to reduce off-axis gearbox loads, leading to reduced gearbox bearing fatigue damage and improved lifetimes.

  15. A new device for the control of a photographic zenith tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, V. A.

    1990-12-01

    A microcircuit-based control device is described in which the moments of observation-cycle commencement and cycle types for 256 stars are programmed. The duration of the exposure is set automatically depending on the type of cycle. This device simplifies the work of the observer and leads to an improved accuracy of latitude measurement and an improved time correction.

  16. Thin film thermoelectric devices as thermal control coatings: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Krupnick, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Peltier effect, Thomson effect, and Seeback effect are utilized in design of thermal control coating that serves as versatile means for controlling heat absorbed and radiated by surface. Coatings may be useful in extreme temperature environment enclosures or as heat shields.

  17. 49 CFR 178.338-11 - Discharge control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used to open this valve, the control must be of fail-safe design and spring-biased to stop the... water capacity, remote means of automatic closure must be installed at the ends of the cargo tank in at... control system. (ii) On a cargo tank motor vehicle of 3,500 gallons water capacity or less, at least...

  18. Subnanosecond control of excitons in coupled quantum well nanostructures: Photonic storage and Exciton Conveyer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winbow, Alexander Graham

    Indirect excitons in GaAs coupled quantum well nanostructures are a versatile system for fundamental study of cold neutral bosonic gases and demonstration of novel optoelectronic devices based on excitons --- a bound electron--hole pair --- rather than electrons. Indirect exciton lifetimes range from nanoseconds to microseconds and cool rapidly after photoexcitation to the lattice temperature. Lithographically-patterned electrodes enable design of potential energy landscapes, and both energy and lifetime can be controlled in situ, rapidly, on timescales much shorter than the exciton lifetime. Such intrinsically optoelectronic devices can operate at speeds relevant to optical networks, and later be fabricated in other semiconductors for higher-temperature operation. Two different kinds of devices are demonstrated: Photon storage --- an optical memory --- with 250 ps rise time of the readout optical signal and storage time reaching microseconds was implemented with indirect excitons in CQW. The storage and release of photons was controlled by the gate voltage pulse, and the transient processes in the CQW studied by measuring the kinetics of the exciton emission spectra. This control of excitons on timescales much shorter than the exciton lifetime demonstrates the feasibility of studying excitons in in situ controlled electrostatic traps. The Exciton Conveyer is a laterally moving electrostatic lattice potential for actively transporting excitons. Generated by laterally modulated electrodes, the potential velocity and depth are controlled in situ by frequency and voltage. We observed exciton transport characterized by average exciton cloud spatial extension over several tens of microns, and observed dynamical localization--delocalization transitions for the excitons in the conveyer: In the localization regime of deeper potentials and moderate exciton density, excitons are moved by the conveyer; in the delocalized regime of shallower lattice potential or high exciton

  19. Combining Charge Couple Devices and Rate Sensors for the Feedforward Control System of a Charge Coupled Device Tracking Loop

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tao; Tian, Jing; Zhong, Daijun; Fu, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    A rate feed forward control-based sensor fusion is proposed to improve the closed-loop performance for a charge couple device (CCD) tracking loop. The target trajectory is recovered by combining line of sight (LOS) errors from the CCD and the angular rate from a fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG). A Kalman filter based on the Singer acceleration model utilizes the reconstructive target trajectory to estimate the target velocity. Different from classical feed forward control, additive feedback loops are inevitably added to the original control loops due to the fact some closed-loop information is used. The transfer function of the Kalman filter in the frequency domain is built for analyzing the closed loop stability. The bandwidth of the Kalman filter is the major factor affecting the control stability and close-loop performance. Both simulations and experiments are provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27347970

  20. Combining Charge Couple Devices and Rate Sensors for the Feedforward Control System of a Charge Coupled Device Tracking Loop.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Tian, Jing; Zhong, Daijun; Fu, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    A rate feed forward control-based sensor fusion is proposed to improve the closed-loop performance for a charge couple device (CCD) tracking loop. The target trajectory is recovered by combining line of sight (LOS) errors from the CCD and the angular rate from a fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG). A Kalman filter based on the Singer acceleration model utilizes the reconstructive target trajectory to estimate the target velocity. Different from classical feed forward control, additive feedback loops are inevitably added to the original control loops due to the fact some closed-loop information is used. The transfer function of the Kalman filter in the frequency domain is built for analyzing the closed loop stability. The bandwidth of the Kalman filter is the major factor affecting the control stability and close-loop performance. Both simulations and experiments are provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27347970

  1. Management software for a universal device communication controller: application to monitoring and computerized infusions.

    PubMed

    Coussaert, E J; Cantraine, F R

    1996-11-01

    We designed a virtual device for a local area network observing, operating and connecting devices to a personal computer. To keep the widest field of application, we proceeded by using abstraction and specification rules of software engineering in the design and implementation of the hardware and software for the Infusion Monitor. We specially built a box of hardware to interface multiple medical instruments with different communication protocols to a PC via a single serial port. We called that box the Universal Device Communication Controller (UDCC). The use of the virtual device driver is illustrated by the Infusion Monitor implemented for the anaesthesia and intensive care workstation.

  2. Micromachined microwave signal control device and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Michael A.

    2008-09-02

    A method for fabricating a signal controller, e.g., a filter or a switch, for a coplanar waveguide during the LIGA fabrication process of the waveguide. Both patterns for the waveguide and patterns for the signal controllers are created on a mask. Radiation travels through the mask and reaches a photoresist layer on a substrate. The irradiated portions are removed and channels are formed on the substrate. A metal is filled into the channels to form the conductors of the waveguide and the signal controllers. Micromachined quasi-lumped elements are used alone or together as filters. The switch includes a comb drive, a spring, a metal plunger, and anchors.

  3. Method for making a micromachined microwave signal control device

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    A method for fabricating a signal controller, e.g., a filter or a switch, for a coplanar waveguide during the LIGA fabrication process of the waveguide. Both patterns for the waveguide and patterns for the signal controllers are created on a mask. Radiation travels through the mask and reaches a photoresist layer on a substrate. The irradiated portions are removed and channels are formed on the substrate. A metal is filled into the channels to form the conductors of the waveguide and the signal controllers. Micromachined quasi-lumped elements are used alone or together as filters. The switch includes a comb drive, a spring, a metal plunger, and anchors.

  4. Placebo Devices as Effective Control Methods in Acupuncture Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, George Shengxi; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Xue, Charlie Changli; Xie, Yi Min

    2015-01-01

    While the use of acupuncture has been recognised by the World Health Organisation, its efficacy for many of the common clinical conditions is still undergoing validation through randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A credible placebo control for such RCTs to enable meaningful evaluation of its efficacy is to be established. While several non-penetrating acupuncture placebo devices, namely the Streitberger, the Park and the Takakura Devices, have been developed and used in RCTs, their suitability as inert placebo controls needs to be rigorously determined. This article systematically reviews these devices as placebo interventions. Electronic searches were conducted on four English and two Chinese databases from their inceptions to July 2014; hand searches of relevant references were also conducted. RCTs, in English or Chinese language, comparing acupuncture with one of the aforementioned devices as the control intervention on human participants with any clinical condition and evaluating clinically related outcomes were included. Thirty-six studies were included for qualitative analysis while 14 were in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis does not support the notion of either the Streitberger or the Park Device being inert control interventions while none of the studies involving the Takakura Device was included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen studies reported the occurrence of adverse events, with no significant difference between verum and placebo acupuncture. Author-reported blinding credibility showed that participant blinding was successful in most cases; however, when blinding index was calculated, only one study, which utilised the Park Device, seemed to have an ideal blinding scenario. Although the blinding index could not be calculated for the Takakura Device, it was the only device reported to enable practitioner blinding. There are limitations with each of the placebo devices and more rigorous studies are needed to further evaluate their effects and

  5. Placebo Devices as Effective Control Methods in Acupuncture Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, George Shengxi; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Xue, Charlie Changli; Xie, Yi Min

    2015-01-01

    While the use of acupuncture has been recognised by the World Health Organisation, its efficacy for many of the common clinical conditions is still undergoing validation through randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A credible placebo control for such RCTs to enable meaningful evaluation of its efficacy is to be established. While several non-penetrating acupuncture placebo devices, namely the Streitberger, the Park and the Takakura Devices, have been developed and used in RCTs, their suitability as inert placebo controls needs to be rigorously determined. This article systematically reviews these devices as placebo interventions. Electronic searches were conducted on four English and two Chinese databases from their inceptions to July 2014; hand searches of relevant references were also conducted. RCTs, in English or Chinese language, comparing acupuncture with one of the aforementioned devices as the control intervention on human participants with any clinical condition and evaluating clinically related outcomes were included. Thirty-six studies were included for qualitative analysis while 14 were in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis does not support the notion of either the Streitberger or the Park Device being inert control interventions while none of the studies involving the Takakura Device was included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen studies reported the occurrence of adverse events, with no significant difference between verum and placebo acupuncture. Author-reported blinding credibility showed that participant blinding was successful in most cases; however, when blinding index was calculated, only one study, which utilised the Park Device, seemed to have an ideal blinding scenario. Although the blinding index could not be calculated for the Takakura Device, it was the only device reported to enable practitioner blinding. There are limitations with each of the placebo devices and more rigorous studies are needed to further evaluate their effects and

  6. 40 CFR 60.692-5 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (d) Closed vent systems and control devices used to... from a closed system are detected, first efforts at repair to eliminate the emissions shall be made...

  7. 40 CFR 60.692-5 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (d) Closed vent systems and control devices used to... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-5 Standards: Closed...

  8. 40 CFR 60.692-5 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-5 Standards: Closed vent... shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (d) Closed vent systems and control devices used...

  9. Magnetic suspension system for an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A technique to control a rim suspended in a magnetic field was developed. A complete system was developed, incorporating a support structure, magnetic actuators, a rim drive mechanism, an emergency fail-safe system, servo control system, and control electronics. Open loop and closed loop response of the system at zero speed and at 500 revolutions per minute (r/min) of the rim was obtained and analyzed. The rim was then dynamically balanced and a rim speed of 725 r/min was achieved. An analog simulation of the hardware was developed and tested with the actual control electronics connected to the analog computer. The system under development is stable at rim speeds below 700 r/min. Test results indicate that the rim under test is not rigid. The rim has a warp and a number of binding modes which prevented achievement of higher speeds. Further development efforts are required to achieve higher rim speeds.

  10. Consumer-grade EEG devices: are they usable for control tasks?

    PubMed Central

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Martisius, Ignas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    We present the evaluation of two well-known, low-cost consumer-grade EEG devices: the Emotiv EPOC and the Neurosky MindWave. Problems with using the consumer-grade EEG devices (BCI illiteracy, poor technical characteristics, and adverse EEG artefacts) are discussed. The experimental evaluation of the devices, performed with 10 subjects asked to perform concentration/relaxation and blinking recognition tasks, is given. The results of statistical analysis show that both devices exhibit high variability and non-normality of attention and meditation data, which makes each of them difficult to use as an input to control tasks. BCI illiteracy may be a significant problem, as well as setting up of the proper environment of the experiment. The results of blinking recognition show that using the Neurosky device means recognition accuracy is less than 50%, while the Emotiv device has achieved a recognition accuracy of more than 75%; for tasks that require concentration and relaxation of subjects, the Emotiv EPOC device has performed better (as measured by the recognition accuracy) by ∼9%. Therefore, the Emotiv EPOC device may be more suitable for control tasks using the attention/meditation level or eye blinking than the Neurosky MindWave device. PMID:27014511

  11. Active control of combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, W.; Poinsot, T.; Candel, S.

    1987-12-01

    The principle of 'antisound' is used to construct a method for the suppression of combustion instabilities. This active instability control (AIC) method uses external acoustic excitation by a loudspeaker to suppress the oscillations of a flame. The excitation signal is provided by a microphone located upstream of the flame. This signal is filtered, processed, amplified, and sent to the loudspeaker. The AIC method is validated on a laboratory combustor. It allows the suppression of all unstable modes of the burner for any operating ratio. The influence of the microphone and loudspeaker locations on the performance of the AIC system is described. For a given configuration, domains of stability, i.e., domains where the AIC system parameters provide suppression of the oscillation, are investigated. Measurements of the electric input of the loudspeaker show that the energy consumption of the AIC system is almost negligible and suggest that this method could be used for industrial combustor stabilization. Finally, a simple model describing the effects of the AIC system is developed and its results compared to the experiment.

  12. Active thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petete, Patricia A.; Ames, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    The 'restructured' baseline of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has eliminated many of the growth options for the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). Modular addition of baseline technology to increase heat rejection will be extremely difficult. The system design and the available real estate no longer accommodate this type of growth. As the station matures during its thirty years of operation, a demand of up to 165 kW of heat rejection can be expected. The baseline configuration will be able to provide 82.5 kW at Eight Manned Crew Capability (EMCC). The growth paths necessary to reach 165 kW have been identified. Doubling the heat rejection capability of SSF will require either the modification of existing radiator wings or the attachment of growth structure to the baseline truss for growth radiator wing placement. Radiator performance can be improved by enlarging the surface area or by boosting the operating temperature with a heat pump. The optimal solution will require both modifications. The addition of growth structure would permit the addition of a parallel ATCS using baseline technology. This growth system would simplify integration. The feasibility of incorporating these growth options to improve the heat rejection capacity of SSF is under evaluation.

  13. Transscleral Controlled Delivery of Geranylgeranylaceton Using a Polymeric Device Protects Rat Retina Against Light Injury.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Nobuhiro; Kaji, Hirokazu; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a transscleral drug delivery device, consisting of a reservoir and controlled-release cover, which were made of photopolymerized polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, combined at different ratios. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a heat-shock protein (HSP) inducer, was loaded into the device. The GGA was released from the device under zero-order kinetics. At both 1 week and 4 weeks after device implantation on rat sclera, HSP70 gene and protein expression were up-regulated in the sclera-choroid-retinal pigment epithelium fraction of rat eyes treated with the GGA-loaded device compared with rat eyes treated with saline-loaded devices or eyes of non-treated rats. Flash electroretinograms were recorded 4 days after white light exposure (8000 lx for 18 h). Electroretinographic amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were preserved significantly in rats treated with GGA-loaded devices compared with rats treated with saline-loaded devices. Histological examination showed that the outer nuclear layer thickness was preserved in rats that had the GGA-loaded device. These results may show that transscleral GGA delivery using our device may offer an alternative method to treat retinal diseases. PMID:26427448

  14. Transscleral Controlled Delivery of Geranylgeranylaceton Using a Polymeric Device Protects Rat Retina Against Light Injury.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Nobuhiro; Kaji, Hirokazu; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a transscleral drug delivery device, consisting of a reservoir and controlled-release cover, which were made of photopolymerized polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, combined at different ratios. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a heat-shock protein (HSP) inducer, was loaded into the device. The GGA was released from the device under zero-order kinetics. At both 1 week and 4 weeks after device implantation on rat sclera, HSP70 gene and protein expression were up-regulated in the sclera-choroid-retinal pigment epithelium fraction of rat eyes treated with the GGA-loaded device compared with rat eyes treated with saline-loaded devices or eyes of non-treated rats. Flash electroretinograms were recorded 4 days after white light exposure (8000 lx for 18 h). Electroretinographic amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were preserved significantly in rats treated with GGA-loaded devices compared with rats treated with saline-loaded devices. Histological examination showed that the outer nuclear layer thickness was preserved in rats that had the GGA-loaded device. These results may show that transscleral GGA delivery using our device may offer an alternative method to treat retinal diseases.

  15. Photonic crystal slab reflectors for compact passive and active optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutami, S.; Benbakir, B.; Leclercq, J. L.; Letartre, X.; Regreny, P.; Garrigues, M.; Viktorovitch, P.; Le Gratiet, L.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.

    2007-02-01

    Compact photonic crystal mirrors (PCM) formed in suspended InP membranes are theoretically and experimentally studied under normal incidence. They are based on the coupling of free space waves with slow Bloch modes of the crystal. These mirrors provide high-efficiency and broadband reflectivity (stop-band superior to 400nm), when involving two slow Bloch modes of the crystal. They allow also for an accurate control of the polarization. These PCMs can be used in new photonic devices, where they replace DBR mirrors. The authors report on the demonstration of a compact and highly selective (Q>1000) tunable filter at 1.55μm, using a Fabry-Perot resonator combining a bottom micromachined 3-pair-InP/air-gap Bragg reflector with a top InP/air PCM. Micromechanical tuning of the device via electrostatic actuation is also demonstrated over a 20nm range for a maximum 4V tuning voltage. The active version of this device is also considered: a PCM-VCSEL is studied, combining a solid 40 quarter wavelength InP/InGaAlAs DBR with a top PCM. First experimental results show a high Q-factor (around 2000) compatible with a laser regime. We finally demonstrate in this paper a vertical-cavity Fabry-Perot filter with ultimate compactness, associating two PCMs.

  16. Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, Leigh R.; Serruya, Mijail D.; Friehs, Gerhard M.; Mukand, Jon A.; Saleh, Maryam; Caplan, Abraham H.; Branner, Almut; Chen, David; Penn, Richard D.; Donoghue, John P.

    2006-07-01

    Neuromotor prostheses (NMPs) aim to replace or restore lost motor functions in paralysed humans by routeing movement-related signals from the brain, around damaged parts of the nervous system, to external effectors. To translate preclinical results from intact animals to a clinically useful NMP, movement signals must persist in cortex after spinal cord injury and be engaged by movement intent when sensory inputs and limb movement are long absent. Furthermore, NMPs would require that intention-driven neuronal activity be converted into a control signal that enables useful tasks. Here we show initial results for a tetraplegic human (MN) using a pilot NMP. Neuronal ensemble activity recorded through a 96-microelectrode array implanted in primary motor cortex demonstrated that intended hand motion modulates cortical spiking patterns three years after spinal cord injury. Decoders were created, providing a `neural cursor' with which MN opened simulated e-mail and operated devices such as a television, even while conversing. Furthermore, MN used neural control to open and close a prosthetic hand, and perform rudimentary actions with a multi-jointed robotic arm. These early results suggest that NMPs based upon intracortical neuronal ensemble spiking activity could provide a valuable new neurotechnology to restore independence for humans with paralysis.

  17. Overview of magnetic bearing control and linearization approaches for annular magnetically suspended devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of magnetic bearing control and linearization approaches which have been considered for annular magnetically suspended devices is presented. These devices include the Annular Momentum Control Device and the Annular Suspension and Pointing System. Two approaches were investigated for controlling the magnetic actuator. One approach involves controlling the upper and lower electromagnets differentially about a bias flux. The bias flux can either be supplied by permanent magnets in the magnetic circuit or by bias currents. In the other approach, either the upper electromagnet or the lower electromagnet is controlled depending on the direction of force required. One advantage of the bias flux is that for small gap perturbations about a fixed operating point, the force-current characteristic is linear. Linearization approaches investigated for individual element control include an analog solution of the nonlinear electromagnet force equation and a microprocessor-based table lookup method.

  18. Non-linear control of the ''clam'' wave energy device. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A promising wave energy device being currently investigated is the ''clam'' device. The clam extracts energy by pumping air through a specially designed (Wells) turbine. Although operation of the Wells turbine does not require a rectified air flow, some additional control will be necessary to optimize the phase of the clam motion for good efficiencies. An examination of the equation of motion in the time domain suggests the possibility of non-linear phase control by mechanical, power take-off, or pneumatic latching. Latching can be shown to increase the efficiency of the device in the longer wavelengths of the wave spectrum, i.e. those of high incident wave power.

  19. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    Disclosed is a linear motion device and more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core. The CRDM and method disclosed is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  20. Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper for programmable instant self-folding walking devices

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiuke; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-01-01

    Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper with programmed gradients in vertical and lateral directions is developed to address many of the limitations of polymer active materials including slow response and violent operation methods. Specifically, we used function-designed graphene oxide as nanoscale building blocks to fabricate an all-graphene self-folding paper that has a single-component gradient structure. A functional device composed of this graphene paper can (i) adopt predesigned shapes, (ii) walk, and (iii) turn a corner. These processes can be remote-controlled by gentle light or heating. We believe that this self-folding material holds potential for a wide range of applications such as sensing, artificial muscles, and robotics. PMID:26601135

  1. Removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs by air pollution control devices in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C; Jeon, S H; Jung, I R; Kim, K H; Kwon, M H; Kim, J H; Yi, J H; Kim, S J; You, J C; Jung, D H

    2001-01-01

    Removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) by air pollution control devices (APCDs) in the commercial-scale municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators with a capacity of above 200 ton/day were evaluated. The removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs were up to 95% when the activated carbon (AC) was injected in front of electrostatic precipitator (EP). Spray dryer absorber/bag filter (SDA/BF) had high removal efficiency (99%)) of PCDDs/PCDFs when a mixture of lime and AC was sprayed into the SDA. When the AC was not added in scrubbing solution, the whole congeners of PCDDs/PCDFs were enriched in the wet scrubber (WS) with negative removal efficiencies of -25% to -5731%. Discharge of PCDDs/PCDFs was decreased with increasing the proportions of AC added in scrubbing solution. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system had the removal efficiencies of up to 93% during the test operation.

  2. Controlling High Power Devices with Computers or TTL Logic Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Computers are routinely used to control experiments in modern science laboratories. This should be reflected in laboratories in an educational setting. There is a mismatch between the power that can be delivered by a computer interfacing card or a TTL logic circuit and that required by many practical pieces of laboratory equipment. One common way…

  3. 49 CFR 178.338-11 - Discharge control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-closing shutoff valve. (1) If pressure from a reservoir or from an engine-driven pump or compressor is... water capacity, remote means of automatic closure must be installed at the ends of the cargo tank in at... control system. (ii) On a cargo tank motor vehicle of 3,500 gallons water capacity or less, at least...

  4. 49 CFR 178.338-11 - Discharge control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-closing shutoff valve. (1) If pressure from a reservoir or from an engine-driven pump or compressor is... water capacity, remote means of automatic closure must be installed at the ends of the cargo tank in at... control system. (ii) On a cargo tank motor vehicle of 3,500 gallons water capacity or less, at least...

  5. The fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant, originates from the coal that is burned, and leaves through the output streams that include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent fmdings on the fa...

  6. Device for controlling supercharging pressure of an exhaust gas turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Y.

    1988-04-12

    A supercharge pressure control apparatus is described comprising: a turbocharger having an exhaust turbine rotated by exhaust gas flow of an internal combustion engine and a compressor rotated by the exhaust gas flow toward the turbine and having a valve member disposed in the turbine.

  7. 30 CFR 57.22314 - Flow-control devices (V-A and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flow-control devices (V-A and V-B mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22314 Flow-control devices... devices to control the release of liquid hydrocarbons and hazardous gases during the drilling...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 60.2706 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days after installation of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...

  18. Impact of optical antennas on active optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2014-10-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in the fabrication and characterization of optical antennas that are integrated with optoelectronic devices. Herein, we describe the fundamental reasons for and experimental evidence of the dramatic improvements that can be achieved by enhancing the light-matter interaction via an optical antenna in both photon-emitting and -detecting devices. In addition, integration of optical antennas with optoelectronic devices can lead to the realization of highly compact multifunctional platforms for future integrated photonics, such as low-cost lab-on-chip systems. In this review paper, we further focus on the effect of optical antennas on the detectivity of infrared photodetectors. One particular finding is that the antenna can have a dual effect on the specific detectivity, while it can elevate light absorption efficiency of sub-wavelength detectors, it can potentially increase the noise of the detectors due to the enhanced spontaneous emission rate. In particular, we predict that the detectivity of interband photon detectors can be negatively affected by the presence of optical antennas across a wide wavelength region covering visible to long wavelength infrared bands. In contrast, the detectivity of intersubband detectors could be generally improved with a properly designed optical antenna.

  19. Passive and active sol-gel materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Mark P.; Najafi, S. Iraj

    1997-07-01

    This paper examines sol-gel materials for photonics in terms of partnerships with other material contenders for processing optical devices. The discussion in four sections identifies semiconductors, amorphous and crystalline inorganic dielectrics, and amorphous and crystalline organic dielectrics as strategic agents in the rapidly evolving area of materials and devices for data communications and telecommunications. With Zyss, we trace the hierarchical lineage that connects molecular hybridization (chemical functionality), through supramolecular hybridization (collective properties and responses), to functional hybridization (device and system level constructs). These three concepts thread their way through discussions of the roles sol-gel glasses might be anticipated to assume in a photonics marketplace. We assign a special place to glass integrated optics and show how high temperature consolidated sol-gel derived glasses fit into competitive glass fabrication technologies. Low temperature hybrid sol-gel glasses that combine attractive features of organic polymers and inorganic glasses are considered by drawing on examples of our own new processes for fabricating couplers, power splitters, waveguides and gratings by combining chemical synthesis and sol-gel processing with simple photomask techniques.

  20. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  1. Use of controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices to control reproduction in goats: A review.

    PubMed

    Knights, Marlon; Singh-Knights, Doolarie

    2016-09-01

    High reproductive rates are necessary in order to increase the productivity of goat operations. Progesterone and its analogues are widely used in other species to control the reproductive system to facilitate synchronized births, induce fertile estrus or to facilitate the use of assisted reproductive techniques with the goal of increasing productivity of livestock. Progesterone impregnated controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices are approved for delivery of the natural hormone progesterone to synchronize and induce fertile estrus in sheep. A few studies have reported a high estrous response and pregnancy rates when CIDRs are used to induce estrus in goats. However, significant variation exists in the duration of treatment (5-16 days) and in the use of exogenous gonadotropins as part of the treatment protocol. As gonadotropins are not currently approved for commercial use in small ruminants in the USA, studies are needed to determine the necessity for exogenous gonadotropins and whether they can be replaced by enhancing endogenous secretion through photoperiodic manipulation of the doe and \\ or increase stimulation through the 'buck-effect'. Future studies must not only evaluate efficacy, but should consider the economic feasibility of using CIDRs in commercial production systems. PMID:27192693

  2. Evaluation of the leap motion controller as a new contact-free pointing device.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Daniel; Weichert, Frank; Rinkenauer, Gerhard

    2014-12-24

    This paper presents a Fitts' law-based analysis of the user's performance in selection tasks with the Leap Motion Controller compared with a standard mouse device. The Leap Motion Controller (LMC) is a new contact-free input system for gesture-based human-computer interaction with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. Up to this point, there has hardly been any systematic evaluation of this new system available. With an error rate of 7.8% for the LMC and 2.8% for the mouse device, movement times twice as large as for a mouse device and high overall effort ratings, the Leap Motion Controller's performance as an input device for everyday generic computer pointing tasks is rather limited, at least with regard to the selection recognition provided by the LMC.

  3. Evaluation of the Leap Motion Controller as a New Contact-Free Pointing Device

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Daniel; Weichert, Frank; Rinkenauer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a Fitts' law-based analysis of the user's performance in selection tasks with the Leap Motion Controller compared with a standard mouse device. The Leap Motion Controller (LMC) is a new contact-free input system for gesture-based human-computer interaction with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. Up to this point, there has hardly been any systematic evaluation of this new system available. With an error rate of 7.8 % for the LMC and 2.8% for the mouse device, movement times twice as large as for a mouse device and high overall effort ratings, the Leap Motion Controller's performance as an input device for everyday generic computer pointing tasks is rather limited, at least with regard to the selection recognition provided by the LMC. PMID:25609043

  4. Demonstration of optically controlled data routing with the use of multiple-quantum-well bistable and electro-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppa, P.; Chavel, P.; Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Schnell, J. P.; Pocholle, J. P.

    1997-08-01

    We present experimental results on a 1-to-64-channel free-space photonic switching demonstration system based on GaAs GaAlAs multiple-quantum-well active device arrays. Two control schemes are demonstrated: data transparent optical self-routing usable in a packet-switching environment and direct optical control with potential signal amplification for circuit switching. The self-routing operation relies on the optical recognition of the binary destination address coded in each packet header. Address decoding is implemented with elementary optical bistable devices and modulator pixels as all-optical latches and electro-optical and gates, respectively. All 60 defect-free channels of the system could be operated one by one, but the simultaneous operation of only three channels could be achieved mainly because of the spatial nonhomogeneities of the devices. Direct-control operation is based on directly setting the bistable device reflectivity with a variable-control beam power. This working mode turned out to be much more tolerant of spatial noises: 37 channels of the system could be operated simultaneously. Further development of the system to a crossbar of N inputs and M outputs and system miniaturization are also considered.

  5. Control of a Glove-Based Grasp Assist Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor); Laske, Evan (Inventor); Ensley, Kody (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove and sleeve. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. The glove contains a tendon connected at a first end to the digit. The sleeve has an actuator assembly connected to a second end of the tendon and a controller in communication with the sensor. The controller includes a configuration module having selectable operating modes and a processor that calculates a tensile force to apply to the tendon for each of the selectable operating modes to assist the grasping force in a manner that differs for each of the operating modes. A method includes measuring the grasping force, selecting the mode, calculating the tensile force, and applying the tensile force to the tendon using the actuator assembly.

  6. Control Board Digital Interface Input Devices – Touchscreen, Trackpad, or Mouse?

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger Lew

    2015-08-01

    The authors collaborated with a power utility to evaluate input devices for use in the human system interface (HSI) for a new digital Turbine Control System (TCS) at a nuclear power plant (NPP) undergoing a TCS upgrade. A standalone dynamic software simulation of the new digital TCS and a mobile kiosk were developed to conduct an input device study to evaluate operator preference and input device effectiveness. The TCS software presented the anticipated HSI for the TCS and mimicked (i.e., simulated) the turbine systems’ responses to operator commands. Twenty-four licensed operators from the two nuclear power units participated in the study. Three input devices were tested: a trackpad, mouse, and touchscreen. The subjective feedback from the survey indicates the operators preferred the touchscreen interface. The operators subjectively rated the touchscreen as the fastest and most comfortable input device given the range of tasks they performed during the study, but also noted a lack of accuracy for selecting small targets. The empirical data suggest the mouse input device provides the most consistent performance for screen navigation and manipulating on screen controls. The trackpad input device was both empirically and subjectively found to be the least effective and least desired input device.

  7. Air Bag Interaction with and Injury Potential from Common Steering Control Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Greg; Dalrymple, Gayle; Ragland, Carl

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the injury potential associated with the use of steering control devices in frontal impacts. Steering control devices, an example of which is the spinner knob, are used by people who have difficulty gripping a steering wheel. These devices typically are clamped to the lower quadrant of the wheel rim and have projections that may extend out toward the occupant up to 14 cm and inward towards the air bag module up to 9 cm. A series of investigations were conducted to determine if the devices would: (1) be propelled off the rim by air bag deployment; (2) compromise air bag performance; and/or (3) cause injury to the driver. The investigations included frontal 48 km/h sled tests, quasi-static load tests, static air bag deployments, out-of-position static air bag deployments, and pendulum tests. Test subjects included the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and Hybrid III 5th percentile female anthropomorphic dummies and a male cadaver. The results indicated that there is little chance of the devices being thrown off the rim by air bag deployment and that the presence of the device had little effect on deployment or air bag performance. In addition, the presence of an air bag reduced the frequency and severity of impacts with the devices. The test results provided ample evidence of the potential of one of the devices, the “tri-pin”, to cause severe injury to the chest upon impact.

  8. A tunable microflow focusing device utilizing controllable moving walls and its applications for formation of micro-droplets in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chun-Hong; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-06-01

    This study reports a new microfluidic device capable of fine-tuned sample-flow focusing and generation of micro-droplets in liquids by controlling moving wall structures. Two microfluidic components including an 'active microchannel width controller' and a 'micro chopper' can be used to fine-tune the width of the hydrodynamically pre-focused stream and subsequently generate micro-droplets. In this study, a basic concept of a 'controllable moving wall' structure was addressed and applied as the active microchannel width controller and the micro chopper to generate the proposed function. Pneumatic side chambers were placed next to a main flow channel to construct the controllable moving wall structures. The deformation of the controllable moving wall structure can be generated by the pressurized air injected into the pneumatic side chambers. The proposed chip device was fabricated utilizing polymer material such as PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) to provide the flexibility of the controllable moving wall deformation. The microfluidic chip device with dimensions of 2.5 cm in width and 3.0 cm in length can be fabricated using a simple fabrication process. Experimental data showed that the deformation of the controllable moving wall structure can be adjusted by applying different air pressures, so that the width of the main flow channel can be controlled accordingly. By utilizing the proposed mechanism, the pre-focused dispersed phase stream could be actively focused into a narrower stream, and well-controlled micro-droplets with smaller diameters could be generated. The stream width can be reduced from 30 µm to 9 µm and micro-droplets with a diameter of 76 µm could be generated by utilizing the proposed device. In addition, to generate micro-droplets within smaller diameters, uniform size distribution of the micro-droplets can be obtained. According to the experimental results, development of the microfluidic device could be promising for a variety of applications such

  9. A voltage-controlled silver nanograting device for dynamic modulation of transmitted light based on the surface plasmon polariton effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailong; Li, Haibo; Wang, Yi; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2016-02-01

    An active-controlled plasmonic device is designed and fabricated based on the index-sensitive properties of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). We utilize a one-dimensional silver nanograting with a period of 320 nm overlayered with a liquid crystal (LC) layer (50 μm in thickness), to transmit selectively the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength. This device realizes the active, reversible and continuous control of the transmitted light wavelength by modulating the external voltage signal applied to the LC layer. This voltage-controlled plasmonic filter has a dynamic wavelength modulation range of 17 nm, a fast respond speed of 4.24 ms and a low driving voltage of 1.06 V μm-1. This study opens up a unique way for the design of tunable nanophotonic devices, such as a micro light sources and switches.An active-controlled plasmonic device is designed and fabricated based on the index-sensitive properties of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). We utilize a one-dimensional silver nanograting with a period of 320 nm overlayered with a liquid crystal (LC) layer (50 μm in thickness), to transmit selectively the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength. This device realizes the active, reversible and continuous control of the transmitted light wavelength by modulating the external voltage signal applied to the LC layer. This voltage-controlled plasmonic filter has a dynamic wavelength modulation range of 17 nm, a fast respond speed of 4.24 ms and a low driving voltage of 1.06 V μm-1. This study opens up a unique way for the design of tunable nanophotonic devices, such as a micro light sources and switches. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (1) The general theory of the VCP filter; (2) RI sensitivity; (3) the thickness optimization of the Ag grating sandwiched by photoresist layers; (4) image system; (5) detection systems for transmission and reflection spectra; (6) detection system for the response time of the VCP filter. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr

  10. Planar Gallium arsenide nanowire arrays for nanoelectronics: Controlled growth, doping, characterization, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, Ryan Stewart

    The Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism is a bottom-up approach to produce onedimensional semiconductor structures, or nanowires. VLS nanowires are formed via a chemical or physical deposition process, where a metallic nanoparticle (seed) facilitates the growth. Nanowire growth diameter is strongly correlated to seed size, therefore top-down patterning can control site location and diameter of nanowire growth. Nanowires are sought after for their potential use as a manageable way produce small dimensioned semiconductor features without the need of expensive lithographic techniques. VLS nanowires commonly grow out-of-plane with respect to their growth substrate, resulting in difficulty with integrating VLS nanowires into existing device processing which is intended for planar geometries. Nanowires are typically removed from the substrate, which requires painstaking and uneconomical methods to pattern and align the nanowires. Planar nanowires are a potential solution to this issue; they grow in-plane on the substrate surface, epitaxially attached along its entire axis. Planar nanowires, as is, can be integrated into any preexisting planar semiconductor process, combining the advantages of nanowires with increased manufacturability. In this dissertation, planar GaAs nanowires are grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Au nanoparticles as the liquid metal seed. Growth occurs across multiple substrates to elucidate the mechanism behind planar nanowire growth direction. Knowledge gained by observing planar nanowire growth is used to precisely control nanowire growth direction. Subsequently the doping of planar nanowires is explored and unique phenomena related to the p-type doping of planar nanowires are investigated and discussed. The advantages of using planar nanowires are demonstrated through the controlled growth and doping of planar nanowires, and ultimately fabrication of electronic devices using conventional planar process techniques

  11. Silk-based resorbable electronic devices for remotely controlled therapy and in vivo infection abatement.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu; Hwang, Suk-Won; Marelli, Benedetto; An, Bo; Moreau, Jodie E; Yang, Miaomiao; Brenckle, Mark A; Kim, Stanley; Kaplan, David L; Rogers, John A; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2014-12-01

    A paradigm shift for implantable medical devices lies at the confluence between regenerative medicine, where materials remodel and integrate in the biological milieu, and technology, through the use of recently developed material platforms based on biomaterials and bioresorbable technologies such as optics and electronics. The union of materials and technology in this context enables a class of biomedical devices that can be optically or electronically functional and yet harmlessly degrade once their use is complete. We present here a fully degradable, remotely controlled, implantable therapeutic device operating in vivo to counter a Staphylococcus aureus infection that disappears once its function is complete. This class of device provides fully resorbable packaging and electronics that can be turned on remotely, after implantation, to provide the necessary thermal therapy or trigger drug delivery. Such externally controllable, resorbable devices not only obviate the need for secondary surgeries and retrieval, but also have extended utility as therapeutic devices that can be left behind at a surgical or suturing site, following intervention, and can be externally controlled to allow for infection management by either thermal treatment or by remote triggering of drug release when there is retardation of antibiotic diffusion, deep infections are present, or when systemic antibiotic treatment alone is insufficient due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. After completion of function, the device is safely resorbed into the body, within a programmable period.

  12. An Automatic Occlusion Device for Remote Control of Tumor Tissue Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahdah, Hamid; Wang, Bei; He, Guanglong; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an automatic occlusion device for remote control of tumor tissue ischemia. The device consists of a flexible cannula encasing a shape memory alloy wire with its distal end connected to surgical suture. Regional tissue occlusion was tested on both the benchtop and the animal models. In the benchtop test, the occlusion device introduced quantitative and reproducible changes of blood flow in a tissue simulating phantom embedding a vessel simulator. In the animal test, the device generated a cyclic pattern of reversible ischemia in the right hinder leg tissue of a black male C57BL/6 mouse. We also developed a multimodal detector that integrates near infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for continuous monitoring of tumor tissue oxygenation, blood content, and oxygen tension changes. The multimodal detector was tested on a cancer xenograft nude mouse undergoing reversible tumor ischemia. The automatic occlusion device and the multi-modal detector can be potentially integrated for closed-loop feedback control of tumor tissue ischemia. Such an integrated occlusion device may be used in multiple clinical applications such as regional hypoperfusion control in tumor resection surgeries and thermal ablation processes. In addition, the proposed occlusion device can also be used as a research tool to understand tumor oxygen transport and hemodynamic characteristics. PMID:20082532

  13. Fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constance L. Senior; Susan Thorneloe; Bernine Khan; David Goss

    2009-07-15

    Mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant originates from the coal that is burned and leaves through the output streams, which include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent findings on the fate and environmental stability of mercury in coal combustion residues (CCRs) such as fly ash and solid products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers when either disposed or reused in agricultural, commercial, or engineering applications. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Investigations of electret as a contamination control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillai, P. K. C.; Su, C. S.; Shriver, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelectrets of polymers with stable surface charge on either side have been found to attract ions and charged particles to their surfaces. To assess their applicability to the control of atmospheric contamination, polytetraethylene (teflon) electrets are exposed to vapors coming from volatile mixtures over periods up to 90 min. Use is made of mass spectrometry for the analysis of teflon electret characteristics. It is found that even small quantities of the liquids in the mixture gives its characteristic mass spectra and that the peak height represents a measure for the quantity of the material collected over the electret surface, with the collected quantity being proportional to the duration of exposure.

  15. Multifunctional envelope-type nano device for controlled intracellular trafficking and selective targeting in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Sato, Yusuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Yuma; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-09-28

    Nanomedicine is expected to be a basic technology for using nucleic acids as a drug, in which treating the cause of diseases represent the ultimate therapy. However, a sophisticated delivery system is required for efficient delivery of RNA/DNA, since these compounds need precise control of intracellular trafficking as well as biodistribution. Here we report on the use of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) which is capable of intracellular trafficking such as endosomal escape, delivery to mitochondria, as well as active targeting to selective tissues/cells in vivo. In this review, we focused on the controlled intracellular trafficking of antigens for advanced immunotherapy, and then introduced a mitochondrial delivery system as an organelle targeting system for unmet medical needs. We also provide a successful in vivo delivery of siRNA to the liver based on a newly designed pH-responsive cationic lipid. Finally we will discuss an important role of an active targeting system using a peptide ligand to adipose vasculature. These progresses in drug delivery system will break through the barriers exist in our body, tissues and cells and open a window for future Nanomedicine.

  16. Emerging Vocabulary Learning: From a Perspective of Activities Facilitated by Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zengning

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current mobile vocabulary learning practice to discover how far mobile devices are being used to support vocabulary learning. An activity-centered perspective is undertaken, with the consideration of new practice against existing theories of learning activities including behaviorist activities, constructivist activities,…

  17. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput transfer racks. 63.985 Section 63.985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  18. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones.

  19. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones. PMID:27416111

  20. Treatment Control and Device Optimization of Transurethral Curvilinear Applicators for Prostate Thermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Mallika; Wootton, Jeffery H.; Juang, Titania; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-04-01

    Transurethral ultrasound catheter devices in curvilinear configurations are being optimized for improved treatment control and accuracy, reduced treatment times and minimizing surrounding heating of thermally sensitive structures beyond the prostate. A transient acoustic and biothermal model was used to estimate prostate temperature distributions, treatment times and rectal heating for various device configurations and control strategies while accommodating sweeping of curvilinear applicators, power modulation, outer target boundary pilot-point temperature control (sequential rotation) and changes in attenuation with lethal thermal dose. Large prostates can be treated in clinically reasonable times (20-40 min) with low rectal heating if the curvilinear device radius of curvature are increased to 25 mm, device frequency is kept low between 5-6.5 MHz and large device dimensions are chosen (5 X 20 mm) with high maximum allowable temperatures along device length. Pilot-point temperature feedback treatment control can be enhanced with decreased rectal thermal dose by using variable boundary temperatures at the posterior prostate near rectum.