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  1. Active coping, personal satisfaction, and attachment to land in older African-American farmers.

    PubMed

    Maciuba, Sandra A; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-05-01

    Elevated suicide mortality rates have been reported for farmers and for the elderly. Very little literature exists that looks at the health of older minority farmers. This mixed-method study describes older African-American farmers (N = 156) in the contexts of active coping, personal satisfaction from farm work, and attachment to their farmland to provide insight into the psychosocial dimensions of their mental health. Findings show that the farmers have positive perspectives on work and farm future, and strong attachment to the land. Differences were noted by gender. Nurses can use these findings to frame culturally appropriate strategies for aging farmers to maximize positive outcomes.

  2. Coping with HIV-related stigma in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Chirwa, Maureen L; Holzemer, William L

    2008-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This report examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. A total of 43 focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWH, and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as observed in HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. A total of 17 different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one's HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma.

  3. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  4. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  5. Coping Mechanisms of Unemployed African Men with Dependents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, Pauline; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the efficiency of the coping mechanisms of 82 unemployed African men with dependents. Results revealed significant relationships between perceived stress and stressful life events, as well as between perceived stress and four groups of coping mechanisms, the strongest relationships being reported for stressful life events, psychological…

  6. Stress and coping of the African-American physician.

    PubMed

    Post, D M; Weddington, W H

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the nature of work-related stress and coping experienced by African-American family physicians. Ten African-American family physicians across the state of Ohio were interviewed using a standardized open-ended format. Interview data were analyzed through an "editing" technique and QSR Nud*ist, a qualitative software program. Patterns and themes common to the interviews were identified. Stressors presented by research participants included experiences with racism in medicine, doubt, and a strong desire to prove oneself in the medical environment. Distinctive coping strategies involved spirituality, kinship, and the development of strength and perseverance in the face of adversity. Responses to general questions on stress and coping indicated difficulties with the shift toward managed care and use of "time for self, away from medicine" types of coping strategies. Results underscored the importance of culture and race in stress and coping processes, and suggested that programs and policies addressing the specific pressures faced by African-American physicians in training and practice need to be developed.

  7. African American women's coping with health care prejudice.

    PubMed

    Benkert, Ramona; Peters, Rosalind M

    2005-11-01

    African American clients have reported racism and prejudice in health care; yet there is limited documentation of the strategies used to cope with these experiences. This study describes African American women's perceptions of prejudice in health care and the strategies used to cope with the experiences. This qualitative study used the constructivist perspective of interpretive interactionism for paradigmatic and methodological guidance. Participants were 20 women ranging from age 26 to 74 years with 50% having a high school education. Individual interviews consisting of five areas were conducted with three instruments measuring ethnic identity, socioeconomic status, and general demographics. The analyses provide two themes: experience with the "White health care system" and strategies for coping with the prejudice, which included getting angry, learning to unlearn, being assertive, and walking away. Consistent with the discussions of race in the United States, racism in health care has become a subtle entity that infuses health care relationships.

  8. Racial Discrimination, Coping, Life Satisfaction, and Self-Esteem among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…

  9. Active and Avoidant Coping and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Maternal Involvement to Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Prelow, Hazel M.

    2007-01-01

    Our study tested an extension of the social resource model in an urban sample of 129 African American and 114 European American adolescents. Maternal involvement was positively related to the use of active and avoidant coping strategies among youth of both ethnicities. Additionally, use of active coping strategies was related to greater coping…

  10. We fall down: the African American experience of coping with the homicide of a loved one.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Boyas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Rates of homicide among African Americans are much higher than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Research has demonstrated that homicide can be psychologically debilitating for surviving family members. Yet, exploring the experiences of homicide victims’ surviving loved ones has received little attention. This study examined the coping strategies of African American survivors of homicide. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 African American family members (ages 18-82) of homicide victims. Survivors were recruited from the Massachusetts Office of Victim Services and from homicide survivor support, school, and community groups throughout the New England area. Interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from coping, support network, grief, and bereavement literatures. Results indicate that the primary coping strategies utilized by African American survivors of homicide victims are spiritual coping and meaning making, maintaining a connection to the deceased, collective coping and caring for others, and concealment. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22073426

  11. Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide. PMID:17080183

  12. Multiple Resistance Strategies: How African American Women Cope with Racism and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter-Gooden, Kumea

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study of a community sample of 196 African American women aimed to identify the coping strategies that Black women use to manage the stress of racism and sexism. The findings reveal that they use multiple resistance strategies: (a) three ongoing internal coping strategies (resting on faith--relying on prayer and spirituality;…

  13. The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents'…

  14. School Attendance Revisited: A Study of Urban African American Students' Grade Point Averages and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.

    2008-01-01

    Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…

  15. Drinking to Cope among African-American College Students: An Assessment of Episode-specific Motives

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Scott, Denise; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Williams, Carla; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that African Americans are disproportionately affected by drinking to cope relative to European Americans, African-American college students’ drinking motives remain understudied. Additionally, most research has only examined between-person differences in drinking to cope as a predictor of alcohol use, ignoring within-person variability. In the current daily diary study of 462 African-American undergraduates from a historically Black university, associations between episode-specific drinking to cope and alcohol use were tested, an approach more consistent with motivational theories of drinking. At baseline, students completed traditional global drinking motive measures; then for 30 days they reported the number of standard drinks they consumed the previous night, and, if they drank, their coping, enhancement, and social reasons for doing so. Students who reported higher mean levels of episode-specific coping motives, on average, consumed more alcohol on drinking evenings. Furthermore, mean episode-specific coping motives, but not global coping motives, predicted average levels of alcohol use. Additionally, coping motives were particularly important for predicting nonsocial (versus social) drinking. Finally, during evenings for which students reported higher than usual episode-specific coping motives, men consumed more alcohol in both social and nonsocial contexts; in contrast, women reporting higher than usual drinking-to-cope motives only consumed more nonsocial drinks. In conclusion, drinking among African-American college students was related to coping motives, particularly among men and in the context of nonsocial alcohol consumption. Moreover, motivational theories of alcohol use may be refined by measuring episode-specific drinking motives that more accurately capture the drinking-to-cope process. PMID:25134052

  16. Drinking to cope among African American college students: an assessment of episode-specific motives.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Boynton, Marcella H; Scott, Denise M; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Williams, Carla; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    Despite evidence that African Americans are disproportionately affected by drinking to cope relative to European Americans, African American college students' drinking motives remain understudied. Additionally, most research has only examined between-person differences in drinking to cope as a predictor of alcohol use, ignoring within-person variability. In the current daily diary study of 462 African American undergraduates from a historically Black university, associations between episode-specific drinking to cope motives and alcohol use were tested, an approach more consistent with motivational theories of drinking. At baseline, students completed traditional global drinking motive measures; then for 30 days they reported the number of standard drinks they consumed the previous night, and, if they drank, their coping, enhancement, and social reasons for doing so. Students who reported higher mean levels of episode-specific coping motives, on average, consumed more alcohol on drinking evenings. Furthermore, mean episode-specific coping motives, but not global coping motives, predicted average levels of alcohol use. Additionally, coping motives were particularly important for predicting nonsocial (vs. social) drinking. Finally, during evenings for which students reported higher than usual episode-specific coping motives, men consumed more alcohol in both social and nonsocial contexts; in contrast, women reporting higher than usual drinking-to-cope motives only consumed more nonsocial drinks. In conclusion, drinking among African American college students was related to coping motives, particularly among men and in the context of nonsocial alcohol consumption. Moreover, motivational theories of alcohol use may be refined by measuring episode-specific drinking motives that more accurately capture the drinking-to-cope process. PMID:25134052

  17. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Female Graduate Students Coping with Racism and Racism-Related

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kelsie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…

  18. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  19. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  20. Religious Coping Among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S; Lincoln, Karen D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African American, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White differences in attitudes regarding religious coping with higher endorsements of religious coping among African Americans and Black Caribbeans (Caribbean Blacks). Comparisons of African Americans and Black Caribbeans revealed both similar and divergent patterns of demographic effects. For both African Americans and Black Caribbeans, women were more likely to utilize religious coping than men and married respondents were more likely than never married respondents to report utilizing prayer when dealing with a stressful situation. Further, for both groups, higher levels of education were associated with lower endorsements of the importance of prayer in dealing with stressful situations. Among African Americans only, Southerners were more likely than respondents who resided in other regions to endorse religious coping. Among Black Caribbeans, those who emigrated from Haiti were more likely than Jamaicans to utilize religious coping when dealing with a stressful episode. PMID:21048887

  1. African American Women's Beliefs, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967

  2. Stress and coping: the influence of racism on the cognitive appraisal processing of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Outlaw, F H

    1993-01-01

    Individuals who experience repeated stressful events are at risk for developing physical and psychological illnesses. African Americans are an ethnic group that is exposed to a range of stressors over time, including racism which leads to discrimination. African Americans also suffer disproportionately from hypertension, cardiac disease, obesity, and drug and alcohol abuse--all illnesses that have been linked to stress. This paper describes a model to guide nursing practice, research, and education about the influence of racism on the cognitive appraisal, stress, and coping of African Americans. Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) phenomenological approach to cognitive appraisal, stress, and coping is the theoretical framework on which the model is based.

  3. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  4. Comparison of African American college students' coping with racially and nonracially stressful events.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Byrd, Christy M; Sellers, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Racial discrimination, a common experience for many African Americans, has been conceptualized within a stress and coping framework. However, few have examined whether racially stressful events are appraised and coped with differently from nonracially stressful events. The present study uses a daily diary method to examine African American college students' appraisals and coping behaviors in racially and nonracially stressful situations. The study examines the following 3 questions: 1) Do African Americans appraise racially stressful events differently from nonracially stressful events? 2) Do they cope with racially stressful events differently from nonracially stressful events? and 3) Do they cope with racially stressful events differently from nonracially stressful events, even after controlling for differences in cognitive appraisals of the events? The present sample consists of 35 participants who reported experiencing at least one racially stressful event and at least one nonracially stressful event during a 20-day diary study. Overall, no differences were found in students' appraisals in the racially stressful versus nonracially stressful events. Participants used less planful problem solving and more confrontive, ruminative, and avoidance coping strategies in the racially stressful events as compared with the nonracially stressful events. These findings suggest a need for race-specific models for coping with racial discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Gendered racism, psychological distress, and coping styles of African American women.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen M; Speight, Suzette L

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the relationship of the accumulative effect of gendered racism, the discrimination felt by African American women, on psychological distress. The study also explores whether coping serves as a mediating variable between gendered racism and psychological distress. Over 300 African American women participated in the study and were administered the Symptoms Checklist 90, a revised version of the Schedule of Sexist Events, and the Africultural Coping Styles Inventory. A positive significant relationship between global psychological distress was found with experiences of gendered racism. Regression analyses suggest some degree of partial mediation on the relationship between gendered racism and global psychological distress via cognitive-emotional coping styles, but no mediating effects with spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping. Suggestions for future research and implications are discussed.

  6. Racism-related stress, Africultural coping, and religious problem-solving among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Coles, Ma'at E Lyris; Constantine, Madonna G

    2006-07-01

    This study explored the extent to which three types of racism-related stress (i.e., individual, institutional, and cultural) would predict the use of specific Africultural coping strategies (i.e., cognitive/emotional debriefing, spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping) and religious problem-solving styles (i.e., self-directing, deferring, and collaborative) in a sample of 284 African American men and women. The authors found that higher institutional racism-related stress was associated with greater use of cognitive/emotional debriefing, spiritual-centered, and collective coping in African American women. Findings also indicated that higher cultural racism-related stress was predictive of lower use of self-directing religious problem-solving in African American women. Moreover, higher perceived cultural racism-related stress was related to greater use of collective coping strategies in African American men. Individual racism-related stress was not predictive of any forms of Africultural coping strategies or religious problem-solving. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. “If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you’re shattered”: Perspectives on African American men’s stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2015-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  8. Surviving the Storm: The Role of Social Support and Religious Coping in Sexual Assault Recovery of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Gobin, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for sexual assault. In addition, many African American women endorse use of social support and religiosity to cope with life stressors. The current study investigates the relationship between these two coping strategies and post-trauma symptoms (depression and PTSD) in a sample of 413 African American female sexual assault survivors using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings indicated that African American assault survivors who have greater social support were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression and PTSD. Conversely, increased use of religious coping was related to greater endorsement of depression and PTSD symptoms. Counseling and research implications are explored. PMID:22410773

  9. Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.; Lincoln, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White…

  10. Adverse Life Events, Coping and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-01-01

    African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…

  11. Stress and Coping in African American Grandparents Who Are Raising Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mary Ellen Trail; Aday, Lu Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the degree of stress in 50 African American grandparents ("M" = 63.12 years) who are raising their grandchildren and identified the importance of caregiver characteristics, the caregiving situation, and specific coping strategies that influence stress. Data were collected via interview at senior centers and churches in…

  12. Correlates of coping with perceived discriminatory experiences among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lionel D

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the relation of background and race-related factors to the use of approach and avoidance strategies to cope with perceived discriminatory experiences among a sample of African American adolescents of relative affluence ( n = 71). Results showed that gender, family structure, socioeconomic status (SES), perceived control over discriminatory experiences, discrimination distress, and racism-related socialization were significant correlates of coping with perceived discriminatory experiences. Results concerning gender, perceived control, and stress arousal were consistent with findings from the general adolescent stress and coping literature. Results concerning family structure, SES, and socialization suggest that certain factors may be very important for the positive adjustment of African American adolescents in the face of race-related adversity.

  13. African American women's beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.

  14. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  15. The Unique Coping Strategies of African American Families with a Loved One with Schizophrenia: The Use of the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guada, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses how a sample of African American families with a loved one with schizophrenia cope using a commonly used family coping scale (F-COPES). The scale's overall performance and psychometric properties were tested to highlight how such families cope. The results demonstrated that families used proactive verses passive ways of coping.…

  16. Understanding the sociocultural context of coping for African American family members of homicide victims: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L

    2015-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of African American survivors of homicide victims places them at greater risk for compromised mental health. However, an examination of factors that influence how this population copes with this traumatic event is absent from the literature. This article elucidates the importance of sociocultural factors that influence coping resources and strategies for African Americans surviving the homicide of a loved one. A socioculturally responsive model of coping is presented that can be utilized in furthering the development of research and practice that is culturally responsive to the needs of African American survivors of homicide victims.

  17. This Too Shall Pass: Evidence of Coping and Fading Emotion in African Americans' Memories of Violent and Nonviolent Death.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dawn X; Bond, Gary D; Alderson, Courtney J; Walker, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined African Americans essays on coping with violent and nonviolent death and fading affect bias. Essays from 101 African Americans were coded for psychological resolution (resolved or unresolved) and for type of death (violent or nonviolent). Linguistic analyses were used to examine the experience of loss and coping methods. Religious coping was important for nonviolent death events while social support and emotion (e.g., crying) were themes that emerged for violent death events. For unresolved violent death events, dissociation was a common theme. The perceived change in the emotional intensity of the events was examined and revealed that the negative emotion showed evidence of substantial fading. Overall, these results suggest religious coping, social support and sharing enhance coping among African American participants. These processes can help negative affect associated with death events fade, allowing for psychological resolution, healing, and resilience.

  18. Religion and Spirituality in the Meaning-Making and Coping Experiences of African American Women: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the ways in which African American women use religion/spirituality to cope and to construct meaning in times of adversity. Content analysis of the narratives of a sample of African American women respondents (n = 23) revealed a set of eight nonoverlapping themes that explicate religiosity/spirituality's role in…

  19. Lessons learned in developing a culturally adapted intervention for African-American families coping with parental cancer.

    PubMed

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Prior clinical research supports the effectiveness of cancer support groups for cancer patients and their families, yet African-American families continue to be underrepresented in cancer support groups and in cancer clinical research studies. In order to fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a culturally adapted family support group for African-American families coping with parental cancer. We encountered unexpected challenges in overcoming barriers to recruitment, partnering with oncology providers, and building trust with the African-American community and African-American families coping with parental cancer. We describe actions taken during the two phases of this study and lessons learned along the way about recruiting and engaging African-American families in cancer support group studies, partnering with oncology providers, networking with the African-American community, and the importance of demonstrating cultural sensitivity to overcome the understandable historical legacy of mistrust.

  20. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  1. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  2. Getting mad but ending up sad: the mental health consequences for African Americans using anger to cope with racism.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Chavella T

    2011-01-01

    Anger is a common reaction to stressful life events. However, little is known about anger’s use and efficacy as a coping strategy for racism. Is anger a coping strategy for racism that improves mental health? Or does anger operate in an opposing way, deteriorating mental health? The analyses for this research focused on a probability sample of African Americans who reported experiences of acute (n = 246) or chronic (n = 120) racial discrimination in a survey interview. General linear model results revealed that using anger to cope with racial discrimination negatively affected the general well-being and psychological distress of African Americans. These findings raise concerns about the effectiveness (or lack therefore of) of anger as a common coping mechanism for racism, given the deleterious effects it may have on African Americans’ mental health.

  3. Development of the Ways Of Helping Questionnaire: a measure of preferred coping strategies for older African American cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill B; Stewart, Barbara J; Crandell, Jamie L; Lynn, Mary R

    2009-06-01

    Although researchers have identified beneficial coping strategies for cancer patients, existing coping measures do not capture the preferred coping strategies of older African American cancer survivors. A new measure, the Ways of Helping Questionnaire (WHQ), was evaluated with 385 African American cancer survivors. Validity evidence from factor analysis resulted in 10 WHQ subscales (Others There for Me, Physical and Treatment Care Needs, Help from God, Church Family Support, Helping Others, Being Strong for Others, Encouraging My Healthy Behaviors, Others Distract Me, Learning about Cancer, and Distracting Myself). Reliability evidence was generally strong. Evidence regarding hypothesized relationships with measures of well-being and another coping measure was mixed. The WHQ's content coverage makes it especially relevant for older African American cancer survivors. PMID:19259991

  4. Information-seeking coping behaviors during painful procedures in African-American children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Schlenz, Alyssa M; Schatz, Jeffrey; McClellan, Catherine B; Sweitzer, Sarah M; Roberts, Carla W

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the frequency of information-seeking coping behaviors in 37 African-American children (ages 5-17 years) with sickle cell disease during venipuncture. The relationships between coping behaviors and child- and parent-reported pain and observational distress were also assessed. The majority of children attended to the procedure, but did not seek information via questions. This pattern of coping was only partially effective at reducing distress and had no relation to pain. This pattern of coping is discussed within the context of cultural factors that may be important in understanding responses to procedural pain in pediatric sickle cell disease.

  5. Assessing social vulnerability in African urban context. The challenge to cope with climate change induced hazards by communities and households

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory

  6. Role of religion in cancer coping among African Americans: A qualitative examination

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Penny; Buckner, Ayanna; Lawrence, Hope

    2013-01-01

    The present study used qualitative methods to examine if and how African Americans with cancer use religiosity in coping. Patients (N=23) were recruited from physician offices and completed 1–1.5 hour interviews. Themes that emerged included but were not limited to control over one’s illness, emotional response, importance of social support, role of God as a healer, relying on God, importance of faith for recovery, prayer and scripture study, and how one makes sense of the illness. Participants had a great deal to say about the role of religion in coping. These themes may have utility for development of support interventions if they can be operationalized and intervened upon. PMID:19337932

  7. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  8. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence. PMID:27138173

  9. Sub-Saharan African Women Living with HIV/AIDS: An Exploration of General and Spiritual Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Roby, Jini L.

    2010-01-01

    From a global perspective, the typical person living with HIV/AIDS is likely a sub-Saharan African woman. Yet despite calls from NASW to adopt a global outlook on the HIV/AIDS crisis, little research has examined how such women cope. In this study, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore how one sample of sub-Saharan African women (N…

  10. Healing pathways: longitudinal effects of religious coping and social support on PTSD symptoms in African American sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah; Tsong, Yuying; Anderson, Gera; Counts, Pamela; Tillman, Shaquita; Bhang, Cecile; Gray, Anthea

    2015-01-01

    African American women are at a slightly increased risk for sexual assault (A. Abbey, A. Jacques-Tiaura, & M. Parkhill, 2010). However, because of stigma, experiences of racism, and historical oppression, African American women are less likely to seek help from formal agencies compared to White women (Lewis et al., 2005; S. E. Ullman & H. H. Filipas, 2001) and/or women of other ethnic backgrounds (C. Ahrens, S. Abeling, S. Ahmad, & J. Himman, 2010). Therefore, the provision of culturally appropriate services, such as the inclusion of religion and spiritual coping, may be necessary when working with African American women survivors of sexual assault. Controlling for age and education, the current study explores the impact of religious coping and social support over 1 year for 252 African American adult female sexual assault survivors recruited from the Chicago metropolitan area. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses reveal that high endorsement of religious coping and social support at Time 1 does not predict a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at Time 2. However, high social support at Time 2 does predict lower PTSD at Time 2. Also, it is significant to note that survivors with high PTSD at Time 1 and Time 2 endorse greater use of social support and religious coping. Clinical and research implications are explored.

  11. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  12. Healing Pathways: Longitudinal Effects of Religious Coping and Social Support on PTSD symptoms in African American Sexual Assault Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah; Tsong, Yuying; Anderson, Gera; Counts, Pamela; Tillman, Shaquita; Bhang, Cecile; Gray, Anthea

    2014-01-01

    African American women are at slightly increased risk for sexual assault (Abbey, Jacques-Tiaura, & Parkhill, 2010). However, due to stigma, experiences of racism, and historical oppression, African American women are less likely to seek help from formal agencies when compared to White women (Ullman & Filipas, 2001; Lewis, Resnick, Smith, Best, & Saunders, 2005) and/or women of other ethnic backgrounds (Ahrens, Abeling, Ahmad, & Himman, 2010). Therefore, the provision of culturally appropriate services, such as the inclusion of religion and spiritual coping, may be necessary when working with African American women survivors of sexual assault. The current study, controlling for age and education, explores the impact of religious coping and social support over one year for 252 African American adult female sexual assault survivors recruited from the Chicago metropolitan area. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed high endorsement of religious coping and social support at Time 1 does not predict a reduction of PTSD symptoms at Time 2. However, high social support at Time 2 does predict lower PTSD at Time 2. Also it is significant to note, survivors with high PTSD at Time 1 and Time 2 endorse greater use of social support and religious coping. Clinical and research implications are explored. PMID:25387044

  13. The Roles of Stress and Coping in Explaining Gender Differences in Risk for Psychopathology among African American Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ginger Apling; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    This study used self-report symptom inventories administered in school classrooms to examine relations among gender, psychological symptoms, stress, and coping in 1,200 low-income African American urban early adolescents. Girls reported more symptoms than boys, accounted for by higher internalizing symptoms. Boys reported more stress than girls,…

  14. Coping with obesity stigma affects depressed mood in African-American and white candidates for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fettich, Karla C; Chen, Eunice Y

    2012-05-01

    Depressed mood in severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking candidates is influenced by obesity stigma, yet the strategies for coping with this stigma are less well understood. This study hypothesized that coping strategies are significantly associated with depressed mood above and beyond demographic factors and frequency of weight-related stigma, with specific coping strategies differing between racial groups. Severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking adults (N = 234; 91 African Americans) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI). Two hierarchical linear regressions were conducted separately for African Americans and whites. For both racial groups, age, sex, BMI, years overweight, annual income, and education level did not account for a significant portion of the variance in BDI scores. The frequency of stigmatizing situations and coping strategies significantly explained 16.4% and 33.2%, respectively, of the variance for whites, and 25.9% and 25%, respectively, for African Americans (P < 0.001). Greater depressed mood in whites was associated with older age, lower education, fewer positive self-statements, and less self-love and more crying; while in African Americans greater depressed mood was associated only with ignoring the situation (P < 0.05). The study found that regardless of race, depressed mood in severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking clients is related to the frequency of stigmatizing experiences and associated coping strategies. This suggests that efforts to reduce the deleterious effects of weight-related stigma need to focus both on reducing the frequency of stigmatization and on teaching effective coping strategies. These efforts also need to take into account the client's racial background. PMID:22282108

  15. Spirituality and religious coping in African American youth with depressive illness

    PubMed Central

    Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Wong, Michele J; Childers, Trenita; Hankerson, Sidney; Sotomayor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The research team completed a secondary data analysis of primary data from a 2 phase depression treatment engagement behavioral trial to assess African American adolescents reported experiences of spiritual and religious coping when dealing with depression. The team utilized data collected from twenty-eight youth who participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic techniques for transcript-based analysis to identify the key patterns and elements of the study participants’ accounts and to extract 6 primary themes. The main themes are reported in this manuscript and include; “Religion as Treatment Incentive”, “Prayer & Agency”, “Mixed Emotions”, “Doesn't Hurt, Might Help”, “Finding Support in the Church”, and “Prayer and Church: Barriers to Treatment?” Overall, the data suggested that religion and spirituality play a key role in African American adolescents’ experiences of depression. As well, it is surmised that these factors may be important for improving treatment seeking behaviors and reducing racial mental health disparities in this population of youth. PMID:26500425

  16. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  17. Disentangling the effects of race and SES on arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being in African American and White women.

    PubMed

    McIlvane, J M

    2007-09-01

    This study examined both unique and interactive effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being in African American and White women. Participants included 77 African American and 98 White women, aged 45 to 90, who completed structured, face-to-face interviews. A series of 2 x 2 MANCOVAs examined race (African American, White) and SES (high/low education or high/low occupational status) differences in arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being. African Americans used more religious coping, wishful-thinking, seeking social support, and emotional expression than Whites. Individuals with low SES reported worse arthritis-related symptoms, poorer well-being, and greater use of coping strategies that tend to be maladaptive. Race x SES interactions revealed higher depressive symptoms in African Americans with low versus high education and coping differences in African Americans with low versus high occupational status; however differences in depressive symptoms and coping based on SES were not evident for Whites. Results demonstrate unique and interactive race and SES differences for arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being showing the complexity of race and SES in the realm of physical and mental health.

  18. Coping and distress among women under treatment for early stage breast cancer: comparing African Americans, Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Culver, Jenifer L; Arena, Patricia L; Antoni, Michael H; Carver, Charles S

    2002-01-01

    This study examined coping and distress in African American (n=8), Hispanic (n=53), and non-Hispanic White (n=70) women with early stage breast cancer. The participants were studied prospectively across a year beginning at the time of surgery. African American women reported the lowest levels of distress (particularly before surgery) and depression symptoms. Hispanic women reported the highest levels of self-distraction as a coping response, non-Hispanic Whites reported the highest use of humor. Hispanics reported the highest levels of venting, African Americans reported the lowest levels. African American and Hispanic women reported more religious coping than non-Hispanic Whites. The data also provided evidence of a maladaptive spiral of distress and avoidant coping over time. Although some ethnic differences were identified, findings also point to a great many similarities across groups. PMID:12476431

  19. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  20. Coping Strategies as Moderators of the Relation between Individual Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…

  1. Examining the Role of Culture-Specific Coping as a Predictor of Resilient Outcomes in African Americans from High-Risk Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Bolden, Mark A.; Lanier, Yzette; Williams, Otis, III

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the role of culture-specific coping in relation to resilient outcomes in African Americans from high-risk urban communities. Participants (N = 385) were administered a survey questionnaire packet containing measures of culture-specific coping, traditional resilience factors (cognitive ability, social support, and…

  2. Dynamic neural activity during stress signals resilient coping.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Constable, R Todd; Seo, Dongju

    2016-08-01

    Active coping underlies a healthy stress response, but neural processes supporting such resilient coping are not well-known. Using a brief, sustained exposure paradigm contrasting highly stressful, threatening, and violent stimuli versus nonaversive neutral visual stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show significant subjective, physiologic, and endocrine increases and temporally related dynamically distinct patterns of neural activation in brain circuits underlying the stress response. First, stress-specific sustained increases in the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain, right insula, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions supported the stress processing and reactivity circuit. Second, dynamic neural activation during stress versus neutral runs, showing early increases followed by later reduced activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left DLPFC, hippocampus, and left insula, suggested a stress adaptation response network. Finally, dynamic stress-specific mobilization of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), marked by initial hypoactivity followed by increased VmPFC activation, pointed to the VmPFC as a key locus of the emotional and behavioral control network. Consistent with this finding, greater neural flexibility signals in the VmPFC during stress correlated with active coping ratings whereas lower dynamic activity in the VmPFC also predicted a higher level of maladaptive coping behaviors in real life, including binge alcohol intake, emotional eating, and frequency of arguments and fights. These findings demonstrate acute functional neuroplasticity during stress, with distinct and separable brain networks that underlie critical components of the stress response, and a specific role for VmPFC neuroflexibility in stress-resilient coping. PMID:27432990

  3. The Impact of Neighborhood Environment, Social Support and Avoidance Coping on Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Templin, Thomas; Engeland, Christopher G.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang; Kavanaugh, Karen; Dieber, William; Misra, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Background Although depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been related to negative maternal and child health outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight infants, postpartum depression and maladaptive mother-infant interactions, studies on the impact of neighborhood environment on depressive symptoms in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support. No researchers have examined the relationship between neighborhood environment and avoidance coping in pregnant women. Guided by the Ecological model and Lazarus and Folkman’s transactional model of stress and coping, we examined whether social support and avoidance coping mediated associations between the neighborhood environment and depressive symptoms in pregnant African American women. Methods Pregnant African American women (N = 95) from a medical center in Chicago completed the instruments twice during pregnancy between 15-25 weeks and 25-37 weeks. The self-administered instruments measured perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms using items from existing scales. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were derived using geographic information systems. Findings Perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated in the expected directions. Objective physical disorder and crime were negatively related to social support. Social support at time one (20 ± 2.6 weeks) mediated associations between the perceived neighborhood environment at time one and depressive symptoms at time two (29 ± 2.7 weeks). An increase in avoidance coping between time one and time two also mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood environment at time one on depressive symptoms at time two. Conclusion Pregnant African American women’s negative perceptions of their neighborhoods

  4. The Relationship between Sexual Coping and the Frequency of Sexual Risk among ‘At Risk’ African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire E.; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between one specific type of avoidant coping behavior–namely, having sex to cope with one’s worries or problems–and the frequency with which ‘at risk’ women engage in risky sexual relations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 221 African American women drug abusers in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. The community identification process was used for recruitment, with additional recruitment done via targeted sampling. A variety of demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use-related measures, psychosocial and attitudinal items, and relationship characteristics were examined for their influence both on the frequency of engaging in risky sex and the extent to which women had sex to cope. Multivariate analysis revealed that having sex to cope was a statistically-significant predictor of the frequency with which women engaged in risky sexual behaviors. A separate analysis of the predictors of having sex to cope yielded seven items that were important for understanding the extent to which women engaged in sexual coping: age, number of health information sources, amount of physical abuse, reasons for not using condoms, overall attitudes toward condom use, level of partner communication, and the amount of help available from one’s support network. The intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed, emphasizing the needs: to target younger women, to target and help survivors of childhood maltreatment to deal with unresolved issues, to make attitudes toward using condoms more conducive, to improve partner communication, and to bolster support network relationships. PMID:23843727

  5. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  6. Coping Behavior in Hurricane-Affected African American Youth: Psychometric Properties of the Kidcope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigna, Julia F.; Hernandez, Brittany C.; Kelley, Mary L.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina forced thousands of children in and around New Orleans to cope with life-altering circumstances. The Kidcope, a checklist designed to assess coping in pediatric populations, has been used to evaluate children after disasters. Research has demonstrated the importance of considering the role of cultural factors in the development…

  7. CHICAGO COPED ACTIVITIES--SOME COMMENTS ON STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND THE HELPING RELATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIGHTHALL, FREDERICK F.

    THE CHICAGO COOPERATIVE PROJECT IN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (COPED), LIKE OTHER COPED CENTERS, WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY AND FACILITATE THE PROCESS OF PLANNED CHANGE IN SCHOOL SYSTEMS. THE PROJECT IS DESCRIBED AS "EMERGENT," SLOWLY EVOLVING WITH EACH ACTIVITY ALTERING ITS DEVELOPMENT. A DISTINCTION IS MADE BETWEEN PLANNING AND PREPARATION. COPED IS…

  8. The Relationship between Active Coping and Trait Resilience across U.S. and Taiwanese College Student Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Hui; Nishikawa, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This study compared predictors of active coping (people's tendency to actively cope with stress) among college students in the United States and Taiwan. In both samples, trait resilience predicted active coping and mediated the effect of self-efficacy on active coping. The findings indicate that trait resilience influences college students' active…

  9. An Exploratory Study of Differences in Self-Esteem, Kinship Social Support, and Coping Responses among African American ACOAs and Non-ACOAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Camille

    2007-01-01

    The author sought to identify differences in kinship social support, self-esteem, and coping responses between African American college students who identify themselves as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics (non-ACOAs) at 2 separate universities. The results indicate that there were no differences in levels of…

  10. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…

  11. Mental Health Treatment Involvement and Religious Coping among African American, Hispanic, and White Veterans of the Wars of Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Greenawalt, David S; Tsan, Jack Y; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Kruse, Marc I; Tharp, David F; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Morissette, Sandra B

    2011-01-01

    Although racial/ethnic differences have been found in the use of mental health services for depression in the general population, research among Veterans has produced mixed results. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the use of mental health services among 148 Operation Enduring/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with high levels of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and evaluated whether religious coping affected service use. No differences between African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic white Veterans were found in use of secular mental health services or religious counseling. Women Veterans were more likely than men to seek secular treatment. After controlling for PTSD symptoms, depression symptom level was a significant predictor of psychotherapy attendance but not medication treatment. African American Veterans reported higher levels of religious coping than whites. Religious coping was associated with participation in religious counseling, but not secular mental health services.

  12. Physical activity participation in African American churches.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; McClorin, Lottie

    2009-01-01

    The potential benefit of physical activity (PA) programs delivered through churches is largely unexamined. This study examined availability of PA programs, interpersonal support for PA, and PA participation in African-American churches. Individuals from a random sample of 20 churches in South Carolina participated in a telephone survey (N = 571). Forty two percent of respondents reported PA programs at their churches. Walking programs (20%), aerobics (22%) or a combination of both (20%) were most common. Respondents who reported having these programs were more likely to meet PA recommendations than those who did not (p = 0.05). Larger churches were more likely to offer PA programs (p = 0.02) than small or medium sized churches. Only 24% of respondents had spoken with the health director at their church about participating in a PA program, and only 25% and 33% had ever spoken with another church member about a PA program or were encouraged to join a PA program, respectively. Individuals with more interpersonal support from other church members for PA were significantly more likely to meet PA recommendations (p = 0.01). This study indicates that program and interpersonal supports within African American churches may offer a venue for increasing PA among members.

  13. Rural and urban older African caregivers coping with HIV/AIDS are nutritionally compromised.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Annamarie; Lekalakalamokgela, Sebi E; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the nutritional status of a group of rural and urban free living African older surrogate parents caring for HIV/AIDS orphans and grandchildren. Multiple sources of data collection were used, including anthropometry, biochemical analyses, and quantitative questionnaires. The diets of these older participants were marginal. The rural to urban geographical transition in these older persons is characterized by a better micronutrient and trace element intake; however, urban dwellers also had higher fat intakes, increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. These results suggest that to be a surrogate grandparent provides a special meaning to the life of men that needs to be better understood. However, the diets of these older people caring for HIV/AIDS-affected children were more compromised than those of non-caregivers. PMID:21846243

  14. Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI.

  15. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  16. Young Urban African American Adolescents' Experience of Discretionary Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Richards, Maryse H.; Kolmodin, Karen E.; Lakin, Brittany L.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the daily discretionary time experiences of 246 (107 boys, 139 girls) fifth through eighth grade urban African American adolescents using the Experience Sampling Method. Relations between the types of activities (i.e., active structured, active unstructured, passive unstructured) engaged in during discretionary…

  17. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-01-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008–09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011–12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  18. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  19. African American Women Coping with the Lived Experiences of Limited Mental Healthcare Access in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesane, Everick S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of lived experiences among African American women with limited mental healthcare access in rural North Carolina. The research examined how those lived experiences-due to limited transportation, low socioeconomic status, and limited healthcare access-further exacerbate emotional challenges among African American…

  20. Coping with Racial Discrimination: Assessing the Vulnerability of African Americans and the Mediated Moderation of Psychosocial Resources

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483

  1. Psychosocial variables associated with coping of HIV-positive women diagnosed during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Marinda; Visser, Maretha; Makin, Jenny; Sikkema, Kathleen; Forsyth, Brian

    2013-02-01

    To identify psychosocial variables related to the use of coping strategies by HIV-positive South African women diagnosed during pregnancy, structured interviews were conducted with 224 HIV-positive women at antenatal clinics over a period of 2 years. Two coping styles, active and avoidant coping, were assessed using an adapted version of the Brief COPE. Psychosocial variables associated with changes in coping over time were identified with mixed linear analysis. Increases in active coping were associated with decreasing levels of internalized stigma and depression, increasing self-esteem and positive social support, knowing someone who is living with HIV, being physically healthy and living above the poverty line. Increases in avoidant coping were associated with increasing internalized stigma and depression, lower levels of self-esteem, HIV-knowledge and lower levels of education. Recommendations are made for psychological support services to strengthen women's ability to cope and enhance their health and that of their infants.

  2. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  3. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  4. Predicting Changes in Physical Activity among Adolescents: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Intention, Action Planning and Coping Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo-Soares, Vera; McIntyre, Teresa; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to test the direct predictors of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), action planning and coping planning as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) in 157 adolescents (mean age: 12). TPB measures, the Action Planning and Coping Planning Scales (APCPS) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaires were measured…

  5. Active Coping Reduces Reports of Pain from Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain and negative moods during labor in relation to instructions to monitor labor contractions and LaMaze class attendance. In Study 1, pain and negative moods showed sharp decline at Stage 2 (active labor) for women who monitored and LaMaze participants; in Study 2, LaMaze participants reported decline in pain during active labor and…

  6. Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fabry, W; Okemo, P O; Ansorg, R

    1998-02-01

    In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached by 50% (MIC50%) and 90% (MIC90) of the strains for the extracts of E. abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, and A. indica (stem bark) ranged from 0.13-8 mg/ml and from 0.5 to > 8 mg/ml, respectively. Their minimum bactericidal concentration by 50% (MBC50%) and MBC90% were all between 0.5 and > 8 mg/ml. H. abyssinica, A. indica (leaves), and S. mauritiana (roots and flowers) had MIC and MBC values > or = 8 mg/ml. Mycobacteria were not inhibited at extract concentrations of 0.5-2 mg/ml. It is concluded that plant extracts with low MIC and MBC values may serve as sources for compounds with therapeutic potency. PMID:9533435

  7. Personality and coping.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  8. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  9. Coping Behavior Causes Asymmetric Changes in Neuronal Activation in the Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Stalnaker, Thomas A.; España, Rodrigo A.; Berridge, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    When faced with an inescapable stressor, animals may engage in ‘coping’ behaviors, such as chewing inedible objects, that attenuate some physiological responses to the stressor. Previous evidence indicates that dopamine neurotransmission in the right prefrontal cortex is modulated by coping processes. Here we tested whether medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) neuronal activation, as measured by Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir), was altered in rats chewing inedible objects during exposure to novelty stress. We found that chewing caused an increase in Fos-ir that was selective for the right hemisphere of the mPFC along with a decrease in Fos-ir that was selective for the right central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a region that may regulate dopamine neurotransmission in mPFC. These observations suggest that coping during stress engages mPFC and CeA neuronal activity asymmetrically. PMID:18932226

  10. Coping strategies employed by women with endometriosis in a public health-care setting.

    PubMed

    Roomaney, Rizwana; Kagee, Ashraf

    2016-10-01

    This study explored how South African patients attending public health facilities reported coping with endometriosis. A total of 16 women with endometriosis were interviewed, and we explored how participants coped with endometriosis. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Participants reported employing both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies to cope with endometriosis. Problem-focused strategies included limiting physical activities, increasing knowledge about endometriosis, scheduling social and work activities around menstrual cycle, engaging in self-management and relying on social support. Emotion-focused coping strategies included accepting the disease, adopting a positive attitude, engaging in self talk and evoking spirituality.

  11. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  12. Divergent effects of active coping on psychological distress in the context of the job demands-control-support model: the roles of job control and social support.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odara, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on psychological distress in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 726 male nonmanagers in a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine whether active coping and coping resources (job control, supervisor support, and coworker support) have interaction effects on psychological distress. Active coping had an interaction effect with coworker support, whereas it did not with job control and supervisor support. Results suggest that coworker support can facilitate the effectiveness of active coping, whereas job control or supervisor support cannot.

  13. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100 μg/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06 μg/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

  15. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory. PMID:27029108

  16. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory.

  17. Activity of east African medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

    1996-01-01

    The activity of extracts from the East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (leaves and stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were evaluated against 12 strains of Helicobacter pylori. The most active extracts were those derived from T. spinosa with an MIC50 of 125 micrograms/ml, an MIC90 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC range of 62.5-500 micrograms/ml. An MIC50 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC90 of > 4,000 micrograms/ml was reached by H. abyssinica with a range of 125-->4,000 micrograms/ml and by X. caffra with a range of 62.5-->4,000 micrograms/ml, respectively. It is concluded that these plants contain compounds with antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. PMID:8874968

  18. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  19. Pain acceptance-based coping in complex regional pain syndrome Type I: daily relations with pain intensity, activity, and mood.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungkun; McCracken, Lance M; Heiby, Elaine M; Moon, Dong-Eon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the temporal patterning of pain acceptance-based coping, activity, and mood in patients with complex regional pain syndrome Type I (CRPS-I), by using a daily diary method. A total of 30 patients with CRPS-I seeking treatment in a tertiary pain management center located in Seoul, Korea participated in the study. Multilevel random effects analyses indicated that (a) engagement in pain acceptance-based coping was significantly associated with lower same-day pain and negative mood and greater same-day activity and positive mood; (b) pain acceptance-based coping predicted increases in activity on the following day; (c) greater pain intensity was significantly associated with lower same-day pain acceptance-based coping and activity and greater same-day negative mood; and (d) pain intensity did not predict pain acceptance-based coping, activity, or mood on the following day. These findings suggest that patients with CRPS-I may benefit from responding to pain with acceptance. Further study and eventual application of this process in CRPS-I may improve upon the success of current approaches to this problem. PMID:22854886

  20. Burden among male Alzheimer's caregivers: effects of distinct coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Jennifer R; Wilks, Scott E; Lovelace, Lauren L; Chen, Zibei; Spivey, Christina A

    2015-05-01

    Focusing on the understudied, increasing population of male Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers, the purpose of this study was to identify their likelihood of utilizing 3 coping strategies (task focused, emotion focused, and avoidance focused) and to examine the effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden. Data were collected from 138 male AD caregivers in southern United States, including geographically proportional representation of African Americans in the sample. Stepwise regression revealed effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden, controlling for demographics. The sample reported high burden. Task focused was the highest reported coping strategy. Yet, regression models indicated no significant effect of task-focused coping on burden outcomes. Emotion-focused and avoidance-focused coping each showed significant proportional effects on burden. Implications suggest that emotion- and avoidance-focused coping among male AD caregivers may be maladaptive, that is, reinforcing burden. Male AD caregivers may benefit from more task-focused coping, such as planning and active problem solving. PMID:25267930

  1. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's…

  2. Discovering the Possibilities: A Study of African American Youth Resistance and Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Williams, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a study of African American youth resistance and activism. The data revealed that African American youth have a large capacity for activism and ability to resist. Early engagement on issues of social justice, equality and freedom by family, teachers, pastors and community leaders can help to shape political character and…

  3. School Influences on the Physical Activity of African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African American, Latino, and White girls. Methods: Data were collected from 353 African American (N?=?123), Latino (N?=?118), and White (N?=?112) girls. Physical activity levels included a PA…

  4. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  5. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  6. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  7. Exploring the association of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA.

    PubMed

    Fernander, Anita F; Patten, Christi A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Stevens, Susanna R; Eberman, Kay M; Hurt, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    Although smoking is used as a coping tool in response to stress and Blacks have been found to report smoking more in response to stress than Whites, little research exists that has examined ethno-culturally specific constructs of stress and coping as they relate to smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA. This study explored the association between the ethno-culturally interactively defined construct of John Henryism, as well as the individual contributions of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a relatively urban-Midwestern Black population. Self-identified Black patients (n = 146) who had previously received a clinical intervention for nicotine dependence were followed to assess smoking status and John Henry active coping. Results revealed that patients with low levels of education who had low levels of John Henry active coping reported higher nicotine dependence scores than any other education by John Henry active coping group. Furthermore, low levels of John Henry active coping were associated with the use of menthol cigarettes and lower-educational level was associated with smoking greater than 20 cigarettes per day. Further community-based studies examining this construct among Black smokers in various socio-cultural contexts are needed to clarify the association between John Henry active coping and socioeconomic status on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks.

  8. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-08-15

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a 'core' co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies.

  9. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls. PMID:27045157

  10. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP) and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain), who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity. PMID:27672513

  11. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP) and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain), who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity.

  12. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Antonia L; Mitchell, Duncan; Kamerman, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP) and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain), who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity.

  13. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Antonia L; Mitchell, Duncan; Kamerman, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP) and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain), who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity. PMID:27672513

  14. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  15. Resilience in Adolescents: Protective Role of Social Support, Coping Strategies, Self-Esteem, and Social Activities on Experience of Stress and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Michelle; Provost, Marc A.

    1999-01-01

    Classified 141 8th graders and 156 11th graders as well adjusted, resilient, and vulnerable, and then investigated for differences on self-esteem, social support, coping strategies, and social life. Self-esteem, problem-solving coping strategies, and antisocial and illegal activities with peers helped to discriminate the groups. (Contains 86…

  16. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.

  17. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity. PMID:25905767

  18. Failure to upregulate Agrp and Orexin in response to activity based anorexia in weight loss vulnerable rats characterized by passive stress coping and prenatal stress experience.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Liang, Nu-Chu; Lee, Richard S; Albertz, Jennifer D; Kastelein, Anneke; Moody, Laura A; Aryal, Shivani; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that anorexia nervosa (AN) poses a physiological stress. Therefore, the way an individual copes with stress may affect AN vulnerability. Since prenatal stress (PNS) exposure alters stress responsivity in offspring this may increase their risk of developing AN. We tested this hypothesis using the activity based anorexia (ABA) rat model in control and PNS rats that were characterized by either proactive or passive stress-coping behavior. We found that PNS passively coping rats ate less and lost more weight during the ABA paradigm. Exposure to ABA resulted in higher baseline corticosterone and lower insulin levels in all groups. However, leptin levels were only decreased in rats with a proactive stress-coping style. Similarly, ghrelin levels were increased only in proactively coping ABA rats. Neuropeptide Y (Npy) expression was increased and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression was decreased in all rats exposed to ABA. In contrast, agouti-related peptide (Agrp) and orexin (Hctr) expression were increased in all but the PNS passively coping ABA rats. Furthermore, DNA methylation of the orexin gene was increased after ABA in proactive coping rats and not in passive coping rats. Overall our study suggests that passive PNS rats have innate impairments in leptin and ghrelin in responses to starvation combined with prenatal stress associated impairments in Agrp and orexin expression in response to starvation. These impairments may underlie decreased food intake and associated heightened body weight loss during ABA in the passively coping PNS rats. PMID:26907996

  19. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…

  20. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  1. Psychobiology of PTSD in the Acute Aftermath of Trauma: Integrating Research on Coping, HPA Function and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23380312

  2. Psychobiology of PTSD in the acute aftermath of trauma: Integrating research on coping, HPA function and sympathetic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2013-02-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  3. Coping with urbanization: a cardiometabolic risk? The THUSA study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Wissing, Maria P; Seedat, Yackoob K

    2008-12-01

    An assessment of specific coping styles in rural-urban Africans is done to evaluate its contribution as cardiometabolic risk factor. In total, 608 apparently healthy Africans were included in a cross-sectional comparative study from the North-West Province in South Africa. The adapted and translated COPE Questionnaire classified participants according to their responses into active (AC) or passive (PC) copers. Fasting resting metabolic syndrome (MS) indicators using the WHO definition (glucose, high density lipoproteins, waist/hip ratio, hypertension prevalence, and triglyceride) and associated MS values, i.e. fibrinogen were obtained. The Finapres recorded resting blood pressure continuously. Co-variates for all statistical analyses included age, body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption, smoking habits and physical activity). The only MS values prevalent in urbanized participants were higher hypertension prevalence rates and fibrinogen (women only) compared to their rural counterparts. Adding coping styles, it was mainly the urbanized AC participants that indicated higher MS values (hypertension prevalence, glucose and fibrinogen) when compared to their rural and PC counterparts. In conclusion, urbanization is associated with enhanced blood pressure and fibrinogen (women) values only. Coping as cardiometabolic risk is accentuated in the urbanized AC group, especially the men. The urbanized AC group with their higher blood pressure values and more MS indicators appears to have behaviorally an AC style but physiologically a dissociated AC style.

  4. A Qualitative Study: African-American Girls' Perceptions of Why Physical Activity Declines in High School.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wanda M; Berry, Diane C

    2015-12-01

    African-American adolescent girls are less physically active than any other U.S. racial/ethnic group. The school environment may contribute to physical inactivity in this group. The purpose of this study was to explore African-American girls' perceptions offactors that contribute to girls being less physically active in high school. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to identify individual perceptions of girls regarding physical activity. This resulted in four themes: personal appearances, scheduling/timing of classes, environmental/facilities issues, and lack of variety of activities in PE classes. Thefindings from this study indicated that African-American adolescent girls did not feel the physical or social school environment encouraged or supported them to be physically active. PMID:27045158

  5. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  6. Comparing the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats in African-American and Hispanic women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain. Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hi...

  7. Associations among correlates of schedule adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART): a path analysis of a sample of crack cocaine using sexually active African-Americans with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J S; Schönnesson, L Nilsson; Williams, M L; Timpson, S C

    2008-02-01

    Adherence to HIV medication regimens is a function of multiple dimensions including psychological functioning, social support, adherence self-efficacy and optimism regarding treatment. Active substance use can also negatively affect adherence. An understanding of the nature of the associations among the correlates of adherence can better inform the design of interventions to improve adherence. This study developed an exploratory path model of schedule adherence using data from a sample 130 African-American HIV-positive crack cocaine users on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This model was based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman. Following the theory, the effects of psychological distress on schedule adherence were mediated by patients' relationship with their doctor and optimism towards antiretroviral treatment. Adherence was also associated with patients' self-efficacy regarding their medical regimen which, in turn, was associated with their social support.

  8. Coping strategies employed by women with endometriosis in a public health-care setting

    PubMed Central

    Roomaney, Rizwana; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how South African patients attending public health facilities reported coping with endometriosis. A total of 16 women with endometriosis were interviewed, and we explored how participants coped with endometriosis. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Participants reported employing both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies to cope with endometriosis. Problem-focused strategies included limiting physical activities, increasing knowledge about endometriosis, scheduling social and work activities around menstrual cycle, engaging in self-management and relying on social support. Emotion-focused coping strategies included accepting the disease, adopting a positive attitude, engaging in self talk and evoking spirituality. PMID:25769875

  9. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  10. Implicit Stereotyping and Medical Decisions: Unconscious Stereotype Activation in Practitioners' Thoughts About African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jeff; Childs, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether stereotypes unconsciously influence the thinking and behavior of physicians, as they have been shown to do in other professional settings, such as among law enforcement personnel and teachers. Methods. We conducted 2 studies to examine whether stereotypes are implicitly activated in physicians. Study 1 assessed what diseases and treatments doctors associate with African Americans. Study 2 presented these (and control terms) to doctors as part of a computerized task. Subliminal images of African American and White men appeared prior to each word, and reaction times to words were recorded. Results. When primed with an African American face, doctors reacted more quickly for stereotypical diseases, indicating an implicit association of certain diseases with African Americans. These comprised not only diseases African Americans are genetically predisposed to, but also conditions and social behaviors with no biological association (e.g., obesity, drug abuse). Conclusions. We found implicit stereotyping among physicians; faces they never consciously saw altered performance. This suggests that diagnoses and treatment of African American patients may be biased, even in the absence of the practitioner's intent or awareness. PMID:22420815

  11. Implications of Out-of-School Activities for School Engagement in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    The connection between out-of-school activities and school engagement was examined in 140, 6th through 9th grade African American adolescents. Youth's out-of-school activities were measured with a series of 7 nightly phone calls and focused on time in structured (homework, academically-oriented, extracurricular/sports) and unstructured (watching…

  12. Physical Activity among African American Women: Change and Ways of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has grown in the 21st century regarding the physical activity patterns of racial and ethnic minorities. Although more is now known about some groups, disparities in health have not diminished. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the research about physical activity for African American women and suggest ways that future…

  13. Changes in Coping, Pain and Activity following Cognitive-Behavioral Training: A Randomized Clinical Trial for Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Jeffrey; Schlenz, Alyssa; McClellan, Catherine B.; Puffer, Eve S.; Hardy, Steven; Pfeiffer, Matthew; Roberts, Carla W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the outcomes of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for pain in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) using smartphones as a novel delivery method. Methods Forty-six children with SCD received CBT coping skills training using a randomized, waitlist control design. The intervention involved a single-session of CBT training and home-based practice using smartphones for eight weeks. Pre-post questionnaires between the randomized groups were used to evaluate changes in active psychological coping and negative thinking using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Daily diaries completed by the full sample during the treatment period were used to assess if CBT skill use was related to reductions in next day pain intensity and increases in same day functional activity. Results The pre-post group comparison suggested that youth increased active psychological coping attempts with the intervention. Daily diary data indicated that when children used CBT skills on days with higher pain, there were reductions in next day pain intensity. There was no such association between skill use and functional activity. Discussion CBT coping skills training supported via smartphones can increase coping and reduce pain intensity for children with SCD; however, additions to the study protocols are recommended in future studies. Advantages and caveats of using smartphones are also discussed. PMID:25503599

  14. Nanobody conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for active targeting of African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L; Unciti-Broceta, Juan D; Maceira, José; Del Castillo, Teresa; Hernández-Quero, José; Magez, Stefan; Soriano, Miguel; García-Salcedo, José A

    2015-01-10

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics is an alternative approach for the selective treatment of infectious diseases. The surface of African trypanosomes, the causative agents of African trypanosomiasis, is covered by a surface coat consisting of a single variant surface glycoprotein, termed VSG. This coat is recycled by endocytosis at a very high speed, making the trypanosome surface an excellent target for the delivery of trypanocidal drugs. Here, we report the design of a drug nanocarrier based on poly ethylen glycol (PEG) covalently attached (PEGylated) to poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) to generate PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. This nanocarrier was coupled to a single domain heavy chain antibody fragment (nanobody) that specifically recognizes the surface of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Nanoparticles were loaded with pentamidine, the first-line drug for T. b. gambiense acute infection. An in vitro effectiveness assay showed a 7-fold decrease in the half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the formulation relative to free drug. Furthermore, in vivo therapy using a murine model of African trypanosomiasis demonstrated that the formulation cured all infected mice at a 10-fold lower dose than the minimal full curative dose of free pentamidine and 60% of mice at a 100-fold lower dose. This nanocarrier has been designed with components approved for use in humans and loaded with a drug that is currently in use to treat the disease. Moreover, this flexible nanobody-based system can be adapted to load any compound, opening a range of new potential therapies with application to other diseases.

  15. Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Leisure-Time Physical Activity among African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Olivia; Cox, Tiffany L.; Durant, Nefertiti H.; Allison, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective More than 60% of African American adults do not meet recommendations for moderate physical activity. We sought to discover the extent to which health attitudes and beliefs are associated with leisure-time physical activity in this population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting African American adults were asked about their health attitudes and beliefs during a national survey. Participants Participants were 807 African American men and women aged 18 years and older. Random-digit dialing was employed, sampling telephone numbers by geographical region, area code, and population size. Main Outcome Measures Participants were asked six health belief questions on the importance of exercise and body weight in health. Logistic regression was used to determine which of these factors were associated with physical activity participation. Results The percent of respondents participating in some form of physical activity during the past month was 87.1% in men and 82.9% in women. Factors associated with previous month physical activity in men were perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001) and necessity of exercise for health (p=0.018). In women, perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001), necessity of exercise for health (p= 0.006), and having enough activity space (p=0.017) were associated with physical activity participation. Conclusion Though the direction of causation is unknown, having the attitude that it is important to exercise or be physically active for health predicts physical activity participation in both African American men and women. Creating a sense of importance of physical activity to relieve stress and foster good health may stimulate physical activity participation in African American adults. PMID:21462732

  16. Relations between different coping strategies for social stress, tumor development and neuroendocrine and immune activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, A; De Miguel, Z; Fano, E; Vegas, O

    2008-07-01

    This study analyzes the effects of acute social stress and different coping strategies employed in response to it on the development of B16F10 melanoma pulmonary metastases, the activation of the HPA axis and the NKG2D receptor expression. To this end, male OF1 mice were subjected to 24h of social stress using the sensorial contact model. This model includes three 5-min sessions of direct social interaction with resident cagemates selected for consistent levels of aggression. Subjects' behavior was videotaped and assessed. Six days after the first social interaction (1st social stress), the animals were inoculated with tumor cells or vehicle, and six days later, both tumor-bearing and non tumor-bearing mice were subjected to a second 24h sensorial contact social stress session (2nd social stress). One hour after the 2nd social interaction, corticosterone levels and NKG2D receptor expression were determined. Lung metastatic foci numbers were determined 21 days after inoculation (15 days post-stress). Social stress increased the number of pulmonary metastases and the serum corticosterone level. A combination of cluster and discriminant analyses established the existence of two types of coping strategies: (1) a passive-reactive strategy characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to submission, flee and avoidance behaviors; and (2) an active-proactive strategy, characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to attack and non social exploration behaviors. Subjects belonging to the passive-reactive group were found to have a higher number of tumor foci, a higher level of corticosterone and a lower NKG2D receptor expression than subjects in the active-proactive group. These data indicate the relationship between different coping strategies for social stress and tumor development. PMID:18061400

  17. School influences on the physical activity of African-American, Latino, and white girls

    PubMed Central

    Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African-American, Latino, and white girls. METHODS Data were from 353 African-American (N = 123), Latino (N = 118), and white (N = 112) girls. PA levels included a PA latent factor and minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). School variables included hours of physical education (PE), PE enjoyment, school physical environment, recess activity, and active transport to/from school. Multiple-group structural equation modeling examined relations between school variables and PA across ethnic groups. RESULTS Hours of PE were positively related to higher PA factor scores. Active transport was related to higher PA factor scores for white girls only, and to greater MVPA for African-American girls only. Hours of PE were related to PE enjoyment and the school physical environment for some ethnic groups. PE enjoyment was related to more recess activity among African-American and Latino girls, and PE enjoyment was associated with more active transport to school for all girls. CONCLUSIONS PE participation and active transport significantly contribute to girls’ levels of PA, with differences across ethnic groups. PMID:25440452

  18. Competence, Self-Esteem, and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of Ecological Risk and Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test [Sandler, "American Journal of Community Psychology" 29: 19-61.] a theoretical model of risk and resilience in an urban sample of African American and European American adolescents. The aims of the present study were to examine whether self-system processes (i.e., competence, self-esteem, and coping…

  19. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    SciTech Connect

    Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-01-14

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier.

  20. COPE: A Pilot Study With Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-10-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotion, Exercise, and Nutrition) intervention on physical activity (PA) and mental health outcomes of 11- to 13-year-olds. A one group pre- and posttest design was used in a Midwest urban middle school. Preadolescents (n = 31) who received COPE reported significant decreases in anxiety and increases in healthy lifestyle beliefs and PA. Further, preadolescents at baseline with elevated anxiety, depression, suicide risk, and below average self-concept who received COPE reported significant increases in self-concept and decreases in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. The COPE program is a promising intervention that can improve physical and mental health outcomes.

  1. B cells from African American lupus patients exhibit an activated phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Laurence C.; Habte, Sium; Gonsiorek, Waldemar; Lee, Deborah; Banas, Dana; Holloway, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Mark; Stetsko, Dawn; Casano, Francesca; Kansal, Selena; Davis, Patricia M.; Carman, Julie; Zhang, Clarence K.; Abidi, Ferva; Furie, Richard; Nadler, Steven G.; Suchard, Suzanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune cells. African Americans tend to present with more severe disease at an earlier age compared with patients of European ancestry. In order to better understand the immunological differences between African American and European American patients, we analyzed the frequencies of B cell subsets and the expression of B cell activation markers from a total of 68 SLE patients and 69 normal healthy volunteers. We found that B cells expressing the activation markers CD86, CD80, PD1, and CD40L, as well as CD19+CD27–IgD– double-negative B cells, were enriched in African American patients vs. patients of European ancestry. In addition to increased expression of CD40L, surface levels of CD40 on B cells were lower, suggesting the engagement of the CD40 pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that CD40L expressed by B cells could lead to CD40 activation and internalization on adjacent B cells. To conclude, these results indicate that, compared with European American patients, African American SLE patients present with a particularly active B cell component, possibly via the activation of the CD40/CD40L pathway. These data may help guide the development of novel therapies.

  2. B cells from African American lupus patients exhibit an activated phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Laurence C.; Habte, Sium; Gonsiorek, Waldemar; Lee, Deborah; Banas, Dana; Holloway, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Mark; Stetsko, Dawn; Casano, Francesca; Kansal, Selena; Davis, Patricia M.; Carman, Julie; Zhang, Clarence K.; Abidi, Ferva; Furie, Richard; Nadler, Steven G.; Suchard, Suzanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune cells. African Americans tend to present with more severe disease at an earlier age compared with patients of European ancestry. In order to better understand the immunological differences between African American and European American patients, we analyzed the frequencies of B cell subsets and the expression of B cell activation markers from a total of 68 SLE patients and 69 normal healthy volunteers. We found that B cells expressing the activation markers CD86, CD80, PD1, and CD40L, as well as CD19+CD27–IgD– double-negative B cells, were enriched in African American patients vs. patients of European ancestry. In addition to increased expression of CD40L, surface levels of CD40 on B cells were lower, suggesting the engagement of the CD40 pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that CD40L expressed by B cells could lead to CD40 activation and internalization on adjacent B cells. To conclude, these results indicate that, compared with European American patients, African American SLE patients present with a particularly active B cell component, possibly via the activation of the CD40/CD40L pathway. These data may help guide the development of novel therapies. PMID:27699274

  3. Self-Efficacy for Coping with Barriers Helps Students Stay Physically Active during Transition to Their First Year at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate students' physical activity during transition from high school to first-year university. Students' (N = 127) self-efficacy for coping with barriers to physical activity was investigated both as a predictor of physical activity and mediator of the relationship between pretransition and first-year physical…

  4. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  5. Relationships between Discretionary Time Activities, Emotional Experiences, Delinquency and Depressive Symptoms among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Richards, Maryse; Kohl, Krista; Randall, Edin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), this cross-sectional study examined mediated and moderated associations between different types of discretionary time activities and depressive symptoms and delinquency among a sample of 246 (107 boys, 139 girls) fifth through eighth grade urban African American adolescents. More time spent in passive…

  6. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  7. Determinants of Physical Activity in Low-income, Overweight African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Debbie A.; Braunschweig, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between puberty, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences with intention for physical activity (PA) and PA. Methods: Low-income, overweight African American girls (n=72) completed 5 questionnaires that assessed PA, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences. Puberty was assessed using Tanner…

  8. School Counselors' Activities in Predominantly African American Urban Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Lacretia

    2014-01-01

    A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…

  9. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African- American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African-American girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African-American youth or in clinical samples. African-American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls’ risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Method 265 African-American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a six-month follow-up. Results Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Conclusions Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African-American girls in psychiatric care, and should be considered in prevention program development. PMID:22742458

  10. Motivational versus social cognitive interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dawn K; Friend, Ronald; Teasley, Nicole; Green, Sabra; Reaves, Irvine Lee; Sica, Domenic A

    2002-01-01

    Strategic self-presentation (motivational intervention [MI]) is a theoretical approach that is distinct from social cognitive theory (SCT). Specifically, strategic self-presentation involves increasing motivation by creating cognitive dissonance and inducing shifts in self-concept by generating positive coping strategies during a videotaped session. Fifty-three healthy African American adolescents were randomized to a SCT+MI, SCT-only, or an education-only group for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and physical activity. The SCT+MI and SCT-only groups received a 12-week SCT program. Students in the SCT+MI group also participated in a strategic self-presentation videotape session. Participants completed 3-day food records, completed measures of self-concept and self-efficacy, and wore an activity monitor for 4 days at pre- and posttreatment. Both the SCT+MI (2.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 5.7 +/- 2.2, p < .05) and the SCT-only (2.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 4.8 +/- 2.4, p < .05) groups showed greater increases in F&V intake from pre- to posttreatment as compared with the education-only group (2.3 +/- 1.0, vs. 3.3 +/- 2.1, p > .05). There were no significant time or group effects for any of the physical activity measures. Correlation analyses revealed that only the SCT+MI group showed that dietary self-concept (r = .58, r = .67, p < .05) and dietary self-efficacy (r = .65, r = .85, p < .05) were significantly correlated with posttreatment F&V intake and change in F&V intake, respectively. These findings suggest that the change in F&V intake in the SCT+MI group resulted from strategic self-presentation, which induced positive shifts in self-concept and self-efficacy.

  11. African Americans' Culturally Specific Approaches to the Management of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Spruill, Ida J.; Magwood, Gayenell S.; Nemeth, Lynne S.; Williams, Tiffany H.

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality is an important multidimensional cultural resource and coping strategy used by many African Americans for managing chronic diseases such as diabetes. Yet, few studies examine meaning and interpretation of colloquial terms frequently used for coping within the context of a community culture. We designed an interpretive qualitative study to gain a deeper understanding of a colloquial phrase, “I ain't claiming it,” used among Project SuGar research participants when discussing diabetes. Thematic analysis revealed two major themes, Acknowledgment and Denial, as coping mechanisms through an active or passive relationship with God. Sub-theme of acknowledgment was presented as front seat driver and sub-theme for denial of the disease presented as back seat driver. These meanings encompass a range of culturally specific coping strategies for self-management that health providers should consider and implement as part of providing patient-centered care to enhance better outcome strategies. PMID:27175439

  12. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  13. Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E; Berry, C B; Schnyder, V N; Vickers, S R

    1992-11-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic fitness levels of 189 African-American young adult college freshmen. LTPA was measured with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise, and the College Alumnus physical activity questionnaires. The Physical Activity Index (PAI), an index of walking, stair climbing, and recreational sports participation, was obtained from the College Alumnus questionnaire. Aerobic fitness was measured indirectly with the Cooper 12-Minute Walking/Running Test. More women (82%) than men (53%) were classified as inactive (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and much less active than peers) or low active (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and as active or more active than peers) on the LRC Questionnaire. The PAI scores were moderately low in men (1,521 +/- 1,634 kcal.week-1) and very low in women (706 +/- 868 kcal.week-1). The majority of men (71%) and women (82%) were classified as 'very poor' in aerobic fitness levels. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fatness, was classified as 'overweight' or 'obese' for 39% of men and 37% of women (BMI = 25.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m2), reflecting inactive LTPA habits. These findings are consistent with studies showing low LTPA in middle-age African-American adults. School and community-level interventions are recommended to increase LTPA and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult African-Americans.

  14. Participation in Extracurricular Activities in the Middle School Years: Are There Developmental Benefits for African American and European American Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the associations between organized activity participation during early adolescence and adjustment in a large and economically diverse sample of African American and European American youth. The sample included 1,047 youth (51% female and 49% male and 67% African American and 33% European American). We used analysis of…

  15. Adolescents in secure residential care: the role of active and passive coping on general well-being and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-07-01

    Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.

  16. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  17. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  18. Environmental, policy, and cultural factors related to physical activity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Richter, Donna L; Wilcox, Sara; Greaney, Mary L; Henderson, Karla A; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted in South Carolina with African American women (n = 42) aged 19-51 years to identify factors that influence physical activity. Transcripts were analyzed using NUD*IST. Cultural influences were seen as more important in determining the type of physical activity than its level. Barriers to and enablers of physical activity were identified in the social and physical environments, as were policy issues affecting physical activity in the community and at the work site. Potential community and work site interventions were suggested. Child care and monetary costs were frequently cited as barriers to physical activity. PMID:12487143

  19. Physical activity and physical fitness in African-American girls with and without obesity.

    PubMed

    Ward, D S; Trost, S G; Felton, G; Saunders, R; Parsons, M A; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

    1997-11-01

    Lack of physical activity and low levels of physical fitness are thought to be contributing factors to the high prevalence of obesity in African-American girls. To examine this hypothesis, we compared habitual physical activity and physical fitness in 54 African-American girls with obesity and 96 African-American girls without obesity residing in rural South Carolina. Participation in vigorous (> or = 6 METs) (VPA) or moderate and vigorous physical activity (> or = 4 METs) (MVPA) was assessed on three consecutive days using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the PWC 170 cycle ergometer test. Upper body strength was determined at two sites via isometric cable tensiometer tests. Relative to their counterparts without obesity, girls with obesity reported significantly fewer 30-minute blocks of VPA (0.90 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.14) and MVPA (1.2 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.16) (p < 0.01). Within the entire sample, VPA and MVPA were inversely associated with body mass index (r = -0.17 and r = -0.19) and triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.19 and r = -0.22) (p < 0.05). In the PWC 170 test and isometric strength tests, girls with obesity demonstrated absolute scores that were similar to, or greater than, those of girls without obesity; however, when scores were expressed relative to bodyweight, girls with obesity demonstrated significantly lower values (p < 0.05). The results support the hypothesis that lack of physical activity and low physical fitness are important contributing factors in the development and/or maintenance of obesity in African-American girls.

  20. A review of community-based participatory research studies to promote physical activity among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of the planning process for new research, the literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches for promoting physical activity in African American communities was systematically reviewed. Methods Studies published through October 31, 2015 that employed CBPR methods were identified using PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH terms and keyword searches. Results A total of 15 studies met the search criteria. One focused on CBPR and physical activity among African American school children and adolescents, 13 on adults, and one on both children and adults. Seven studies employed CBPR methods to promote physical activity in church settings. Eight of the studies had a pre-/post-test design, three had a quasi-experimental design, three had a randomized controlled design, and one was a case study. Conclusions Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed to identify effective ways to promote physical activity in African American communities to address health disparities. Of particular interest are those that have an adequate sample size and a rigorous design, to overcome limitations of previous studies. PMID:27034993

  1. Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2015-01-28

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAMED) can influence tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the tropical East Atlantic by modulating summer convection over western Africa. Analysis of 30 years of observations show that the NAMED SST is linked to a strengthening of the Saharan heat low and enhancement of moisture and moist static energy in the lower atmosphere over West Africa, which favors a northward displacement of the monsoonal front. These processes also lead to a northward shift of the African easterly jet that introduces an anomalous positive vorticity from western Africa to the main development region (50W–20E; 10N–20N) of Atlantic TC. By modulating multiple processes associated with the African monsoon, this study demonstrates that warm NAMED SST explains 8% of interannual variability of Atlantic TC frequency. Thus NAME SST may provide useful predictability for Atlantic TC activity on seasonal-to-interannual time scale.

  2. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  3. Molecular cloning, expression and bioactivity of B cell activating factor (BAFF) in African ostrich.

    PubMed

    Yang, Keli; Xiao, Ke; Huang, Haibo; Lu, Shun; Zhong, Juming; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Liu, Huazhen; Peng, Kemei

    2015-09-01

    B cell activating factor (BAFF), which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is testified to play a critical role in B cell survival, proliferation, maturation and immunoglobulin secretion. In the present study, the cDNA of open reading frame (ORF) in African ostrich (Struthio camelus) BAFF (designated OsBAFF) was cloned by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The OsBAFF gene encodes a 288-amino acid protein containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a putative furin protease cleavage site like BAFFs from chicken (cBAFF), quail (qBAFF), duck (dBAFF), goose (gBAFF) and dove (doBAFF). RT-PCR analysis showed that the OsBAFF gene is strongly expressed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. The soluble OsBAFF had been cloned into pET28a. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis confirmed that the soluble fusion protein His-OsBAFF was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli Rosset (DE3). In vitro, purified OsBAFF was not only able to promote the survival of African ostrich bursal lymphocytes, but also able to co-stimulate proliferation of mouse splenic B cells. The expression of OsBAFF in lymphocyte cells was higher than the control after LPS stimulation. These findings indicated that OsBAFF plays an important role in survival and proliferation of African ostrich bursal lymphocytes, which may provide valuable information for research into the immune system of African ostrich and OsBAFF may serve as a potential immunologic factor for enhancing immunological efficacy in African ostrich and any other birds. PMID:26256697

  4. Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of east African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of the traditionally used medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark), Zanha africana (stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were investigated for fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. by a microtitre serial dilution technique. Entada abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, A. indica, and Z. africana showed activity against various Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.006 to > 8 mg ml-1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) from 0.06 to > 8 mg ml-1. Extracts from S. mauritiana (both roots and flowers) exhibited no activity against Candida spp., but against Aspergillus spp., the MIC and MFC values ranged from 0.13 to 0.25 mg ml-1 and from 0.13 to 1 mg ml-1 respectively. It is concluded that the extracts contain compounds with high antifungal potency. PMID:8786762

  5. Predictors of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) in African American Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Gary, Lisa C.; LaGory, Mark; Hwang, Sean-Shong

    2014-01-01

    Background African American adolescents residing in the South are at increased risk for obesity and physical inactivity, yet our understanding of potential influences is limited. Purpose Using an ecological framework, this study explored multilevel predictors (individual, family, home, and neighborhood environment) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among 116 African American adolescents (ages 12–16). Methods Adolescents and their parents completed self-report surveys for hypothesized predictors. Youth physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Results In multiple regression models, decreased daily MVPA was associated with female sex (β=−24.27, p<0.0001). Family social support (β=1.07, p=0.004) and adolescent self efficacy for PA (β=6.89, p=0.054) were positively associated with daily MVPA. Conclusions Adolescent demographics along with family social support and self-efficacy influence younger African American adolescent physical activity. Further exploration of the complex interaction of multiple levels of influence is needed to develop appropriate interventions for this vulnerable group. PMID:23334766

  6. Assessing and promoting physical activity in African American barbershops: results of the FITStop pilot study.

    PubMed

    Linnan, Laura A; Reiter, Paul L; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S; Viera, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research. The authors recruited African American shop owners (n = 4), barbers (n = 6), and customers (n = 90) from four barbershops in Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina, during 2009. The participation levels were high among owners (100%), barbers (67%), and customers (81%). In addition to completing a self-administered survey, 57% (51/90) of the customers completed physical measurements. According to self-reported data, 34% (30/88) of the customers met national physical activity recommendations within the last week. Customers expressed moderately high interest in learning more about health at barbershops and joining a barbershop-based physical activity contest. The estimated recruiting cost per customer was $105.92. Barbershops offer an effective setting for recruiting African American men and conducting physical measurements as well as an interesting possible location for conducting future interventions.

  7. South African Curriculum Reform: Education for Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Juliana; Arendse, Agnetha

    2016-01-01

    The changing societal context in South Africa (SA) has necessitated curriculum reform to deal with the challenges of education, from apartheid to democracy, with the aim of promoting active citizenship education. The aim of the paper is thus to illuminate to what extent the Grade 11 Life Orientation (LO) curriculum prepares learners for active…

  8. A diet and physical activity intervention for rural African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...

  9. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts—Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081

  10. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts-Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions.

  11. Physical activity attitudes, preferences, and practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G

    2006-02-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, running or jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls' physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group.

  12. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Susan W.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E.; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M.; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program, the purpose of the paper is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 40–65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  13. Determinants of Activity Levels in African Americans With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Leiby, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Engaging in cognitive, social, and physical activities may prevent cognitive decline. In a sample of older African Americans with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=221), we investigated the cross-sectional relationships between activity levels and participants' demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological characteristics. The average age of participants was 75.4 years (SD, 7.0); 177 (80.1%) were women. Participation in cognitive/social activities was positively associated with education, depression, literacy, mobility, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), verbal learning, and subcomponents of executive function. A linear regression identified IADLs, education, depression, and verbal learning as independent predictors. Participation in physical activities was positively associated with sex, depression, IADLs, and subcomponents of executive function. An ordinal regression identified executive function and depression as independent correlates. These data suggest that unique characteristics are associated with cognitive/social and physical activities in older African Americans with MCI. These characteristics, coupled with low activity levels, may increase the risk of progression from MCI to dementia. Culturally relevant behavioral interventions to reduce cognitive decline in this high-risk population are needed.

  14. Kidney Function, Endothelial Activation and Atherosclerosis in Black and White Africans with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dessein, Patrick H.; Hsu, Hon-Chun; Tsang, Linda; Millen, Aletta M. E.; Woodiwiss, Angela J.; Norton, Gavin R.; Solomon, Ahmed; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether kidney function independently relates to endothelial activation and ultrasound determined carotid atherosclerosis in black and white Africans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We calculated the Jelliffe, 5 Cockcroft-Gault equations, Salazar-Corcoran, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) equations in 233 (112 black) RA patients. Results The CKD-EPI eGFR was <90 ml/min/1.73m2 in 49.1% and 30.6% of black and white patients, respectively (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 2.19 (1.28–3.75), p = 0.004). EGFRs were overall consistently associated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and angiopoietin 2 concentrations in white patients, and with carotid intima-media thickness and plaque in black participants. Amongst black patients, plaque prevalence was 36.7% and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was not associated with plaque presence for the MDRD equation (p = 0.3), whereas the respective relationship was significant or borderline significant (p = 0.003 to 0.08) and of similar extent (p>0.1 for comparisons of AUC (SE)) for the other 8 equations. Based on optimal eGFR cutoff values with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 42 to 60% and 70 to 91% respectively, as determined in ROC curve analysis, a low eGFR increased the odds ratio for plaque 2.2 to 4.0 fold. Conclusion Reduced kidney function is independently associated with atherosclerosis and endothelial activation in black and white Africans with RA, respectively. CKD is highly prevalent in black Africans with RA. Apart from the MDRD, eGFR equations are useful in predicting carotid plaque presence, a coronary heart disease equivalent, amongst black African RA patients. PMID:25806966

  15. Evaluating adrenal activity in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) by fecal corticosteroid analysis.

    PubMed

    Monfort, S L; Mashburn, K L; Brewer, B A; Creel, S R

    1998-06-01

    A noninvasive corticosteroid hormone monitoring technique was validated for use in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). The double-antibody 125I radioimmunoassay for corticosterone was validated by demonstrating parallelism between serial dilutions of wild dog fecal extracts and the standard curve, recovery of corticosterone added to fecal extracts, and the time course of fecal corticoid excretion after an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. All feces were collected from three female and two male African wild dogs for 72 hr before and 144 hr after i.m. injection of long-acting ACTH (Acthar Gel, 400 IU). Fecal corticosterone immunoreactivity increased 10-30-fold within 24 hr of ACTH administration in all individuals, with peak concentrations from 1,200-8,000 ng/g. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed that >90% of all corticosterone immunoreactivity was associated with a single peak that exhibited intermediate polarity relative to cortisol and corticosterone reference tracers. Fecal corticosterone immunoreactivity appears to reflect adrenal activity in the African wild dog and, therefore, may be useful for evaluating stress. From a conservation perspective, these techniques can complement in situ and ex situ research studies designed to evaluate how environmental conditions and management strategies affect overall animal health.

  16. The arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis activates storage lipid biosynthesis to cope with the benzo[a]pyrene oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence.

  17. Appraisal of biological activities and identification of phenolic compound of African marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract.

    PubMed

    Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Kiattisin, Kanokwan; Jantrawut, Pensak; Chansakaow, Sunee; Vejabhikul, Suwanna; Leelapornpisid, Pimporn

    2013-11-01

    The flowers of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L), a medicinal plant widely cultivated in Thailand, were subjected to evaluation for total phenolics, DPPH scavenging and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARs) assays as well as tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In preliminary studies, the ethyl acetate (EA) extract obtained by continuous extraction showed the highest activities with highest phenolic content among all extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of EA extract led to isolation of a flavonoid identified as quercetagetin. Interestingly, it was found that quercetagetin exhibited potent DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 of 3.70 μg/ml which is about 2-3 times higher activity than standard quercetin (IC50 5.07 μg/ml) and trolox (IC50 9.93 μg/ml). Moreover, it exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity on L-tyrosine (IC50 89.31 μg/ml), higher than α- and β-arbutins (IC50 157.77 and 222.35 μg/ml) and slightly higher (IC50 128.41 μg/ml) than ellagic acid (IC50 151.1 μg/ml) when using L-DOPA as substrate. Testing with skin fibroblasts, all the extracts and quercetagetin demonstrated no toxic effect. These finding strongly indicate that African marigold flower is a promising source of natural antioxidative and tyrosinase inhibitory substances with safe to skin. PMID:24191339

  18. Effects of sublethal dose of fipronil on neuron metabolic activity of Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed

    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan M; Nocelli, Roberta C F; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M; Palma, Mario Sérgio; Malaspina, Osmar

    2013-04-01

    Fipronil is a neurotoxic insecticide that inhibits the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor and can affect gustative perception, olfactory learning, and motor activity of the honeybee Apis mellifera. This study determined the lethal dose (LD50) and the lethal concentration (LC50) for Africanized honeybee and evaluated the toxicity of a sublethal dose of fipronil on neuron metabolic activity by way of histochemical analysis using cytochrome oxidase detection in brains from worker bees of different ages. In addition, the present study investigated the recovery mechanism by discontinuing the oral exposure to fipronil. The results showed that mushroom bodies of aged Africanized honeybees are affected by fipronil, which causes changes in metabolism by increasing the respiratory activity of mitochondria. In antennal lobes, the sublethal dose of fipronil did not cause an increase in metabolic activity. The recovery experiments showed that discontinued exposure to a diet contaminated with fipronil did not lead to recovery of neural activity. Our results show that even at very low concentrations, fipronil is harmful to honeybees and can induce several types of injuries to honeybee physiology.

  19. Do Neighborhood Physical Activity Resources and Land Use Influence Physical Activity among African American Public Housing Residents?

    PubMed

    Parker, Nathan H; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kao, Dennis T; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined neighborhood influences on physical activity (PA) among low-income African Americans living in public housing. This study measured the associations of PA resources and land use with PA among 216 African Americans living in 12 low-income housing developments in Houston, Texas. Neighborhood measures included both detailed information from in-person audits and geographic information systems (GIS) data. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the associations of neighborhood PA resource availability and quality and land use density and diversity with individual-level, self-reported PA. Land use diversity was positively associated with walking among men after controlling for other neighborhood characteristics. Policies that promote land use diversity or improve the pedestrian environment in areas with diverse destinations may encourage PA among public housing residents. PMID:27524771

  20. Active visual search in non-stationary scenes: coping with temporal variability and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ušćumlić, Marija; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Objective. State-of-the-art experiments for studying neural processes underlying visual cognition often constrain sensory inputs (e.g., static images) and our behavior (e.g., fixed eye-gaze, long eye fixations), isolating or simplifying the interaction of neural processes. Motivated by the non-stationarity of our natural visual environment, we investigated the electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of visual recognition while participants overtly performed visual search in non-stationary scenes. We hypothesized that visual effects (such as those typically used in human-computer interfaces) may increase temporal uncertainty (with reference to fixation onset) of cognition-related EEG activity in an active search task and therefore require novel techniques for single-trial detection. Approach. We addressed fixation-related EEG activity in an active search task with respect to stimulus-appearance styles and dynamics. Alongside popping-up stimuli, our experimental study embraces two composite appearance styles based on fading-in, enlarging, and motion effects. Additionally, we explored whether the knowledge obtained in the pop-up experimental setting can be exploited to boost the EEG-based intention-decoding performance when facing transitional changes of visual content. Main results. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis that the dynamic of visual content can increase temporal uncertainty of the cognition-related EEG activity in active search with respect to fixation onset. This temporal uncertainty challenges the pivotal aim to keep the decoding performance constant irrespective of visual effects. Importantly, the proposed approach for EEG decoding based on knowledge transfer between the different experimental settings gave a promising performance. Significance. Our study demonstrates that the non-stationarity of visual scenes is an important factor in the evolution of cognitive processes, as well as in the dynamic of ocular behavior (i.e., dwell time and

  1. COPE: A Pilot Study With Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-10-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotion, Exercise, and Nutrition) intervention on physical activity (PA) and mental health outcomes of 11- to 13-year-olds. A one group pre- and posttest design was used in a Midwest urban middle school. Preadolescents (n = 31) who received COPE reported significant decreases in anxiety and increases in healthy lifestyle beliefs and PA. Further, preadolescents at baseline with elevated anxiety, depression, suicide risk, and below average self-concept who received COPE reported significant increases in self-concept and decreases in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. The COPE program is a promising intervention that can improve physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27026664

  2. Innate immunity activation on biomaterial surfaces: A mechanistic model and coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Lambris, John D.; Elwing, Hans; Ricklin, Daniel; Nilsson, Per H.; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A.; Nilsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient’s life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures. PMID:21771620

  3. C-reactive protein and cardiac vagal activity following resistance exercise training in young African-American and white men.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Vieira, Victoria J; Iwamoto, Gary A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-04-01

    African Americans have a greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes compared with white Americans, and both autonomic dysregulation and inflammation have been implicated in the etiology of these disease states. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic and systemic inflammatory response to resistance training in young African-American and white men. Linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear (sample entropy) heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and postexercise heart rate recovery were used to assess cardiac vagal modulation. C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count were used as inflammatory markers. Twenty two white and 19 African-American men completed 6 wk of resistance training followed by 4 wk of exercise detraining (Post 2). Sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery were increased in white and African-American men following resistance training (P < 0.05). Following detraining (Post 2), sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery returned to baseline values in white men but remained above baseline in African-American men. While there were no changes in white blood cell count or CRP in white men, these inflammatory markers decreased in African-American men following resistance training, with reductions being maintained following detraining (P < 0.05). In conclusion, resistance training improves cardiac autonomic function and reduces inflammation in African-American men, and these adaptations remained after the cessation of training. Resistance training may be an important lifestyle modification for improving cardiac autonomic health and reducing inflammation in young African-American men.

  4. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Megan E; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S; Andrade, Mary Ann; Toney, Glenn M

    2014-06-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P < 0.01) renal SNA and MAP in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P < 0.05) in DH rats. The latter was not explained by increased PVN expression of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit protein, increased PVN neuronal excitability, or decreased brain water content. Interestingly, PVN injection of the pan-specific excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) inhibitor DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid produced smaller sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses in DH rats, which was associated with reduced glial expression of EAAT2 in PVN. Like chronic hypertension and heart failure, dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  5. Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Roos, Gun

    2005-02-01

    Life style diseases contribute heavily to inequalities in health. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of factors affecting health-related habits, such as diet and exercise, among different groups of people. In this study, the work situation is chosen as a point of departure for analyses on health-related perceptions and habits among men from three different occupations: 20 carpenters, 15 engineers and 11 drivers in Oslo, Norway. The data were collected by in depth semi-structured interviews. There were clear differences in the way men in the three types of work view food, meals, the body and physical activity. The distribution of different types of meals throughout the day was also tied to the type of work. This was linked to notions of food as fuel for immediate body functioning, vis a vis body shape and future health. The differences observed are most likely a mixture and mutual reinforcement of demands related to the work situation as well as the socio-cultural background, level of knowledge and education. Benefits at work were also different; those in higher positions (engineers) received most healthy benefits, such as fruit baskets, healthy lunches, and participation in physical activities. These may contribute to the already large differences in health practices.

  6. Selected socio-cultural correlates of physical activity among African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Cogbill, Salimah A.; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta L.; Deshpande, Anjali D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have identified several factors to be associated with physical activity (PA) among African Americans, e.g., demographic and health-related characteristics. Formative studies suggest a link between socio-cultural factors and PA among ethnic minorities; yet, it is unclear whether these factors play a role in PA among African Americans. This paper explores the association of selected socio-cultural characteristics with self-reported PA by gender among African American adults, taking into account demographic and health-related characteristics. Design Data from the baseline survey of a colorectal cancer communication intervention trial was used. Participants included 446 African American men and women, aged 45 – 75 years. Self-report data was collected on demographics, health-related characteristics, selected socio-cultural constructs (e.g., ethnic identity, religiosity, collectivism, and medical mistrust), and PA. PA was categorized as meeting or not meeting recommended levels; recommended levels was defined as participating in vigorous PA for 20 minutes/day for at least three days/week or moderate PA for 30 minutes/day for at least five days/week or a minimum of 600 MET-minutes/week in at least five days. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression models were used to characterize the association between the selected socio-cultural constructs and PA among men and women, after adjusting for demographic and health-related characteristics. Results Most participants reported some PA but only 59% were found to be meeting recommended levels. Univariate analyses revealed that high collectivist attitudes was associated with meeting recommended PA (OR=1.74), particularly for women (OR=1.81). In multivariate analyses, high collectivist attitudes was significantly associated with meeting PA recommendations among men (OR=1.87); while high religiosity and high collectivism were significant among women (OR=1.87 and 1.85, respectively). Conclusions

  7. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age) across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03), while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p < 0.001) for boys and girls and across all race groups. Associations between physical activity and body mass were observed for White children (r = -0.22, p < 0.001), but not for Black and Indian children (p > 0.05) whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001), White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001). The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05), and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0

  8. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms

  9. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.

  10. Coping with racial discrimination: the role of substance use.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Meg; Stock, Michelle L; Roberts, Megan E; Gibbons, Frederick X; O'Hara, Ross E; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A

    2012-09-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis that the relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use reported in previous research is moderated by use of substances as a coping mechanism. Studies 1 and 2 were experimental studies of African American adolescents' and young adults' reactions to a discrimination experience. Results revealed that those who endorsed substance use-as-coping reported more willingness to use substances after experiencing discrimination. Study 3 was a prospective study of the relation between perceived discrimination and substance use over an 8-year period in African American adolescents. Results demonstrated that discrimination is associated with increases in substance use, but only among adolescents who endorse substance use-as-coping. Together, these three studies provide evidence that experiencing discrimination has both short- and long-term detrimental effects on African Americans' substance use, but significantly more so for those who adopt a pattern of using substances as a coping mechanism.

  11. Comparative analyses of venoms from American and African Sicarius spiders that differ in sphingomyelinase D activity.

    PubMed

    Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A; Bodner, Melissa R; Binford, Greta J

    2010-06-15

    Spider venoms are cocktails of toxic proteins and peptides, whose composition varies at many levels. Understanding patterns of variation in chemistry and bioactivity is fundamental for understanding factors influencing variation. The venom toxin sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) in sicariid spider venom (Loxosceles and Sicarius) causes dermonecrotic lesions in mammals. Multiple forms of venom-expressed genes with homology to SMase D are expressed in venoms of both genera. SMase D activity levels differ among major clades with American Sicarius vastly reduced relative to all Loxosceles and African Sicarius despite expression of SMase D homologs in venoms of American Sicarius. Here we report comparative analyses of protein composition and insecticidal activity of crude venoms from three Sicarius species, two from South Africa and one from Central America. Comparative 2-dimensional electrophoresis shows dense regions of proteins in the size range of SMase D in all three species, but there are differences in sizes and isoelectric points (pIs). Few proteins strictly co-migrate and there are clusters of proteins with similar pIs and molecular weights whose patterns of similarity do not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relatedness. In addition, PD(50) estimates on crickets indicate a small though significant decrease in potency of South American Sicarius venoms relative to African species.

  12. Housing, the Neighborhood Environment, and Physical Activity among Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Lonnie; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association of neighborhood environment, as measured by housing factors, with physical activity among older African Americans. Context is provided on the effects of structural inequality as an inhibitor of health enhancing neighborhood environments. The study population included African Americans participating in the UAB Study of Aging (n=433). Participants demonstrated the ability to walk during a baseline in-home assessment. The strength and independence of housing factors were assessed using neighborhood walking for exercise as the outcome variable. Sociodemographic data, co-morbid medical conditions, and rural/urban residence were included as independent control factors. Homeownership, occupancy, and length of residency maintained positive associations with neighborhood walking independent of control factors. Housing factors appear to be predictive of resident engagement in neighborhood walking. Housing factors, specifically high rates of homeownership, reflect functional and positive neighborhood environments conducive for physical activity. Future interventions seeking to promote health-enhancing behavior should focus on developing housing and built-environment assets within the neighborhood environment. PMID:23745172

  13. Correlates of sexual abstinence and sexual activity of low-income African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Childs, Gwendolyn; Moneyham, Linda; Felton, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this predictive correlational study was to examine antecedent (knowledge of HIV and spirituality) and psychosocial (attitude toward abstinence, attitude toward condom use, sexual self-efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes toward premarital sex) factors derived from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as correlates and predictors of both sexual abstinence and sexual activity. Additionally, this study identified the sexual practices (vaginal-penile, oral, and/or anal sex) in which African American adolescent females were most likely to engage. A sample of 94 African American adolescent females from low-income housing communities completed questionnaires. Major results included the following: (a) a high rate of sexual abstinence was reported, (b) age was the only significant predictor of condom use, and (c) sexual self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of engaging in sexual activity. The study results contribute to the development of HIV risk reduction programs and extend health care providers' knowledge of sexual counseling for adolescents.

  14. In vitro testing of African traditional medicines for cytotoxic, immune modulatory and anti-HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Gqaleni, Nceba; Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Parboosing, Raveen; Naidoo, Anneta

    2012-01-01

    African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view supported by Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity, immune modulatory and anti-HIV activities of traditional multiple herbal preparations from local THPs. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene, Product Blue, SPNa and SDKc ATM were supplied by local THPs. Changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) & glutathione (GSH) over 24 hours were measured using luminometry. Changes in 12 cytokines were assayed using an ELISA-based absorbance assay. Protective effects against HIV killing of MT-4 cells were tested using the XTT assay and antiviral activity was measured using an HIV-1 viral load assay. Cyclosporine and AZT were used as positive controls. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene and SDKc induced a dose dependent toxicity on treated PBMCs by reducing ATP and GSH at high doses (p< 0.001). These medicinal preparations, along with SPNa, showed immunomodulatory activity by significantly (p< 0.001) changing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Product Blue stimulated the levels of ATP and GSH in treated PBMCs at all doses however this product did not show any immunomodulatory activity on cytokine secretion when compared to control cells. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene showed promising anti-HIV activity relative to AZT (p< 0.01). This study has shown that some of these traditional medicinal preparations have at least one or all the properties of immunostimulation, immunomodulation or antiretroviral effects. The mechanism of action of the shown activities should further be investigated.

  15. Selective Breeding for Infant Rat Separation-Induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations: Developmental Precursors of Passive and Active Coping Styles

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Susan A.; Hofer, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate “anxious”/“depressed” phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an “aggressive” phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting “coping styles” with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation. PMID

  16. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  17. Inhibitory activities of omega-3 Fatty acids and traditional african remedies on keloid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Peter B; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E C; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies-boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter-leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world.

  18. Stigma as a Barrier to HIV-Related Activities Among African-American Churches in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pryor, John B; Gaddist, Bambi; Johnson-Arnold, Letitia

    2015-01-01

    South Carolina has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in the United States. More than 70% of those infected are African American. Traditionally, Black churches have been one of the primary sources of health outreach programs in Southern African-American communities. In this research, we explored the role of HIV-related stigma as a barrier to the acceptance of HIV-related activities in Black churches. A survey of African-American adults in South Carolina found that the overall level of stigma associated with HIV/AIDS was comparable to what has been found in a national probability sample of people in the United States. Consistent with the stigma-as-barrier hypothesis, the degree to which survey respondents endorsed HIV-related stigma was related to less positive attitudes concerning the involvement of Black churches in HIV-related activities.

  19. Anxious Arousal and Anhedonic Depression Symptoms and the Frequency of Current Marijuana Use: Testing the Mediating Role of Marijuana-Use Coping Motives Among Active Users*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirsten A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation examined anxious arousal and anhedonic depression symptoms in relation to frequency of past-30-day marijuana use, as well as the role of marijuana-use coping motives in terms of mediating this relation. Method: The present sample included current young adult marijuana users (N = 154; 48.1% female; mean [SD] age = 20.75 [5.97] years) who were recruited via study flyers and printed advertisements in local newspapers placed throughout the Burlington, VT, community. Results: After controlling for daily cigarette smoking rate, alcohol consumption, and gender, anxious arousal symptoms, but not anhedonic depression symptoms, were significantly and uniquely associated with the frequency of marijuana use. In addition, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between anxious arousal symptoms and the frequency of current marijuana use. Conclusions: These results provide novel information related to the explanatory role of marijuana-use coping motives in the relation between anxious arousal symptoms and the frequency of marijuana use among young adult active users. Clinical implications for the current findings are discussed. PMID:19515294

  20. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  1. [Cellobiohydrolase Activity in the Digestive Tract of two African Rodent Species the African Grass Rat Arvicanthis niloticus and Vlei Rat Otomys helleri].

    PubMed

    Varshavskiy, A Al; Varshavskiy, A A

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolase activity (CBHA) of endosymbionts in the digestive tract of two African rodent species differing in its morphology and in feeding specialization--Arvicanthis niloticus and Otomys helleri--has been studied as a characteristic of their physiological and ecological adaptation to phytophagy A statistically significant correlation of CBHA with obesity has been revealed in A. niloticus, with the CBHA level being significantly higher in corpus ceci than in ampulla ceci. The possible morphophysiological and ecological significance of the observed features of symbiotic digestion are discussed. PMID:26349239

  2. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attractiveness for bicycling significantly predicted post-intervention accelerometer-measured PA. Greater traffic control devices and crossing aids were associated with greater PA among women assigned to the PA intervention group, and greater street amenities were associated with greater PA among those in the comparison group. Neighborhood factors may interact favorably with behavioral interventions to promote PA adoption and maintenance, and should be considered in health promotion efforts. PMID:22243907

  3. Executive University Managers' Experiences of Strike and Protest Activity: A Qualitative Case Study of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Whitehead, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Strike and protest activity at South African universities continues to be prevalent nearly two decades after the dismantling of apartheid, although there has been a shift away from directing strikes and protests against the government (during the apartheid era), to directing them against higher education institutions and management (since the…

  4. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  5. Connectivism in Learning Activity Design: Implications for Pedagogically-Based Technology Adoption in African Higher Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizito, Rita Ndagire

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the possible characteristics and the value of designing learning activities grounded in connectivism--an emerging learning theory. It is an exploratory attempt to connect the theory to the prevailing technology adoption archetypes used in African contexts with the aim of extracting influences that could shape pedagogical…

  6. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  7. Understanding Impediments and Enablers to Physical Activity among African American Adults: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…

  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  9. Bridging the Legacy of Activism across Generations: Life Stories of African American Educators in Post-Civil Rights Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study takes account of the salience of activism in informing the worldviews and professional practices of a multigenerational sample of 42 African American educators in Birmingham, Alabama. Framed by life course, Black feminist thought, and hip-hop educational research perspectives, the study highlights how the participants…

  10. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  11. Low-income, Pregnant African American Women’s Views on Physical Activity and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Susan W.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Methods Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within and between group levels to identify themes. Results Two themes were identified that related to physical activity during pregnancy: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity, and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: (a) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior, (b) I’ll decide for myself what to eat, and (c) “eating out” is a way of life. Discussion Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated their level of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women’s being “in tune with and listening to” their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. PMID

  12. In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    PubMed

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Kissi-Twum, Abena Adomah; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Addo, Phyllis; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ngoutane Mfopa, Alvine; Fekam Boyom, Fabrice; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2016-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most prevalent mycobacteriosis, after tuberculosis and leprosy. The currently recommended combination of rifampicin-streptomycin suffers from side effects and poor compliance, which leads to reliance on local herbal remedies. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial properties and toxicity of selected medicinal plants. Sixty-five extracts from 27 plant species were screened against Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium smegmatis, using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA). The cytotoxicity of promising extracts was assayed on normal Chang liver cells by an MTT assay. Twenty five extracts showed activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 16 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL against M. smegmatis, while 17 showed activity against M. ulcerans with MIC values ranging from 125 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. In most of the cases, plant extracts with antimycobacterial activity showed no cytotoxicity on normal human liver cells. Exception were Carica papaya, Cleistopholis patens, and Polyalthia suaveolens with 50% cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranging from 3.8 to 223 µg/mL. These preliminary results support the use of some West African plants in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to isolate and characterize the active ingredients in the extracts. PMID:27089314

  13. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  14. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  15. Evaluation of the Possible Mechanisms of Antihypertensive Activity of Loranthus micranthus: An African Mistletoe

    PubMed Central

    Iwalokun, Bamidele A.; Hodonu, Sedoten A.; Nwoke, Stella; Ojo, Olabisi; Agomo, Phillip U.

    2011-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus (LM), also called African mistletoe is a major Nigerian Loranthaceae plant used traditionally to treat hypertension. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant (LMME) has been shown to elicit anti-hypertensive activity in rats but mechanism remains unclear. This study was undertaken to study the effect of LM on pressor-induced contraction of rat aorta smooth muscles and serum lipid profiles in mice. The LMME was partitioned to produce n-butanol (NBF-LMME), chloroform (CF-LMME), ethyl acetate (EAF-LMME) and water (WF-LMME) fractions. The median effective concentrations and maximum relaxation of the fractions were determined against epinephrine and KCl pre-contracted rat aorta ring model. Serum lipid profiles and nitric oxide (NO) were determined spectrophotometrically in mice administered per orally 250 mg/kg b.w. of each fraction for 21 days. Data were analyzed statistically. NBF-LMME elicited the highest dose-dependent inhibitory effect on rat aorta pre-contracted with norepinephrine and KCl, followed in decreasing order by WF-LMME > CF-LMME > EAF-LMME. Similar order of activity was observed in the ability of these fractions to inhibit elevation in artherogenic lipids, raise serum nitric oxide and reduce cardiac arginase in mice. We conclude the anti-hypertensive activity of L. micranthus involve anti-artherogenic events, vasorelaxation, cardiac arginase reduction and NO elevation. PMID:21918720

  16. 75 FR 9423 - Agency Information Collection Activities: African Growth and Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the African Growth and Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin (AGOA). This request for...: Title: African Growth and Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin. OMB Number: 1651-0082. Form...

  17. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  18. Effects of Promoting Health Among Teens on Dietary, Physical Activity and Substance Use Knowledge and Behaviors for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jelani C.; Valois, Robert F.; Farber, Naomi B.; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura; Brown, Larry K.; Carey, Michael P.; Romer, Daniel; Stanton, Bonita; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Spencer, A Melinda; Annang, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and cancer. Health promotion interventions hold promise for reducing health disparities. Purpose Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT) is a brief, culturally tailored health education intervention to decrease cardiovascular disease and cancer risk for African Americans. This study evaluated the effects of PHAT for African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 in four eastern cities in the USA. Methods A randomized controlled design (N = 1,654) was used to determine differences in health knowledge, diet, physical activity, and substance use behaviors between PHAT participants and a sexual health promotion control group. Data were collected at baseline, three, six, and twelve months post intervention. Growth curve modeling was used to detect differences in health knowledge, dietary behaviors, physical activity, and substance use between PHAT and control group participants. Results PHAT participants had significantly greater knowledge gains but modest behavior changes compared to control group participants. Discussion PHAT is a promising intervention to increase knowledge and address selected health behaviors in African American youth. Translation to Health Education Practice Future attempts to execute PHAT should continue its emphasis on knowledge building while increasing intervention dosage and modifying length of time for intervention sessions. PMID:23957017

  19. African American Men’s Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity: “We’re Not That Difficult to Figure out!”

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from. 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45–64 years) and older (65–84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited; middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  20. The influence of African easterly waves on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehling, Erica M.

    A high-resolution global atmospheric model is used to disentangle the relationship between African easterly waves (AEWs) and Atlantic tropical storms (TCs) from the large-scale environmental factors that may obscure their connection. Since the two most cited references on AEW interannual variability in relation to TC activity draw conflicting conclusions about the historical relationship, and the AEW counts in each study do not show agreement on historical variability, novel analysis procedures are developed to produce consistent AEW and TC count statistics for the historical record using reanalysis products. This reanalysis-derived historical record is used to legitimize the model for the study of AEWs, which is subsequently utilized to investigate the relationship between AEWs and TCs. The internal variability of the relationship between AEW and TC count, including the sensitivity to ENSO phase and annual trends, and the interplay between environmental factors, AEW activity, and TC activity are probed using three sets of simulations: 1) climatological simulations, consisting of three ensemble members forced with historical seasonally and annually varying SST; 2) simulations with interannually invariant forcing, including a control simulation with climatological mean SST and a perpetual La Nina simulation with composite SST from strong La Nina years; 3) perturbed simulations, in which the large-scale environment is drastically altered through the manipulation of African albedo. Since variability exists in AEW count that is unexplained by known indicators of large-scale environmental favorability, across all simulations and multiple timescales, it is unlikely that the ubiquitous covariance between AEW and TC count is simply a response to environmental factors. The statistically significant correlations between AEW and TC statistics suggest that AEW variability accounts for a portion of the observed variability in TC count not due to known environmental factors

  1. Racial discrimination and health-promoting vs damaging behaviors among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope

    2012-11-01

    Studies have found relationships between racial discrimination and increased health-damaging behaviors among African-Americans, but have not examined possible concomitant decreased health-promoting behaviors. We explored the role of discrimination in two health-promoting behaviors, consuming ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables daily (FVC) and physical activity (PA), for the first time, and likewise examined discrimination's contribution to cigarette smoking, among a sample of N = 2118 African-American adults. Results revealed that discrimination contributed positively to smoking and to PA but was unrelated to FVC. These findings suggest that both adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors might be used to cope with the stress of discrimination.

  2. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.

  3. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and 42 studies (27 qualitative, 14, quantitative, 1 mixed method) published since 1990 (Range 1998–2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included: lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included: family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included: safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women. PMID:25909603

  4. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women. PMID:25909603

  5. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir. PMID:19928465

  6. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory: Recent progress and planned activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Hut, R.; Pieron, M.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative to develop, deploy, and operate 20,000 measurement stations in sub-Saharan Africa. Until recently, the activities have been limited but the project is now moving ahead and has developed activities in Zambia and Ghana. Design, Education, and Operation are the three main lines along which the initiative has been developing. Design follows a set of rules that serve easy deployment and operation, such as absence of moving parts and cavities, self- and cross calibration of sensors, and low cost (€ 200-300 per station). Education is central to the success of the project. The idea is that stations will be deployed at high schools and that educational material will be developed for the science curriculum. This approach will ensure good social embedding and acceptance as well as help create a generation of scientists and technicians with hands-on environmental monitoring experience. Operation focuses on the long-term financial sustainability of the network. Raw data will be made available for scientific use but value added products will be produced to financed maintenance and operation. The main purposes of the presentation are to provide details on recent developments, broaden the number of institutes involved and, especially, open discussion on further development of the initiative.

  7. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir.

  8. Nauclea latifolia: biological activity and alkaloid phytochemistry of a West African tree.

    PubMed

    Boucherle, Benjamin; Haudecoeur, Romain; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; De Waard, Michel; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Robins, Richard J; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2016-09-25

    Covering up to 2016Nauclea latifolia (syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius, Rubiaceae), commonly called the African pincushion tree, is a plant widely used in folk medicine in different regions of Africa for treating a variety of illnesses, including malaria, epilepsy and pain. N. latifolia has not only drawn the interest of traditional healers but also of phytochemists, who have identified a range of bioactive indole alkaloids in its tissue. More recently, following up on the traditional use of extracts in pain management, a bio-guided purification from the roots of the tree led to the identification of the active ingredient as tramadol, available as a synthetic analgesic since the 1970s. The discovery of this compound as a natural phytochemical was highlighted worldwide. This review focuses on the correlation between extracted compounds and pharmacological activities, paying special attention to infectious diseases and neurologically-related disorders. A critical analysis of the data reported so far on the natural origin of tramadol and its proposed biosynthesis is also presented. PMID:27346294

  9. Nauclea latifolia: biological activity and alkaloid phytochemistry of a West African tree.

    PubMed

    Boucherle, Benjamin; Haudecoeur, Romain; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; De Waard, Michel; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Robins, Richard J; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2016-09-25

    Covering up to 2016Nauclea latifolia (syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius, Rubiaceae), commonly called the African pincushion tree, is a plant widely used in folk medicine in different regions of Africa for treating a variety of illnesses, including malaria, epilepsy and pain. N. latifolia has not only drawn the interest of traditional healers but also of phytochemists, who have identified a range of bioactive indole alkaloids in its tissue. More recently, following up on the traditional use of extracts in pain management, a bio-guided purification from the roots of the tree led to the identification of the active ingredient as tramadol, available as a synthetic analgesic since the 1970s. The discovery of this compound as a natural phytochemical was highlighted worldwide. This review focuses on the correlation between extracted compounds and pharmacological activities, paying special attention to infectious diseases and neurologically-related disorders. A critical analysis of the data reported so far on the natural origin of tramadol and its proposed biosynthesis is also presented.

  10. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college.

  11. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  12. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Natural Products from Northern African Plant Families: From Taccaceae to Zygophyllaceae.

    PubMed

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Njume, Leonel E; Malange, Yvette I; Günther, Stefan; Sippl, Wolfgang; Yong, Joseph N

    2016-04-01

    Traditional medicinal practices have a profound influence on the daily lives of people living in developing countries, particularly in Africa, since the populations cannot generally afford the cost of Western medicines. We have undertaken to investigate the correlation between the uses of plants in Traditional African medicine and the biological activities of the derived natural products, with the aim to validate the use of traditional medicine in Northern African communities. The literature is covered for the period 1959-2015 and part III of this review series focuses on plant families with names beginning with letters T to Z. The authors have focused on curating data from journals in natural products and phytomedicine. Within each journal home page, a query search based on country name was conducted. All articles "hits" were then verified, one at a time, that the species was harvested within the Northern African geographical regions. The current data partly constitutes the bases for the development of the Northern African natural compounds database. The review discusses 284 plant-based natural compounds from 34 species and 11 families. It was observed that the ethnobotanical uses of less than 40 % of the plant species surveyed correlated with the bioactivities of compounds identified.

  13. Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity.

    PubMed

    Harley, Amy E; Rice, Jessica; Walker, Renee; Strath, Scott J; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement.

  14. Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity.

    PubMed

    Harley, Amy E; Rice, Jessica; Walker, Renee; Strath, Scott J; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement. PMID:24617833

  15. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2–8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and 1H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample. PMID:24792835

  16. Personality, Life Events and Coping in the Oldest-Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adults (n=165) in their 60s, 80s, and 100s on personality, life events, and coping. Found personality differences: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. Although centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family…

  17. Pain Coping Strategies and Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined role of pain episodes and active and passive pain coping strategies in predicting depression in 287 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Findings revealed pain, passive coping, and interaction between the 2 accounted for higher depression. Results also indicated that frequent use of passive pain coping strategies in face of high pain…

  18. Discovery of sublacustrine hydrothermal activity and associated massive sulfides and hydrocarbons in the north Tanganyika trough, East African Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Mondeguer, A. ); Thouin, C. ); Kalala, T. )

    1989-11-01

    Massive sulfides and carbonate mineral deposits associated with sublacustrine thermal springs were recently discovered along the Zaire side of the north Tanganyika trough, western branch of the East African Rift. This hydrothermal activity, investigated by scuba diving at a maximum depth of 20 m, is located at the intersection of major north-south normal faults and northwest-southeast faults belonging to the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) strike-slip fault zone. The preliminary results presented here come from analyses of sulfide deposits, hydrothermal fluids, and associated hydrocarbons that result from geothermal activity in this part of the East African Rift filled by a thick pile of sediment, the north Tanganyika trough.

  19. Anticancer activity of five forest crops used in African folklore: antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Engel-Lutz, Nadja; Ahomafor, Joy; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Nebe, Babara; Langer, Peter

    2014-02-26

    Acalypha wilkesiana, Caesalpinia bonduc, Jatropha multifida, Momordica charantia and Picralima nitida used in African folklore for treating cancer were investigated. All extracts except J. multifida resulted in no significant alteration in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in MCF-7 and BT-20. The J. multifilda (JMR-Ch) caused cell cycle arrest at G1 checkpoint and apoptosis in MCF-7. Slight changes in the integrin expression of MCF-7 after treatment with 1 and 10 μg/mL of JMR-Ch were observed. Fluorescence-activated confocal microscopy shows changes in cell morphology and β1 integrin localisation within MCF-7 cells after exposure to 10 and 25 μg/mL of JMR-Ch. JMR-Ch (1 μg/mL) treatment resulted in time-dependent decrease in cell acidification and respiration in MCF-7 cells and a time-dependent decrease in BT-20 cell respiration, while in MCF-10A, there was an enhancement of acidification. These results revealed the probable application of JMR-Ch in cancer therapy.

  20. Comparative inhibitory activity of the stilbenes resveratrol and oxyresveratrol on African swine fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Galindo, I; Hernáez, B; Berná, J; Fenoll, J; Cenis, J L; Escribano, J M; Alonso, C

    2011-07-01

    Stilbenols are polyphenolic phytoalexins produced by plants in response to biotic or abiotic stress. These compounds have received much attention because of their significant biological effects. One of these is their antiviral action, which has previously been documented for two members of this class, namely resveratrol and oxyresveratrol. Here we tested the antiviral effect of these two compounds on African swine fever virus, the only member of the newly created family Asfarviridae and a serious limitation to porcine production worldwide. Our results show a potent, dose-dependent antiviral effect of resveratrol and oxyresveratrol in vitro. Interestingly, this antiviral activity was found for these synthetic compounds and also for oxyresveratrol extracted from new natural sources (mulberry twigs). The antiviral effect of these two drugs was demonstrated at concentrations that do not induce cytotoxicity in cultured cells. Moreover, these antivirals achieved a 98-100% reduction in viral titers. Both compounds allowed early protein synthesis but inhibited viral DNA replication, late viral protein synthesis and viral factory formation.

  1. African Trypanosome-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction under Shear Stress May Not Require ERK Activation.

    PubMed

    Sumpio, Brandon J; Chitragari, Gautham; Moriguchi, Takeshi; Shalaby, Sherif; Pappas-Brown, Valeria; Khan, Asif M; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Sumpio, Bauer E; Grab, Dennis J

    2015-03-01

    African trypanosomes are tsetse fly transmitted protozoan parasites responsible for human African trypanosomiasis, a disease characterized by a plethora of neurological symptoms and death. How the parasites under microvascular shear stress (SS) flow conditions in the brain cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not known. In vitro studies using static models comprised of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) show that BBB activation and crossing by trypanosomes requires the orchestration of parasite cysteine proteases and host calcium-mediated cell signaling. Here, we examine BMEC barrier function and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and ERK5, mitogen-activated protein kinase family regulators of microvascular permeability, under static and laminar SS flow and in the context of trypanosome infection. Confluent human BMEC were cultured in electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and parallel-plate glass slide chambers. The human BMEC were exposed to 2 or 14 dyn/cm(2) SS in the presence or absence of trypanosomes. Real-time changes in transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) were monitored and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and ERK5 analyzed by immunoblot assay. After reaching confluence under static conditions human BMEC TEER was found to rapidly increase when exposed to 2 dyn/cm(2) SS, a condition that mimics SS in brain postcapillary venules. Addition of African trypanosomes caused a rapid drop in human BMEC TEER. Increasing SS to 14 dyn/cm(2), a condition mimicking SS in brain capillaries, led to a transient increase in TEER in both control and infected human BMEC. However, no differences in ERK1/2 and ERK5 activation were found under any condition tested. African trypanosomiasis alters BBB permeability under low shear conditions through an ERK1/2 and ERK5 independent pathway. PMID:27053915

  2. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  3. Socialization of Coping with Community Violence: Influences of Caregiver Coaching, Modeling, and Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    2006-01-01

    A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…

  4. Indirect and direct associations between personality and psychological distress mediated by dispositional coping.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.

  5. Physical activity among African American and Latino middle school girls: consistent beliefs, expectations, and experiences across two sites.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W C; Yancey, A K; Leslie, J; Murray, N G; Cummings, S S; Sharkey, S A; Wert, C; James, J; Miles, O; McCarthy, W J

    1999-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health concern. Low levels of physical activity are reported in many subgroups of women including adolescent girls. More data are needed to better understand factors related to physical activity participation in adolescent girls. Therefore, we explored adolescent girls' reasons for participating and not participating in physical activity. Two independent samples were taken in California and Texas; the total sample included thirty-four African American and Latino girls. Six focus groups were conducted by trained facilitators. Based on independent qualitative analyses, six replicated themes emerged from the focus groups. Fun, social support, and concern with body image facilitated participation in activity. In contrast, negative experiences in physical education classes, concerns about appearance after activity, and lack of opportunity impeded participation in activity. Overall, the girls showed an interest in physical activity and identified activity motivators and barriers. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research.

  6. [Coping with chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Silke

    2014-03-26

    Patients suffering form chronic diseases have to deal with several problems, the illness itself only being one of them. Health care providers have to undergo a paradigm shift to be able to meet the new challenges which differ from those in acute care. From the patient's perspective, coping with a chronic disease is not a limited process, but encompasses different, often recurring phases (trajectory model). The treating physician's support may comprise the offering of information on general and specific stress factors (physical, emotional, social), empathy, respecting the individual's expertise and activating a patient's resources and self-efficacy. The amount of support given is limited by the treating physician's expert knowledge in this area. Physicians should respect their own limits and involve specialists, supervision or Balint groups.

  7. Strategies for Coping with Interpersonal Hurt: Preliminary Evidence for the Relationship between Coping and Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelan, Peter; Wojtysiak, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary empirical test suggesting a coping framework that describes the behavioral, cognitive, and emotion-focused activities related to the process that may lead to forgiveness. Among 170 participants, the study explored the coping strategies people use when they respond to an interpersonal hurt and also the general use…

  8. Female reproductive activity and its endocrine correlates in the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi.

    PubMed

    Scheun, Juan; Nowack, Julia; Bennett, Nigel C; Ganswindt, Andre

    2016-02-01

    Steroid hormones play an important role in female reproductive physiology and behaviour and are often used to monitor important female reproductive events. However, such studies are often attempted on captive populations alone, delivering limited data. One such example is the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, for which contradicting observational data exist between captive and free-ranging populations, while hormonal analyses have only been obtained from a single captive population. To extend and rectify the limited information, we monitored faecal progestagen and oestrogen metabolite levels across various important life history stages of both captive and free-ranging G. moholi. We additionally recorded changes in vaginal state as well as the occurrence of reproductive and aggressive behaviour throughout the study. Data from our captive population revealed an ovarian cycle length of 33.44 ± 0.59 days (mean ± SD), with follicular and luteal phases of 14.2 ± 1.0 and 19.1 ± 1.5 days, respectively, and an average pregnancy length of 128 ± 3.3 days. The initiation of female reproductive activity was closely linked to an oestrus-related increase in faecal oestrogen metabolite levels. Four of the seven captive females monitored in our study conceived during the May mating period, with one additional female fertilised in September, supporting the idea that the September mating period functions as a back-up for female G. moholi. Identified benchmark faecal progestagen metabolite levels (non-pregnant: >1 µg/g dry weight (DW), pregnant: >9 µg/g DW) should help researchers to determine pregnancy status of randomly wild-caught females in even a cross-sectional study setup. PMID:26649553

  9. Gender, Race, and Grade Differences in Gifted Adolescents' Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The Adolescent Coping Scale was administered to 749 gifted students attending two different summer enrichment programs. Results indicate little evidence of gender or grade differences but found racial differences on the Seek Spiritual Support scale (African and Hispanic students had the highest scores), the Self-Blame scale, and the Worry scale.…

  10. Validity of two brief physical activity questionnaires with accelerometers among African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the validity of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) and Exercise Vital Sign (EVS) questionnaire against accelerometer-determined time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among African-American (AA) women. Background Limited research has evaluated the validity of brief physical activity (PA) questionnaires among AA women. Since the validity of PA questionnaires may differ among members of varying racial/ethnic groups, research is needed to explore the validity of self-report PA measures among AA women. Methods A total of 30 AA women [M age = 35.5 ± 5.3; M body mass index (BMI) = 31.1 ± 7.8] wore ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometers (ActiGraph, LLC, Pensacola FL, USA) for seven days and completed both the SBAS and EVS at two different assessment periods (T1 and T2). Criterion validity was calculated using Spearman's rank order correlations between each questionnaire score and accelerometer-measured MVPA. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using accelerometer-measured MVPA as the criterion to determine the ability of each questionnaire to predict whether or not a participant was meeting the 2008 US PA Guidelines Findings Spearman correlation coefficients between questionnaire scores and minutes of accelerometer-measured MVPA were low (EVS, r = 0.27 at T1 and r = 0.26 at T2; SBAS, r = 0.10 at T1 and r = 0.28 at T2) and not statistically significant (P's > 0.05). The EVS had sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of 27, 89, 59, and 68% at T1 and 33, 74, 38, and 70% at T2, respectively. The SBAS had sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were 18, 79, 33, and 62% at T1 and 67, 58, 43, and 79% at T2. While both questionnaires may be useful in identifying AA women who do not meet the 2008 PA Guidelines, using the questionnaires to identify AA women meeting the PA Guidelines should be done with caution. PMID:26178779

  11. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  13. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  14. Come to the River: Using Spirituality to Cope, Resist, and Develop Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry K.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses spiritual lives of African American female college students, including elements of coping, resisting, and developing identity. The theoretical frameworks of James Fowler, Sharon Parks, and Linda James Myers are viewed through the lens of experiences of African American women in college. Qualitative research…

  15. Vitamin D status and its associations with disease activity and severity in African Americans with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Steven M.; Yu, Fang; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Conn, Doyt L.; Jonas, Beth; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin A.; Moreland, Larry W.; Bridges, S. Louis; Mikuls, Ted R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the associations of vitamin D concentration with disease status in African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Study participants (n = 266) were enrolled in the Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African Americans with Early RA (CLEAR) Registry. 25(OH)-D was measured on baseline plasma and associations of 25(OH)-D with disease status (baseline and at 3 years disease duration) were examined using univariate and multivariate regression. Results The prevalence of 25(OH)-D insufficiency (≤ 37.5 nmol/L or 15 ng/ml) was 50%, with the highest prevalence in winter. In unadjusted analyses, vitamin D concentrations were inversely associated with baseline pain (p = 0.04), swollen joints (p = 0.04), and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28, p = 0.05) but not with measures at 3 years disease duration. There were no multivariate associations of 25(OH)-D with any disease measures at baseline or at 3 years with the exception of a positive borderline association with rheumatoid factor positivity at enrollment (p = 0.05). Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency is common in African Americans with recent-onset RA. Unadjusted associations of circulating vitamin D with baseline pain, swollen joints, and DAS-28 were explained by differences in season, age, and gender and were not significant in multivariate analyses. In contrast to reports of Northern Europeans with early inflammatory arthritis, there are not strong associations of 25(OH)-D concentration with symptoms or disease severity in African Americans with RA. PMID:20032100

  16. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  17. 78 FR 42103 - Agency Information Collection Activities: African Growth and Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: African Growth and Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin (AGOA... previously published in the Federal Register (78 FR 26650) on May 7, 2013, allowing for a 60-day...

  18. 78 FR 26650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: African Growth and Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Certificate of Origin (AGOA). This request for comments is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act...: Title: African Growth and Opportunity Act Certificate of Origin. OMB Number: 1651-0082. Form...

  19. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  20. Filipino Americans and racism: A multiple mediation model of coping.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda P

    2010-04-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of adults (N = 199). Two multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediating effects of active, avoidance, support-seeking, and forbearance coping on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress and self-esteem, respectively. Separate analyses were also conducted for men and women given differences in coping utilization. For men, a bootstrap procedure indicated that active, support-seeking, and avoidance coping were mediators of the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress. Active coping was negatively associated with psychological distress, whereas both support seeking and avoidance were positively associated with psychological distress. A second bootstrap procedure for men indicated that active and avoidance coping mediated the relationship between perceived racism and self-esteem such that active coping was positively associated with self-esteem, and avoidance was negatively associated with self-esteem. For women, only avoidance coping had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in psychological distress and decreases in self-esteem. The results highlight the importance of examining the efficacy of specific coping responses to racism and the need to differentiate between the experiences of men and women.

  1. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies.

  2. Exploring the Relationship of Religiosity, Religious Support, and Social Support Among African American Women in a Physical Activity Intervention Program

    PubMed Central

    Story, Chandra R.; Knutson, Douglas; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Religious belief has been linked to a variety of positive mental and physical health outcomes. This exploratory study will address the relationship between religious involvement and social connectedness among African American women. Results from a physical activity intervention research project (N = 465) found that total religious support and social support were significantly negatively correlated with total religiosity, while total general social support was significantly positively correlated with total religious support. Overall, the study indicates that more research is needed on ways to encourage interaction between the positive dimensions of both religiosity and social support to bring about healthy behaviors. PMID:25673181

  3. Interrelatedness of Proactive Coping, Reactive Coping, and Learned Resourcefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…

  4. Life disruption, life continuation: contrasting themes in the lives of African-American elders with advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey; Zalenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the need for more information about how urban African-American elders experience advanced heart failure. Participants included 35 African Americans aged 60 and over with advanced heart failure, identified through records from a community hospital in Detroit, Michigan. Four focus groups (n = 13) and 22 individual interviews were conducted. We used thematic analysis to examine qualitative focus groups and interviews. Themes identified included life disruption, which encompassed the sub-themes of living scared, making sense of heart failure, and limiting activities. Resuming life was a contrasting theme involving culturally relevant coping strategies, and included the sub-themes of resiliency, spirituality, and self-care that helped patients regain and maintain a sense of self amid serious illness. Participants faced numerous challenges and invoked a variety of strategies to cope with their illness, and their stories of struggles, hardship, and resilience can serve as a model for others struggling with advanced illness. PMID:22352363

  5. Geodynamic significance of the TRM segment in the East African Rift: active tectonics and paleostress in western Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, D.; Kervyn, F.; Macheyeki, A. S.; Temu, E. B.

    2012-04-01

    The Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) rift segment in western Tanzania is a key sector for understanding the opening dynamics of the East African rift system (EARS). In an oblique opening model, it is considered as a dextral transfer fault zone that accommodates the general opening of the EARS in a NW-SE direction. In an orthogonal opening model, it accommodates pure dip-slip normal faulting with extension orthogonal to the rift segments and a general E-W extension for the entire EARS. We investigated the active tectonic architecture and paleostress evolution of the Ufipa plateau and adjacent Rukwa basin and in order to define their geodynamic role in the development of the EARS and highlight their pre-rift brittle tectonic history. The active fault architecture, fault-kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstruction show that the recent to active fault systems that control the rift structure develop in a pure extensional setting with extension direction orthogonal to the trend of the TRM segment. Two pre-rift brittle events are evidenced. An older brittle thrusting is related to the interaction between the Bangweulu block and the Tanzanian craton during the late Pan-African (early Paleozoic). It was followed by a transpressional inversion during the early Mesozoic. This inversion stage caused dextral strike-slip faulting along the fault systems that now control the major rift structures. It has been erroneously interpreted as related to the late Cenozoic EARS which instead is characterized by pure normal faulting.

  6. Evaluation of removal efficiency of heavy metals by low-cost activated carbon prepared from African palm fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrazak, Sani; Hussaini, K.; Sani, H. M.

    2016-09-01

    This study details the removal of heavy metals; Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from wastewater effluent using an activated carbon produced from African palm fruit. The effluent was obtained from Old Panteka market; a metal scrap Market located in Kaduna State, Nigeria, which has several components that constitute high level of pollution in the environment. The effect of temperature and contact time on the removal of these heavy metals using the activated carbon produced was investigated. The activated carbon showed a significant ability in removing heavy metals; Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from the wastewater. Higher percentage removal was observed at a temperature of 80 °C (93.23 ± 0.035, 96.71 ± 0.097, 92.01 ± 0.018, and 95.42 ± 0.067 % for Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead, respectively) and at an optimum contact time of 60 min (99.235 ± 0.148, 96.711 ± 0.083, 95.34 ± 0.015, and 97.750 ± 0.166 % for Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead, respectively) after which the percentage removal decreases. This work, therefore, suggests that African palm fruit can be successfully applied to solve this environmental pollution.

  7. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  8. The activities of hospital nursing unit managers and quality of patient care in South African hospitals: a paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.; Penn-Kekana, Loveday

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the quality of health care is central to the proposed health care reforms in South Africa. Nursing unit managers play a key role in coordinating patient care activities and in ensuring quality care in hospitals. Objective This paper examines whether the activities of nursing unit managers facilitate the provision of quality patient care in South African hospitals. Methods During 2011, a cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in nine randomly selected hospitals (six public, three private) in two South African provinces. In each hospital, one of each of the medical, surgical, paediatric, and maternity units was selected (n=36). Following informed consent, each unit manager was observed for a period of 2 hours on the survey day and the activities recorded on a minute-by-minute basis. The activities were entered into Microsoft Excel, coded into categories, and analysed according to the time spent on activities in each category. The observation data were complemented by semi-structured interviews with the unit managers who were asked to recall their activities on the day preceding the interview. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results The study found that nursing unit managers spent 25.8% of their time on direct patient care, 16% on hospital administration, 14% on patient administration, 3.6% on education, 13.4% on support and communication, 3.9% on managing stock and equipment, 11.5% on staff management, and 11.8% on miscellaneous activities. There were also numerous interruptions and distractions. The semi-structured interviews revealed concordance between unit managers’ recall of the time spent on patient care, but a marked inflation of their perceived time spent on hospital administration. Conclusion The creation of an enabling practice environment, supportive executive management, and continuing professional development are needed to enable nursing managers to lead the provision of consistent and high

  9. Coping with Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative decline is predicted because of the leveling off of industrial production and exhaustion of resources. Coping with these conditions requires flexibility and adaptability. Delusions of certainty zero in on catastrophe. (Author/MLF)

  10. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  11. Coping with College Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  12. Coping with the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholzman, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)

  13. Coping with Feelings

    MedlinePlus

    ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...

  14. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  15. Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African American women who are physically active and those who are not.

    PubMed

    Carter-Parker, Kathleen; Edwards, Karethy A; McCleary-Jones, Voncella

    2012-01-01

    Many people have positive intention to engage in physical activity but fail to act. In general, Physical activity (PA) levels among Americans are declining. However, when compared to all other racial groups, middle aged African American women (AAW) have the lowest rate of PA participation. The lack of physical activity has dire illness consequences for AAW Despite significant efforts to increase physical activity to levels that benefit health, the need to understand successful translation of intention to engage in physical activity, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control is warranted in order to design theoretically derived culturally tailored interventions to increase physical activity participation among middle aged AAW. Moreover, there is a paucity of studies that use theoretical underpinnings to elucidate the differences between middle aged AAW who are physically active and those who are not physically active. Therefore, the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) measuring the constructs of intention, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control was used to guide the design of this study. One-hundred-fifty-three respondents completed the socio-demographic profile, a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire (TPBQ), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated the highest correlation between intention and attitude r (137) = .740, p < .001. The correlation between intention and perceived behavior control was r (137) = .546, p < .001; intention and physical activity r (137) = .439, p < .001; attitude and perceived behavior control r (137) = .487, p < .001; and attitude and physical activity r (137) = .429, p < .001 demonstrated a moderately strong positive relationship. Subjective norm and perceived behavior control demonstrate the smallest correlational significance r (137) = .264, p <.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed attitude towards physical

  16. Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African American women who are physically active and those who are not.

    PubMed

    Carter-Parker, Kathleen; Edwards, Karethy A; McCleary-Jones, Voncella

    2012-01-01

    Many people have positive intention to engage in physical activity but fail to act. In general, Physical activity (PA) levels among Americans are declining. However, when compared to all other racial groups, middle aged African American women (AAW) have the lowest rate of PA participation. The lack of physical activity has dire illness consequences for AAW Despite significant efforts to increase physical activity to levels that benefit health, the need to understand successful translation of intention to engage in physical activity, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control is warranted in order to design theoretically derived culturally tailored interventions to increase physical activity participation among middle aged AAW. Moreover, there is a paucity of studies that use theoretical underpinnings to elucidate the differences between middle aged AAW who are physically active and those who are not physically active. Therefore, the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) measuring the constructs of intention, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control was used to guide the design of this study. One-hundred-fifty-three respondents completed the socio-demographic profile, a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire (TPBQ), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated the highest correlation between intention and attitude r (137) = .740, p < .001. The correlation between intention and perceived behavior control was r (137) = .546, p < .001; intention and physical activity r (137) = .439, p < .001; attitude and perceived behavior control r (137) = .487, p < .001; and attitude and physical activity r (137) = .429, p < .001 demonstrated a moderately strong positive relationship. Subjective norm and perceived behavior control demonstrate the smallest correlational significance r (137) = .264, p <.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed attitude towards physical

  17. Caregivers--Who Copes How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Dujela, Carren

    2009-01-01

    Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…

  18. Theodore E. Woodward Award: lactase persistence SNPs in African populations regulate promoter activity in intestinal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Eric; Ahn, Jong Kun

    2011-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, lactase, is the intestinal enzyme responsible for the digestion of the milk sugar lactose. The majority of the world's human population experiences a decline in expression of the lactase gene by late childhood (lactase non-persistence). Individuals with lactase persistence, however, continue to express high levels of the lactase gene throughout adulthood. Lactase persistence is a heritable autosomal dominant condition and has been strongly correlated with several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located ∼14 kb upstream of the lactase gene in different ethnic populations: -13910*T in Europeans and -13907*G, -13915*G, and -14010*C in several African populations. The coincidence of the four SNPs clustering within 100 bp strongly suggests that this region mediates the lactase non-persistence/persistence phenotype. Having previously characterized the European SNP, we aimed to determine whether the African SNPs similarly mediate a functional role in regulating the lactase promoter. Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were transfected with lactase SNP/promoter-reporter constructs and assayed for promoter activity. The -13907*G and -13915*G SNPs result in a significant enhancement of lactase promoter activity relative to the ancestral lactase non-persistence genotype. Such differential regulation by the SNPs is consistent with a causative role in the mechanism specifying the lactase persistence phenotype.

  19. Psychosocial and perceived environmental correlates of physical activity in rural and older african american and white women.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Bopp, Melissa; Oberrecht, Larissa; Kammermann, Sandra K; McElmurray, Charles T

    2003-11-01

    African American and rural older women are among the least active segments of the population. This study, guided by social cognitive theory, examined the correlates of physical activity (PA) in 102 rural older women (41% African American; 70.6 +/- 9.2 years). In bivariate associations, education, marital status, self-efficacy, greater pros than cons, perceived stress, social support, and perceived neighborhood safety were positively associated with PA; age, depressive symptoms, perceived sidewalks, health care provider discussion of PA, and perceived traffic were negatively associated with PA. In a hierarchical regression analysis, the sociodemographic (R(2) = 23%), psychological (IR(2) = 9%), social (IR(2) = 6%), and perceived physical environmental (IR(2) = 9%) sets of variables were significant (p <.05) predictors of PA (model R(2) = 47%). In response to open-ended questions, most women cited individual and social factors as PA barriers and motivators; falls, injuries, and heart attacks were identified most often as risks. These findings support the importance of multilevel influences on PA in older rural women and are useful for informing PA interventions.

  20. An In-Depth Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity in Regularly Active and Insufficiently Active Older African American Women: A Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research and programmatic efforts to alleviate racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity (PA), disparities in PA among older minorities and major racial ethnic groups persist. This study explored perceptions of PA among regularly active (RA) and insufficiently active (IA) older African American women (AAW) and the factors that influence (positively and negatively) their physical participation in their socio-cultural environment. A total of 20 AAW aged 60 to 80 years participated in a cross-sectional mixed-methods study (i.e., qualitative and quantitative) employing participatory research approaches (i.e., photoelicitation) along with an objective assessment of PA. Nine women were considered RA and 11 IA according to current PA recommendations. RA and IA women held two major beliefs about the nature of PA (i.e., PA as a broadly defined construct that goes beyond traditional exercise routines; and PA and exercise are synonymous and can be used interchangeably) and had a good understanding of its benefits. Participants in both groups did not know about the importance of PA intensity for health benefits. Barriers and facilitator of PA were found to be similar among RA and IA participants. Special attention should be paid to providing access to no or low cost opportunities for PA participation in safe environments. PMID:26554842

  1. An In-Depth Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity in Regularly Active and Insufficiently Active Older African American Women: A Participatory Approach.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Emerson; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Schwingel, Andiara

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research and programmatic efforts to alleviate racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity (PA), disparities in PA among older minorities and major racial ethnic groups persist. This study explored perceptions of PA among regularly active (RA) and insufficiently active (IA) older African American women (AAW) and the factors that influence (positively and negatively) their physical participation in their socio-cultural environment. A total of 20 AAW aged 60 to 80 years participated in a cross-sectional mixed-methods study (i.e., qualitative and quantitative) employing participatory research approaches (i.e., photoelicitation) along with an objective assessment of PA. Nine women were considered RA and 11 IA according to current PA recommendations. RA and IA women held two major beliefs about the nature of PA (i.e., PA as a broadly defined construct that goes beyond traditional exercise routines; and PA and exercise are synonymous and can be used interchangeably) and had a good understanding of its benefits. Participants in both groups did not know about the importance of PA intensity for health benefits. Barriers and facilitator of PA were found to be similar among RA and IA participants. Special attention should be paid to providing access to no or low cost opportunities for PA participation in safe environments.

  2. Income, ethnicity, and sleep: coping as a moderator.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J; Sadeh, Avi; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Toward identifying variables that may protect children against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity, support coping was examined as a moderator. Participants were 235 children (113 boys, 122 girls; M age = 11.33 years, SD = 8.03 months), 64% European American and 36% African American. Children's sleep duration (minutes) and continuity (efficiency) were assessed through actigraphs worn for 1 week. Mothers reported on the family's monetary resources (income-to-needs ratio) and children reported on their support coping strategies. For children from lower income homes and African Americans, a higher level of support coping was a protective factor against fewer sleep minutes and reduced sleep efficiency, otherwise associated with economic adversity. Children from more economically advantaged homes had good sleep parameters regardless of their coping. The results build on the existing small body of work by demonstrating that children's support coping strategies have a protective role against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity and present potential targets for intervention that may help reduce health disparities in an important health domain.

  3. Income, ethnicity, and sleep: coping as a moderator.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J; Sadeh, Avi; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Toward identifying variables that may protect children against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity, support coping was examined as a moderator. Participants were 235 children (113 boys, 122 girls; M age = 11.33 years, SD = 8.03 months), 64% European American and 36% African American. Children's sleep duration (minutes) and continuity (efficiency) were assessed through actigraphs worn for 1 week. Mothers reported on the family's monetary resources (income-to-needs ratio) and children reported on their support coping strategies. For children from lower income homes and African Americans, a higher level of support coping was a protective factor against fewer sleep minutes and reduced sleep efficiency, otherwise associated with economic adversity. Children from more economically advantaged homes had good sleep parameters regardless of their coping. The results build on the existing small body of work by demonstrating that children's support coping strategies have a protective role against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity and present potential targets for intervention that may help reduce health disparities in an important health domain. PMID:25045954

  4. Income, Ethnicity and Sleep: Coping as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J.; Sadeh, Avi; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Toward identifying variables that may protect children against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity, support coping was examined as a moderator. Participants were 235 children (113 boys, 122 girls; M age = 11.33 years, SD =8.03 months); 64% European American and 36% African American. Children’s sleep duration (minutes) and continuity (efficiency) were assessed through actigraphs worn for one week. Mothers reported on the family’s monetary resources (income-to-needs ratio) and children reported on their support coping strategies. For children from lower income homes and African Americans, a higher level of support coping was a protective factor against fewer sleep minutes and reduced sleep efficiency, otherwise associated with economic adversity. Children from more economically advantaged homes had good sleep parameters regardless of their coping. The results build on the existing small body of work by demonstrating that children’s support coping strategies have a protective role against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity and present potential targets for intervention that may help reduce health disparities in an important health domain. PMID:25045954

  5. An economic evaluation of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dritsaki, Melina; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Mitchell, Katy; Singh, Sally; Rees, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to undertake a cost-utility analysis of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education (SPACE) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The analysis was conducted alongside a six-month randomized controlled trial in 30 primary care settings. The economic analysis used data from 184 patients with confirmed diagnosis of COPD, forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and with grade 2-5 on the Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale. Participants received either a self-management programme consisting of an education manual (SPACE for COPD) and consultation or usual care. Six-month costs were estimated from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated based on patient responses at baseline and six months.The mean difference in costs between usual care and SPACE FOR COPD programme was -£27.18 (95% confidence interval (CI); -£122.59 to £68.25) while mean difference in QALYs was -0.10 (95% CI; -0.17 to -0.02). The results suggest that the intervention is more costly and more effective than usual care. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 97% at a threshold of £20,000/QALY gained. We conclude that the SPACE FOR COPD programme is cost-effective compared to usual care.

  6. En las Manos de Dios [in God's Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping among Latinos with Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Echeverria, Sandra E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping…

  7. Stratospheric variability of wave activity and parameters in equatorial coastal and tropical sites during the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, F.; Petitdidier, M.

    2015-08-01

    Recent numerical studies in stratospheric dynamics and its variability as well as climate, have highlighted the need of more observational analyses to improve simulation of the West African monsoon (WAM). In this paper, activity and spectral characteristics of short-scale vertical waves (wavelengths <4 km) are analysed in equatorial coastal and tropical lower stratosphere during the WAM. A first detailed description of such waves over West Africa is derived from high-resolution vertical profiles of temperature and horizontal wind obtained during Intensive Observation Period of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) Campaign 2006. Monthly variation of wave energy density is revealed to trace the progression of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over West Africa. Mesoscale inertia gravity-waves structures with vertical and horizontal wavelengths of 1.5-2.5 and 400-1100 km respectively and intrinsic frequencies of 1.1-2.2 f or periods <2 days are observed in the tropical LS with intense activity during July and August when the WAM is installed over the tropical West Africa. Over equatorial region, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.4-4 f or periods <5.2 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and long horizontal wavelengths of 1300 km are intense during the WAM coastal phase. From July to October, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.2-3.8 f or periods <6 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and horizontal wavelengths of 1650 km are less intense during the WAM Sahelian phase of the WAM, March-June. Unlike potential energy density, kinetic energy density is observed to be a good proxy for the activity of short-scale vertical waves during the WAM because quasi-inertial waves are dominant. Long-term wave activity variation from January 2001 to December 2009, highlights strong year-to-year variation superimposed on convective activity and quasi-biennial oscillation-like variations especially above tropical stations.

  8. Benevolent sexist ideology attributed to an abusive partner decreases women's active coping responses to acts of sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Durán, Mercedes; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2014-05-01

    This article describes three studies in which we explored the influence of the sexist ideology attributed to the perpetrator on women's responses to hypothetical acts of sexual assault perpetrated by male intimate partners. In Study 1 (n = 83), college women read three sexual assault scenarios in the context of an intimate relationship. The male partner's sexist ideology (benevolent, hostile, or control) was manipulated within participants. Women showed less active responses when the partner had been described as a benevolent sexist man. This effect was replicated in Study 2 (n = 103), which showed a relationship between women's less active responses and the belief that benevolent sexist men are very attracted to and interested in their partners. Study 3 (n = 130) demonstrated experimentally that women's responses are less active when they are exposed to information that indicates that the perpetrator is both high in benevolent sexism and highly attracted to his victim than when the latter information is not provided. Results suggest that sexist ideology and particularly benevolent sexism-attributed to the perpetrator in this case-is highly important in women's reactions to acts of sexual violence perpetrated by male intimate partners.

  9. Recommendations for a Culturally Relevant Internet-Based Tool to Promote Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women, Alabama, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. Methods A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Results Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Conclusion Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population. PMID:24433625

  10. [Coping psychologically with amputation].

    PubMed

    Schulz, M

    2009-02-01

    An amputation is a "tragic event" in someone's biography which causes a dramatic change in the outer appearance, the loss of mobility, independence and self esteem. The following article is about how people learn to cope with this difficult situation; with the practical problems of everyday life as well as their emotional problems. It is important for the amputees to go through the different stages of mourning: The first stage is the rejection of the situation. Repression and denial of the loss protects the patient from emotional overstrain. Confrontation is the next step: emotionally as well as mentally. "How could it happen?", (understanding the reasons why ...) "What will my future be like?", "How will I cope?" (ability of coping) "Why did it happen to me?" (sense) The last stage of coping with the amputation is to accept and deal with the new situation and to build up new self-confidence. A successful process of coping leads to a new identity. If a person fails to adapt to the new situation, he will develop an inferiority complex and fall into a depression. He might also try to look for culprit and blame the situation on someone else. About two thirds of all amputees don't cope with their amputation and become depressive. 15% develop symptoms of anxiety. Therefore it is important to offer help. The patients should get together in self helping groups and talk about their experiences and problems. If they need more intensive and individual help, they should have the opportunity to contact a psychologist. During the process of coping with their amputation the patients often alternate between optimistic and pessimistic moods. Sometimes they fall back into a negative and resigned state of mind. This is natural and part of the process as long as they find their own way to a positive attitude and view of life. PMID:19259934

  11. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  12. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women.

  13. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  14. Behavioural activation for the treatment of low-income, African American adolescents with major depressive disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Maryann; Keeley, Mary L; Ritschel, Lorie; Craighead, W Edward

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychosocial treatment that has shown promise in the treatment of adults suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have shown that BA may also be effective for treating depressed adolescents. There are no studies that have reported on the BA treatment of depressed and low-income African American adolescents; thus, the current study reports on the effectiveness of a version of BA adapted for the treatment of African American adolescents who were diagnosed with MDD (n = 3). Participants were allowed to attend a maximum of 17 sessions of weekly psychotherapy. Based on results taken from structured interviews, two of the three participants no longer met criteria for MDD at the end of treatment, and the severity of clinician-rated depressive symptoms and impairment decreased for all participants at post-treatment assessment. Additionally, all participants and their caregivers reported satisfaction with treatment. Implications of these findings, study limitations and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  15. The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2015-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established.

  16. Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2014-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 μg/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23877712

  17. The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2015-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established. PMID:25412961

  18. Coping with copper: legacy effect of copper on potential activity of soil bacteria following a century of exposure.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker; Holm, Peter E; Johansen, Anders; Brandt, Kristian K; Priemé, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-11-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure to normal (∼15 mg kg(-1)), high (∼450 mg kg(-1)) or extremely high (∼4500 mg kg(-1)) copper levels. Results showed that bioavailable copper had pronounced impacts on the structure of the transcriptionally active bacterial community, overruling other environmental factors (e.g. season and pH). As copper concentration increased, bacterial richness and evenness were negatively impacted, while distinct communities with an enhanced relative abundance of Nitrospira and Acidobacteria members and a lower representation of Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were selected. Our analysis showed the presence of six functional response groups (FRGs), each consisting of bacterial taxa with similar tolerance response to copper. Furthermore, the use of FRGs revealed that specific taxa like the genus Nitrospira and several Acidobacteria groups could accurately predict the copper legacy burden in our system, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils. PMID:27543319

  19. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  20. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  1. Temporal Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and the Pubertal Decline in Physical Activity in Peripubertal Hispanic and African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Belcher, Britni R.; Hsu, Ya-Wen; McClain, Arianna D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little attention has been paid to possible intrinsic biological mechanisms for the decline in physical activity that occurs during puberty. This longitudinal observational study examined the association between baseline insulin sensitivity (SI) and declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior in peripubertal minority females over a year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were Hispanic and African American girls (n = 55; 76% Hispanic; mean age 9.4 years; 36% obese). SI and other insulin indices were measured at baseline using the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured on a quarterly basis by accelerometry and self-report. RESULTS Physical activity declined by 25% and time spent in sedentary behaviors increased by ∼13% over 1 year. Lower baseline SI predicted the decline in physical activity measured by accelerometry, whereas higher baseline acute insulin response to glucose predicted the decline in physical activity measured by self-report. Time spent in sedentary behavior increased by ~13% over 1 year, and this was predicted by lower baseline SI. All models controlled for adiposity, age, pubertal stage, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS When evaluated using a longitudinal design with strong outcome measures, this study suggests that lower baseline SI predicts a greater decline in physical activity in peripubertal minority females. PMID:23846812

  2. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  3. Coping with Stress in the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Donald G.

    1997-01-01

    Reports responses of 643 public school principals in British Columbia to a survey on coping with administrative stress. Principals who set realistic goals, approach problems optimistically and objectively, engage in spiritual-growth activities, take minivacations, and are actively involved in their communities are likely to be in better health and…

  4. Facilitators, barriers, and components of a culturally-tailored afterschool physical activity program in preadolescent African-American girls and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Greever, Cory; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Traditional physical activity (PA) programs have not been effective in increasing PA in African-American girls. Currently, there is limited information regarding the components of PA programs that drive participation in African-American girls. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the facilitators, barriers, and components of a culturally-tailored afterschool PA program that will potentially inspire the participation of African-American mother-daughter dyads. Methods Six focus groups (n=12 mother-daughter dyads; daughters, 7–10 yrs in age) were conducted between March and May 2012. Focus group semi-structured interviews were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed using NVivo. Results Mothers reported a preference for non-traditional (dancing, household chores) types of PA. While daughters preferred to participate in both dance-based and traditional types (walking, riding bikes) of PA. Participants felt that the use of a culturally-tailored dance program would be appealing because it highlights the cultural and historical legacy of the African-American culture. Mothers wanted programs that would allow them time to spend with their daughters. Top three dance styles that mothers wanted to participate in were African, Hip-hop, and Salsa/samba. While, daughters reported that they would enjoy participating in Hip-hop, African, and Jazz. The most common responses given for resources needed for participating in a culturally-tailored afterschool dance program were the location of the program, transportation, and childcare for siblings. Conclusions The present investigation highlights some cultural factors related to facilitators and barriers of PA that should be addressed in designing PA studies for African-American girls and their mothers. PMID:24620442

  5. Anticipated HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Sexually Active African-American Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Julia; Cene-Kush, Clare; Conner, Alaina; Cwiak, Carrie; Haddad, Lisa; Mulligan, Mark; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An HIV vaccine, once it becomes available, could reduce vulnerability to HIV among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to assess determinants of HIV vaccine acceptability among African-American women across hypothetical levels of vaccine efficacy. Participants were recruited from a hospital-based family planning clinic in Atlanta, GA serving low-income patients (N = 321). Data were collected from audio-computer assisted surveys administered in the clinic waiting room. Psychosocial survey items were guided by Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of acceptability for two hypothetical HIV vaccines with 50% and 90% efficacy. Overall, 63% of participants would accept a vaccine with 50% efficacy and 85% would accept a vaccine with 90% efficacy. In multivariate analyses, odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 50% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.13, p < 0.001) and lower among participants with more than high school education (AOR = 0.47, p = 0.033) and greater perceived costs of HIV vaccination (AOR = 0.95, p = 0.010). Odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 90% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived costs of unprotected sex (AOR = 1.08, p = 0.026), HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.23, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy for sex refusal (AOR = 1.11, p = 0.044). HIV vaccine acceptability was high, particularly for a vaccine with 90% efficacy. Findings suggest that demographic and psychosocial factors may impact acceptability of an eventual HIV vaccine. Once an HIV vaccine is available, interventions to maximize uptake may benefit from using RHT and SCT constructs to target relevant psychosocial factors, such as perceived benefits and perceived costs of vaccination. PMID:26343960

  6. Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Brown, Janell; Eng, Eugenia; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Zimmer, Catherine; Bowling, J Michael

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.

  7. Cloning of a prothrombin activator-like metalloproteinase from the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Hasson, S S; Theakston, R D G; Harrison, R A

    2003-11-01

    Systemic envenoming by the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, is responsible for more deaths than any other snake in West Africa. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here we describe the isolation of E. ocellatus venom gland cDNAs encoding a protein of 514 amino acids that showed 91% sequence similarity to Ecarin, a prothrombin-activating metalloproteinase from the venom of the East African viper, E. pyramidum leakeyi, that induces severe consumption coagulopathy. Structural similarities between the E. ocellatus metalloproteinase and analogues in venoms of related vipers suggest that antibodies raised to phylogenetically conserved E. ocellatus metalloproteinase domains may have potential for cross-specific and cross-generic neutralisation of analogous venom toxins. PMID:14602118

  8. Effectiveness, Efficiency, Durations, and Costs of Recruiting for an African American Women’s Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    JoEllen, Wilbur; Braun, Lynne T.; Buchholz, Susan W.; Ingram, Diana M.; Fogg, Louis; Miller, Arlene M.; Johnson, Tricia J.; Volgman, Annabelle S.; McDevitt, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the planning and implementation of recruitment for a 48-week African American women’s lifestyle physical activity controlled trial and analyzes recruitment effectiveness, efficiency, durations, and costs. Social networking was the most effective approach for inviting women to the trial. Of the 609 who responded to invitations, 514 completed telephone screening; of these, 409 (80%) were found eligible. The health assessment screening was completed by 337 women; of these, 297 (88.13%) were found eligible. The mean number of days from completion of the telephone and health assessment screenings to beginning the intervention was 23.01 and cost $74.57 per person. Results suggest that study provision of health assessment screening is effective for minimizing attrition and also might be cost-effective. PMID:23775371

  9. Personality, life events and coping in the oldest-old.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Poon, L W; Clayton, G M; Lee, H S; Fulks, J S; Johnson, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares older adults in their sixties, eighties, and 100s on personality, experience of life events, and coping. A secondary goal was to test a structural model of adaptation. Participants (165) filled out a personality inventory, life-event lists, and coping and mental health measures. Results revealed differences in personality: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. While centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family events. Results from the structural equation model indicated that extraversion and anxiety predicted morale and mental health.

  10. Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

  11. The Association of C-Reactive Protein and Physical Activity Among a Church-Based Population of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Wirth, Michael D.; Khan, Samira; Murphy, E. Angela; Heiney, Sue P.; Davis, Lisa C.; Davis, Briana; Drayton, Ruby F.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Blair, Steven M.; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Regular physical activity can reduce systemic inflammation and, thereby, the burden of chronic inflammatory-related conditions. This study examined whether regular physical activity, measured subjectively (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity [RAPA]) and objectively (Bodymedia’s SenseWear® activity monitor [SWA]), is associated with inflammatory or glycemic control markers. Methods Subjects were 345 participants of the Healthy Eating and Active Living in the Spirit (HEALS) lifestyle intervention among African-American (AA) churches in South Carolina in 2009. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between both subjectively- and objectively- measured physical activity and inflammatory markers including high sensitivity c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results Those who participated in regular physical activity (RAPA) had lower CRP values compared to those who were sedentary (2.3 vs. 3.8 mg/L, p<0.01). Lower levels of CRP or IL-6 were observed among those in the highest quartile of active energy expenditure (CRP: 2.0 vs. 3.6 mg/L, p=0.01) or moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes (CRP=1.7 vs. 4.5 mg/L, p<0.01; IL-6=1.5 vs. 2.1 pg/mL, p=0.01) compared to their lowest respective quartiles as measured by the SWA. Conclusion Physical activity may improve chronic inflammation, which is a primary pathophysiological mechanism for numerous chronic disorders, especially among minority populations. PMID:26007295

  12. Vigorous physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Troester, Melissa A; Park, Song-Yi; McInerney, Kathryn A; Zirpoli, Gary; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied among women of European descent, with most studies reporting inverse associations. However, data on American women of African ancestry (AA) and by tumor subtypes are sparse. Thus, we examined associations of vigorous exercise and breast cancer risk overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We pooled data from four large studies on 2482 ER+ cases, 1374 ER- cases, and 16,959 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer overall, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of ER+ and ER- cancer. Recent vigorous exercise was associated with a statistically significant, modestly decreased risk for breast cancer overall (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81-0.96) and for ER+ cancer (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.80-0.98), but not for ER- cancer (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.82-1.06). Overall, there was no strong evidence of effect modification by age, menopausal status, body mass index, and parity. However, our data were suggestive of modification by family history, such that an inverse association was present among women without a family history but not among those with a relative affected by breast cancer. Results from this large pooled analysis provide evidence that vigorous physical activity is associated with a modestly reduced risk of breast cancer in AA women, specifically ER+ cancer. PMID:27514396

  13. Recent faulting and active shortening of the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, within the diffuse African-Eurasian plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M.; Gomez, F.; Zakir, A.; Hahou, Y.; Jabour, N.

    2007-12-01

    The NE-SW trending Middle Atlas Mountains are an active intracontinental mountain belt within the diffuse African - Eurasian plate boundary. The mountain belt is obliquely oriented to the NNW-SSE direction of Late Cenozoic plate convergence. Both shear and compressional features are exhibited with apparent slip partitioning: Folding and thrusting is concentrated in the Folded Middle Atlas, whereas strike-slip dominates in the Tabular Middle Atlas. In the central part of the Folded Middle Atlas, fault scarps of Quaternary alluvium, including a 4.5 meter (probably composite) scarp and a 1 meter (possibly single event) scarp, attest to recent faulting along the mountain front. Detailed topographic mapping of the scarps provides a basis for geomorphic analysis and degradation modeling. Furthermore, the reconstruction of longitudinal stream terrace profiles helps constrain a long term deformation history. Radiocarbon and pending cosmogenic dates provide age constraints on the faulted surfaces and the multiple stream terraces in the area. To place these active tectonic observations in a larger context, the fault and fold geometry has been assessed by completing a 10 km structural transect across the frontal thrust, providing basis for the construction of a balanced cross-section. By combining the structural geometry with the uplift rate, a minimum estimate of the rate of horizontal shortening in the Middle Atlas can be evaluated. Preliminary results suggest the Middle Atlas may accommodate 5 - 10 percent of the total 4.5 mm/yr convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. These results demonstrate that the Middle Atlas Mountains are a integral part of the diffuse plate boundary, as well as suggesting a modest level of earthquake hazard in the region.

  14. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  15. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation Among Low-SES African American Women.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B

    2012-12-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women's risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources.

  16. Coping with the cost burdens of illness: Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in longitudinal, household research1

    PubMed Central

    GOUDGE, JANE; GUMEDE, TEBOGO; GILSON, LUCY; RUSSELL, STEVE; TOLLMAN, STEPHEN M.; MILLS, ANNE

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 10–15 years, poor African households have had to cope with the burden of increased levels of chronic illness such as HIV/AIDS. How do these households cope with the cost burdens of ill health and healthcare, and has this burden further impoverished them? What policy responses might better support these households? This is a report from the field of the South African Costs and Coping study (SACOCO) – a longitudinal investigation of household experiences in the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance site. PMID:17676521

  17. Cluster Randomized Trial of a Church-Based Peer Counselor and Tailored Newsletter Intervention to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening and Physical Activity among Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Lucia A.; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P.; Walsh, Joan F.; Johnson, La-Shell; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol C.; Langford, Aisha; Ni, Andy; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Action Through Churches in Time to Save Lives (ACTS) of Wellness was a cluster randomized controlled trial developed to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity (PA) within urban African American churches. Churches were recruited from North Carolina (n = 12) and Michigan (n = 7) and were randomized to intervention (n = 10) or…

  18. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  19. The Feasibility of an E-Mail-Delivered Intervention to Improve Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Eleanor; Schweitzer, Amy; Hurtado, Maria Eugenia; Hathway, Joanne; DiPietro, Loretta; Lei, Kai Y.; Klein, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an e-mail-delivered program to promote nutrition and physical activity in African American college students. Participants: Forty-seven students (76% female, aged 18-20 years). Methods: Students participated in a 24-week randomized controlled trial, receiving either general health…

  20. Using a Toolbox of Tailored Educational Lessons to Improve Fruit, Vegetable, and Physical Activity Behaviors among African American Women in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Desiree; Scruggs, Valarie; Atiedu, Akpene Ama; Bowie, Shene; Bye, Larry; Dennis, Angela; Hall, Melanie; Ossa, Alexandra; Wertlieb, Stacy; Foerster, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the "Fruit, Vegetable, and Physical Activity Toolbox for Community Educators" ("Toolbox"), an intervention originally designed for Spanish- and English-speaking audiences, in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among low-income African American women. Design: Quasi-experimental design with treatment…

  1. Coping with Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Coping with Crises is a home economics course in a rural school in Missouri. It includes experiences designed to increase the individual's ability to deal with stress and covers communication, popularity, loneliness, divorce, death and dying, mental illness, and rejection. (SK)

  2. Coping with Computing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  3. Coping by Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Sheila S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a Texas elementary school's efforts to cope with the special needs of Kenneth, a fourth grader slowly dying of kidney cancer. Besides learning their subjects like other students, Kenneth's classmates learned how to care. Every student volunteered to be Kenneth's assistant and was enriched by the boy's positive attitude and determination…

  4. Incarceration, Coping, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Cervera, Neil J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of incarceration on family life among 63 inmates and 38 inmate wives. Contrasted those who participated in Family Reunion (conjugal visits) Program with nonparticipants. Found that coping was in normal range for both groups of inmates and wives and, except for measures of wives' passive appraisal, did not differ according to…

  5. Coping with Traumatic Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This workshop seeks to train persons interested in counseling those who have suffered traumatic loss. The training comes about in part by the participants' introspection into their own past trauma reactions and the coping strategies they used. They also learn from the shared experiences of other participants. The goals of this workshop are to 1)…

  6. Assessment of aerosol-cloud interactions during southern African biomass burning activity, employing cloud parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiston, Modise; McFiggans, Gordon; Schultz, David

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we perform a simulation of the spatial distributions of particle and gas concentrations from a significantly large source of pollution event during a dry season in southern Africa and their interactions with cloud processes. Specific focus is on the extent to which cloud-aerosol interactions are affected by various inputs (i.e. emissions) and parameterizations and feedback mechanisms in a coupled mesoscale chemistry-meteorology model -herein Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem). The southern African dry season (May-Sep) is characterised by biomass burning (BB) type of pollution. During this period, BB particles are frequently observed over the subcontinent, at the same time a persistent deck of stratocumulus covers the south West African coast, favouring long-range transport over the Atlantic Ocean of aerosols above clouds. While anthropogenic pollutants tend to spread more over the entire domain, biomass pollutants are concentrated around the burning areas, especially the savannah and tropical rainforest of the Congo Basin. BB is linked to agricultural practice at latitudes south of 10° N. During an intense burning event, there is a clear signal of strong interactions of aerosols and cloud microphysics. These species interfere with the radiative budget, and directly affect the amount of solar radiation reflected and scattered back to space and partly absorbed by the atmosphere. Aerosols also affect cloud microphysics by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), modifying precipitation pattern and the cloud albedo. Key area is to understand the role of pollution on convective cloud processes and its impacts on cloud dynamics. The hypothesis is that an environment of potentially high pollution enables the probability of interactions between co-located aerosols and cloud layers. To investigate this hypothesis, we outline an approach to integrate three elements: i) focusing on regime(s) where there are strong indications of

  7. The ATF6 branch of unfolded protein response and apoptosis are activated to promote African swine fever virus infection.

    PubMed

    Galindo, I; Hernáez, B; Muñoz-Moreno, R; Cuesta-Geijo, M A; Dalmau-Mena, I; Alonso, C

    2012-07-05

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection induces apoptosis in the infected cell; however, the consequences of this activation on virus replication have not been defined. In order to identify the role of apoptosis in ASFV infection, we analyzed caspase induction during the infection and the impact of caspase inhibition on viral production. Caspases 3, 9 and 12 were activated from 16 h post-infection, but not caspase 8. Indeed, caspase 3 activation during the early stages of the infection appeared to be crucial for efficient virus exit. In addition, the inhibition of membrane blebbing reduced the release of virus particles from the cell. ASFV uses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a site of replication and this process can trigger ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the host cell. In addition to caspase 12 activation, indicators of ER stress include the upregulation of the chaperones calnexin and calreticulin upon virus infection. Moreover, ASFV induces transcription factor 6 signaling pathway of the UPR, but not the protein kinase-like ER kinase or the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 pathways. Thus, the capacity of ASFV to regulate the UPR may prevent early apoptosis and ensure viral replication.

  8. The ATF6 branch of unfolded protein response and apoptosis are activated to promote African swine fever virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, I; Hernáez, B; Muñoz-Moreno, R; Cuesta-Geijo, M A; Dalmau-Mena, I; Alonso, C

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection induces apoptosis in the infected cell; however, the consequences of this activation on virus replication have not been defined. In order to identify the role of apoptosis in ASFV infection, we analyzed caspase induction during the infection and the impact of caspase inhibition on viral production. Caspases 3, 9 and 12 were activated from 16 h post-infection, but not caspase 8. Indeed, caspase 3 activation during the early stages of the infection appeared to be crucial for efficient virus exit. In addition, the inhibition of membrane blebbing reduced the release of virus particles from the cell. ASFV uses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a site of replication and this process can trigger ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the host cell. In addition to caspase 12 activation, indicators of ER stress include the upregulation of the chaperones calnexin and calreticulin upon virus infection. Moreover, ASFV induces transcription factor 6 signaling pathway of the UPR, but not the protein kinase-like ER kinase or the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 pathways. Thus, the capacity of ASFV to regulate the UPR may prevent early apoptosis and ensure viral replication. PMID:22764100

  9. Effects of high sugar and high fiber meals on physical activity behaviors in Latino and African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Gillian A.; Belcher, Britni R.; Davis, Jaimie N.; Martinez, Lauren T.; Huh, Jimi; Antunez-Castillo, Luz; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael I.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This crossover experimental study examined the acute effects of high sugar/low fiber (HSLF) vs. low sugar/high fiber (LSHF) meals on sedentary behavior (SB) and light-plus activity (L+) in minority adolescents with overweight and obesity. Methods 87 Latino and African American adolescents (mean age = 16.3 ± 1.2 years, mean BMI z-score = 2.02 ± 0.52, 56.8% Latino, 51.1% male) underwent two experimental meal conditions during which they consumed HSLF or LSHF meals. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using accelerometers and blood glucose and insulin were collected every 30 minutes over 5 hours. Mixed models were used to examine the temporal trends of SB and L+, whether the temporal trends of SB and L+ differed by meal condition, and the influence of blood glucose and insulin on the activity behaviors. Results SB and L+ fluctuated over time during the HSLF condition, but were stable during the LSHF condition. SB and L+ were influenced by the blood glucose response to the HSLF meals. Insulin did not influence SB or L+ in either meal condition. Conclusions Sugar and fiber content of meals can have differing acute impacts on activity behaviors in minority adolescents with overweight and obesity, possibly due to differing metabolic responses. PMID:26256555

  10. Study on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of raw and activated South African coal and coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. B.; Langwenya, S. P.; Mamba, B. B.; Balakrishnan, M.

    South African coal and coal fly ash were selected as the raw materials to be used for study of their morphology and physicochemical properties and their respective activated carbons for adsorption applications. Coal and fly ash were individually steam activated at a temperature range of 550-1000 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace using cylindrical stainless steel containers. Scanning electron micrographs revealed a change in surface morphology with more mineral matter available on the surface of the coal particles due to increased devolatilization. However, in the case of fly ash, the macerals coalesced to form agglomerates and the presence of unburnt carbon constituted pores of diameter between 50 and 100 nm. The BET surface area of coal improved significantly from 5.31 to 52.12 m 2/g whereas in case of fly ash the surface area of the raw sample which was originally 0.59 m 2/g and upon activation increased only up to 2.04 m 2/g. The chemical composition of the fly ash confirmed that silica was the major component which was approximately 60% by weight fraction. The impact of this study was to highlight the importance of using raw materials such as coal and a waste product, in the form of coal ash, in order to produce affordable activated carbon that can be used in drinking water treatment. This would therefore ensure that the quality of water supplied to communities for drinking is not contaminated especially by toxic organic compounds.

  11. COPE: A Pilot Study with Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for…

  12. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  13. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  14. Sickle Cell Disease Pain: Relation of Coping Strategies to Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Karen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain coping strategies in 79 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Results revealed that coping strategies factors were important predictors of pain and adjustment. Subjects high on Negative Thinking and Passive Adherence had more severe pain, were less active and more distressed, and used more health services. Individuals high on…

  15. Hardiness, coping, and burnout in the nursing workplace.

    PubMed

    Simoni, P S; Paterson, J J

    1997-01-01

    Relationships among hardiness, coping approach, and burnout were studied in a sample of 440 nurses. Within each of the coping approaches used, subjects with greater hardiness reported less stress in the form of burnout than did those with less hardiness (F = 36.21, df = 1, P = .001). Subjects using direct-active coping (changing the stressor, confronting the stressor, finding positive aspects in the situation) had the lowest burnout scores, and those using direct-inactive coping (ignoring the stressor, avoiding the stressor, leaving the stressor) had the highest (t = 2.267, df = 437, P < .012). chi 2 analysis identified independence between hardiness and coping approach. Analysis of variance identified no interaction between hardiness and coping behavior categories for burnout; however, the lowest burnout scores were encountered among nurses with greater hardiness who used direct-active coping behaviors. These findings suggest that both hardiness and direct-active coping approaches can be used independently or in concert to reduce burnout. Rationale is provided for preparing practitioners to engage in problem-solving approaches, assertive interaction, and active and direct methods of conflict resolution. PMID:9167407

  16. Cognitive Distortions, Coping Behavior, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nancy J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of cognitive distortions and coping strategies to depression in college students. A measure of cognitive distortions (the Interpretation Inventory) and a measure of strategies for coping with depression (the Active Checklist) were developed and used for this study. Results are discussed. (CJ)

  17. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    increasing cases of pollution of farmlands, rivers, wells and the environment in general. Apart from all these, what is even becoming more worrisome is that none of all these oil firms operating in the region is able to account on how it disposes its industrial toxic waste generated as a result of its industrial activities within the region. Finally Geological strata are adversely destroyed by seismographic activities, Sea creatures are destroyed by oil pollution and Means of livelihood of revering dwellers are often threatened by pollution. RECOMMENDATIONS After identifying how the pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region is increasing in relation to the increasing petroleum activities, I have come up with the following suggestions/recommendations. 1. AFRICAN UNION RESOLUTION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) should use their capacity to be able to influence the African Union (AU) to pass a resolution banning the illegal dumping of radioactive waste, Gas flaring and Costal bunkering in this part of the world. 2. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, in conjunction with the United Nations Environmental Agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency and with the corporation of the African Union should send team of researchers to come and investigate this trend on petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region and proffer possible solutions in checking the menace.

  18. Mediation of Effects of a Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention on Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Stephens, Alisa; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Results Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. PMID:25565482

  19. Coping with breast cancer over time and situation.

    PubMed

    Heim, E; Augustiny, K F; Schaffner, L; Valach, L

    1993-07-01

    This study examines the variability and stability of coping in cancer subjects over time and situation. In a prospective longitudinal design 74 breastcancer patients have been followed for 3-5 yr at 3-6 monthly intervals. A variety of measures related to coping and adjustment were taken. This report limits itself to the findings of an instrument developed for this study, the Bernese Coping Modes in which 26 coping modes were rated by observers. Results confirm arguments in favour of both variability and stability in coping activity over time and situation. Two measures support stability: rank values and a multivariate measure (MDS) with three constant dimensions: (1) support and acceptance; (2) denial; (3) diversion by thought and action. Evidence for variability is: the potential range of coping modes and a large variety of additional modes at most observation times. Subsequently time measures of coping were attributed to eight predefined illness stages as distinct clinical situations. Thus variability or richness of coping further increased. The implications of these findings for measurement in coping research are discussed.

  20. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  1. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

  2. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

  3. Integrating Coping Behavior in Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    Traditional approaches to family stress theory have underscored the importance of the family as a reactor to stress, as a manager of resources within the family system. In contrast, the active process of employing coping strategies within the family and in transactions with the community have received limited consideration in both research and…

  4. Coping behaviour after shipwreck.

    PubMed

    Henderson, S; Bostock, T

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the coping behaviour of seven men who survived a shipwreck and were not rescued until 13 days later. The principal behaviours shown by the men were attachment ideation, drive to survive, modelling, prayer and hope. Particular attention is paid to the first of these, and consideration given to its likely origins in behavioural evolution. It is proposed as a hitherto inadequately recognized coping behaviour. A follow-up examination 12 to 24 months later showed that five of the seven men available had developed substantial psychiatric disorder, while by contrast one was not only well but claimed to have been enriched by the experience. Exposure to extreme adversity or disaster may have long-term effects on mental health. Further longitudinal studies of disaster victims are necessary for the design of informed after-care.

  5. Plasma sex steroid concentrations and gonadal aromatase activities in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P; Jones, Paul D; Jooste, Alarik M; Carr, James A; Solomon, Keith R; Smith, Ernest E; Van der Kraak, Glen; Kendall, Ronald J; Du Preez, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were collected from a corn-growing region (CGR) and a non-corn-growing region (NCGR) with different exposure profiles for atrazine and related triazines. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters from the catchment areas were also measured. Frogs were surveyed for possible effects of exposure to triazine herbicides on plasma testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) titers, gonadal aromatase activity, and gonad growth (GSI). Concentrations of both T and E2 varied among locations and were correlated to some accessory factors, such as pH, several ions, and metals. Greatest median plasma T concentrations (males: 19 ng/ml; females: 16 ng/ml) occurred in frogs inhabiting NCGR as compared to those from the CGR (males: 4 ng/ml; females: 1 ng/ml). Median E2 concentrations were also greater in frogs collected from the NCGR (males: 3 ng/ml; females: 28 ng/ml) than those in frogs from the CGR (males: 2 ng/ml; females: 5 ng/ml). Because some exposure to agricultural chemicals at both regions occurred, as did simultaneous exposures to multiple chemicals, a regression analysis was employed. Negative correlations were observed between plasma T concentrations and concentrations of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, and tertbuthylazine in females and between T and diaminochlorotriazine in males. Estradiol in females exhibited a significant negative correlation with atrazine and deethylatrazine. No correlations were observed between gonadal aromatase activity or GSI and any of the agricultural chemicals measured. Median aromatase activities in ovaries varied among sampling sites ranging from 7 to >3000 times greater than those in males when measurable. Testicular aromatase activity was below the detection limit of the assay in male frogs at most of the sites. Although exposure to agricultural inputs did not affect aromatase activities, effects of atrazine or coapplied pesticides on sex steroid homeostasis cannot be excluded at

  6. Coping with HIV in a culture of silence: results of a body-mapping workshop.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna; Verhoest, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The image shows a body map created by a young HIV-positive African woman living in Belgium. It was created as part of a body-mapping workshop with 10 sub-Saharan African migrants living with HIV. The short text provided with the image describes experiences and results of this workshop. The participants experienced body-mapping as a valuable tool in coping with HIV and it supported them in disclosing HIV to others.

  7. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay. PMID:27543148

  8. Acaricidal activity of the organic extracts of thirteen South African plants against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Fouche, Gerda; Ramafuthula, Mary; Maselela, Vusi; Mokoena, Moses; Senabe, Jeremiah; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Wellington, Kevin W

    2016-07-15

    The African blue tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, is a common tick species found in South Africa and affects cattle production as well as vectoring pathogens in regions of Africa and Asia. In an attempt to develop a non-toxic, lower cost and environmentally friendly tick control method, twenty-six plant extracts were prepared from thirteen plant species using 99.5% acetone and 99% ethanol. The adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT) was used to test the efficacy of the extracts. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing and the ethanol extracts were found to have better acaricidal activity than the acetone extracts. The ethanol extract from the leaves and flowers of Calpurnia aurea had the best activity [corrected mortality (CM)=82.9%] which was followed by the stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CM=80.4%). The plant species were screened against Vero cells and were found to have low toxicity. From this study it is apparent that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) decoloratus. PMID:27270388

  9. Coping in the Cyberworld: Program Implementation and Evaluation--A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…

  10. African-American caregivers' breast health behavior.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Megumi; Pickard, Joseph G; Welch-Saleeby, Patricia; Johnson, Sharon

    2009-10-01

    This study utilizes a stress and coping framework which includes cognitive appraisal, personal and environmental resources, coping and stress to examine factors related to African-American caregivers' breast cancer screenings, including mammograms, clinical examinations and self-examinations. Using data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning Study, we performed separate logistic regressions for each type of breast cancer screening. Results reveal that having a regular doctor checkup (coping), care recipients having a cancer diagnosis (cognitive appraisal, and living in urban areas (environment resources) are associated with receiving a mammogram. Having greater income, having at least a high school degree (both personal resources) and having a regular doctor checkup (coping) are associated with receiving a clinical examination. Increased caregiver strain (stress), being 40 years old or older, social support (coping) and living in rural areas are associated with performing a self-examination. Targeting African-American caregivers, particularly in rural areas, for increased education on the importance of receiving breast cancer screenings is crucial to addressing health disparities. Making resources available, encouraging caregivers to get a clinical examination and a mammogram and directing public education toward caregivers are important points of intervention.

  11. Non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in captive African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) by measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ozella, L; Anfossi, L; Di Nardo, F; Pessani, D

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) has become a useful and widely-accepted method for the non-invasive evaluation of stress in vertebrates. In this study we assessed the adrenocortical activity of five captive African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) by means of FGM evaluation following a biological stressor, i.e. capture and immobilization. In addition, we detected individual differences in secretion of FGMs during a stage of the normal biological cycle of penguins, namely the breeding period, without any external or induced causes of stress. Our results showed that FGM concentrations peaked 5.5-8h after the induced stress in all birds, and significantly decreased within 30 h. As predictable, the highest peak of FGMs (6591 ng/g) was reached by the youngest penguin, which was at its first experience with the stressor. This peak was 1.8-2.7-fold higher compared to those of the other animals habituated to the stimulus. For the breeding period, our results revealed that the increase in FGMs compared to ordinary levels, and the peaks of FGMs, varied widely depending on the age and mainly on the reproductive state of the animal. The bird which showed the lowest peak (2518 ng/g) was an old male that was not in a reproductive state at the time of the study. Higher FGM increases and peaks were reached by the two birds which were brooding (male: 5552%, 96,631 ng/g; female: 1438%, 22,846 ng/g) and by the youngest bird (1582%, 39,700 ng/g). The impact of the reproductive state on FGM levels was unexpected compared to that produced by the induced stress. The EIA used in this study to measure FGM levels proved to be a reliable tool for assessing individual and biologically-relevant changes in FGM concentrations in African Penguin. Moreover, this method allowed detection of physiological stress during the breeding period, and identification of individual differences in relation to the reproductive status. The increase in FGM levels as a response to capture and

  12. Non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in captive African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) by measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ozella, L; Anfossi, L; Di Nardo, F; Pessani, D

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) has become a useful and widely-accepted method for the non-invasive evaluation of stress in vertebrates. In this study we assessed the adrenocortical activity of five captive African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) by means of FGM evaluation following a biological stressor, i.e. capture and immobilization. In addition, we detected individual differences in secretion of FGMs during a stage of the normal biological cycle of penguins, namely the breeding period, without any external or induced causes of stress. Our results showed that FGM concentrations peaked 5.5-8h after the induced stress in all birds, and significantly decreased within 30 h. As predictable, the highest peak of FGMs (6591 ng/g) was reached by the youngest penguin, which was at its first experience with the stressor. This peak was 1.8-2.7-fold higher compared to those of the other animals habituated to the stimulus. For the breeding period, our results revealed that the increase in FGMs compared to ordinary levels, and the peaks of FGMs, varied widely depending on the age and mainly on the reproductive state of the animal. The bird which showed the lowest peak (2518 ng/g) was an old male that was not in a reproductive state at the time of the study. Higher FGM increases and peaks were reached by the two birds which were brooding (male: 5552%, 96,631 ng/g; female: 1438%, 22,846 ng/g) and by the youngest bird (1582%, 39,700 ng/g). The impact of the reproductive state on FGM levels was unexpected compared to that produced by the induced stress. The EIA used in this study to measure FGM levels proved to be a reliable tool for assessing individual and biologically-relevant changes in FGM concentrations in African Penguin. Moreover, this method allowed detection of physiological stress during the breeding period, and identification of individual differences in relation to the reproductive status. The increase in FGM levels as a response to capture and

  13. Physical Activity and Social Cognitive Theory Outcomes of an Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Intervention for African American Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dorothy W.; Lewis, Terri; Dutton, Gareth; Turner, Lori W.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women report low levels of physical activity (PA) and are disproportionately burdened by related chronic diseases. This pilot study tested a 6-month theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory, SCT) culturally-relevant website intervention to promote PA among African American female college students. Materials and Methods A single group pre-post test design (n=34) was used. PA and associated SCT constructs (outcome expectations, enjoyment, self-regulation, social support) were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Results The sample was comprised of mostly obese (M BMI= 35.4, SD=6.82) young adults (M age= 21.21 years, SD=2.31). Fifty percent of the sample completed all assessments. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that participants reported a significant median improvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 82.5 minutes/week (M=81.76, SD=76.23) at baseline to 115.0 minutes/week (M=122.44, SD=97.93) at 3 months (Wilcoxon z=2.39, p=.02). However these gains appear to have attenuated by 6 months (Median= 82.5 minutes/week, M=96.73, SD=84.20; Wilcoxon z=1.02, p=.31). Significant increases from baseline to 6 months were found in self-regulation for PA (p=.02) and social support for PA from friends (p=.02). Changes in the SCT variables were not significantly associated with changes in PA; however, this may have been due to small sample size. Conclusions Future studies with larger samples and more aggressive retention strategies (e.g., more frequent incentives, prompts for website use) are needed to further explore the applicability of web-based approaches to promote PA in this at-risk population. PMID:25215265

  14. The role of spirituality in the breast cancer experiences of African American women.

    PubMed

    Tate, Johnetta D

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type among African American women. African American women often use spirituality to overcome the physical, psychological, and emotional burdens that accompany a breast cancer diagnosis. Spirituality has been used over the years by African American women to bring hope when dealing with hardships. This integrative review seeks to explore the importance of spirituality to African American women throughout the breast cancer experience. Thirteen qualitative and quantitative studies that discussed how spirituality was used to cope with breast cancer from initial diagnosis to survivorship were reviewed. Spirituality was found to be the main coping mechanism used during all phases of the cancer experience. To provide holistic nursing care, nurses must understand that spirituality is an important coping strategy used by most African American women with breast cancer. The implications for nursing that were identified include the incorporation of spiritual interventions and the utilization of culturally appropriate assessment tools.

  15. Mindfulness meditation lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in African-American males with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Robert H.; Bauer-Wu, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation (MM) is a stress-reduction technique that may have real biological effects on hemodynamics but has never previously been tested in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the potential blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of MM are unknown. We sought to determine whether MM acutely lowers BP in CKD patients, and whether these hemodynamic changes are mediated by a reduction in sympathetic nerve activity. In 15 hypertensive African-American (AA) males with CKD, we conducted a randomized, crossover study in which participants underwent 14 min of MM or 14 min of BP education (control intervention) during two separate random-order study visits. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), beat-to-beat arterial BP, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were continuously measured at baseline and during each intervention. A subset had a third study visit to undergo controlled breathing (CB) to determine whether a reduction in RR alone was sufficient in exacting hemodynamic changes. We observed a significantly greater reduction in systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and HR, as well as a significantly greater reduction in MSNA, during MM compared with the control intervention. Participants had a significantly lower RR during MM; however, in contrast to MM, CB alone did not reduce BP, HR, or MSNA. MM acutely lowers BP and HR in AA males with hypertensive CKD, and these hemodynamic effects may be mediated by a reduction in sympathetic nerve activity. RR is significantly lower during MM, but CB alone without concomitant meditation does not acutely alter hemodynamics or sympathetic activity in CKD. PMID:24829497

  16. Human activities and microbial geographies. An anthropological approach to the risk of infections in West African hospitals.

    PubMed

    d'Alessandro, Eugénie

    2015-07-01

    In hospital care, management of the risk of infection represents a crucial issue. Nevertheless, this question remains a neglected area in anthropological research, especially in African countries. To shed new light on this question, we conducted an anthropological investigation in the infectious disease department of a hospital in Niger. Daily observation of the work of the hospital staff for a total period of 6 months was spread out over 2008 and 2009. During our prolonged stay, we also collected 64 in-depth interviews of health care workers and attendants in the department. This study method made it possible to describe many of the practices and discourses related to the issues of medical and personal care and hospital hygiene and to compare the practices observed to standard principles for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Our ethnographic attention to the behavior of the actors showed the absence of formal spatial segmentations between different activities. The care provided by the untrained relatives serving as personal attendants introduced territorial enclaves governed by home hygiene standards into the interior of technical spaces. At the same time, privatizing equipment and space for their diverse activities, the medical staff disrupted technical chains and generated the recurrent crossing of microbial geographies. These results allow us to offer two principal guidelines for improving the quality of care and the management of risks of infection in hospitals in West Africa: (1) the essential role of the attendants in the care provided to hospital inpatients must be officially taken into account, especially by including them in the organization of medical hygiene procedures; (2) the different overlapping technical activities and social activities in the work space must be limited by their geographic and architectural segmentation.

  17. Response of Seasonal Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity to Suppression of African Easterly Waves in a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricola, C. M.; Saravanan, R.; Chang, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atlantic tropical cyclones and African easterly waves (AEWs) are strongly linked on the synoptic timescale, with about 85% of observed major Atlantic hurricanes originating from AEWs (e.g., Landsea et al. 1993). However, the influence of variability in AEWs on seasonal Atlantic tropical cyclone activity is not fully understood; a positive correlation between AEW activity and Atlantic tropical cyclone activity exists on the interannual timescale during just some periods of the observational record (e.g., Thorncroft and Hodges, 2001; Hopsch et al. 2007). This study investigates the impact of AEWs on seasonal Atlantic tropical cyclone activity using regional climate model simulations in which AEWs were either prescribed or removed through the lateral boundary condition (LBC). The control simulation (10-member ensemble) was run at 27 km resolution and used 6-hourly LBCs from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and daily NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) V2 sea surface temperature (SST) from the year 2005. In the experiment AEWs were suppressed by filtering 2-10 day variability over tropical latitudes from the eastern LBC, located along the west coast of the Sahel. The difference in Atlantic tropical cyclone frequency was insignificant between the simulations in which AEWs were prescribed versus suppressed, indicating that AEWs are not necessary to maintain climatological tropical cyclone frequency even though tropical cyclones readily originate from these features. This further implies that seasonal Atlantic tropical cyclone frequency is uninfluenced by variability in AEWs, and that the value of AEW variability as a predictor of Atlantic tropical cyclones is limited to the weekly timescale. However in response to filtering AEWs, accumulated cyclone energy significantly increased by about 15% of the control simulation mean and the spatial pattern of track density shifted in association with changes in steering winds. This suggests the importance of AEWs in impacting tropical cyclone

  18. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of Two Internet-enhanced Culturally Relevant Physical Activity Interventions for Young Overweight African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori W.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2014-01-01

    This research team has designed and implemented 2 culturally relevant, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) interventions for overweight/obese African-American female college students. Presumably, these are the only prospectively designed, culturally relevant interventions using the Internet to promote PA among African-American women. Due to the limited research on this topic, the experiences associated the design and implementation of these studies were syntesized and 5 key lessons learned from this research were formulated. Findings provide insight for researchers to consider when developing Internet-based PA promotion interventions for African-American women. Lessons learned included: 1) Elicit and incorporate feedback from the target population throughout development of an Internet-based PA promotion tool; 2) Incorporate new and emerging technologies into Internet-enhanced PA programs; 3) Maintain frequent participant contact and provide frequent incentives to promote participant engagement; 4) Supplement Internet-based efforts with face-to-face interactions; 5) Include diverse images of African-American women and culturally relevant PA-related information in Internet-based PA promotion materials. PMID:25653465

  19. Screening of African medicinal plants for antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Tshibangu, Jeannette Ndaya; Chifundera, Kusamba; Kaminsky, Ronald; Wright, Anthony David; König, Gabriele Maria

    2002-04-01

    Seven plant species, belonging to different families, were collected in the eastern part of the Republic of Congo (Kivu) based on ethnopharmacological information. Their dichloromethane and methanolic extracts were tested for biological activity. Five of the seven collected plants exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values ranging from 1.1 to 9.8 microg/ml. The methanolic extract of Cissampelos mucronata was the most active one showing activity against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and chloroquine resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum strains with IC(50) values of 1.5 and 1.1 microg/ml, respectively. Additionally, this extract significantly inhibited the enzyme tyrosine kinase p56(lck) (TK). The dichloromethane extract of Amorphophallus bequaertii inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a MIC of 100 microg/ml and the methanolic extract of Rubus rigidus inhibited the activity of both enzymes HIV1-reverse transcriptase (HIV1-RT) and TK p56(lck). PMID:11891084

  20. Interventions for Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors in Adult African American Populations: A Systematic Review, January 2000 Through December 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brittny A.; Ilich, Jasminka Z.; Ralston, Penny A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of preventable chronic diseases is disproportionally high among African Americans and could be reduced through diet and physical activity interventions. Our objective was to systematically review the literature on clinical outcomes of diet and physical activity interventions conducted among adult African American populations in the United States. Methods We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta Analysis construct in our review. We searched Medline (PubMed and Ovid), Cochrane, and DARE databases and restricted our search to articles published in English from January 2000 through December 2011. We included studies of educational interventions with clinically relevant outcomes and excluded studies that dealt with nonadult populations or populations with pre-existing catabolic or other complicated disorders, that did not focus on African Americans, that provided no quantitative baseline or follow-up data, or that included no diet or physical activity education or intervention. We report retention and attendance rates, study setting, program sustainability, behavior theory, and education components. Results Nineteen studies were eligible for closer analysis. These studies described interventions for improving diet or physical activity as indicators of health promotion and disease prevention and that reported significant improvement in clinical outcomes. Conclusion Our review suggests that nutrition and physical activity educational interventions can be successful in improving clinically relevant outcomes among African Americans in the United States. Further research is needed to study the cost and sustainability of lifestyle interventions. Further studies should also include serum biochemical parameters to substantiate more specifically the effect of interventions on preventing chronic disease and reducing its incidence and prevalence. PMID:23786910

  1. Development of an Empirically Based Preventive Intervention for Depression in Preadolescent African American Girls.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sophia; Brown, Tasha M; Katsonga-Phiri, Tiamo; Bouris, Alida; Grant, Kathryn E; Keenan, Kate

    2016-05-01

    We describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel preventive intervention for depression in African American girls living in urban poverty. Our approach targeted individual and interpersonal vulnerabilities that have been shown to confer risk for depression in samples of African American girls living in low-income, urban settings, including suppression of negative emotion and lack of assertiveness with peers, memory for positive emotion, active coping, and family connection. Focus groups and an open trial were conducted to refine the goals and mechanisms for skill building. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the new program (Cities Mother-Daughter Project) was conducted with 3rd-5th grade students from Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Three cycles of screening, randomization, and deployment were conducted to assess feasibility, satisfaction, and usability. Results indicate that feasibility was weak; whereas, satisfaction and usability were high. Future directions for testing efficacy are discussed. PMID:26846917

  2. Emotion-Related Behavioral Regulation in African American Preschoolers: Social-Emotional Correlates of Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maureen C.

    2004-01-01

    This preliminary and exploratory study examined the correlates of 5 aspects of teacher-rated emotion-related regulation (modulation, flexibility, organization, emotion-focused coping, aggressive-coping strategies) in a sample of 36 low- to middle-income African American preschoolers. Results showed that children's empathy, emotional intensity,…

  3. Academic Behavior and Performance among African American Youth: Associations with Resources for Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesmore, Ashley A.; Winston, Willie, III; Brady, Sonya S.

    2016-01-01

    A social support and coping framework informed the present research on children's academic behavior and performance. Forty-six African American children aged 8-12 years were recruited from the 2011/2012 enrollment list of a partnering school. Data on children's resources for resilience (e.g., coping skills, perceived support from caregivers) were…

  4. The Relationship between Stress, Academic Confidence, Parental Involvement, and Academic Achievement in African American Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Teresa Horne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stress, coping resources, and academic achievement in fourth-grade urban youth. The intent was to examine if students' perceptions of their stress and coping resources could predict reading and math achievement. The data were collected from 24 low-income African American students…

  5. En las Manos de Dios [in God’s Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping Among Latinos With Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Echeverría, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping was directly related to psychological well-being. Passive coping was associated with greater pain and worse adjustment. The effects of active coping on pain, depression, and psychological well-being were entirely indirect, mediated by acceptance of illness and self-efficacy. These findings warrant more research on the mechanisms that mediate the relationship between coping and health. This study contributes to a growing literature on religious coping among people with chronic illness, as well as contributing to a historically under-studied ethnic group. PMID:14756618

  6. Creating a Community–Physical Therapy Partnership to Increase Physical Activity in Urban African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Healey, William E.; Reed, Monique; Huber, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities in health across the United States remain, and in some cities have worsened despite increased focus at federal and local levels. One approach to addressing health inequity is community-based participatory research (CBPR). Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to describe the develop ment of an ongoing community–physical therapy partnership focused on physical activity (PA), which aims to improve the health of African-American community members and engage physical therapist (PT) students in CBPR. Methods: Three main research projects that resulted from an initial partnership-building seed grant include (1) community focus groups, (2) training of community PA promoters, and (3) pilot investigation of PA promoter effectiveness. Lessons Learned: Results from each project informed the next. Focus groups findings led to development of a PA pro moter training curriculum. PA promoters were accepted by the community, with potential to increase PA. Focus on the community issue of PA fostered and sustained the partnership. Conclusions: Community and academic partners benefitted from funding, structure, and time to create meaningful, trusting, and sustainable relationships committed to improving health. Engaging PT students with community residents provided learning opportunities that promote respect and appreciation of the social, economic, and environmental context of future patients. PMID:24056507

  7. Investigating coping strategies and social support among Canadian melanoma patients: A survey approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Melanie; Cyr, Annette; Gregorio, Nancy; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Complex support needs are involved in coping with a diagnosis of melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived social support levels and utilization of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies by Canadian melanoma patients. The impact of social support level on coping strategy utilization was also examined. Social support and coping strategies were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and the 28-item Brief COPE, respectively. Perceived levels of emotional/informational support were significantly lower than affectionate support and positive social interaction. Acceptance, active coping, and use of emotional support were the most frequently utilized coping strategies. Patients with higher perceived levels of social support had significantly higher adaptive coping scores than patients with lower levels of social support. Health care professionals have an important role in promoting awareness of and access to emotional and informational support resources in order to improve perceived social support levels. PMID:26642495

  8. An Evaluation of Diet and Physical Activity Messaging in African American Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Brook E.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The use of faith-based organizations as sites to deliver diet and physical activity interventions is increasing. Methods to assess the messaging environment within churches are limited. Our research aimed to develop and test an objective assessment methodology to characterize health messages, particularly those related to diet and physical…

  9. African Americans: Race as a Self-Schema Affecting Physical Activity Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Louis Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical and empirical contributions to racial differences in spot performance and describes a framework for viewing race as a movement self-schema. The roles of television, modeling, expectation theory, and sociological influences are discussed as possible activators of racial movement self-schemata. (JB)

  10. Guidelines to Assist the Implementation of Differentiated Learning Activities in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    Despite previous research and recommendations in South Africa, secondary-school teachers still encounter economic, social and cultural challenges in implementing differentiated learning activities in the classroom. The diversity of learners with learning barriers inevitably leads to an increase in workload for the teachers. This article draws on…

  11. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  12. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane) of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits) of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity) properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured 'Hela cells'. Antioxidant/oxidative properties of the ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa and purified compounds were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and fruits of H. globosa showed the best activity, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.1 mg/ ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 and 6.2 mg/ml, respectively, against M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa (F.E) showed the highest percentage of inhibitory activity of monophenolase (90.4% at 200 mug/ml). In addition, F.E exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 37.7 mug/ml on the viability of 'HeLa cells' using cytotoxicity MTT assay. Subsequently, F.E was fractionated using phase-partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The cytotoxicity of these fractions were determined in vitro using different cancer cell lines. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest activity of toxicity. Therefore, this fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two pure compounds known as: 'Tutin' and 'hyenanchin' were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods. Unpredictably, none of them showed significant (P < 0.01) inhibition on cell viability/proliferation at the concentrations that were

  13. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane) of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits) of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity) properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured ‘Hela cells’. Antioxidant/oxidative properties of the ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa and purified compounds were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and fruits of H. globosa showed the best activity, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.1 mg/ ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 and 6.2 mg/ml, respectively, against M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa (F.E) showed the highest percentage of inhibitory activity of monophenolase (90.4% at 200 μg/ml). In addition, F.E exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 37.7 μg/ml on the viability of ‘HeLa cells’ using cytotoxicity MTT assay. Subsequently, F.E was fractionated using phase-partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The cytotoxicity of these fractions were determined in vitro using different cancer cell lines. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest activity of toxicity. Therefore, this fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two pure compounds known as: ‘Tutin’ and ‘hyenanchin’ were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods. Unpredictably, none of them showed significant (P < 0.01) inhibition on cell viability/proliferation at the

  14. Incorporating Spirituality and Religion into the Treatment of African American Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the process of incorporating spirituality and religion into the treatment of African American clients. It addresses religious diversity within the African American community. The roles of spirituality and religion as survival and coping mechanisms for overcoming racism, adversity, and loss are emphasized. The cases presented…

  15. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  16. Ogbu Revisited: Unpacking High-Achieving African American Girls' High School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer-Banks, Diane A. M.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    How African American girls cope and excel amidst the discriminations and inequities they experience within U.S. educational systems has not been widely discussed in the body of research about African Americans' schooling experiences. In this study, the researchers examined the applicability of Ogbu's cultural-ecological theory to the…

  17. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings. PMID:22457894

  18. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…

  19. Development and validation of measures of religious involvement and the cancer experience among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Vivian L.; Buckner, Ayanna V.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that African Americans diagnosed with cancer tend to use religion in coping, however less is known about the specific role that religion plays in the coping process. Based on previous qualitative work, five instruments were developed to assess the role of religious involvement in cancer coping: God as helper, God as healer, Faith in healing, Control over cancer, and New perspective. The instruments were administered to 100 African Americans with cancer. Each exhibited high internal reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. These instruments may have applied value for the development of church-based cancer support/survivorship interventions. PMID:19383653

  20. Prediction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity using haplotype tag SNPs in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perera, M A; Thirumaran, R K; Cox, N J; Hanauer, S; Das, S; Brimer-Cline, C; Lamba, V; Schuetz, E G; Ratain, M J; Di Rienzo, A

    2009-02-01

    The CYP3A locus encodes hepatic enzymes that metabolize many clinically used drugs. However, there is marked interindividual variability in enzyme expression and clearance of drugs metabolized by these enzymes. We utilized comparative genomics and computational prediction of transcriptional factor binding sites to evaluate regions within CYP3A that were most likely to contribute to this variation. We then used a haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) approach to evaluate the entire locus with the fewest number of maximally informative SNPs. We investigated the association between these htSNPs and in vivo CYP3A enzyme activity using a single-point IV midazolam clearance assay. We found associations between the midazolam phenotype and age, diagnosis of hypertension and one htSNP (141689) located upstream of CYP3A4. 141689 lies near the xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (XREM) regulatory region of CYP3A4. Cell-based studies show increased transcriptional activation with the minor allele at 141689, in agreement with the in vivo association study findings. This study marks the first systematic evaluation of coding and noncoding variation that may contribute to CYP3A phenotypic variability.

  1. Activity of the mangrove snail Cerithidea decollata (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in a warm temperate South African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Alan N.; Dickens, John

    2012-08-01

    A population of Cerithidea decollata, an intertidal marine gastropod usually found within mangroves, was studied within an area of Juncus kraussii in the upper reaches of the warm temperate Knysna estuary, which is at the southern-most limit of the recorded distribution of this snail. Activity (migratory and homing behaviour, distances travelled during foraging) of the snails was monitored over spring and neap tides in four seasons. Migratory patterns of the snails were affected by season, time of low tide (day vs night), tidal magnitude (spring vs neap) and zonation. In the summer and spring, a greater proportion of snails migrated from J. kraussii leaves onto the mud during the day at spring low tide. During neap tides in these two seasons, most snails did not climb J. kraussii leaves and remained on the mud, which was nearly always exposed. In autumn a few snails only were active and in winter snails were almost completely inactive, probably due to low air temperatures. Snails travelled greater distances on the mud on spring tides, during the diurnal low tides, and in the summer. No snails were found to home to individual J. kraussii leaves; however, homing behaviour was recorded to wooden poles within the Juncus wetland.

  2. Proliferative Activity in Libyan Breast Cancer with Comparison to European and Central African Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boder, Jamela; Abdalla, Fathi; Elfagieh, Mohamed; Collan, Yrjö

    2013-01-01

    Background. We evaluated the relation of proliferative indices with clinicopathological features and prognosis in breast cancer (BC) of Libyan female patients. The data were compared with corresponding results in Finland and Nigeria. Patients and Methods. Histological samples of breast cancer from 130 patients were retrospectively studied. Mitotic activity index (MAI) and standardized mitotic index (SMI) were estimated. Results. There were statistically significant correlations between the proliferative indices and most clinicopathological features, with the strongest association observed for histological grade (P = 0.01 for SMI and P = 0.003 for MAI). The proliferative differences between Libyan, Nigerian, and Finnish population were prominent. The mean values of SMI and MAI in Libyan BC patients were 32.1 mitotic figures per square millimeter and 27.3 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields, respectively. This is clearly lower than those in Nigeria but much higher than those in Finland. The differences between countries are seen in whole material and are also present in subgroups. The results indicated that mitotic activities can be reliable prognostic indicators in Libyan BCs, as they were among Finnish and Nigerian females. Univariate and multivariate analyses found at cut-offs of 19 and 44 mitosis/mm2 of SMI were the most significant prognostic factors. Conclusions. Proliferative indices with careful estimation of the MAI and SMI could be applied as quantitative criteria for Libyan BC to separate the patients into good, moderate, and bad prognosis groups. PMID:24106717

  3. Records of human activity during the late-Holocene in the soils of the African dense humid forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Bentaleb, Ilham; Biwolé, Achille; Bourland, Nils; Bremond, Laurent; Daïnou, Kasso; Fayolle, Adeline; Gillet, Jean-François; Gorel, Anaïs; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hardy, Olivier; Livingstone Smith, Alexandre; Oslisly, Richard; Vleminckx, Jason; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2014-05-01

    Recently, several authors gathered data about the presence of past human populations in tropical regions covered by dense forest nowadays. In Central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic coast, but very little information is available further inland. In the perspective, soil records seem to be the most appropriated so as to appraise the spatial and temporal extent of human activity in the African dense humid forest. In this paper, we thus aimed to present a synthesis of the archaeological and archaeobotanical data obtained during several fieldwork campaigns in an archaeologically unexplored area of 200,000 km² located in southern Cameroon and the northern Republic of Congo. A total of 275 test pits, among them 30 pedological pits up to 150 cm deep, were excavated in the study area. So as to get a long temporal scale as well as a fine resolution spatial scale, we quantified wood charcoal and charred endocarps in soil samples by layers of 10 cm taken for 100 pits located along transects of systematic sampling. Spatial projections were performed using statistics together with multivariate analyses. AMS radiocarbon dating allowed interpreting the temporal framework. Evidence of past human activities through either artifacts or charred botanical remains was observed in all pits, in particular with the ubiquitous presence of charcoal at each site. Main charcoal peaks were interpreted as fields (slash-and-burn agriculture) in the vicinity of ancient villages, the later marked by the presence of both potsherds and oil palm endocarps. The dichotomy of these kinds of activities may have impacted differentially the environment during the past. The set of 73 radiocarbon dates extending from 15,000 BP to the present time provided more dates in the late-Holocene showing a bimodal distribution which was interpreted as two phases of human expansion with an intermediate phase of population crash. The 2300-1300 BP phase is

  4. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  5. Coping Resources of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Allen L.

    Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…

  6. Physical activity and reduced intra-abdominal fat in midlife African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F; Wesley, Deidre E; Powell, Lynda H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm(2) lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

    2008-05-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems.

  8. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  9. Differential Impact of Medical Status, Maternal Coping, and Marital Satisfaction on Coping with Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of medical, psychological, and familial factors on the coping of pediatric cancer patients. Participants were 36 pediatric cancer patients and their families under active treatment at Roswell Park Memorial Institute, a comprehensive cancer research and treatment center in Buffalo, New York. The…

  10. A genetic association study of activated partial thromboplastin time in European Americans and African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Cushman, Mary; Pankow, James S; Basu, Saonli; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R; Tang, Weihong

    2015-04-15

    Reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a risk marker for incident and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Genetic factors influencing aPTT are not well understood, especially in populations of non-European ancestry. The present study aimed to identify aPTT-related gene variants in both European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). We conducted a genetic association study for aPTT in 9719 EAs and 2799 AAs from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium candidate gene array, the analyses were based on ∼50 000 SNPs in ∼2000 candidate genes. In EAs, the analyses identified a new independent association for aPTT in F5 (rs2239852, P-value = 1.9 × 10(-8)), which clusters with a coding variant rs6030 (P-value = 7.8 × 10(-7)). The remaining significant signals were located on F5, HRG, KNG1, F11, F12 and ABO and have been previously reported in EA populations. In AAs, significant signals were identified in KNG1, HRG, F12, ABO and VWF, with the leading variants in KNG1, HRG and F12 being the same as in the EAs; the significant variant in VWF (rs2229446, P-value = 1.2 × 10(-6)) was specific to the AA sample (minor allele frequency = 19% in AAs and 0.2% in EAs) and has not been previously reported. This is the first study to report aPTT-related genetic variants in AAs. Our findings in AAs demonstrate transferability of previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG and F12 in EAs. We also identified new associations at F5 in EAs and VWF in AAs that have not been previously reported for aPTT. PMID:25552651

  11. A genetic association study of activated partial thromboplastin time in European Americans and African Americans: the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Cushman, Mary; Pankow, James S.; Basu, Saonli; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.; Tang, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a risk marker for incident and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Genetic factors influencing aPTT are not well understood, especially in populations of non-European ancestry. The present study aimed to identify aPTT-related gene variants in both European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). We conducted a genetic association study for aPTT in 9719 EAs and 2799 AAs from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium candidate gene array, the analyses were based on ∼50 000 SNPs in ∼2000 candidate genes. In EAs, the analyses identified a new independent association for aPTT in F5 (rs2239852, P-value = 1.9 × 10−8), which clusters with a coding variant rs6030 (P-value = 7.8 × 10−7). The remaining significant signals were located on F5, HRG, KNG1, F11, F12 and ABO and have been previously reported in EA populations. In AAs, significant signals were identified in KNG1, HRG, F12, ABO and VWF, with the leading variants in KNG1, HRG and F12 being the same as in the EAs; the significant variant in VWF (rs2229446, P-value = 1.2 × 10−6) was specific to the AA sample (minor allele frequency = 19% in AAs and 0.2% in EAs) and has not been previously reported. This is the first study to report aPTT-related genetic variants in AAs. Our findings in AAs demonstrate transferability of previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG and F12 in EAs. We also identified new associations at F5 in EAs and VWF in AAs that have not been previously reported for aPTT. PMID:25552651

  12. The Role of Religious Coping Strategies in Predicting Depression among a Sample of Women with Fertility Problems in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Aflakseir, Abdulaziz; Mahdiyar, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common mental health problems among women with infertility problems is depression. Research has shown that religious beliefs and practices can help people to cope with difficult situations. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of different religious coping strategies in predicting depression in a group of infertile women in Shiraz. Methods: A total of 72 women with fertility problems were recruited from several private infertility clinics in Shiraz using convenience sampling. The participants completed the research questionnaires including Beck Depression Inventory and Religious Coping Scale. The Religious Coping Scale consists of five dimensions including practice, active, passive, benevolent reappraisal and negative religious coping. Descriptive statistics (frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation), Pearson’s correlation and simultaneous multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis using SPSS version 16. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The present study showed that about 30% of women with fertility problems experienced the symptoms of depression. The findings also indicated that the most commonly used religious coping strategy was practice religious coping, while the least commonly used religious coping strategies were passive and negative religious coping. The findings also showed that active religious coping, practice religious coping and benevolent reappraisal coping predicted depression reduction. Conclusion: This study highlights the effect of religious coping on depression reduction of women with fertility problems. In other words, women who used religious coping strategies were less likely to experience depression symptoms. PMID:27141467

  13. Coping With Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  14. Coping with chronic social stress in mice: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/ sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis activity, behavioral changes and effects of antalarmin treatment: implications for the study of stress-related psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tejada, Joana; Arregi, Amaia; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Vegas, Oscar; Azpiroz, Arantza; Garmendia, Larraitz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the individual differences that lead to the development of psychopathological changes in response to chronic social stress. We also assessed the ability of an antagonist of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors to reverse the effects of stress. Male adult mice were exposed to repeated defeat experiences for 21 days using a sensorial contact model. After 18 days of defeat, two groups of subjects were established (active and passive), according to their behaviors during social confrontation. Antalarmin treatment was given for 4 and 6 days. The results corroborated previous data indicating that subjects who adopted a passive coping strategy had higher corticosterone levels after 21 days of defeat and decreased resting levels 3 days later. Moreover, they showed higher resting expression levels of hypothalamic CRH than their active counterparts. On day 24, the experimental animals were subjected to another social defeat to determine whether the stress response remained. The increase in corticosterone and hypothalamic CRH levels was similar for all of the stressed subjects, but the passive subjects also had a greater CRH response in the amygdala. Passive subjects had decreased levels of adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and plasma adrenaline compared to the active subjects, and lower plasma noradrenaline levels than manipulated controls. The passive profile of physiological changes in both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axes has been associated with changes related to mood disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. The active coping profile is characterized by similar corticosterone resting levels to controls and increased SAM activity. Both profiles showed alterations in the novel palatable and forced swimming tests, with the passive profile being the most vulnerable to the effects of stress in this last test. Pharmacological

  15. Acylphloroglucinol Derivatives from the South African Helichrysum niveum and Their Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Olugbenga K; Marnewick, Jeanine L; Rautenbach, Fanie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of aerial parts of Helichrysum niveum (H. niveum) using different chromatographic methods including semi-preparative HPLC afforded three new (1-3) and six known (4-10) acylphloroglucinols alongside a known dialcohol triterpene (11). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized accordingly as 1-benzoyl-3 (3-methylbut-2-enylacetate)-phloroglucinol (helinivene A, 1), 1-benzoyl-3 (2S-hydroxyl-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-phloroglucinol (helinivene B, 2), 8-(2-methylpropanone)-3S,5,7-trihydroxyl-2,2-dimethoxychromane (helinivene C, 3), 1-(2-methylbutanone)-4-O-prenyl-phloroglucinol (4), 1-(2-methylpropanone)-4-O-prennyl-phloroglucinol (5), 1-(butanone)-3-prenyl-phloroglucinol (6), 1-(2-methylbutanone)-3-prenyl-phloroglucinol (7), 1-butanone-3-(3-methylbut-2-enylacetate)-phloroglucinol (8), 1-(2-methylpropanone)-3-prenylphloroglucinol (9), caespitate (10), and 3β-24-dihydroxyterexer-14-ene (11). Excellent total antioxidant capacities were demonstrated by helinivenes A and B (1 and 2) when measured as oxygen radicals absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent absorbance capacity (TEAC) and including the inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 5.12 ± 0.90; 3.55 ± 1.92) µg/mL, while anti-tyrosinase activity at IC50 = 35.63 ± 4.67 and 26.72 ± 5.05 µg/mL were also observed for 1 and 2, respectively. This is the first chemical and in vitro biological study on H. niveum. These findings underpin new perspectives for the exploitation of these natural phenolic compounds in applications such as in the natural cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical sectors. PMID:26393563

  16. Anti-inflammaging and antiglycation activity of a novel botanical ingredient from African biodiversity (Centevita™)

    PubMed Central

    Maramaldi, Giada; Togni, Stefano; Franceschi, Federico; Lati, Elian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the topical efficacy of a new purified extract from Madagascar, Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica [L.] Urban), both on human explants and on human volunteers, in relation to skin wrinkling and skin protection against ultraviolet light exposure. The extract, with a peculiar content of biologically active molecules, was investigated as a novel anti-inflammaging and antiglycation agent. Its typical terpenes, known as collagen synthesis promoters, represent at least 45% of the extract. It also contains a polyphenolic fraction cooperating to the observed properties. Methods C. asiatica purified extract was assayed on human skin explants maintained alive, and several parameters were evaluated. Among the most relevant, the thymine dimerization was evaluated by immunostaining. Malondialdehyde formation was evaluated as free-radical scavenging marker by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of interleukin-1α was observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well. The product was further evaluated as an antiglycation agent, being glycation quantified by the advanced glycation product carboxymethyl lysine. C. asiatica purified extract was also evaluated as an antiwrinkling agent in a single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Formulated in a simple oil-in-water emulsion, the extent of wrinkling was assessed by skin replicas, skin firmness, skin elasticity, and collagen density measurements. Results C. asiatica purified extract could protect DNA from ultraviolet light-induced damage, decreasing the thymine photodimerization by over 28% (P<0.05). A reduced (26%, P<0.01) expression of interleukin-1α was also observed, supporting its anti-inflammatory potential. C. asiatica purified extract showed in vitro a total inhibition of carboxymethyl lysine formation induced by the glycating agent methylglyoxal. A clear epidermal densification of collagen network in the papillary dermis was observed. These in vitro data have been

  17. Association Of Church-Sponsored Activity Participation And Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity In African American Protestants, National Survey Of American Life, 2001–2003

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jerome; Belay, Brook; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Dietz, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examines the relationships between participation in the African American church and overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2). Design: This cross-sectional analysis was based on the National Survey of American Life 2001–2003 and included 2,689 African American Protestant (AAP) adults. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overweight/obesity. Two practices were examined – frequency of participation in church activities (excluding services) and frequency of church service attendance. Each practice was analyzed in separate models. Each model included the following covariates: age, marital status, education, poverty, smoking, and region of country. We also adjusted models for sex. Results After adjustment, African American Protestant men (AAPM) who participated in church activities at least weekly were more likely to be overweight/obese (aOR=2.17; 95% CI=1.25, 3.77) compared to AAPM who did not participate in church activities. There was no statistically significant association between overweight/obesity and participation in church activities for AAPW. There was no association between overweight/obesity and attendance of church services for AAP men and women combined. Conclusions For AAPM, participation in church activities was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Further studies are required to determine why this association occurs in AAPM but not AAPW. Studies looking at the wider application of the several successful health initiatives targeting the AAP community should also be considered. PMID:23914418

  18. Executive function does not predict coping with symptoms in stable patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Maarten; Krabbendam, Lydia; Delespaul, Philippe; Huistra, Karola; Walraven, Wil; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background Associations between coping with and control over psychotic symptoms were examined using the Maastricht Assessment of Coping Strategies-24, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive domain of executive functioning predicted quality and quantity of coping. Methods MACS-24 was administered to 32 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. For each of 24 symptoms, experience of distress, type of coping and the resulting degree of perceived control were assessed. Coping types were reduced to two contrasting coping categories: symptomatic coping (SC) and non-symptomatic coping (NSC; combining active problem solving, passive illness behaviour, active problem avoiding, and passive problem avoiding). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the GIT (Groninger Intelligence Test), the Zoo map (BADS: Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive function), Stroop-test and Trail making. Results Cognitive function was not associated with frequency of coping, nor did cognitive function differentially predict SC or NSC. Cognitive function similarly was not associated with symptom distress or level of perceived control over the symptom. Conclusion There was no evidence that cognitive function predicts quantity or quality of coping with symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Variation in the realm of emotion regulation and social cognition may be more predictive of coping with psychotic symptoms. PMID:18510757

  19. Depression and ways of coping with stress: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska, Agata; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Talarowska, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Background Coping with stress is defined as all activities undertaken by a human in a stressful situation. The effect of stress on depression, its role in triggering the subsequent phases of the disease, and the factors that mediate the stress-depression relationship become more and more often subjects of research in psychiatry and psychology. Factors important for the formation of depressive symptoms and disease progression are significantly associated with coping strategies used in the face of stress. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the most popular strategies of coping with stress in people with depression in comparison to healthy subjects. Material/Methods Initial research was carried on 80 patients aged from 20 to 66 years with a diagnosis of depression. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 22 to 57 years. Analysis of the most popular strategies of coping with stress was performed with the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE) by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. Results In contrast with healthy people, patients with depression in stressful situations more often use strategies based on avoidance and denial and have more difficulties in finding positive aspects of stressful events. Conclusions Depression may be an important factor in the negative assessment of one’s own ability to cope with difficult situations and can aggravate a tendency to perceive stressful events as overwhelming. PMID:24270182

  20. Universities in Africa: Working on Excellence for Whom? Reflections on Teaching, Research, and Outreach Activities at African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the current dynamics at African universities concerning the quality of teaching, the role of research, the level of community outreach, and the position of higher education in the educational sector as a whole. Points of reference are experiences at the University of the North in South Africa as well as experiences at…

  1. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  2. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  3. First Steps in Teaching Argumentation: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin; Scholtz, Zena; Sadeck, Melanie; Koopman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African student teachers were studied to see how they coped with requirements to teach science using argumentation. Lesson observations, plans, reflective logs, post-teaching interviews and assessment of pupils' argumentation were used to compare student teachers' preparedness and interactions with pupils. Two clusters of students were…

  4. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  5. The Feasibility of an E-mail–Delivered Intervention to Improve Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors in African-American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Eleanor; Schweitzer, Amy; Hurtado, Maria Eugenia; Hathway, Joanne; DiPietro, Loretta; Lei, Kai Y.; Klein, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an e-mail-delivered program to promote nutrition and physical activity in African-American college students. Participants 47 students (76% female, ages 18-20 y). Methods Students participated in a 24-week randomized controlled trial, receiving either general health information or the intervention focused on diet and physical activity. Results At baseline, 80.9% and 76.0% of participants reported interest in improving diet and physical activity, respectively. Participants evidenced poor nutrition behaviors and 46% were overweight or obese. At 24 weeks, most participants (70% control, 84% intervention) were “somewhat” or “very” satisfied with the program. The program was feasible to administrate, with the exception of measurement of physical activity using accelerometers. Conclusions An innovative e-mail-delivered program promoting positive health behaviors appears to be feasible and acceptable in African-American college students. Further research is needed to evaluate program efficacy in this population, including prevention of excess weight gain. PMID:25611932

  6. Job control and social support as coping resources in job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odahara, Tsutomu

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on job satisfaction in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 867 employees (811 men and 56 women, M age = 35.2 yr.) of a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined whether effects of active coping on job satisfaction might depend on the extent of coping resources, such as job control or social support (supervisor and coworker). Analysis showed that the effect of active coping on job satisfaction depended on the extent of coworkers' support, not on job control and supervisors' support.

  7. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  8. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  9. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  10. Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-12-30

    High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.

  11. Screening of plants used by Southern African traditional healers in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors and uterine relaxing activity.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, K; Jäger, A K; Raidoo, D M; van Staden, J

    1999-01-01

    Plants used by Southern African traditional healers for the treatment of menstrual pains were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors and the ability to reduce isolated uterine muscle contraction using the cyclooxygenase and in vitro uterine bioassays respectively. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid and the enzyme that drives this reaction is cyclooxygenase. The excessive production of prostaglandins by the myometrium and endometrium induces uterine contractions. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and hence of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway may lead to relief of menstrual pain. Ten plants used by traditional healers for menstrual pains were assayed for cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity. Several plant extracts exhibited high inhibitory activity in the assay. The highest activities were obtained with ethanolic extracts of Siphonochilus aethiopicus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Solanum mauritianum. Generally ethanolic extracts gave higher activity than the aqueous extracts. None of the ethanolic plant extracts were able to relax or reduce the contractions of the precontracted guinea pig uterus. PMID:10075117

  12. Thirst Is Associated with Suppression of Habenula Output and Active Stress Coping: Is there a Role for a Non-canonical Vasopressin-Glutamate Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S.; Vázquez-Juárez, Erika; Chay, Freya K.; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Water-homeostasis is a fundamental physiological process for terrestrial life. In vertebrates, thirst drives water intake, but the neuronal circuits that connect the physiology of water regulation with emotional context are poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP) is a prominent messenger in this circuit, as well as L-glutamate. We have investigated the role of a VP circuit and interaction between thirst and motivational behaviors evoked by life-threatening stimuli in rats. We demonstrate a direct pathway from hypothalamic paraventricular VP-expressing, glutamatergic magnocellular neurons to the medial division of lateral habenula (LHbM), a region containing GABAergic neurons. In vivo recording and juxtacellular labeling revealed that GABAergic neurons in the LHbM had locally branching axons, and received VP-positive axon terminal contacts on their dendrites. Water deprivation significantly reduced freezing and immobility behaviors evoked by innate fear and behavioral despair, respectively, accompanied by decreased Fos expression in the lateral habenula. Our results reveal a novel VP-expressing hypothalamus to the LHbM circuit that is likely to evoke GABA-mediated inhibition in the LHbM, which promotes escape behavior during stress coping. PMID:27065810

  13. "You Can Try or You Can Just Give Up": The Impact of Perceived Control and Coping Style on Childhood Homesickness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.; Weisz, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Assessed coping with homesickness, perceived control over homesickness, and adjustment among 8- to 10-year-olds spending two weeks at a summer camp. Found that children's most frequent and effective method of coping was engaging in distracting physical activity; coping by adjusting oneself to conditions increased through adolescence; and the most…

  14. Predictors of Unprotected Sex among Young Sexually Active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: The Importance of Ethnicity and Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Isabel; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián

    2010-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15–22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions. PMID:17721725

  15. Coping with displacement from Hurricane Katrina: predictors of one-year post-traumatic stress and depression symptom trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Einhorn, Lindsey

    2009-07-01

    This study examined predictors of symptom trajectories of 93 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina who were displaced and relocated to Colorado. Survivors were interviewed within six months of the hurricane and then again six months later. Four symptom trajectories were identified for clinical levels of depression and post-traumatic stress: resilient, recovered, delayed onset, and chronic. High levels of adaptive coping and coping efficacy characterized the resilient groups and low levels of both characterized the chronic groups. The recovered groups were characterized by low levels of adaptive coping coupled with high coping efficacy, and the delayed groups were characterized by high secondary control coping in the presence of low primary control coping, though some symptom-specific differences were found for these two groups. African American (67%) participants did not differ from European American (28%) participants in terms of membership in trajectory groups, though analyses revealed that displacement stress and positive religious coping were especially relevant predictors for African American participants. The results are interpreted in light of the Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 2001) and implications for treatment and preventive intervention are discussed.

  16. Spiritual Expressions of African Americans and Whites in Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Harleah G.; Meghani, Salimah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Spiritual practices are one way that individuals cope with cancer pain. Purpose Describe and contrast expressions and values about the use of spirituality for pain in African American (AA) and White (WH) oncology patients. Methods Six groups (3 AA; 3 WH; n=42; mean age 58) were conducted. Focus group and qualitative methodology with a cultural interpretive lens was utilized. The Model of Integrated Spirituality provided the conceptual framework for understanding the narratives. Findings AAs and WHs did not differ on demographics, pain status, or integrative therapies. Three spirituality themes emerged: 1) pain and distress as antecedents to the use of spirituality; 2) active and existential attributes of the use of spirituality; and 3) mobilization of internal and external resources as outcomes. There were commonalities between AAs and WHs but greater frequency of certain subthemes and keywords in AAs. Conclusions Future studies should examine whether differences in overt expressions translate into different types and levels of spiritual usage. Implications for Practice Clinicians should recognizing similar as well as different uses and descriptions of spirituality between African Americans and Whites. PMID:22024953

  17. Investigating the impact of rank and ovarian activity on the social behavior of captive female African elephants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2010-01-01

    Over a third of captive female African elephants in North America fail to exhibit normal estrous cycles based on long-term serum progestagen analyses. Why acyclicity occurs is unknown; however, the majority of noncycling females are ranked by keepers as the dominant individual within the group. To investigate the relationship between ovarian cyclicity status and keeper-determined social rank, observations were conducted on 33 female African elephants (18 cycling, 15 noncycling). Based on keeper evaluations, five cycling elephants were ranked dominant, seven in the middle and six as subordinate. In contrast, 10 noncycling elephants were ranked as dominate and five as subordinate with none ranked as middle. When comparing the behavior of the elephants by their keeper-determined rank, the dominant females dominant were significantly more likely to approach, displace and push. Similarly, keeper-determined subordinate females more frequently presented their hind end and held their ears erect. Behaviors initiated by one elephant toward another did not vary between cycling and noncycling females, except when the interaction with social rank was tested. Dominant, noncycling females initiated a higher percentage of "approach" and "displace" behaviors than both cycling and noncycling, subordinate elephants. Subordinate, noncycling elephants displayed the highest percentage of "ears erect." Social rank drives the interactions of ex situ female African elephants more than ovarian cyclicity status. Thus, behavioral interactions cannot be used to predict which cycling elephants are most likely to become acyclic.

  18. Coping behavior in normal and clinical samples: more similarities than differences?

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    1993-09-01

    In our studies we tried to integrate a developmental and a clinical perspective on coping and adaptation in adolescence. Starting with a review of the author's own research, involving over 3000 12- to 20-year-olds from various cultures, the problems typical of this developmental phase and the ways of coping with these normative demands are presented. The results show that coping skills of young people in dealing with age-specific problems have so far been considerably underestimated. Their response to problems stemming from different developmental fields such as parents, peers, school or future involved three main modes of coping: Active Coping, Internal Coping and Withdrawal. Withdrawal was employed very rarely and only for certain types of problems. Age, gender and problem-specific effects in coping were found. Whereas normal adolescents most frequently choose to cope with difficulties actively by means of social resources and to think out possible solutions, risk populations appear to have a more ambivalent pattern of coping strategies with high functionality and high dysfunctionality. Even their appraisal of problems is already disturbed; they feel more readily threatened by everyday problem situations and respond more uniformly with withdrawal. Finally, similarities between the female coping style in normal samples and the more pronounced ambivalent pattern in clinical samples were discussed and related to psychopathology. PMID:8282899

  19. Coping with the uncertainty of uncontrolled epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Murray, J

    1993-09-01

    Parents of children with uncontrolled epilepsy experience chronic uncertainty in relation to their child's condition. In this study the author sought to explore the levels and dimensions of uncertainty experienced by parents of children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; the relationship between parental uncertainty and stress; and the range of cognitive and behavioural coping responses employed by parents. The population is drawn from a self-help group for parents of children with L.G.S. coordinated by the author. Data was collected through questionnaires as well as in-depth interviews with parents. The findings revealed five key dimensions of uncertainty: in respect to (1) diagnosis, (2) aetiology, (3) seizure activity, (4) treatment, and (5) prognosis. The study highlights the importance of information, contact with other parents of children with uncontrolled epilepsy and diary writing as aids to reducing uncertainty and enhancing coping for parents. The paper concludes by calling for a re-evaluation of the role of parents of children with epilepsy which moves away from the notion of parents as a source of pathology for their children to parents as part of a family unit attempting to cope as best it can with a chronic illness.

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity. PMID:20377915

  2. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  3. Pediatric oncologists' coping strategies for dealing with patient death.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat; Barrera, Maru; Scheinemann, Katrin; Bartels, Ute

    2016-01-01

    This research examined pediatric oncologists coping strategies when their patients died of cancer. Twenty-one pediatric oncologists at 2 Canadian pediatric academic hospitals were interviewed about their coping strategies when patients died or were in the process of dying. The grounded theory method of data collection and data analysis were used. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relations among emerging codes and themes. Pediatric oncologists used engagement coping strategies with primary and secondary responses including emotional regulation (social support and religion), problem solving (supporting families at end of life), cognitive restructuring (making a difference and research), and distraction (breaks, physical activity, hobbies and entertainment, spending time with own children). They also used disengagement coping strategies that included voluntary avoidance (compartmentalization and withdrawing from families at end of life). Given the chronic nature of patient death in pediatric oncology and the emotionally difficult nature of this work, medical institutions such as hospitals have a responsibility to assist pediatric oncologists in coping with this challenging aspect of their work. Future research is needed to evaluate how best to implement these changes on the institutional level to help oncologists cope with patient death and the effect of using these strategies on their quality of life.

  4. Pediatric oncologists' coping strategies for dealing with patient death.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat; Barrera, Maru; Scheinemann, Katrin; Bartels, Ute

    2016-01-01

    This research examined pediatric oncologists coping strategies when their patients died of cancer. Twenty-one pediatric oncologists at 2 Canadian pediatric academic hospitals were interviewed about their coping strategies when patients died or were in the process of dying. The grounded theory method of data collection and data analysis were used. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relations among emerging codes and themes. Pediatric oncologists used engagement coping strategies with primary and secondary responses including emotional regulation (social support and religion), problem solving (supporting families at end of life), cognitive restructuring (making a difference and research), and distraction (breaks, physical activity, hobbies and entertainment, spending time with own children). They also used disengagement coping strategies that included voluntary avoidance (compartmentalization and withdrawing from families at end of life). Given the chronic nature of patient death in pediatric oncology and the emotionally difficult nature of this work, medical institutions such as hospitals have a responsibility to assist pediatric oncologists in coping with this challenging aspect of their work. Future research is needed to evaluate how best to implement these changes on the institutional level to help oncologists cope with patient death and the effect of using these strategies on their quality of life. PMID:26865337

  5. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  6. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders.

  7. Coping strategies for HIV-related stigma in Liuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xia; Ying-Xia, Zhang; Golin, Carol E; Bu, Jin; Jin, Bu; Emrick, Catherine Boland; Nan, Zhang; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ming-Qiang, Li

    2014-02-01

    This study explores the feelings, experiences, and coping strategies of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Liuzhou, China. In a southwestern Chinese city with high HIV prevalence, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 47 PLHIV selected to represent individuals who had acquired HIV via different acquisition routes. Many participants felt severely stigmatized; they commonly reported having very low self-esteem and feelings of despair. Based on style of coping and whether it occurred at the interpersonal or intrapersonal level, four types of coping that participants used to deal with HIV-associated stigma were identified: (1) Compassion (Passive/Avoidant-Interpersonal); (2) Hiding HIV status (Passive/Avoidant-Intrapersonal); (3) Social support (Active/Problem-focused-Interpersonal; and (4) Self-care (Active/Problem-focused-Intrapersonal). Educational and stigma-reduction interventions targeting potential social support networks for PLHIV (e.g., family, close friends, and peers) could strengthen active interpersonal PLHIV coping strategies. Interventions teaching self-care to PLHIV would encourage active intrapersonal coping, both of which may enhance PLHIV quality of life in Liuzhou, China. PMID:24337724

  8. Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

    2014-01-01

    African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

  9. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  10. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  11. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA.

  12. Associations between Sadness and Anger Regulation Coping, Emotional Expression, and Physical and Relational Aggression among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Goodman, Kimberly L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between self-reports of sadness and anger regulation coping, reluctance to express emotion, and physical and relational aggression between two cohorts of predominantly African-American fifth (N = 191; 93 boys and 98 girls) and eighth (N = 167; 73 boys and 94 girls) graders. Multiple regression analyses indicated…

  13. A novel CYP2A6*20 allele found in African-American population produces a truncated protein lacking enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Higashi, Eriko; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; McLeod, Howard L; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2005-09-01

    Human CYP2A6 is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform responsible for the metabolism of nicotine, coumarin, tegafur, and valproic acid, and metabolic activation of nitrosamines. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2A6 gene are a major causal factor of the large interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism. In the present study, we identified a novel allele, termed CYP2A6*20, in an African-American population. The allele possesses the deletion of two nucleotides in exon 4 resulting in a frame-shift from codon 196 and an early stop codon at 220 (exon 5) as well as three synonymous SNPs of G51A (G51A in cDNA), T5684C (T1191C), and C6692G (C1546G, 3'-untranslated region). The allele frequency in the African-American population (n=96) was 1.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6-4.5%). In contrast, the CYP2A6*20 allele was not found in Caucasians (European-American) (n=185), Japanese (n=184) and Korean (n=209) populations. To investigate the effects of the polymorphism on the enzymatic activities, we expressed a wild type or variant (deletion of two nucleotides) CYP2A6 together with NADPH-CYP reductase in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses demonstrated that truncated CYP2A6 protein was produced from the variant allele, although detected mRNA was the predicted size by reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction. Coumarin 7-hydroxylation and nicotine C-oxidation, which are typical CYP2A6 activities, were completely abolished in the E. coli membrane expressing the variant allele. In vivo nicotine metabolism was evaluated using the cotinine/nicotine ratio 2 h after the chewing of one piece of nicotine gum. Two CYP2A6*1/CYP2A6*20 heterozygotes and a single CYP2A6*17/CYP2A6*20 heterozygote revealed lower cotinine/nicotine ratios compared with CYP2A6*1/CYP2A6*1 subjects (1.6 and 4.5, and 1.8 versus 9.5+/-5.4, n=52, respectively). We found a novel CYP2A6*20 allele in African-American subjects which codes a truncated protein lacking enzymatic activity.

  14. Geodynamic significance of the TRM segment in the East African Rift (W-Tanzania): Active tectonics and paleostress in the Ufipa plateau and Rukwa basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, D.; Kervyn, F.; Macheyeki, A. S.; Temu, E. B.

    2012-04-01

    The Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) rift segment in western Tanzania is a key sector for understanding the opening dynamics of the East African rift system (EARS). In an oblique opening model, it is considered as a dextral transfer fault zone that accommodates the general opening of the EARS in an NW-SE direction. In an orthogonal opening model, it accommodates pure dip-slip normal faulting with extension orthogonal to the rift segments and a general E-W extension for the entire EARS. The central part of the TRM rift segment is well exposed in the Ufipa plateau and Rukwa basin, within the Paleoproterozoic Ubende belt. It is also one of the most seismically active regions of the EARS. We investigated the active tectonic architecture and paleostress evolution of the Ufipa plateau and adjacent Rukwa basin and in order to define their geodynamic role in the development of the EARS and highlight their pre-rift brittle tectonic history. The active fault architecture, fault-kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstruction show that the recent to active fault systems that control the rift structure develop in a pure extensional setting with extension direction orthogonal to the trend of the TRM segment. Two pre-rift brittle events are evidenced. An older brittle thrusting is related to the interaction between the Bangweulu block and the Tanzanian craton during the late Pan-African (early Paleozoic). It was followed by a transpressional inversion during the early Mesozoic. This inversion stage is the best expressed in the field and caused dextral strike-slip faulting along the fault systems that now control the major rift structures. It has been erroneously interpreted as related to the late Cenozoic EARS which instead is characterized by pure normal faulting (our third and last stress stage).

  15. Intense hurricane activity over the past 5,000 years controlled by El Niño and the West African monsoon.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Woodruff, Jonathan D

    2007-05-24

    The processes that control the formation, intensity and track of hurricanes are poorly understood. It has been proposed that an increase in sea surface temperatures caused by anthropogenic climate change has led to an increase in the frequency of intense tropical cyclones, but this proposal has been challenged on the basis that the instrumental record is too short and unreliable to reveal trends in intense tropical cyclone activity. Storm-induced deposits preserved in the sediments of coastal lagoons offer the opportunity to study the links between climatic conditions and hurricane activity on longer timescales, because they provide centennial- to millennial-scale records of past hurricane landfalls. Here we present a record of intense hurricane activity in the western North Atlantic Ocean over the past 5,000 years based on sediment cores from a Caribbean lagoon that contain coarse-grained deposits associated with intense hurricane landfalls. The record indicates that the frequency of intense hurricane landfalls has varied on centennial to millennial scales over this interval. Comparison of the sediment record with palaeo-climate records indicates that this variability was probably modulated by atmospheric dynamics associated with variations in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the strength of the West African monsoon, and suggests that sea surface temperatures as high as at present are not necessary to support intervals of frequent intense hurricanes. To accurately predict changes in intense hurricane activity, it is therefore important to understand how the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the West African monsoon will respond to future climate change.

  16. Coping with Congenital Hand Differences

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.; Chung, Kevin C.; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chin, Autumn Y. T.; Nellans, Kate W.; Waljee, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although functional outcomes following reconstruction for congenital hand differences are frequently described, much less is known regarding children’s ability to cope with psychosocial effects of these conditions. We qualitatively explored stress and coping mechanisms among children following reconstructive surgery for congenital hand differences. Methods Forty patients and their parents participated in semi-structured interviews examining stress related to hand functioning and appearance, emotional responses to stress, and coping strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding by two reviewers. Themes expressed by participants were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Results In this sample, 58% of children and 40% of parents reported stress related to congenital hand differences, attributed to functional deficits (61%), hand appearance (27%), social interactions (58%), and emotional reactions (46%). Among the 18 children who reported stress, 43% of parents were not aware of the presence of stress. Eight coping strategies emerged, including humor (12%), self-acceptance (21%), avoidance (27%), seeking external support (30%), concealment (30%), educating others (9%), support programs (21%) and religion (24%). Conclusions Although children with congenital hand differences often experience emotional stress related to functional limitations and aesthetic deformities, many apply positive coping mechanisms that enhance self-esteem and self-esteem. Clinicians caring for children with congenital hand differences should inform families about potential sources of stress in order to direct resources toward strengthening coping strategies and support systems. Level of Evidence Level IV-Case series PMID:25502854

  17. The Results of the “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) Trial for Increasing Walking and Physical Activity in Underserved African-American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Siceloff, E. Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Coulon, Sandra M.; Griffin, Sarah F.; Wandersman, Abraham; Egan, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney

    2015-01-01

    Background The “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) trial tested an environmental intervention to increase walking in underserved communities. Methods Three matched communities were randomized to a police-patrolled walking plus social marketing, a police-patrolled walking-only, or a no-walking intervention. The 24-month intervention addressed safety and access for physical activity (PA) and utilized social marketing to enhance environmental supports for PA. African-Americans (N=434; 62 % females; aged 51±16 years) provided accelerometry and psychosocial measures at baseline and 12, 18, and 24 months. Walking attendance and trail use were obtained over 24 months. Results There were no significant differences across communities over 24 months for moderate-to-vigorous PA. Walking attendance in the social marketing community showed an increase from 40 to 400 walkers per month at 9 months and sustained ~200 walkers per month through 24 months. No change in attendance was observed in the walking-only community. Conclusions Findings support integrating social marketing strategies to increase walking in underserved African-Americans (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01025726). PMID:25385203

  18. “I Just Can’t Do It Anymore” Patterns of Physical Activity and Cardiac Rehabilitation in African Americans with Heart Failure: A Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret; Katz, Stuart D.; Schipper, Judith; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are components of heart failure (HF) self-care. The aims of this study were to describe patterns of physical activity in African Americans (n = 30) with HF and to explore experience in CR. This was a mixed method, concurrent nested, predominantly qualitative study. Qualitative data were collected via interviews exploring typical physical activity, and CR experience. It was augmented by quantitative data measuring HF severity, self-care, functional capacity and depressive symptoms. Mean age was 60 ± 15 years; 65% were New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III HF. Forty-three percent reported that they did less than 30 min of exercise in the past week; 23% were told “nothing” about exercise by their provider, and 53% were told to do “minimal exercise”. A measure of functional capacity indicated the ability to do moderate activity. Two related themes stemmed from the narratives describing current physical activity: “given up” and “still trying”. Six participants recalled referral to CR with one person participating. There was high concordance between qualitative and quantitative data, and evidence that depression may play a role in low levels of physical activity. Findings highlight the need for strategies to increase adherence to current physical activity guidelines in this older minority population with HF. PMID:27417807

  19. [Coping with crisis as an important factor in the rehabilitation process].

    PubMed

    Clemens, K; Hack, E; Sülzer, A; Schottmann, J

    2008-03-01

    Accidents and serious illnesses are inevitably associated with an emotional crisis, based on the fact that they are followed by significant consequences. Coping with this crisis requires enormous mental adaptation. This active coping process is typically characterised by three phases: the shock phase, the coping phase in the narrow sense and the phase of successful coping versus chronification. In order to ensure a positive rehabilitation process, successful coping with the illness is necessary. It is therefore absolutely crucial to analyse individual coping styles and possible obstacles thoroughly from a psychological point of view. In order to prevent a process of chronification, relevant psychosocial factors should be considered along with the medical and occupational aspects early in the rehabilitation process. Ultimately, psychological stability is the prerequisite for successful rehabilitation.

  20. Stress, coping, and well-being in military spouses during deployment separation.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation.

  1. Children's coping with marital conflict and their adjustment and physical health: vulnerability and protective functions.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Linda; el-Sheikh, Mona; Whitson, Stephanie M

    2003-09-01

    Children's strategies for coping with parental marital conflict were examined as predictors, mediators, and moderators of the relations between marital conflict and 8- to 11-year-olds' internalizing, externalizing, and physical health problems. In the context of marital conflict, a higher level of active coping and support coping combined was a protective factor against girls' depression symptoms and self-esteem problems and both boys' and girls' health problems. Further, avoidance coping was a vulnerability factor for externalizing, internalizing, and physical health problems in boys, and distraction coping was protective against children's depression and health problems. These findings extend the literature by delineating coping strategies that either protected children against, or heightened their vulnerability to, adjustment and health problems associated with exposure to parental marital conflict. PMID:14562456

  2. Longitudinal spiritual coping with trauma in people with HIV: implications for health care.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail

    2014-03-01

    This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735

  3. Quality vs. Quantity: Acquisition of Coping Skills Following Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes over time in quality and quantity of coping skills acquired following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and examine potential mediating effects on substance use outcomes. Design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a computerized version of CBT (CBT4CBT) as an adjunct to standard outpatient treatment over an 8-week period. Setting Data were collected from individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence in an outpatient community setting. Participants Fifty-two substance abusing individuals (50% African American), with an average age of 42 years, and a majority reporting cocaine as their primary drug of choice. Measurements Participants’ responses to behavioral role-plays of situations associated with high risk for drug and alcohol use were audio-taped and independently rated to assess their coping responses. Findings There were statistically significant increases in mean ratings of the quality of participants’ coping responses for those assigned to CBT4CBT compared to treatment as usual, and these differences remained significant three months after treatment completion. Moreover, quality of coping responses mediated the effect of treatment on participants’ duration of abstinence during the follow-up period. Conclusions These findings suggest that assignment to the computerized CBT program improved participants’ coping skills, as measured by independent ratings of a role playing task. It is also the first study to test and support quality of coping skills acquired as a mediator of the effect of CBT for substance use. PMID:20854334

  4. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed.

  5. Breast cancer and coping among women of color: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ellen G.; Pasick, Rena

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer for women regardless of race/ethnicity. Women of color are diagnosed at later stages and experience greater mortality than their White counterparts. However, there has been comparatively little research on coping with breast among racial/ethnic minorities at time of diagnosis, during treatment, or in the course of survivorship. This is despite the fact that research has repeatedly shown that distress can impact disease progression and survival. The questions asked of this systematic literature review include: (1) What is known about coping with breast cancer among major racial/ethnic groups? (2) What are the strengths and gaps in research to date? Over 120 peer-reviewed published studies (1980–2012) were reviewed. A total of 33 met criteria for inclusion including 15 quantitative, 17 qualitative, and 1 mixed methods study. The majority of studies were small sample cross-sectional studies. Only five studies were longitudinal, and two randomized-controlled intervention trials sought to improve coping among survivors. The most common topic in both quantitative and qualitative studies was spirituality and coping among African American breast cancer patients. Thirteen studies included Latinas only or in combination with other groups. Only one quantitative and one qualitative study solely addressed the Asian American population exploring coping and adjustment. In the course of this systematic literature review, we elucidate what is known about coping with breast cancer among racial/ethnic minority women and identify priorities for future research. PMID:24389825

  6. Longitudinal Spiritual Coping with Trauma in People with HIV: Implications for Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Ironson, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735

  7. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  8. Coping and health service utilisation in a UK study of paediatric sickle cell pain

    PubMed Central

    Anie, K; Steptoe, A; Ball, S; Dick, M; Smalling, B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess sickle cell pain and coping in children and to examine the relation between these factors and the utilisation of health services. Methods: Cross sectional study involving 67 children with sickle cell disease attending three London hospitals. Interviews and questionnaires involved measures of pain, health service utilisation, and coping responses (measured with the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), revised for children with sickle cell disease). Medical data on complications, haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and foetal haemoglobin (HbF) percentage were also collected. Results: Pain accounted for about 24% of hospital service use, independent of age, sex, number of with sickle cell disease complications, and Hb levels. However, 42% of patients had not utilised hospital services in the past 12 months. Three higher order factors emerged from analysis of the CSQ (active coping, affective coping, passive adherence coping). Pain severity was predicted by passive adherence coping, while utilisation of hospital services was predicted by active coping. Conclusions: Sickle cell disease in children involves severe recurrent pain leading to hospitalisation in some cases. Psychological coping patterns are relevant to both pain experience, and the use of acute hospital services. It is likely that children would benefit from community based interventions that incorporate both medical and psychological assessments. PMID:11970920

  9. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  10. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  11. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  12. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Eruptive Activity in a Youthful Extensional Setting: the Case of the Nyamulagira Volcanic Field, Western Branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, B.; Kervyn, M.; d'Oreye, N.; Kervyn, F.

    2014-12-01

    Nyamulagira is the westernmost volcano of the Virunga volcanic province, in the western branch of the East African Rift. This shield volcano is one of the most active African volcanoes with one eruption every 1-4 year(s). Nyamulagira's eruptions usually occur along the flanks of the main edifice and in the lava plain, producing pyroclastic cone(s) and 10-20 km-long lava flows. Between 1913 and 1938, the activity was however restricted to the summit caldera, where lava fountains progressively gave birth to a lava lake, which disappeared in 1938 during the partial collapse of the summit caldera and the onset of a 2.5 years-long flank eruption. The location of flank eruptions and the orientation of the eruptive fissures are strongly influenced by the edifice loading, and by the NNW-SSE fracture network that crosses the main edifice and link it to the neighboring Nyiragongo volcano. But rift fault can also influence fissure orientations and cone alignments, especially for distal events. The flank eruptions typically have similar characteristics, lasting few days to few weeks, with an average of 20-30 days. Less frequently, flank eruptions can be larger and more complex, lasting several months and/or emitting much larger volumes of lava. By combining historical and recent observations, we suggest that magma overpressure at shallow depth is the main cause of flank events. Major eruptions seem to be related to a deeper source able to trigger large magma injections through deep structures, such as rift faults. Since April 2012, the activity of Nyamulagira is restricted to the summit caldera, with continuous and intense gas emissions and, since mid-2014, by lava fountains. This change in eruptive behavior, if it persists, may leads to the emergence of a new lava lake and may significantly decreases the frequency of flank events

  13. Coping with cognitive impairment and dementia: Rural caregivers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Branger, Camille; Burton, Rachel; O'Connell, Megan E; Stewart, Norma; Morgan, Debra

    2016-07-01

    Caregiving in a rural context is unique, but the experience of rural caregivers is understudied. This paper describes how rural caregivers cope with caring for a loved one diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia using qualitative description to generate a low-inference summary of a response to an open-ended question. This approach allowed these rural caregivers to describe their positive experiences in addition to the more commonly explored caregiver experiences related to stress. Analyses of coping revealed use of social support, engaging in relaxing and physical activity, and cognitive reframing. In addition, caregivers reported strong faith and religiosity, and to a lesser frequency behavioral changes, checking in with the person with dementia via telephone, and joint activity. Predominantly, these methods reflect approach-based strategies. The current data suggest that these caregivers manage well and adopt adaptive coping strategies to meet the demands of the caregiving role. PMID:24951255

  14. [Spanish adaptation of Hobfoll's Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS)].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Santed Germán, Miguel A; Pérez García, Ana M

    2012-01-01

    The present research adapted the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS), developed by Hobfoll and colleagues, to the Spanish population. SACS is an instrument derived from Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources Theory, which emphasises the contribution of social factors to coping processes. This instrument assesses coping strategies in 9-subscales, organised in three dimensions: orientation to the problem (active/passive), use of social resources (prosocial/antisocial), and orientation to others involved (direct/indirect). The Spanish version, administered to a non-clinical sample (N= 767), found 7-subscales structured in prosocial/antisocial, active/passive and reflexive/intuitive dimensions, with adequate reliability and construct validity. To conclude, the Spanish SACS is a potentially useful and reliable instrument for research and clinical purposes, mainly in areas in which social components need to be explicitly considered.

  15. Stress and the Athlete: Coping with Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Athletes, including recreational athletes, must cope with stress, both from within and from others. The causes of stress, identifying the distressed athlete, and coping with stress are dealt with. (MT)

  16. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  17. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  18. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  19. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  20. Helping Students Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabough, Tillman

    1980-01-01

    Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of death and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of death and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of death and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)

  1. Helping Children Cope with Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Noting that the most assistance adults can provide to a child during a disaster is to be calm, honest, and caring, this brochure provides suggestions for helping children cope with natural and other disasters. The brochure details how children's typical reactions vary with their age, describes how families can prepare for disasters, and suggests…

  2. Group work. Cope street revisited.

    PubMed

    Rowe, A

    1993-10-01

    45 Cope Street is a preventive health project working with pregnant women and young mothers aged between 16 and 25 years and their children in the inner city of Nottingham. A beacon of innovative health visiting practice, it has recently passed the fifth anniversary of its opening. Team leader Ann Rowe describes their philosophy and practice.

  3. Coping with School Adaptation Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Emory L.

    1971-01-01

    Strategems to cope with maladaptation have been limited in effectiveness. Presented are some key problems they present as well as guidelines for a conceptually preferable set of strategems emphasizing principles which should serve to cut down materially on school maladjustment and restore children to effective school function. (Author/BY)

  4. COPE: Computer Organized Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambdin, Dolly

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the need for and appropriate use of individual assessment in physical education and explains how computerized data management can combat the logistical difficulties of using the data. Describes project COPE (Computer Organized Physical Education), a computerized data management system for improving recordkeeping, planning, and…

  5. Coping with Stress in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  6. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  7. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  8. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:26091455

  9. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures.

  10. Interrelationships between Coping, School Connectedness and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style was positively…

  11. Coping Processes of Couples Experiencing Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…

  12. Coping Styles among Adolescent Competitive Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the various coping strategies that competitive adolescent athletes use to deal with errors, penalties, and unpleasant comments from spectators. Identifies and discusses four coping strategies: avoidance, approach, task-focused, and emotion-focused. Briefly reviews the literature on coping and the results of a survey of Australian…

  13. Coping Strategies in Young Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohino, Susana; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to analyze diverse aspects relating to the use of coping strategies among prison inmates. The specific objectives are (a) to analyze which type of coping strategies predominate among prisoners, considering both the focus and the method; (b) to relate the use of coping strategies with variables related to the prison…

  14. Challenges to the Developmental Study of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2009-01-01

    We summarize progress in the developmental study of coping, including specification of a multilevel framework, construction of definitions of coping that rely on regulation as a core concept, and identification of developmentally graded members of families of coping. We argue that these accomplishments are a prelude to the real tasks of a…

  15. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  16. Coping with Schizophrenia: Patterns in Later Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…

  17. Age Differences in Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…

  18. Coping Strategies of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability for Stressful Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of "Active and Avoidant" coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a…

  19. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  20. Coping with Interpersonal Stress and Psychosocial Health among Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Angela T.

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between active coping and psychosocial health among youth. Results from 40 studies of coping with interpersonal stress were synthesized using a random-effects model. Four areas of psychosocial functioning were examined: externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, social competence, and academic…

  1. Glutathione S-transferase activities in African catfish injected with β-naphthoflavone: effects of ploidy, gender, dose, and sampling time.

    PubMed

    Karami, A; Courtenay, S C

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies.

  2. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, p<0.05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR=1.68, p<0.01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g. from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each 1 unit increase in financial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  3. Glutathione S-transferase activities in African catfish injected with β-naphthoflavone: effects of ploidy, gender, dose, and sampling time.

    PubMed

    Karami, A; Courtenay, S C

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies. PMID:26452505

  4. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors.

    PubMed

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier.

  5. Coping with Marketing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ralph E.; Ross, Herbert L.

    1975-01-01

    The effective teacher-coordinator is actively aware of changes occurring in marketing today: impact of ethnic group purchasing power, retailing response to variables, marketing of services, and using data processing in decision-making. Teaching strategies and instructional materials should be chosen accordingly. (BP)

  6. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

  7. Navigating in murky waters: How multiracial Black individuals cope with racism.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Cyndy R

    2016-01-01

    Multiracial people are often lauded as evidence of the waning significance of race and racism in the United States. In reality, the experiences of multiracial people illuminate the ways that racism still exists and efforts to classify people based on assumed racial characteristics for the purposes of inclusion and exclusion are alive and well. Multiracial individuals experience racism from multiple sources and in various forms, which has the potential to negatively impact their development and well-being. Thus, scholars and practitioners must better understand how the growing population of multiracial individuals learns to cope with such racism. The central aim of this qualitative interview study was to shed light on the ways in which multiracial individuals of African descent in the United States cope with and respond to racism. Findings are organized around 5 broad conceptual themes for coping with and addressing racism: avoidance and internalization, anger and violence, education and advocacy, seeking culture and community, and chameleon identities. Findings of this study speak to the dynamic nature of strategies used to cope with racism and hold implications for practices and programs designed to support positive racial identity development among multiracial individuals of African descent. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Navigating in murky waters: How multiracial Black individuals cope with racism.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Cyndy R

    2016-01-01

    Multiracial people are often lauded as evidence of the waning significance of race and racism in the United States. In reality, the experiences of multiracial people illuminate the ways that racism still exists and efforts to classify people based on assumed racial characteristics for the purposes of inclusion and exclusion are alive and well. Multiracial individuals experience racism from multiple sources and in various forms, which has the potential to negatively impact their development and well-being. Thus, scholars and practitioners must better understand how the growing population of multiracial individuals learns to cope with such racism. The central aim of this qualitative interview study was to shed light on the ways in which multiracial individuals of African descent in the United States cope with and respond to racism. Findings are organized around 5 broad conceptual themes for coping with and addressing racism: avoidance and internalization, anger and violence, education and advocacy, seeking culture and community, and chameleon identities. Findings of this study speak to the dynamic nature of strategies used to cope with racism and hold implications for practices and programs designed to support positive racial identity development among multiracial individuals of African descent. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845045

  9. Coping resources and extra-curricular activity as explanatory factors of exposure to violence: comparing Jewish and Arab youth in Israel.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Alziadana, Sliman; Eisha, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    Violent behavior is a well-known social phenomenon among youth around the world including Israel. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period in which youth experience various developmental tasks while being exposed to many risks. Previous studies have shown that community involvement could be an asset for reduced violence among youth. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the level of participation in extra-curricular activities as well as individual and community coherence and exposure to or victimization by violence among Jewish and Arab youth living in southern Israel. The links between these variable were explored as well. Six-hundred-and-twenty-two adolescents (265-Jews; 357-Arabs) completed self-reported questionnaires which investigated demographics, sense of coherence, sense of community coherence, participation in extra-curricular activities, and exposure to violence. Results show that Jewish adolescents report a significantly stronger sense of coherence and sense of community coherence, they participate more in extra-curricular activities and they are more exposed to and victimized by violence. Moreover, while sense of coherence is reported to be an asset in both groups, participating in extra-curricular activities is an asset only for the Arab youth. Results will be discussed with regard to the salutogenic theoretical foundation as well as the different cultural backgrounds of the groups.

  10. Relationship between behavioural coping strategies and acceptance in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: Elucidating targets of interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has found that acceptance of pain is more successful than cognitive coping variables for predicting adjustment to pain. This research has a limitation because measures of cognitive coping rely on observations and reports of thoughts or attempts to change thoughts rather than on overt behaviours. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to compare the influence of acceptance measures and the influence of different behavioural coping strategies on the adjustment to chronic pain. Methods A sample of 167 individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome completed the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI) and the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Results Correlational analyses indicated that the acceptance variables were more related to distress and functioning than were behavioural coping variables. The average magnitudes of the coefficients for activity engagement and pain willingness (both subscales of pain acceptance) across the measures of distress and functioning were r = 0.42 and 0.25, respectively, meanwhile the average magnitude of the correlation between coping and functioning was r = 0.17. Regression analyses examined the independent, relative contributions of coping and acceptance to adjustment indicators and demonstrated that acceptance accounted for more variance than did coping variables. The variance contributed by acceptance scores ranged from 4.0 to 40%. The variance contributed by the coping variables ranged from 0 to 9%. Conclusions This study extends the findings of previous work in enhancing the adoption of acceptance-based interventions for maintaining accurate functioning in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21714918

  11. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  12. Coping with myocardial infarction: evaluation of a coping questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brink, Eva; Persson, Lars-Olof; Karlson, Björn W

    2009-12-01

    The negative effects of emotional distress on the recovery following myocardial infarction make it important to study coping strategies in this situation. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and the validity of a 10 dimensions questionnaire labelled The General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ). The structure of the questionnaire was based on a previous interview study with 26 persons with different diseases. The 10 dimensions are called self-trust, problem-reducing actions, change of values, social trust, minimization, fatalism, resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion. The present study comprised 114 first-time myocardial infarction patients (37 women, 77 men). Five months after myocardial infarction, they answered questions about health-related quality of life, health complaints, sense of coherence and the GCQ. A multi-trait/multi-item analysis showed good item-scale convergent and discriminatory validity when the GCQ was reduced from 47 to 40 items. In conclusion, the results showed that the 40-item GCQ is a well-structured and reliable questionnaire for measuring coping strategies in myocardial infarction patients. PMID:19804373

  13. Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extracts as well as of Pure Components from Jatropha Species, Plants Used Extensively in African Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plant extracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects. PMID:21754941

  14. Coping with breast cancer: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Hack, T F; Degner, L F

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to generate distinct clusters of women with breast cancer, and to evaluate differences between clusters with respect to decisional control, psychological adjustment, and frustration expression. Thirty-seven Stage I and 33 Stage II newly diagnosed breast cancer patients from two medical oncology clinics participated. A cluster analysis of the coping data produced three distinct patient clusters. The primary finding was that women from the low avoidance coping cluster were significantly better adjusted than women from the remaining clusters. Women from the low avoidance coping cluster also preferred more active involvement in treatment decision-making. Further research is needed to prospectively detail the mechanisms by which cognitive avoidance hampers psychological adjustment to cancer.

  15. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  16. Israeli Counsellors Facing Terrorism: Coping and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hellman, Shoshana

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the characteristics and functioning of 12 Israeli school counsellors located at different stages of professional development who worked in schools affected by terrorist attacks. Semi-structured interviews explored the counsellors professional behaviour, activities, and coping with terror and its effects. Consensual…

  17. Coping with Grief: Guidelines and Resources for Assisting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Leavy, Deon; Hansen, Kristina; Ryan, Katherine; Lawrence, Lacey; Sonntag, Amy Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    This article provides basic information for school-based mental health professionals, teachers, staff, and administrators to support students coping with grief, and more specifically, grief related to death. The information is consolidated into guidelines and key points in providing support; suggested children's books and activities; Web sites…

  18. Family Stress and Coping for Mexican Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Freda F.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Millsap, Roger E.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    Family-related stressors pose special challenges for adolescents of Mexican origin, given traditional cultural norms that compel youths to get involved with family problems despite their limited ability to effect change. The current study examines the prospective effects of coping strategies (i.e., active, distraction, avoidance, support-seeking,…

  19. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study.

  20. Caritas, spirituality and religiosity in nurses' coping.

    PubMed

    Ekedahl, M A; Wengström, Y

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate registered nurses' coping processes when working with terminally ill and dying cancer patients, with special focus on religious aspects of coping resources. What religious components can be identified as coping resources in oncology nurses' orienting system and what function has religiosity in the nurse's work? The theoretical reference is care philosophy and the psychology of religion and coping. The material consists of interviews with 15 Swedish registered oncology nurses. The results highlight different dynamic aspects of the nurses' life orientation such as caritas, religiosity, spirituality and atheism and demonstrate that religiosity can have a protective function that facilitates coping, as the nurse has something to turn to. Religious coping dominated by basic trust where prayer is used as a coping strategy may support the nurse.